Abstract: A system is described for control of sulfur oxides in emissions to the atmosphere from regenerators of cyclic Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCC). By the disclosed system, hot regenerator flue gas is cooled, air (oxygen) is injected into the cooled flue gas unless oxygen is already present, and then the cooled flue gas is contacted with a solid particulate material which has the capability of associating with and binding sulfur oxides in the flue gas to form a stable solid material which is separated from the gases.
Abstract: An improved process for upgrading a coal liquid where the coal liquid is catalytically converted by hydrogenating and hydrocracking. In the process of upgrading a coal liquid where the coal liquid is fed with hydrogen into a catalytic reactor, the improvement comprises the feeding of a sulfur-containing liquid with the coal liquid. The sulfur-containing liquid ranges from about 0.2 to about 2.0 weight percent of the coal liquid feed. The sulfur-containing liquid is a high boiling hydrocarbon sulfur compound of the formula RSR.sub.1, where R is an alkyl group having 2 to 20 carbon atoms or a phenyl group and R.sub.1 is H, an alkyl group having 2 to 20 carbon atoms or a phenyl group.
Abstract: A process is disclosed for economically converting carbo-metallic oils to liquid fuel products by bringing a converter feed containing 650.degree. F.+ material characterized by a carbon residue on pyrolysis of at least about 1 and by containing at least about 4 ppm of Nickel Equivalents of heavy metals, including nickel, into contact with a particulate cracking catalyst in a progressive flow type reactor having an elongated conversion zone. The suspension of catalyst and feed in the reactor has a vapor residence time in the range of about 0.5 to about 10 seconds, a temperature of about 900.degree. F. to about 1400.degree. F. and a pressure of about 10 to about 50 pounds per square inch absolute for causing a conversion per pass in the range of about 50 to about 90 percent while depositing nickel on the catalyst and coke on the catalyst in amounts in the range of about 0.3 to about 3 percent by weight.
July 20, 1981
Date of Patent:
February 21, 1984
Ashland Oil, Inc.
George D. Myers, deceased, William P. Hettinger, Jr., Stephen M. Kovach, Oliver J. Zandona
Abstract: A process for economically converting carbo-metallic oils to lighter products. The carbo-metallic oils contain 650.degree. F.+ material which is characterized by a carbon residue on pyrolysis of at least about 1 and a Nickel Equivalents of heavy metals content of at least about 4 parts per million. This process comprises flowing the carbo-metallic oil together with particulate cracking catalyst through a progressive flow type reactor having an elongated reaction chamber, which is at least in part vertical or inclined, for a predetermined vapor riser residence time in the range of about 0.5 to about 10 seconds, at a temperature of about 900.degree. to about 1400.degree. F., and under a pressure of about 10 to about 50 pounds per square inch absolute sufficient for causing a conversion per pass in the range of about 40% to 90% while producing coke in amounts in the range of about 6 to about 14% by weight based on fresh feed, and laying down coke on the catalyst in amounts in the range of about 0.
Abstract: There is disclosed a method for decreasing catalyst coking and extending the usable catalyst life by pre-treatment of the catalyst with steam and/or a phosphorus-containing compound. Catalysts benefiting from such pre-treatment comprise crystalline zeolites characterized by a silica to alumina mole ratio of at least 12 and a constraint index, as herein defined, within the approximate range of 1 to 12.
Abstract: Hydrocarbons are cracked by contacting, in a cracking zone and at elevated temperature, a hydrocarbon feed with an acid catalyst comprising at least a catalytic metal oxide component wherein said metal is selected from the group consisting essentially of (a) tungsten, niobium and mixtures thereof and (b) mixtures of (a) with tantalum, hafnium, chromium, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof, and wherein said catalytic metal oxide component is supported on a silica-containing inorganic refractory metal oxide support the silica content of which is less than 50 wt. % of the total support, said catalyst being steamed prior to use at a temperature at least 600.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, the support will comprise a mixture of silica and the .gamma.-alumina wherein the silica content is less than 25 wt. % thereof. Further, one may employ steam in the cracking zone.
December 18, 1981
Date of Patent:
December 6, 1983
Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
Dane C. Grenoble, Chang J. Kim, Lawrence L. Murrell
Abstract: A metal- and/or sulfur contaminated charge stock containing residua is hydrotreated in a first reaction zone in the presence of a hydrotreating catalyst comprising a hydrogenating component selected from the Group VIB and Group VIII metals, preferably a combination of nickel and molybdenum, on a refractory support, preferably alumina or silica-alumina, to reduce the metal and/or sulfur content thereof, the demetalated and/or desulfurized residua is hydrocracked in a second reaction zone in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst comprising a nickel and tungsten impregnated rare earth exchanged zeolite X in combination with a nickel and tungsten impregnated silica-alumina matrix to provide distillate of higher cetane index than that achieved with hydrotreatment alone, and the liquid effluent from said second reaction zone is thereafter passed to a third reaction zone containing a hydrotreating catalyst which is the same as, or is different from, the hydrotreating catalyst in the first reaction zone to effect
Abstract: In a hydrogenation operation employing an ebullated catalytic bed, recycle is recovered from the hydrogenated product with at least 25%, by volume, of the recycle boiling above 950.degree. F. The recycle is cooled to a temperature of from 350.degree. to 600.degree. F. to separate coke precursors, prior to recycle to the hydrogenation. Higher conversion levels can be achieved by effecting recycle in such manner.
April 21, 1982
Date of Patent:
October 25, 1983
The Lummus Company
Harold Unger, Morgan C. Sze, Roger P. Van Driesen
Abstract: Contaminants such as petroleum sulfonates, anticorrosion amines, and silicone oils are removed from a contaminated feedstock stream by contacting said feedstock stream with an adsorbent comprising bauxite. In a further aspect, a thus purified petroleum feedstock stream is hydrodesulfurized.
Abstract: A method for stabilizing acetylene against explosive decomposition comprising mixing together with the acetylene a chemical free radical scavenging agent chosen from the group consisting of nitric oxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromine, hydrogen iodide and vinyl bromine as well as mixtures thereof.