Abstract: An electronic energization circuit is provided to illuminate a gas discharge lamp that includes a transformer with a substantially rectangular hysteresis loop. A secondary winding on the transformer is connected to energize the lamp and at least one primary winding is provided on the transformer. Input voltage terminals may be DC terminals to supply an input voltage to the circuit. At least one semiconductor, such as a transistor, is connected to the input terminals and to the at least one primary winding, and a control means is provided for the semiconductor for unequal on and off conduction periods of the semiconductor. These unequal periods provide the conditions which eliminate the striations (bubbles) or dark spots in the gas plasma of the lamp, usually associated with high frequency energization.
Abstract: A metal vapor discharge lamp has a burner for sealing xenon gas, mercury and a light-emitting additive in a translucent ceramic tube, a starting device of a thermal switch type which has a series circuit of a thermal switch and a coil filament and which is connected in parallel with the burner, and an outer envelope for sealing the burner and the starting device therein. In the lamp, the following inequalities must be satisfied:13.3.ltoreq.P.multidot.(B/A).ltoreq.6650.05.ltoreq.d.ltoreq.0.122,200.ltoreq.T.ltoreq.2,800where A is the volume (cm.sup.3) of the outer envelope, B is the volume (cm.sup.3) of the burner, P is a gas pressure (Pa) at room temperature of xenon sealed in the burner, d is a diameter (mm) of the coil filament, and T is a temperature (K) of the coil filament during operation.
Abstract: A rapid-start fluorescent lamp system includes a ballast circuit, rapid-start fluorescent lamps and power reducing means for controlling the application of energy to the lamps. The power-reducing means controls the energy to N/O switches from the energy source upon ionization of the rapid-start fluorescent lamps.
April 15, 1985
Date of Patent:
April 28, 1987
GTE Products Corporation
Richard J. Citino, Carlo S. Bessone, William J. Roche
Abstract: The present invention consists of a modulation circuit used in a digital application. The modulation circuit is designed to provide an LED with a more analog type signal. This in turn causes the LED to emit a signal that is peaked rather than a constant square wave providing a better conversion frequency to the fundamental frequency.
Abstract: For use in an in-line electron gun of a cathode ray tube, a cup member comprises a planar plate having three apertures aligned with one another and a collar portion protruded from the planar plate. A height of the collar portion is between 2 mm and 6 mm, both inclusive. The collar portion may be either uniform in height or divided into a first pair of protrusions transversely of a predetermined straight line passing through the three apertures and a second pair of protrusions contiguous to the first pair of protrusions and lower in height than the first pair of protrusions.
Abstract: The invention provides a travelling wave tube having a directly heated cathode. Cathode material is applied in a depression in one U-shaped member of a high resistance alloy material and the return path for heater current is provided by another U-shaped strip member beneath the first. The configurations of the two strip members are similar so that stray magnetic fields generated by the equal but opposite currents flowing therein, tend to neutralize one another. In another embodiment the two strip members are replaced by generally cylindrical members, one member being within the other. The surface of the member providing the return path for heater current is polished where it faces the member carrying the cathode material so as to reflect back heat radiated by the last-mentioned member.
Abstract: An arrangement for the ignition of ignitable mixtures, especially a spark plug for producing sparks in otto-engines, which is constructed according to high-frequency standpoints and in which at least one condenser arranged in the spark plug is adapted to be charged to a high voltage and is adapted to be discharged as much as possible exclusively in the breakdown phase of the starting phase of the ignition spark by way of a booster gap also arranged in the spark plug and a main gap formed by an ignition electrode with respect to a ground electrode, whereby the breakdown voltage of the booster is higher than the breakdown voltage at the main gap. In particular, for achieving a compact constructive form, satisfactory from a manufacturing point of view, and for optimizing the ignition and flame development, the condenser and the main gap are connected in a series circuit in a preferred embodiment of the invention, with respect to which the booster gap is connected in parallel.
Abstract: A circuit containing a ballast for one or more fluorescent lamps. The circuit includes a first inductor in series with a voltage input terminal and a first capacitor to form a series resonant circuit to provide a starting voltage to the lamps. A second, shunt inductors coupled between the first inductor and the capacitor and another input terminal of the circuit to eliminate the high Q of the series resonant circuit and prevent the first inductor from saturating. The inductors are mounted on the legs of an H-shaped core to provide inductive coupling between the inductors and allow a maximum winding area for the first inductor to reduce the series resistance of the lamp current path. The core also allows the shunt inductor to adjust power line power factor independently of lamp power factor. Improvements in system efficiency of up to 15% can be achieved over conventional core/coil type ballasts.
Abstract: The novel CRT includes a color-selection structure which comprises a first electrode having a plurality of column and row elements forming a plurality of apertures, and a second electrode including an array of conductors electrically insulated from the first electrode. The plurality of apertures in the first electrode comprise alternate columns of first and second apertures. The first apertures have a width less than the width of the second apertures which are intersected by the conductors of the second electrodes to form first and second windows. The CRT also includes a viewing screen comprising an array of substantially parallel phosphor stripes of three different emission colors arranged in cyclic order in adjacent triads. Each of the triads of phosphor stripes is associated with a column of first and second windows and a column of first apertures.
Abstract: A travelling-wave tube comprising a delay line in the form of a helix line which is disposed inside of a solid metal vacuum envelope. A high-performance travelling-wave tube whose delay line is distinguished by very good dissipation of the stray heat. A large bandwidth results by providing the delay line with a core of insulator material which has a metal layer at its inside and outside generated surfaces.
Abstract: The hyperfrequency energy is conveyed through a waveguide (1) having a rectangular section. A central plasmagenic gas and an annular sheathing gas are supplied through a T-shaped transverse pipe (2). The upper branches of the T extend in a sealed manner through the small sides of the waveguide. The stem of the T extends with clearance through an opening (7) formed in a large side of the waveguide and is provided with a nozzle (22) which is surrounded by a sleeve (3) terminating in a rolled-over flange (25). Application in the treatment of surfaces and the production of chemical reactions.
October 2, 1984
Date of Patent:
February 24, 1987
L'Air Liquide, Societe Anomyme pour l'Etude et l'Exploitation des Procedes Georges Claude
Abstract: Disclosed herein is a discharge lamp type display device which comprises mainly at least one discharge lamp formed by a discharge tube in which inert gas is charged. The discharge lamp comprises a pair of electrodes one of which is locally provided within the discharge tube adjacent one end thereof and the other is formed of electrically conductive, light transmissive film deposited on the exterior surface of the discharge tube. The display device further comprises means for gradually increasing or decreasing the voltage or the frequency of discharge power to be supplied between the two electrodes of the discharge lamp, whereby illumination region of the discharge lamp is variably controlled.
Abstract: The ratio b/a of the width a of the forward end surface 30a of each vane 30 to the interval b between the opposed forward end portions of the respective adjacent vanes 30 is set to be not more than 2.3, whereby distribution density of a high-frequency electric field concentrated in the vicinity of the forward end portions of the vane 30 can be equalized.
Abstract: A beam generating system for electron tubes, particularly travelling wave tubes, is formed of a beam shaping electrode and a dispenser cathode supported therein having an emission disk at its end face. A positional change of the dispenser cathode in the beam shaping electrode at different ambient temperatures is suppressed with the beam generating system, and thus a beam defocussing is avoided. According to the invention, the dispenser cathode is directly connected to the beam shaping electron and is connected below the emission disk by means of a radial cathode support. The beam generating system of this type is particularly employed in travelling wave tubes.
Abstract: The invention relates to a spark plug (1) comprising at least two insulated electrodes (5) and (6), an earthed electrode (7) and a chamber (4) so arranged with respect to one another that when a voltage is applied arcs are struck in series between electrodes (7) and (6) and (6) and (5) to provide a continuous plasma jet expelled from the chamber (4) at low energies (<100 mJ) and which can be used for combustion of a lean air/fuel mixture.
June 7, 1984
Date of Patent:
January 27, 1987
National Research Development Corporation
Abstract: A circuit assembly for temperature-dependent cathode current tracking in traveling-wave tubes having control electrodes and cathodes with a predetermined cathode current, in combination with a power supply, includes a temperature-dependent network thermally coupled to a given point of the traveling-wave tube for measuring the actual temperature of the tube, and an electronic control circuit in the power supply connected to the temperature-dependent network for keeping the predetermined cathode current substantially constant by varying the voltage at the control electrode of the tube.
Abstract: To increase the spark energy being transferred from a spark plug to a fuel-air mixture, so that the maximum energy transfer occurs during the initial breakdown phase and electrode deterioration at the spark plug is prevented upon occurrence of subsequent arc conduction and glow phases, an inductive circuit is connected in parallel to the spark gap which is so dimensioned that the inductance has a time constant which inhibits substantial current flow through the shunt circuit upon breakdown of the spark gap, but permits flow of current during an arc and glow phase of the spark at the spark gap through the shunt circuit so that energy is drained from the spark gap during the plasma and glow phase.
Abstract: A gyrotron device comprising a magnetron injection gun for emitting a sectionally-ring-shaped electron beam, a superconducting coil for applying magnetic field to the electron beam emitted from the gun, a ring-shaped resonator mirror for quasi-optically reflecting and resonating those electromagnetic waves which are oscillated when the electron beam passes along the magnetic lines of force generated by the superconducting coil and which propagate in the radial direction, while radially emitting a portion of the electromagnetic waves, and a plurality of transmission mirrors for quasi-optically reflecting and transmitting the electromagnetic waves which have been emitted in the radial direction of the resonator mirror.
Abstract: Gas discharge display device having a vacuum-tight envelope with a front and back plate. A control unit divides the interior of the envelope filled with gas into a back and front space. The back space has at least one plasma cathode and at least one plasma anode. The front plate carries a cathodoluminescent layer and a layer electrode. The control unit contains at least one electrode plane extending parallel to the wall plates, with at least one conductor. In operation a gas discharge burns between the plasma electrodes. The distance between the post-acceleration anode and cathode is small such that no gas discharge is ignited in the post-acceleration space. The post-acceleration cathode is coated with an implantation protection layer of a high-melting metal to maintain the operating voltage constant under continuous load.
August 10, 1984
Date of Patent:
January 6, 1987
Bernhard Hillenbrand, Wilhelm Huber, Burkhard Littwin, Karl Schuster
Abstract: A plasma display panel with quick firing nature and high speed scanning having a plurality of display cells defined by parallel cathode electrodes and parallel anode electrodes perpendicular to said cathode electrodes. The cells along a cathode electrode discharge simultaneously either strongly or weakly according to the currents in the anode electrodes, and said current in the anode electrodes is switched according to the picture pattern to be displayed. A strongly discharged cell provides a bright large discharge which is visible through a cathode electrode, and a weakly discharged cell provides a dark small discharge which is blinded by a cathode electrode itself and is invisible, but merely functions as a seed cell for firing adjacent cells. As all the cells function both as display cells and seed cells, quick firing of cells or high speed scanning of light spots along the anode electrodes is accomplished although no specific seed electrode for mere seed discharge is provided.