Patents Examined by Margaret Burke
  • Patent number: 6160655
    Abstract: The invention relates to a unit with variable optical properties, which combines at least one system with variable light transmission/absorption, especially of the electrochromic or viologen type, with at least one system with variable light diffusion, especially of the optical valve type or with liquid crystals. The systems are electrically control-driven in order to modulate in a decorrelated manner the light transmission level and the light diffusion level of the unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2000
    Assignee: Saint-Gobain Vitrage
    Inventors: Renaud Fix, Xueyun Lin
  • Patent number: 6144481
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for actuating electromechanical ribbon elements which are suspended over a channel. The channel defines a bottom surface having a bottom conductive layer formed below said bottom surface. A data generator provides a data stream. The data generator is connected to a modulator for generating from said data stream a modulated bipolar voltage signal whose time average is equal to the time average of a bias voltage applied to the bottom conductive layer. The data generator and the modulator are necessary to carry out the method. The method comprises the steps of: providing a data stream; generating from said data stream a modulated bipolar voltage signal whose time average is equal to the time average of a bias voltage applied to the bottom conductive layer; and applying said modulated bipolar voltage signal to the ribbon elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2000
    Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company
    Inventors: Marek W. Kowarz, Darren Karns, Brian E. Kruschwitz, John C. Brazas, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6134045
    Abstract: Chitosan-based electro-optic elements are disclosed. An optical waveguide is made from films of chitosan-acetic acid, and from films of chitosan-acetic acid doped with various rare-earth metal ions, over a substrate. Optical limiters are made from chitosan gel host materials doped with a variety of photo-interactive or light limiting dopants. Three different suitable example chitosan gel hosts are disclosed. An electrostatically self-assembling multilayer film is made with a chitosan base layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 17, 2000
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: Hao Jiang, Weijie Su, Thomas M. Cooper
  • Patent number: 6120696
    Abstract: The invention is a proton conductor in liquid form, comprising a mixture of the following components: (a) an acid addition salt of a nitrogen base, having the formula: ##STR1## wherein: Z.sub.1, Z.sub.2, Z.sub.3 and Z.sub.4, identical or different, each represent a group --N.dbd. or --C(Y.sub.i).dbd. in which Y.sub.i represents a hydrogen atom, a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, a fluoroalkyl radical having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, or an oxoalkyl or azaalkyl radical having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, with the proviso that at least one and at most two of the groups Z.sub.1, Z.sub.2, Z.sub.3 and Z.sub.4 represents --N.dbd., two adjacent carbon atoms being optionally hydrogenated and the nitrogen base optionally being part of a polymeric network, and X.sup.- represents an anion derived from an acid selected from the group consisting of sulfonic acids of formula R.sub.F SO.sub.3 H, sulfonimides of formula (R.sub.F SO.sub.2) (R'.sub.F SO.sub.2)NH and methylides of formula (R.sub.F SO.sub.2) (R'.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2000
    Assignees: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Hydro-Quebec
    Inventors: Michel Armand, Christophe Michot, Bruno Kapfer
  • Patent number: 6118574
    Abstract: An exposure apparatus to expose a photo-sensitive layer formed on a substrate of a recording media is disclosed which comprises an exposure light source; a first means of focusing a light from the light source; an acousto-optic modulator disposed off the focal plane of the first focusing means to modulate the light focused by the first focusing means according to a signal to be recorded; and a second means of focusing the light modulated by the acousto-optic modulator onto the photo-sensitive layer formed on the substrate of the recording media.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2000
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Shingo Imanishi, Shin Masuhara, Hisayuki Yamatsu, Toshiyuki Kashiwagi
  • Patent number: 6115169
    Abstract: A semiconductor optical modulator which, with a relatively simple configuration, eliminates phase modulation of output light from the semiconductor optical modulator by applying a voltage to a light absorption layer on the modulator. A nonlinear optical material layer changing refractive index is located in the direction of light propagation and cancels, in the output light, the phase modulation that is generated due to light intensity variations in the light absorption layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2000
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kazuhisa Takagi, Syoichi Kakimoto
  • Patent number: 6107115
    Abstract: A spatial light modulator is constructed from a conductive silicon mirror substrate and a glass electrode substrate including sodium, anode-bonded together. The silicon mirror substrate has micromirrors arranged in a matrix, torsion bars coupling these micromirrors in the x-direction, and a frame coupled to both ends of the torsion bars. A glass electrode substrate has a central depression, a rim around the periphery thereof, pillars projecting from within the depression, and electrodes and wiring driving micromirrors formed within the depression in an inclining manner. Both ends of the torsion bars are bonded to the rim of the frame portion, and intermediate portions of the torsion bars are bonded to the pillars. Both ends of the torsion bars are cut away from the frame portion during dicing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2000
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventors: Mitsuro Atobe, Hiroshi Koeda, Shinichi Yotsuya
  • Patent number: 6097529
    Abstract: An apparatus for enhancing the extinction ratio in an optical NRZ-to-RZ converting system, and an optical modulation system, are disclosed. The extinction ratio is improved by using an optical fiber loop mirror together with optical amplifiers. The apparatus for enhancing the extinction ratio includes a variable coupling means for receiving external signals to split them to respective terminals of a loop mirror. A variable optical delaying means delays the phases of the signals after their dispersion by the variable coupling means. An optical amplifying means positioned asymmetrically smaller than a bit time of an RZ signal pattern inputted slightly departed from the center of the loop mirror amplifies the optical intensity, and varies the refractive index so as to cause a phase delay. A polarization adjusting means adjusts the polarization of the optical signals, and an optical band pass filtering means removes noises from signals outputted from the loop mirror.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2000
    Assignee: Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
    Inventors: Hyuek Jae Lee, Kwang Joon Kim, Hye Young Kim, Seok Youl Kang
  • Patent number: 6094292
    Abstract: A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2000
    Assignee: Trustees of Tufts College
    Inventors: Ronald B. Goldner, Alexandra Gerouki, Te-Yang Liu, Mark A. Goldner, Terry E. Haas
  • Patent number: 6094294
    Abstract: An optical modulator device, a display unit and an electronic apparatus, each capable of presenting a high-contrast and bright image. An optical modulator device 101 includes a substrate and, on the substrate, an optical modulator structure in which a piezoelectric thin film layer 13 having piezoelectric property is interposed between thin film electrode layers 12, 14 having electrically conductive property with at least one of the thin film electrode layers 12, 14 having light reflective property, wherein the optical modulator structure is driven on a mirror element by mirror element basis, with one mirror element 15 being handled as a unit working independently to modulate a light ray.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2000
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventors: Osamu Yokoyama, Tatsuya Shimoda, Satoru Miyashita, Yuji Fujimori, Mitsuro Atobe, Taku Aoyama, Tatsuaki Funamoto
  • Patent number: 6091864
    Abstract: A dual stage optical modulator is disclosed that uses optical predistortion to achieve a high degree of linearity and also provides signals having substantially no residual phase modulation, or chirp. The modulator allows fiber optic transmission over fibers having a zero dispersion wavelength that is significantly different from the operating wavelength of the source laser without a chirp-induced dispersion penalty. In one embodiment of the modulator, an input Y-junction splits an optical input signal into a first interferometer, also referred to as a phase/intensity modulator, having first and second interferometer arms and an electrode structure for modulating the split signal. The electrode structure includes a pair of ground electrodes and a modulating electrode for receiving a first RF modulating voltage and associated DC bias.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2000
    Assignee: Ortel Corporation
    Inventor: Rudolf J. Hofmeister
  • Patent number: 6088150
    Abstract: A 3-channel modulation system for a high power laser and a modulation method for a high power laser are disclosed herein. In a preferred implementation, the modulation system includes a laser light source, a light modulator modulating the light generated from the laser light source and including a pair of electrodes having a predetermined area disposed on one side of the light modulator, an image signal generating sub-system, a drive circuit sub-system for operating the electrodes so that the image signal being generated from the image signal generating sub-system is provided through the electrodes to the light modulator, a first cylindrical lens positioned between the laser light source and the light modulator so that the area and form of the light generated from the laser light source are modified and the modified light enters the light modulator, and a second cylindrical lens positioned at an output side of the light modulator to modify the area and form of the light modulated by the light modulator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2000
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yong Hoon Kim, Seung Nam Cha, Hang Woo Lee
  • Patent number: 6084700
    Abstract: An electronic circuit for an electrochromic element. In order to improve the response time of the electrochromic element and reduce the cost and complexity, a modulated signal, such as a pulse width modulated (PWM) signal is coupled to the electrochromic element without signal averaging. In order to compensate for the compressed operating range of the reflectance characteristic under such conditions, the electronic circuit in accordance with the present invention utilizes active loading or alternatively voltage feedback of the electrochromic element to provide a reflectance response characteristic with an uncompressed linear operating range similar to a reflectance characteristic for an electrochromic element with a DC drive circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 4, 2000
    Assignee: Gentex Corporation
    Inventors: Robert Charles Knapp, Robert Ralph Turnbull, Gerald Bruce Poe
  • Patent number: 6081358
    Abstract: A reflective modulator (10) includes a light splitter (12) which divides light into two portions, one of which is applied to a directional coupler (14) by a first path (20), and the other of which is applied to the directional coupler (14) by way of cascaded electrooptic (e-o) modulators (18a, 18b). One port of the directional coupler (14) is terminated in a reflector (22), and the other in an absorptive termination (24). Electrical signals A and B are applied to the modulators (18a, 18b), with the result of generation of sum and difference frequencies modulating the light. The light leaves the reflective modulator (10) and is coupled to a utilization apparatus (64) by a second directional coupler (28). A further e-o modulator (26) may be coupled in the first path, for controlling the long-term average phase shift. In a particularly advantageous embodiment of the invention, the signal sources (30a, 30b) are elemental antennas of an array (30).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2000
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corp.
    Inventors: Jerome Johnson Tiemann, Richard Louis Frey, William Taylor Lotshaw
  • Patent number: 6072618
    Abstract: A light transmitting apparatus is constructed such that a transmission data signal Sa is transmitted to a light emitting element 21 via a driving circuit 23 and a modulation circuit 24 of a control circuit 22. Signal light outputted therefrom is transmitted to a light transmission path via an optical fiber 27, an optical circulator 25 and an optical fiber 25. Stokes light (backward scattered light) produced due to stimulated Brollouin scattering is inputted to a photo detector 26 via a port P3 from a port P2 of the optical circulator 25. A detection signal Sb assuming a level corresponding to this light intensity is outputted to a modulation circuit 24 of the control circuit 22. When the level of the detection signal from the photo detector 26 increases, modulation on a driving current to the light emitting element 21 is effected so that an emission spectral width of the light emitting element 21 is enlarged, thus enlarging the emission spectral width of the light emitting element 21.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 6, 2000
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Hiroshi Takenaka
  • Patent number: 6072620
    Abstract: Microlenses 3a and 3b are formed on a first surface of a transparent substrate, and an output efficiency control device 2 which modulates a light amount of incident light is provided on a second surface opposing the first surface. Incident light 4 is made to be incident obliquely to an optical axis of the microlens 3a, to be focused on the output efficiency control device 2. The output efficiency control device 2 modulates a light amount of incident light and outputs the light as outgoing light 5 through the microlens 3b. Because of such a structure, the output efficiency control device 2 can be decreased in size, compared with a diameter of a beam and an aperture of a microlens.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 6, 2000
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Teruhiro Shiono, Michihito Ueda, Tatsuo Ito, Kazuo Yokoyama
  • Patent number: 6065842
    Abstract: A system (80) for controlling deformations of optical components adapted for use with laser system aperture sharing elements (16) and deformable mirrors. The inventive system (80) includes a control loop (12, 40, 24, 20, 46, 28, 74, 78, 60, 34) for determining a desired temperature pattern. The control loop (12, 40, 24, 46, 28, 74, 78, 60, 34) provides a control signal (45) corresponding to the desired temperature pattern to a heat map applicator (18, 46, 47, 59, 60). The heat map applicator (18, 46, 47, 59, 60) applies the desired temperature pattern to the optical component (16) in response to the control signal and the optical component (16) is selectively deformed in response thereto. In a specific embodiment, the control loop (12, 40, 24, 20, 46, 28, 74, 78, 60, 34) is a closed loop control system that includes an interferometer (74).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2000
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventor: David Fink
  • Patent number: 6067186
    Abstract: A new class of high hyperpolarizability organic chromophores and a process for synthesizing the same. The chromophores incorporate at least one organic substituent and are formed in consideration of molecular shapes and a spatial anisotropy of intermolecular interactions. The chromophores are processed into hardened material lattices to lock-in poling induced electric-optic activity. Preferred organic substituents are alkyl, aryl, and isophorone groups. A composite including the organic chromophore, in a preferred embodiment, includes a polymer such as a poly(methylmethacrylate), polyimide, polyamic acid, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyurethane. The optimized chromophores result in hardened electro-optic polymers suitable for electro-optic modulators and other devices such as optical switches. These modulators can be configured to work at high frequencies and in arrays for applications in communications and network connections.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2000
    Assignee: Pacific Wave Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Larry R. Dalton, Harold R. Fetterman, Fang Wang, William Steier, Aaron W. Harper, Albert S. Ren, Joseph Michael
  • Patent number: 6067184
    Abstract: Electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices using nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes with a high specific surface area and surface-absorbed electrochromic molecules are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2000
    Assignee: Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne
    Inventors: Pierre Bonhote, Lorenz Walder, Michael Gratzel
  • Patent number: 6064511
    Abstract: Structured materials for photonic devices, at wavelengths of X-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared and microwave radiation, can be made using layer growth techniques. Such a structure can be made layer by layer, by homogeneous deposition followed by localized modification for refractive index differentiation. Alternatively, the structure can be made by simultaneous growth of regions whose refractive index differs. The structures can be used as selective bandpass filters, and in photovoltaic solar cells, for example.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2000
    Assignee: The Research Foundation of State University of New York
    Inventors: Charles M. Fortmann, John H. Coleman, Serge Luryi, Ronald J. Tonucci