Abstract: A method and apparatus 46 for dynamically and periodically determining the amount of energy expended by a hybrid vehicle 10. Particularly, apparatus or controller 46 dynamically computes the amount of utilized energy based upon the initial charge resident within the battery 14, the amount of power supplied to the battery 14 and the discharge efficiency of the battery 14, thereby allowing an overall energy management strategy to be implemented and allowing an accurate operational analysis and/or simulation to be conducted.
Abstract: A voltage/current regulator regulates charging of a rechargeable battery in a portable apparatus that includes a transistor and a controller means coupled to the transistor for controlling the charging current to the battery. The controller determines the power dissipation in the transistor of the regulator. If the power dissipation is above a maximum allowed power dissipation, the controller decreases the charging current by a particular current step. Otherwise, the controller determines if the power dissipation will exceed the maximum allowed power dissipation if the charging current is increased by the current step. If not, the controller increases the charging current by the current step.
April 6, 2000
Date of Patent:
May 8, 2001
Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ)
Sarandis Kalogeropoulus, Johan Mercke, Heino Wendelrup, Magnus Hansson, Rickard Andersson, Charles Forsberg
Abstract: An apparatus controls a charger for starting and stopping the charging of a storage battery of an electric vehicle at advantageous times based on relevant parameters. A necessary charging period is calculated on the basis of the amount of electric energy that is discharged from the storage battery at the time the charging of the storage battery is commanded by a charging start command key switch, and also on the basis of a predetermined charging current. A charging start time to finish the charging of the storage battery at a scheduled boarding time is calculated by a charging start time calculating circuit based on the calculated necessary charging period and the scheduled boarding time which is set by the driver by a scheduled boarding time setting key switch. The storage battery starts being charged with the predetermined charging current from the calculated charging start time.
Abstract: A charging and discharging control device for a secondary battery includes a secondary battery, a controller, a charging unit for charging the battery, a ON/OFF switch between the battery and the charging unit and a control switch for controlling the discharge current. At charging the battery, the ON/OFF switch is turned on and a voltage Ve of the secondary battery is compared with a charge stop voltage Vmax by the controller. If Ve.gtoreq.Vmax, the charging operation is ended. At discharging, the control is turned on and the voltage Ve is compared with a discharge stop voltage Vmin. If Ve.ltoreq.Vmin, the discharging operation is ended. Corresponding to charging/discharging history of the battery, the controller corrects the voltage Vmin so as to be increased and the voltage Vmax so as to be decreased, whereby the life span of the secondary battery can be extended.
Abstract: A battery charging system controls and modifies the output voltage of the charging rectifier in response to differing temperature ranges of the battery. At a low range of temperatures starting at a low temperature (e.g. within a range of 0 to 25.degree. C. to about 53.degree. C.) the rectifier voltage decreases as the temperature increases to prevent charging current from rising as the battery temperature increases. This change is performed in accord with a linear graphical slope relating the change of charging voltage to temperature. A suitable charging voltage decrease rate may be 3 mV/.degree. C./cell with a range of 1.5 mV/.degree. C./cell to 5 mV/.degree. C./cell being acceptable. Reduction of the charging voltage within this range reduces the aging effect of high temperature operation of the battery. The charging voltage applied to the battery is held at a constant value over a subsequent range of temperatures (e.g. 53.degree. C. to 75.degree. C.
June 22, 1994
Date of Patent:
April 22, 1997
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Norma K. Bullock, Douglas G. Fent, Trung V. Nguyen
Abstract: To charge a battery having a different number of cells connected in series with a relevant charge current, the number of cells of the battery is firstly determined and a current level corresponding to the number of cells is determined in view of the potential of the charger. The charge current having a level substantially equal to the thus determined current level is flowed in the battery.
Abstract: In one band gap reference cell, first and second transistors have the bases thereof coupled together. A first supply voltage line is operatively connected to the collectors of the transistors and a second supply voltage line is operatively connected to the emitters of the transistors. The voltage supply lines produce a current proportional to temperature when the device is operating. A first resistor is connected between the emitter of one of the transistors and the second supply line. A third transistor has the base thereof coupled to the bases of the first and second transistors. A current is established in a curve-compensation resistor which is equal to the sum of the currents in the first and second transistors less a nonlinear portion which arises from variations in V.sub.BE with respect to temperature. A second resistor is connected across the base-emitter junction of one of the transistors. A current complementary to temperature is established in the resistor when the device is operating.
Abstract: An all-ranging DC output uninterruptible switched mode power supply (SMPS) of off-line flyback topology is capable of operating with an input voltage between 90 v AC and 270 v AC and an input frequency range of 40 Hz-70 Hz for operation throughout the world. Provided with a battery backup, the SMPS gives DC output without interruption even during AC power failures. The battery and the regulated AC main's supply outlet are connected through an "OR" connection comprising Shortsky rectifier diodes. A pulse width modulator whose conductive duty cycle is responsive to the condition of a voltage, Vcc, provides a reference voltage. An isolated flyback converter includes MOSFET transistor switch and power transformer. The power transformer stores energy in its primary winding when transistor is conductive and transfers energy to the secondary winding when transistor is nonconductive. The pulse width modulator controls the conduction of the transistor.
Abstract: A power converter which includes a bridged power amplifier powered from a sole or single DC input power source through a plurality of parallel connected PWM buck converters. The converters are modulated with reference signals which operate in time alternation such that in any conversion cycle there exists a plurality of modulating wave forms which are identical except for their time delays and which are evenly spaced in time over a single conversion cycle. A feedback control amplifier compares the voltage output of the parallel connected converters through the magnitude of the amplifier's required supply voltage and drives the modulating components of the circuit to control the switching duty cycle of each of the individual PWM converters.
Abstract: In a battery charger for an electric appliance powered by an incorporated rechargeable battery such as an electric shaver or electric toothbrush, etc., a charger circuit and charging terminals are incorporated in a casing. The charger circuit supplies a charger current to the rechargeable battery through the charging terminals. The interior of the casing is divided into lower circuit compartment for receiving the charger circuit and an upper terminal compartment by a partition carrying the charging terminals in such a manner as to make a water-tight seal between the circuit and terminal compartments. The charging terminals project into the terminal compartment, are electrically connected to the charger circuit, and also are accessible through individual holes formed in a portion of the casing for connection with the rechargeable battery.
Abstract: During charging, the present invention checks a charging state by checking a voltage and a temperature of charged battery, and after the completion of charging, it checks the voltage of battery after a predetermined time and activates the battery if the voltage is abnormal, so that the battery is fully charged. To do this, if the battery is newly inserted, first of all, a rapid charging operation is performed. And, it is checked whether charging blocking condition is generated in charging, and if not, charging operation is repeatedly performed. If a charging blocking condition is generated during charging however, a passage of charging current is blocked and the stand-by for a predetermined time is performed. At this time, in the stand-by step, to check whether the battery is normally charged, after completing the stand-by time, the charging voltage is checked, thereby checking the full-charging.
Abstract: A rechargeable power pack is shaped and dimensioned to be inserted in the battery compartment of an electrical device. The top of the power pack is exactly symmetrical with the battery compartment cover which it replaces. The power pack houses rechargeable power cells, and has a peripheral wall spaced apart from the sides of the battery compartment mounting the battery contact terminal. Flexible prongs project from the peripheral walls to provide a wiping contact with either a spiral spring negative terminal or a stationary positive terminal of the compartment. A top mounted connector allows recharging of the power pack even while in use on the electrical device. Baffles mounted astride each flexible prong avert damage to the prong during insertion of the power pack into the battery compartment.
August 26, 1993
Date of Patent:
June 20, 1995
Steven G. Leiserson
Steven G. Leiserson, Richard L. Groendyke