Abstract: A process for removing by product acetone from reaction mixtures obtained by reacting methyl acetate and/or dimethylether with carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures to obtain acetic anhydride in the presence of a catalyst system consisting essentially of carbonyl complexes of noble metals belonging to group VIII of the Periodic System of the elements, acetic acid, an organophosphorus or organonitrogen compound, and methyl iodide whereby the acetone obtained as a by-product during the reaction is subjected to condensation at temperatures of 50.degree. to 250.degree. C., under pressures of 0.01 to 150 bars and at a molar ratio as above defined for the catalyst system constituent of 1:(25-500):(10-100):(15-150) so as to obtain predominantly higher-boiling secondary products to be distillatively separated in a successive distillation zone together with volatile constituents of the catalyst system.
September 10, 1985
Date of Patent:
January 5, 1988
Heinz Erpenbach, Klaus Gehrmann, Peter Horstermann, Georg Kohl
Abstract: An apparatus for distilling a source liquid which utilizes a substantially vertical liquid column. The liquid column is contained by a tubular container closed at the top and open at the bottom. The open bottom of the tubular container is submerged within a source liquid reservoir. The height of the tubular container is greater than the maximum obtainable height for the given density of the portion of source liquid contained within the column. A vacuum is located within the tubular container above the surface of the portion of source liquid contained in the column. In the area of the vacuum, there is located a centrifugal compressor which is to function to move vapor from the vacuum section of the tubular container and compress such along with the transfer of heat to the point that the vapor becomes liquid. This now product liquid is to be removed from the apparatus.
March 20, 1986
Date of Patent:
December 1, 1987
Frank J. Passarelli, George A. Matsukas, Charles P. Caspary
Abstract: A thin film evaporator consists of an enclosure defining a vapor space, a level drive shaft running into the enclosure and a rotor fixed to the shaft and having an axis of rotation disposed horizontally when in operative position, the rotor being made up of spaced coaxial conical evaporator elements, whose evaporation space communicates with the vapor space. The feed to be evaporated is supplied at one end of the rotor at the inner circumference of one or more conical evaporator elements thereof. Such evaporator elements are placed together in pairs so that they taper outwards with the evaporating faces thereof facing each other, so as to form a collection trough at their outer edges for the concentrate. The feed spreads out in the form of a film from the inner edge or edges for the elements and is taken up in the respective collection trough as a preconcentrate.
Abstract: A finely atomized liquid is projected in a stream and dried by contact with drying gas. The drying gas is projected in turbulent flow from opposite sides of the stream such flow being distributed along the length of the stream. The material may be atomized and projected by a jet of gas issuing from a nozzle, and the drying gas may be projected around the jet so that the drying gas meets the entrainment demand of the jet, thereby preventing recirculation of gases outside the jet.
Abstract: A process for the continuous production of boiler feed water from process waters in the oil extraction industry during which salts and hydrocarbons are removed from the water, without Fe.sup.++ precipitating. The heavy hydrocarbons are mechanically separated, the volatile hydrocarbons are separated from the water, by means of a thermal degassing, and the low boiling and the non-condensable hydrocarbons are separated in a shower evaporation step with downstream vapor compression, wherein the low boiling non-condensable hydrocarbons are evaporated with the waste water within the shower evaporator and the non-condensable hydrocarbons then are drawn off from a downstream separator. A salt-free oxygen-free pure water is removed from a separator.
Abstract: A system is provided for use adjacent a plant supporting material to be irrigated, for converting salt water into fresh water and dispensing the fresh water dripwise to the plant supporting material. The system comprises an evaporator member made of microporous hydrophobic material and having first and second surfaces, the microporous hydrophobic material permitting water vapor to diffuse through the member between the first and second surfaces thereof while preventing liquid water from passing therethrough, and a condenser including a condensing surface is spaced from the second surface of the evaporator member to define a gap therebetween. The condensing surface is in liquid flow communication with the plant supporting material to be irrigated. A conduit is provided for conducting a flow of salt water along the first surface of the evaporator members.
Abstract: The present invention involves a process for removing water from mixtures of alcohols and water by contacting such a mixture with an ion exchange resin of either the cation or anion type. Prior to use for alcohol dehydration, the ion exchange resin itself is dehydrated if necessary or desired by contacting it with methanol, propanol, isopropanol, acetone or other like low molecular weight hydrophilic solvents. After use for alcohol dehydration, the ion exchange resin is regenerated by contacting it with these regenerating agents.
Abstract: An atomizer with a capillary passage to a tip surface which is vibrated by a directly coupled ultrasonic device to disperse droplets of liquid fed to the passage. The tip is associated with a heated vaporization chamber, and a cooling chamber between the tip and the ultrasonic device protects the device from the heat of the chamber.
Abstract: A process is disclosed for distillation and/or stripping in a column, the lower portion of which is heated and the upper portion of which is cooled. The heating and cooling facilities thereof are coupled with each other by means of a heat pump system. In order to reduce the energy input, the invention provides for driving the heat pump system by means of expansion of a gas or vapor, and with the gas or vapor, after expansion, utilized as the stripping gas in the column.
Abstract: In a combination solvent extraction-steam distillation process for the recovery of aromatic hydrocarbons, the improvement comprising(a) introducing high pressure steam into a steam ejector;(b) passing the steam from step (a) to a first heat exchanger where it exchanges heat with cooler lean solvent coming from the bottom of the distillation column and is condensed;(c) returning the lean solvent from step (b) to the bottom of the distillation column;(d) passing part of the condensate from step (b) to a second heat exchanger where it exchanges heat with the warmer lean solvent coming from the bottom of the distillation column, cooling the lean solvent and vaporizing the condensate; and(e) passing the vapor from step (d) to the steam ejector in step (a).
Abstract: A process of recovering elemental phosphorus from sludge is disclosed wherein the sludge is flash evaporated utilizing a heat transfer means and then separated from the solid impurities contained therein.
Abstract: The present invention provides a process for the separation of materials obtained by means of high pressure extraction from an extraction agent, wherein extraction agent loaded with extracted material is passed from below into a separator comprising a head (2), a bottom (3), a runback pipe (4) and a heat exchanger (1) in the form of one or more pipes and extract recycled in a forced circulation via the head (2) and the runback pipe (4) to the bottom (3) and there either discharged and/or returned to the heat exchanger (1), the extraction agent evaporated in the heat exchanger being removed via a filter (11) on the head (2).
March 22, 1985
Date of Patent:
August 18, 1987
SKW Trostberg Aktiengesellschaft
Herbert Jekat, Erwin Schutz, Kurt Stork
Abstract: A beneficiated kaolin clay slurry is concentrated from a solids content of about 50% to 60% by weight to a solids content of at least 65% by weight by evaporating water therefrom by passing the aqueous clay slurry through one or more non-contact evaporated heat exchangers. The kaolin clay slurry is passed in indirect heat exchange relationship with a heating vapor, with the heating vapor comprising water vapor previously evaporated from the aqueous clay slurry.
Abstract: A vacuum distillation system uses a tower having an open bottom submerged within a tank of solution exposed to atmospheric pressure. The solution within the tower is elevated to barometric level by a high vacuum or low absolute pressure on the tower top. As solution flows through the open bottom and upward, the solution is heated and then cooled to cause degasification and precipitation, and then withdrawn from the tower top. The treated solution is flowed to a vaporization chamber that is subjected to a low absolute pressure. A heater maintains the solution at a selected chamber temperature above the boiling point of water at the selected chamber pressure. The chamber pressure and temperature may be selected as desired to yield the purest water distillate for almost any solution of water and impurities. Water vapor is pumped from the vaporization chamber by a vapor pump to a condenser, where condensation results from increased pressure and decreased temperature.
Abstract: The production of solutions of hydrogen peroxide in phenol or its derivatives, e.g. hydrocarbyl substituted phenols, halo substituted phenols or phenol ethers, is carried out in a single step. Practically no loss of hydrogen peroxide occurs since a total distillation of hydrogen peroxide together with phenol or phenol derivative is avoided. Simultaneously the solutions obtained are practically free from water. The mixture of phenol or phenol derivative and aqueous hydrogen peroxide is treated with a material that boils below the boiling point of hydrogen peroxide, phenol or phenol derivative or forms an azeotrope with water that boils below the boiling point of hydrogen peroxide, phenol or phenol derivative and the water removed as an azeotrope. The solution of hydrogen peroxide in phenol or phenol derivative which remains behind is suitable for carrying out oxidation reactions and above all, also for hydroxylation reactions.
Abstract: Hydrocarbon solutions containing iodine or iodine-containing impurities are rendered essentially color-free by distillation in the presence of small amounts of a hydrocarbon soluble organometallic compound.
Abstract: In the continuous vacuum forming of articles from a fibrous slurry, e.g. from paper pulp, a plurality of two-piece hinged moulds are mounted on a transport apparatus 1 which transports the moulds stepwise in a loop. The internal surfaces of the moulds are defined by wire gauze of mesh 107,109 and the moulds are connected to a source of suction.The moulds, with the suction applied, are moved through the fibrous slurry contained in a tank 43, whereupon fibres are deposited on the mesh 107,109, much of the water being drawn off by the suction. The mould passes through a drying station, where warm air is sucked through the mould, further drying the article.The transport apparatus 1 is movable pivotably about an axis 6 by means of a fluid-operated ram 25. At the top of the path, the mould and the article therein are lowered onto a pin 61, a plurality of which are situated on an endless conveyor 59.
February 6, 1985
Date of Patent:
July 28, 1987
Vernon and Company (Pulp Products) Limited
Martin Waller, Geoffrey Farrell, Kenneth W. Mills, deceased, by Margaret Mason, executor, by Geoffrey A. Shindler, executor
Abstract: A thin layer evaporator comprises a container forming a body, a container cover on the one side, a drive shaft projecting into the container from the opposite side, a rotor fixed to the drive shaft and which has one or more conically outwardly widening evaporator areas and whose evaporator chamber is connected to the body, as well as a heating chamber separated from the body. The starting product is fed to the inner periphery of the evaporator areas, spreads outwards therefrom in a thin film and the concentrate is removed on the outer periphery by means of a draw-off pipe. In order to be able to absorb dynamic forces in a vibration free manner, the drive shaft is partly constructed as a hollow shaft and is mounted on a fixed spindle projecting into the container and rotor.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for converting a long tube vertical evaporator to a falling film evaporator in a manner which permits salvaging most of the long tube vertical evaporator structure. The bottom chamber of the existing evaporator is extended to define a flash chamber intermediate the existing heat exchanger chamber and the bottom chamber. A vapor riser conduit is provided for directing vapor from the flash chamber to the vapor separation chamber positioned above the heat exchanger chamber. A recirculation conduit is provided for directing liquid from the bottom chamber therethrough into a distribution chamber which is provided above and in communication with the upper ends of the heat exchange tubes positioned in the heat exchanger chamber. The distribution chamber is preferably provided with a plurality of spray nozzles which communicate with the recirculation conduit to evenly distribute a film of liquid downwardly through the heat exchange tubes.
Abstract: A isothermal rebreathing apparatus and method for collecting human breath samples for chemical analysis of the ethyl alcohol content wherein the breath samples are obtained from a subject repetitively exhaling into the inhaling from an enclosed, flexible, variable volume, bag-like collection receptacle which is heated to maintain the breath sample enclosed therein at a prescribed temperature, preferably at or near the subject's body temperature, before extracting the breath sample for subsequent chemical analysis. The collection receptacle may be enclosed by an airtight chamber including heaters therein to warm the air around the collection receptacle in order to regulate the temperature of the breath sample therein. A bellows section in fluid communication with the heating chamber allows for inflation and deflation of the flexible collection receptacle while located in an airtight environment.