Abstract: An X-ray tube generally comprises an evacuated tube envelope fabricated primarily of metal and having first and second end walls and a cylindrical sidewall, and encloses a rotating anode with its target surface facing the second end wall. A heat transfer sleeve extends from the first end wall past the anode to receive heat from the anode and transfer it to the end wall for dispersal. A heat transfer cross plate at the end of the sleeve further encloses the anode to receive and transfer heat. The tube envelope is mounted in a cylindrical tube housing with the first end wall in contact with a finned mounting plate for dissipating heat. The surface of the tube envelope remains sufficiently cool to apply a layer of lead, whereby the tube is compact. The anode and cathode electrical feeds are through the second end wall. The electrical feeds have angled terminations with lead on them.
Abstract: X-rays can be physically reflected from surfaces under certain conditions and quantitative measurements of the reflected X-ray intensity around the critical angle for X-ray reflection may be utilized to provide a method for the chemical analysis of very thin surface layers or thin films including adsorbed organic films. This method of chemical analysis is based on different physical principles than the well-known X-ray diffraction or fluorescence methods. The X-ray reflection method for the chemical analysis of thin surface layers depends on the influence of the X-ray absorptivity of the surface layers upon the concommitant angular or wavelength dependence of the intensity of the reflected X-ray. Because the reflected wave does not significantly penetrate the sample, the sample depth for chemical analysis by the reflected X-ray beam can be very thin, for example about 100 angstroms in thickness.
Abstract: An apparatus for checking baggage with X-rays utilizing an X-ray source for irradiating X-rays toward an object to be checked on a conveyor with a fan-shaped beam, an X-ray detector including a plurality of detecting elements aligned along each of two arms of an L-shape arranged so that one arm extends substantially parallel and another arm extends substantially perpendicularly to a conveying surface of the conveyor means with the detecting elements providing electrical signals in proportion to intensity of the detected X-rays passed by the through the object as measured data, and a picture processor for converting the measured data into a picture signal for display on a display device. The picture processor includes a distortion correcting circuit for processing the measured data from the L-shaped X-ray detector so that the measured data corresponds to data obtained by detecting elements arranged along one straight line.
Abstract: A beam of X rays is directed into a traveling product such as paper having a constituent such as ash made up of components such as clay, chalk and titanium dioxide.X rays from the product may produce signal channel responses that are the same to one component but different to another component, and a resultant response indicative of the content of the constituent or component.The X rays from the product may produce a response to a detected spectrum wherein the intensities of the rays are so distributed as a function of energy that the average effective absorption coefficients for the components are substantially equalized, so that the response will be indicative of the constituent and comparatively unaffected by the relative amounts of the components.
Abstract: In medical, particularly dental medical apparatus which comprise a stationarily erectible post at which a carriage is adjustably held by means of a guidance device as a carrier of a medical apparatus, for example an X-ray apparatus, a simplified post design is provided. This is composed of a tubular frame which contains two vertical carrying pipes which extend parallel to one another and accept the carriage therebetween and which are connected to one another by a cross-strut at their ends. The two carrying pipes comprise at least one transverse division which roughly halves the tube length, the divided tube sections being connected to one another at this transverse division upon assembly. The guidance elements for the carriage are situated in the carrying pipes.
Abstract: A doubly-curved crystal for use in a scanning monochromator is oriented with respect to a reference plane containing source and image locations of the monochromator. The crystal has concave planes of lattice points and a concave crystal surface which satisfy Johannson geometric conditions within the reference plane for a Rowland circle of radius R. The planes of lattice points are substantially spherically curved to a radius of 2R, and the crystal surface is substantially toroidally curved with a radius of substantially 2R within a plane perpendicular to the reference plane. The crystal may be formed by plastically deforming a cylindrically curved crystal blank over a doubly-curved convex die.
Abstract: Padding for a radiographic film packet may be formed of a foamed ethylene vinyl acetate and supplied as a portion of the film packet or as a pad for attachment to an existing film packet. The pad extends along an edge surface on the film packet to relieve discomfort and to facilitate positioning of the pad and film packet within the patient's mouth for accurate exposure to X-rays. The side of the packet opposite the pad is allowed to remain unpadded for the following reasons; to avoid increasing the overall packet dimensions, to facilitate relatively free access to the film contents of the packet, and to enable the film packet to fit into film holders that are currently used for film placement. The padded film packet is especially useful in periapical films where it is especially desirable to expose root areas and adjacent tissues.
Abstract: An X-ray exposure system includes a frame set on the floor; an X-ray source fixedly provided in the central portion of the upper part of the frame; a mask-wafer alignment means comprising a wafer at a fixed distance from a mask, an X-Y table mounted with the wafer holder, a mask holder for holding the mask, and an alignment detecting means for detecting the alignment of the alignment pattern of the mask and that of the wafer; vibration isolators for supporting the mask-wafer alignment means so that vibrations do not propagate to the mask-wafer alignment means; detecting means for detecting the position of the mask-wafer alignment means with respect to three-dimensional directions relative to the X-ray source; an arithmetic means for calculating an exposure error of a dislocation of a mask pattern exposure on the wafer, on the basis of position data obtained by the detecting means; and correcting means for correcting the exposure error calculated by the arithmetic means.
Abstract: A power supply circuit of voltage resonance type for supplying a high DC voltage to an X-ray tube includes a transformer, a capacitor for forming a resonance circuit in cooperation with a primary winding of the transformer, and a rectifier circuit coupled with a secondary winding of the transformer for supplying a high DC voltage to the x-ray tube. At the beginning of the operation of the power supply circuit, a great change of resonance conditions is offset to quicken the rise of the X-ray tube voltage. To this end, a power supply drive circuit to enable (turn on) the switches is arranged to prevent the switches from being enabled before one cycle of the resonance current in the resonance circuit is completed.
Abstract: A wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer is provided with a polycrystalline analyzer for analyzing characteristic spectra of a sample. The polycrystalline analyzer provides a multiple spectrum of characteristic lines which are separated by appropriate pulse height analysis. Each of these sets of characteristic lines of the elements of the sample are provided at different dispersion and wavelength ranges.
Abstract: This specification sets forth a cardiovascular phantom. The phantom is adapted for placement on a table between an X-Ray tube and a film camera. The phantom is formed from absorptive material comprising at least one layer of metallic material on a plastic board. The metallic material is formed in the shape of arterial vessels from a radiopaque material. The radiopaque material and phantom absorb the X-Rays in an analogous manner to a person's heart. The phantom provides an analog to allow adjustments for the X-Ray process used for cardiovascular analysis.
Abstract: The present invention relates to a gauge for use with x-ray machines to calibrate correct technic values (exposure, kilovoltage, processing conditions, etc.) for x-ray film to yield anatomically correct film densities over the visible density range. The gauge accomplishes this by including only four sections. In particular, a first portion for achieving correct film densities at the low end of the visible density range and a second portion for achieving correct film densities at the high end of the visible density range. The gauge also includes at least one region for achieving a slight variation in film density in each of the first and second above-named portions. The gauge may be encased by being cast in plastic of a particular thickness and absorption of x-rays. With this gauge, the radiographer examines film densities at the upper and lower limits of the visible density range to distinguish overexposure, upper limits of correct exposure, correct exposure, lower limit of correct exposure and underexposure.
Abstract: In a computer tomography system, a flexible calibration phantom is utilized simultaneously with analysis of a patient to ensure accuracy of imagry and to facilitate interpretation of tomographs created. The flexible calibration phantom is preferably placed directly upon a patient between a radiation source and a radiation detector. It includes two solid and flexible samples of reference materials, each having a substantially uniform density, and a solid and flexible encasement surrounding the samples of reference material. The encasement has a substantially uniform density different than that of each of the samples of reference material, and the combination provides suitable reference points for proper analysis of tomographs obtained.
Abstract: An X-ray film holding apparatus includes front and rear plates through which X-rays transmit. The front and rear plates respectively have opposite surfaces. The front plate is flexible, and the opposite surface of the front plate has a partial spherical portion extending toward the rear plate. The spherical surface is curved along a first direction and a second direction perpendicular to the first direction. The front plate is rectangular, and its three sides are supported by a holding frame. An elastic cushion member is adhered to the opposite surface of the rear plate. The cushion member has a surface opposite to the front plate. The opposite surface of the cushion member has a partial cylindrical surface extending toward the front plate. The cylindrical surface is curved along the first direction and parallel to the second direction. Intensifying screen sheets are respectively adhered to the opposite surfaces of the front plate and the cushion member.
Abstract: A sample changer for powder X-ray diffractometry includes a cylindrical dispensing container for holding a stack of pre-test sample holders, a cylindrical receiving container for holding a stack of post-test sample holders and a changer arm which automatically picks up the topmost sample disk in the dispensing container and rotatably positions the sample disk on the sample holder stage of an X-ray diffractometer for analysis. After analysis, the changer arm removes the sample holder and releases it into the receving container. The sample holders have a circumferential groove which coacts with semi-circular rotatable cams positioned on the distal end of the changer arm to enable the changer arm to lift and place the sample holders.
Abstract: Provided herein are a device and a method for determining the spin polarization of an electron beam where the device and method contemplate diffusely backscattering the beam from an electron opaque target, at a kinetic energy less than 10,000 electron volts, collecting the scattered electrons which may be of a preselected energy range and within a predetermined solid angle relative to the target and the collector, and measuring the number of scattered electrons which were collected.
June 7, 1985
Date of Patent:
July 26, 1988
Daniel T. Pierce, Robert J. Celotta, John Unguris
Abstract: An x-ray diagnostic installation for producing panoramic tomograms of the jaw of a patient utilizes a flexible film cassette instead of a rigid film cassette. The film cassette is driven by an electromotive drive arranged in a housing of a film cassette holder behind a secondary diaphragm as seen in the direction of the radiation from a source of radiation. The drive is formed from by at least one drive element, and at least one cooperating element arranged thereto at a distance therefrom with means biasing at least one of the elements towards the other to produce a frictional engagement of the film cassette and move it past the secondary diaphragm.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for reducing delay times between successive x-ray images in a medical x-ray diagnostic system in which delay times are a function of the time required to transport film in a camera apparatus. The camera is used to record images on an image display apparatus. The delay time is reduced by determining the time at which an image on the apparatus will reach a predetermined intensity level and initiating the camera film transport cycle at a predetermined time prior to the image reaching the predetermined intensity level. Apparatus is disclosed for determining the rate of image development and for providing a signal to initiate the camera film transport at a fixed time prior to completion of image development regardless of the rate of image development. The predetermined time period is selected such that actual film motion is not initiated until the image is fully developed on the image display apparatus.
Abstract: An X-ray examining device for transversal tomography, comprising an array of detectors of mutually different dimensions. Each detector comprises one or more detector elements which operate electrically in parallel, either as a result of the direct parallel connection of the detector elements or by the addition of output signals of integrators which are connected to each detector element. It is possible to connect more or fewer detector elements in parallel by means of switches, so that it is possible to select the resolution of the array of detectors.
June 17, 1987
Date of Patent:
May 24, 1988
U.S. Philips Corp.
Cornelis B. J. D. Albrecht, Roland A. J. O. Van Witteveen, Frans W. Zonneveld
Abstract: A flying spot generator is provided for changing a beam of x-rays into a flying spot moving in a linear direction over an object to be detected. The flying spot generator includes a rotating cylinder having even numbers of helical slots. A single long detector is provided behind the object for measuring the radiation characteristics of the object.