Patents Examined by H. A. Feeley
  • Patent number: 4305999
    Abstract: An electrochemical power generation apparatus and methods of control thereof are described. The power source comprises one or more electrochemical cells having an anode and an oxygen or hydrogen peroxide depolarized cathode, a liquid electrolyte solution, electrolyte circulation means and an electrolyte container. The methods include varying the volumes of electrolyte in said container and in said battery cell so as to control the polarization and hence the cell output voltage of said anode and cathode. The anode is of the consumable-metal type, particularly aluminum. The method of varying the volume may be effected by expanding or collapsing a reversibly expansible pocket in said electrolyte container or by varying the rate of circulation of said electrolyte solution through said battery cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1976
    Date of Patent: December 15, 1981
    Inventor: Solomon Zaromb
  • Patent number: 4142024
    Abstract: An electrolyte cathode assembly for a solid electrolyte fuel cell intended for operation at high temperature comprises a solid ceramic electrolyte gas-tight body which is capable of conducting oxygen ions, the electrolyte having in contact with it and secured to its surface a layer of electron-conducting material which is a compact layer made up of a mixture of doped indium oxide In.sub.2 O.sub.3 and a ceramic material which is capable of conducting both oxygen ions and electrons at the cell operating temperature, the said layer being covered with a surface layer, which is permeable to gas, of doped indium oxide In.sub.2 O.sub.3 having a dendritic structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1977
    Date of Patent: February 27, 1979
    Inventors: Paul Van den Berghe, Helmut Tannenberger
  • Patent number: 4135039
    Abstract: A rechargeable zinc halogen cell is disclosed, together with a carbon electrode structure, an electrode including at least two of the electrode structures, and a metal electrode, all of which may be used with the zinc halogen cell.The electrode structure has a substrate of anodizable metal of Groups IV(A) and V(A) of the Periodic Table, and this substrate has a permanent coating of porous carbon. At least two of these structures are used to make up a halogen storage electrode.The metal electrode comprises a substrate of anodizable metal of Groups IV(A) and V(A) of the Periodic Table of open mesh coated with zinc or a zinc-containing alloy or salt. The rechargeable zinc-halogen cell utilizes halogens of chlorine, iodine or bromine and may use the electrodes described above.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1977
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1979
    Assignee: Unigate, Limited
    Inventor: Jonathan M. Jenkins
  • Patent number: 4129689
    Abstract: A zinc chloride rechargeable cell or battery comprising a container, at least one cathode element therein comprising a substrate of a metal or mixture of metals selected from Groups IVA and VA of the Periodic Table according to Mendeleef having applied thereto with sufficient pressure to break the metal oxide film thereon and a layer of porous carbon in which chlorine gas is occluded to form a cathode element and which acts as a current collector at least one zinc bearing electrode within said container and a substantially nitrogen free zinc chloride electrolyte on said casing having a pH value of not less than 1.0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 1976
    Date of Patent: December 12, 1978
    Assignee: Unigate Limited
    Inventor: Kenneth Henson
  • Patent number: 4129685
    Abstract: In a stack of electrochemical cells, such as fuel cells, distinct channels behind each electrode for carrying reactant gas are eliminated by using highly porous gas distribution layers, such as porous electrode substrate material. This gas distribution layer must be sufficiently thick and have enough pores sufficiently large to permit a substantially free flow of reactant gas therethrough both perpendicular to and parallel to the catalyst layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 1977
    Date of Patent: December 12, 1978
    Assignee: United Technologies Corp.
    Inventor: Paul J. Damiano
  • Patent number: 4127701
    Abstract: An electrical storage battery consisting of one or a plurality of cells, each comprised of a normally positive electrode for reducing a halogen disposed in electrical contact therewith and a normally negative electrode having an oxidizable metal disposed in electrical contact therewith during an electrical discharge of the cell. The cell is filled with an aqueous metal halide electrolyte which is adapted to be circulated between the cell and a storage area containing a replenishable halogen hydrate which is progressively consumed during discharge of the battery. A replenishment of the oxidizable metal is also effected periodically accompanied by a withdrawal of a controlled portion of the electrolyte to maintain the volume thereof within a preselected range.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1976
    Date of Patent: November 28, 1978
    Assignee: Energy Development Associates
    Inventors: Philip C. Symons, Carmelo J. Amato
  • Patent number: 4120087
    Abstract: An electric storage battery has a terminal bush located at one end within an aperture in an external wall of the battery. There is a clearance defined between a portion of the external wall around the aperture and the end of the bush extending into the aperture, and the clearance is occupied by a moulded filler material. Normally the external wall in which the bush is located is a lid closing an open end of the battery casing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 1976
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1978
    Assignee: Joseph Lucas (Batteries) Limited
    Inventor: Keith John Bruce McEwan
  • Patent number: 4117202
    Abstract: A solar powered biological fuel cell is provided which is capable of generating a direct electric current in response to incident solar energy. The cell includes a suspension of mesophyll cells isolated from Digitaria sanguinalis (crab grass), malic enzyme, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a xanthine oxidase enzyme, a potential mediator such as benzyl viologen or methylene blue, and a catalyst such as pyruvate in an aqueous solution; and an appropriate electrode assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 26, 1978
    Inventor: Timothy A. Beck
  • Patent number: 4115215
    Abstract: A process for purifying aluminum alloys comprises providing molten aluminum alloy in a container having a porous wall therein capable of containing molten aluminum in the container and being permeable by the molten electrolyte. Aluminum is electrolytically transported through the porous wall to a cathode thereby substantially separating the aluminum from alloying constituents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1978
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Subodh K. Das, C. Norman Cochran, Richard A. Milito, Robert M. Mazgaj, Walter W. Hill
  • Patent number: 4115627
    Abstract: A ribbed electrode substrate for an electrochemical cell comprises a gas porous substrate having ribs of hydrophilic material extending across one side thereof. The other side of the substrate is substantially flat and may have a catalyst layer disposed thereon. In one embodiment a stack of fuel cells uses electrodes having these ribbed substrates. A flat, gas impermeable plate separates the electrode substrates of adjacent cells, the ribs of each substrate abutting opposite surfaces of the plate forming channels for carrying reactant gas across the cells. Electrolyte is stored in the ribs, which are hydrophilic. The electrolyte in the ribs moves to and from the electrolyte matrix of the cell by capillary action through the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1978
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: Larry G. Christner, Dennis C. Nagle
  • Patent number: 4115214
    Abstract: A method for exhausting a substance through a port in a lid of a chamber, comprising conducting the substance through a tube within the port, which tube is more resistant to corrosion by the substance than is the port, and supporting the tube on a support means extending into the interior of the port, while cooling the support means to a temperature such that it too is more resistant to corrosion by the substance than is the port.A cell lid having a metallic port, metallic protrusion means extending into the port, cooling means for extracting heat from the protrusion means, and a carbon or ceramic tube supported on the protrusion means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1978
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventor: Robert L. Hargis
  • Patent number: 4115628
    Abstract: The invention relates to an improved electrode for an electrochemical generator, said electrode enabling the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen supplied of the interface of said electrode and an electrolyte. It comprises a nickel-based catalyst formed of particles or crystallites the sizes of which range from about 20 to about 130 Angstroms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1978
    Assignee: Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche (ANVAR)
    Inventors: Maurice Bonnemay, Guy Bronoel, Lysiane Angely, Gilbert Peslerbe
  • Patent number: 4115626
    Abstract: Perforted plastic half shells enclose series of components, each including a conductive foil, a take-off conductor, the positive pressed carbon electrode, and separator. Between these components there is the negative zinc plate electrode, which is framed in plastic. The half shells have electrolyte access passages and connector lead-throughs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1978
    Assignee: Varta Batterie Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Hans Sauer, Dieter Spahrbier
  • Patent number: 4115633
    Abstract: Ionic conductivity in ternary chalcogenides of the form AB.sub.x C.sub.y, where A is a metallic atom with atomic number no greater than 55 which has a +1 oxidation state, B is a group III A metallic atom and C is a group VI A atom, has been observed. This ionic conductivity makes the compounds useful as components in electrochemical cells, e.g., electrolytes and electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1978
    Assignee: Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated
    Inventors: Horst Manfred Kasper, Benjamin Tell, Sigurd Wagner
  • Patent number: 4113922
    Abstract: This disclosure is directed to fluorocarbon polymers, polymeric membranes, and electrochemical cells and processes. The polymers and membranes are produced by radiation techniques to provide improved products. For example, .alpha.,.beta.,.beta.-trifluorostyrene in an inert organic solvent is grafted onto an inert film, such as tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene copolymer, by irradiation, i.e. with Co-60 gamma radiation at a dose of several Mrad. The grafted film is then sulfonated, preferably in a chlorosulfonic acid bath. The resulting film is useful as a membrane or diaphragm in various electrochemical cells such as chlor-alkali or fuel cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1978
    Assignees: Hooker Chemicals & Plastics Corp., RAI Research Corporation
    Inventors: Vincent F. D'Agostino, Joseph Y. Lee, Edward H. Cook, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4113923
    Abstract: The fuel cell improved element comprises two terminal electrodes with intermediate electrodes formed by the arms of at least one pair of U- or V-shaped members engaging each other. These electrodes delimit chambers such that a chamber fed with electrolyte is located between a chamber fed with fuel and a chamber fed with a combustion sustaining fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1978
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventor: Jacques Cheron
  • Patent number: 4111764
    Abstract: A method for feeding a subliming material into a liquid is disclosed, by which the end of a pipe is submerged below the surface of the liquid, and a subliming, particulate material is propelled through the pipe and into the liquid by a flow of gas. The flow rate of the entraining gas is sufficient to prevent the formation of deposits on the interior walls of the pipe by countercurrent gaseous diffusion of the subliming material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1978
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Robert A. Stoehr, Robert J. Ormesher, Stanley C. Jacobs
  • Patent number: 4110179
    Abstract: The magnitude of the horizontal components of electrical current flowing through the aluminium on the cathode blocks of an electrolytic reduction cell are reduced by ensuring that the current transmitted decreases towards the edge of the electrolytic cell. This is achieved by making the contact resistance between the carbon lining and the cathode bars embedded in the carbon cathode blocks increase towards the edge of the cell. The result is that the tendency for the melt to bulge upwards and the stirring action in the electrolyte are considerably reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 29, 1978
    Assignee: Swiss Aluminium Ltd.
    Inventor: Theodor Tschopp
  • Patent number: 4110178
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for producing metal by electrolysis in a molten bath of salt. The apparatus includes an electrolytic cell containing a molten bath of salt and a vertical stack of electrodes located within the bath of salt, with the uppermost electrode being located beneath the upper level of the bath. A baffle extends vertically above the uppermost electrode, the baffle being effective to direct a flow of the bath laterally and beneath the upper level of the bath, and to increase the velocity of the flow of the bath and metal between vertically adjacent electrodes of the vertical stack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 29, 1978
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Alfred F. LaCamera, Thomas A. Trzeciak, Donald L. Kinosz
  • Patent number: 4108743
    Abstract: An improved apparatus and method relating to the separation of a metal from its electrically dissociable molten salt by electrically attracting the cations thereof through a solid electrolyte and converting them to elemental metal at a cathode. The improvement comprises disposing a secondary molten electrolyte adjacent to and contiguous with the side of said solid electrolyte in closest proximity with said recovered metal such that the cations of said metal being recovered are reduced at the interface between said secondary electrolyte and the recovered molten metal rather than in or adjacent to the surface of the solid electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1978
    Assignee: Ford Motor Company
    Inventor: Robert W. Minck