Abstract: An arrangement for interferometrically recording in a single interferogram a full development of the contour of a symmetrical reflective surface, such as an internal or external cylindrical or conical surface. An optical system projects a light wave onto the reflective surface such that a reflected wave is formed. The reflected wave is interfered with a reference light wave to generate an interference pattern, and only a selected portion of the interference pattern is projected onto a film medium for recording. The reflective surface is scanned with the projected wave by relatively moving the projected wave relative to the surface, and synchronously therewith, the projected interference pattern is moved relative to the recording medium in a manner such that the information recorded on the film medium is a full development of the contour of the reflective surface.
Abstract: A liquid crystal display device has a pair of carrier plates having a liquid crystal layer therebetween. Electrically conductive coatings are on each plate with at least one of the coatings being subdivided into separate operable segments. Spacing members are in regions of the layer which are not adjacent to the operable segments. Support surfaces are on a facing surface of one of the plates. Spacing elements are on the other plate and project from the facing surface toward and engage the support surfaces so that the thickness of the liquid crystal layer in the region of the support surfaces is less than the thickness of the layer in the area of the operable segments. The support surfaces may be a layer on the surface of one of the carrier plates or may be a surface of the carrier plate defined by recesses etched into the plate, which recesses contain surfaces supporting the operable segments.
Abstract: Method of and apparatus for operating an electro-optical system for producing high quality images from a liquid crystal light valve.A polarized projection beam is directed to the reflective surface of a liquid crystal light valve for polarization modulation by means of an input image. The beam is polarization analyzed to thereby generate an output image which typically suffers from color and brightness defects caused by economically unavoidable tolerance variations in the electro-optical system. A second beam of light is generated having a light of a selected color different from the projection beam, is spatially varied in intensity by a spatially graded filter, and super-imposed on the output image so as to eliminate the color and brightness defects as well as enhance color contrast and brightness of the image.
Abstract: A liquid crystal display including a cell which consists of two cell plates and a liquid crystal with positive dielectric anisotropy layered between the plates, where the molecules of the liquid crystal next to the plates exhibit preferred directions rotated by 90.degree.. The display includes only one polarizer that is placed on the front cell plate. A reflector formed of a layer of insulated metal particles is located inside the cell on the rear plate and exhibits a structure determining the preferred direction of the liquid crystal molecules. The electrode segments are holohedral and the operating voltage applied thereto lies between 1.3 and 2.5 times the Freedricksz threshold voltage.
Abstract: Within a matrix display type liquid crystal display having a first family of electrodes aligned in one direction at least the viewing side of which is made of transparent conducting material, a second family of electrodes aligned in a different direction crossed with said one direction, and a liquid crystal material between the both families of the electrodes, a respective one of the electrodes of at least one family of said both electrode families is made up of a picture element electrode and a wiring electrode for connecting the picture element electrodes and an extension electrode connected to the wiring electrode and an electrode width at a portion thereof other than a picture element area wider than the picture element are for the purpose of reducing the resistance of the wiring electrode.
Abstract: A multi-layer, matrix type liquid crystal display panel is provided with an electrode structure which prevents the display dots from being overlapped with each other. Each of display patterns is provided through the utilization of a necessary number of line electrodes and a necessary number of column electrodes. According to the present invention, at least a necessary number of the line electrodes per display pattern unit are disposed as a single family in the front side cell or in the rear side cell. The respective families of the line electrodes are disposed alternatively in the front cell or in the rear cell, keeping the display dots within the same display pattern from being overlapped with respect to each other.
Abstract: A liquid crystal cell having memory is provided by disposing a liquid crystal material having nematic directors between two substrates which are fabricated to contain an array of singular points. The cell may further include means for detaching singularities such as appropriate electrode arrangements.These substrate configurations provide multistable configurations of the director alignments because disclinations must be moved, either through the bulk of the liquid crystal material or on the substrate surfaces to switch between the stable configurations.The switching of the device between stable configurations may be accomplished by the application of electrical fields to the liquid crystal material.The stable configurations may be optically differentiated by the incorporation of pleochroic dyes into the liquid crystal material or by crossed polarizers.
November 30, 1979
Date of Patent:
June 8, 1982
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated
Gary D. Boyd, Julian Cheng, Peter D. T. Ngo
Abstract: In the construction of an electrode matrix having m.multidot.n columns and rows for use, for example, with a liquid crystal display, the number of data electrodes to which independent signals are applied is Nn and the number of scanning electrodes to which independent signals are applied is m/N, N being the interval between elemental cell electrodes connected along the same data electrode. The data electrodes are formed on a baseplate with a layer of insulation covering the data electrodes. Elemental cell electrodes are formed on the insulating layer, and a limited number of openings through the insulating layer allow for an electrical connection between selected cell electrodes and the adjacent data electrode. Scanning electrodes may be formed on the insulating layer and/or on a facing baseplate. Two baseplates are in opposition to form a completed m.multidot.n matrix. Data electrodes on opposite plates overlap in the plan view, and a close spacing of individually controlled cell electrodes is achieved.
Abstract: A stabilized binocular using a gimbaled and stabilized triple-reflecting compensator (such as that in Humphrey U.S. Pat. No. 3,475,073) having three reflecting surfaces for each binocular path is disclosed. Each of the binocular paths is in convergent light from an objective to and through gimbaled stabilizer assembly to a primary focus that is stabilized with respect to the case. The triple-reflecting surfaces disposed to reflect light inthe manner corresponding to a single plane mirror at an effective mirroring plane with a displacement between the incident and reflected light beams. The compensator remains stabilized with respect to inertial space, while the instrument undergoes accidental angular motion. The reflecting property of the compensator brings the image back to the same place on the case despite the accidental angular motion. The displacing function of the compensator enables the image to be displaced to a location where the image does not interfere with the incoming light path.
Abstract: A display screen shows a number of alphanumeric characters in accordance with computer originating signals. These signals are fed to a liquid crystal panel which responsively vaires its opacity and, preferably, tapered fiber optics extend from one side of the liquid crystal panel to the screen. In one mode light originating from a high intensity source behind the screen is transmitted through the fiber optics. In another mode light from the front of the screen is reflected from a reflector surface behind the liquid crystal panel to the display screen. Either mode of operation allows the fabrication of a matrix of a number of liquid crystal panels and their associated fiber optics to provide an expanded display screen. Thus, an expanded visual presentation is read out from a computer or similar source of controlling signals to assure that several observers are reliably informed.
June 27, 1979
Date of Patent:
November 10, 1981
The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
Abstract: An electro-optical display composed of two plates which enclose a display medium and a reflector located on the rear plate. The reflector consists of a thermoplastic material and consists of reflecting surface strips, inclined to the display plane, which reflect incident light beams into the eye of an observer. The surface strips which can be semi-transparent and/or diffusely reflecting are inclined with respect to the display plane at an angle .alpha. and extend rectilinearly in at most two different directions over the surface of the reflector. The angle of inclination .alpha. is either the same for all surface strips and has a value of between 20.degree. and 40.degree., or decreases progressively from an outermost surface strip to the subsequent surface strip. The reflector strips are produced by milling, embossing or injection molding of a suitable thermoplastic material.
August 15, 1979
Date of Patent:
November 3, 1981
BBC Brown, Boveri & Company, Ltd.
Ernst Gloor, Meinolph Kaufmann, Allan R. Kmetz
Abstract: In the lead electrodes which connect to the display electrodes of a liquid crystal display device having lead electrodes which are of extremely narrow width and are spaced very closely together, the resistance of each lead electrode is reduced by means of a multi-layer structure of relatively low resistance, and leakage current is prevented from flowing between adjacent lead electrodes by providing a transparent insulating layer over and between the lead electrodes, thereby eliminating the deleterious effects upon display appearance of a high lead electrode resistance and leakage currents between lead electrodes.
September 17, 1979
Date of Patent:
October 27, 1981
Technical Research of Citizen Watch Co., Ltd.
Abstract: A liquid crystal display device of a type, wherein a pair of flexible, transparent plates, each having on one surface thereof a transparent electrode to form thereon desired characters, patterns, and so forth, are arranged with the transparent electrodes opposed to each other, a spacer to maintain a constant space gap between the opposed transparent electrodes is provided between the pair of flexible, transparent plates uniformly over the entire surface thereof, and liquid crystal is sealed in a space defined between the two electrodes the distance of which is maintained constant by the spacer, and the spacer has a dot or linear structure.
Abstract: In order to provide a good connection to external circuitry for a liquid crystal display device, electrode terminals provided on a substrate of the device are connected to lead terminals formed on a flexible sheet in alignment with the arrangement of the electode terminals through an elongated planar hot-melt binder layer. Electrically conductive islands penetrating through the thickness of the binder layer are formed to be in alignment with the electrode terminals. Thus, in such a structure, good connection is attained between the display device and an external circuit through the lead terminals.
Abstract: Apparatus for creating the effect of pictures moving in two and three dimensions including a display structure, a number of image producers, and a scanning controller. The display structure contains elements upon which to place the image producers, which elements are arranged in either depth for creating a three-dimensional effect, or in width for providing a two-dimensional effect. The image producers can be configured electrodes or surface-covering electrodes used to affect liquid crystal elements of the display structure. Also, the image producers can be radiation sources which cause the images which are to be displayed to become visible to a viewer. The scanning controller is an electronic device which sequentially activates individual member of the image producers to thereby impart the effect of two- or three-dimensional motion depending on the type of display structure utilized.
Abstract: A typical electrooptical device of the invention includes a display, a pod member upon which the display and electronic circuitry for controlling the display are supported, the pod member having a receptacle facing the display, and an improved backlight at least partially received in the receptacle, the backlight comprising a unitary assembly of a transparent carrier medium molded around one or more self-luminous light sources to completely encapsulate them in a protective and readily handleable carrier body of desired exterior shape to fit within the receptacle. In preferred form, the backlight comprises said light sources encapsulated in situ within the transparent carrier medium in the receptacle of the pod member with the receptacle acting as a mold during encapsulation.
Abstract: A positive-type display device improved in response time and in uniformity of display images is provided. This display device has a cell structure containing a mixture consisting of at least one of nematic liquid crystals having a nematic dielectric anisotropy and at least one of pleochroic dyes in a closed thin space formed by two substrates which are parallel to each other and a spacer which is provided between ends of said two substrates. Each of said two substrates has an electrode film adherently attached to its surface within said closed space, and an alignment film is formed on at least one of said electrode films. The surfaces of said films which are brought into contact with said mixture are subjected to a treatment for orientation of the molecules of said liquid crystals and said dyes in a direction substantially normal to the plane of the substrate when a voltage is not applied.
Abstract: A unique styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer is taught together with its method of manufacture. The novel copolymer has been accepted as a definitive standard in the measurement of turbidity in water.
Abstract: A liquid crystal cell having a pair of carrier plates spaced apart to form a chamber for receiving a layer of liquid crystal material, each of the carrier plates having an electrical conductive coating or layer forming the electrodes on the surface facing the chamber with the surface of the electrodes being flush with the surface of an insulating material. The insulating material may be an additional layer of material disposed with the electrical conductive coating on the carrier plate or may be the carrier plate with the conductive coating being placed in recesses which have a depth equal to the thickness of the conductive coating. To form the recesses, a mask is applied to the surface of the carrier plate which is then etched, a conductive coating is applied on the remaining portions of the mask and in the recesses and then the mask is stripped with the coating thereon.
Abstract: A measurement system that is particularly adapted for the use in machining of parts or measuring finished parts is disclosed. The system includes a support means upon which is movably clamped a casing, the casing having a measuring member extending therefrom that will engage the part that is being machined or measured. On the casing there is mounted a composite indicator that obtains a digital readout as well as an analog dial readout of the same units which allows a user to search for maximum and minimum readings, as well as providing for extended resolution in digital form of the interpolation between two analog scale points on the dial.