Abstract: A Snyder-type distilling column having improved floating ball vapor valves. When used in a standard Snyder-type column, the valve comprises a spherical upper portion and a downwardly extending guide stem. When used in a microcolumn, the upper portion is mushroom shaped with a downwardly extending guide stem. The lower surface of either upper portion forms the valve face and includes multiple indentations therein. When a ball valve is closed, the indentations form by-pass passages to permit draining of condensed liquids therethrough thereby preventing flooding of the column. The indentations also permit the passage of vapors through the ball valve indentations thereby preventing sticking which can occur with a tight fitting ball valve and cause rotation of the ball valve during use which also assists in preventing sticking.
Abstract: A system for treating waste effluent and recovering solids and solvent material including a reservoir mounted on a stand connected by means to a solvent migrator including an adjustable trough for receiving new solution, a secondary reservoir with a cloth or absorbent material designed to contact the fluid in the secondary reservoir, while parallel to the sun's rays, an automatic leveling means and apparatus for recirculation of waste effluent including a leveling ball, and suction tubing for the recirculation of fluid, a solar unit comprised of glass panels to form a collecting dome with collecting troughs and a bonnet to shade the top of the pyramid formed by the dome panels and mirrors for the reflection of sunlight, all of which is connected to a chemical trap and subsequently a collecting means for the pure product.
Abstract: Apparatus is provided for converting sea or other undrinkable waters to drinkable water without the use of driven or moving parts. Reliance upon gradient effects is made to effect the vaporization of, for example, sea water, followed by the condensation of the vapor to form distilled water. Gradient effects are achieved through the provision of differentials in the thermal conductivity, capillary activity, adsorptive, absorptive and/or pressure characteristics of particulate materials, or combinations of such physicals. For example, a column is packed with material graded as to its conductivity, the least thermally conductive material being nearest the cold or ambient water that is to be purified. In packing the column each successive layer of material has a greater thermal conductivity than the layer beneath it with the most conductive being at the top near the outlet arm of the column.
Abstract: A process for preparing tertiary alkyl ethers from isoolefins and aliphatic alcohols in the presence of a catalyst in the form of sulphonated styrene-divinylbenzene resins, characterized in that both the reaction leading to the formation of the tert-alkyl ether and the separation of the tert-alkyl ether from the hydrocarbons and compounds which accompany it take place in a single plate fractionating apparatus, in which some of the plates are provided with beds of catalyst in the form of spherules suitable for preparing said tert-alkyl ether, the ether obtained being withdrawn as a substantially pure bottom product.
Abstract: This invention is directed to the use of mixtures of a polymerization inhibitor in the distillation of readily polymerizable vinyl aromatic monomers and more specifically to the use of mixtures containing 2,6-dinitro-4-halophenols as polymerization inhibitors for vinyl aromatic monomers such as styrene and vinyl benzenes. The invention comprises the process of subjecting the vinyl aromatic monomers to distillation temperatures in the presence of mixtures containing 2,6-dinitro-4-halophenols to inhibit polymerization.
Abstract: In a fractional distillation process in which first (light key) and second (heavy key) components contained in a feed stream are separated with the major portion of the light key component being removed in an overhead product stream and the major portion of the heavy key component being removed in a bottoms product stream, a signal which is responsive to the concentration of the light key component in the bottoms product stream is summed with a signal which is responsive to the concentration of the heavy key component in the overhead product stream to derive a signal which is utilized to manipulate the flow rate of the external reflux (sigma control). Also, the difference between a signal which is responsive to the concentration of the light key component in the bottoms product stream and a signal which is responsive to the concentration of the heavy key component in the overhead product stream is utilized to control the flow rate of the bottoms product stream (delta control).
Abstract: Energy-efficient processes for spray drying aqueous liquids in a spray dryer supplied with furnace-heated drying gas which processes comprise withdrawing the spent drying gas from the spray dryer, spraying the spent drying gas with water adiabatically to cool the gas and increase the water content thereof, and recycling a portion of the humidified gas to the furnace, the recycled portion being from about 40 percent to about 70 percent of the total humidified gas, together with apparatus for carrying out the processes.
Abstract: Normal butane withdrawn from the main fractionator in an acid alkylation process is recycled to the main fractionator as required to insure that the actual alkylate to normal butane ratio in the alkylate product withdrawn from the main fractionator does not go below a desired ratio. Maintenance of the actual ratio at or above the desired ratio substantially minimizes the concentration of isobutane in the alkylate product stream.
Abstract: A method for separating ethyl acetate from methyl ethyl ketone is described including distilling in an anhydrous condition a mixture of ethyl acetate-methyl ethyl ketone in a plate column in the presence of an effective amount of an organic extractive solvent which has the following properties: (1) is soluble in a boiling ethyl acetate-methyl ethyl ketone mixture; (2) does not form an azeotrope with ethyl acetate or methyl ethyl ketone; (3) boils higher than ethyl acetate and methyl ethyl ketone and (4) in combination with the ethyl acetate-methyl ethyl ketone mixture, results in a relative volatility of ethyl acetate to methyl ethyl ketone greater than 1.20.
Abstract: Disclosed is a process for the distillation of readily polymerizable vinyl aromatic compounds and a new polymerization inhibitor therefor. The process comprises subjecting a vinyl aromatic compound to elevated temperatures in a distillation system in the presence of a new polymerization inhibitor comprising 2,6-dinitro-p-cresol. Also disclosed is a distillation method and apparatus for use with this inhibitor.
Abstract: A process for the separation of diisopropylether from a hydrocarbon stream containing it, by contacting the stream with ethylene glycol whereby the diisopropylether is absorbed by the glycol and a purified hydrocarbon stream is separated therefrom.
Abstract: Method of adding water and a hydroxide of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to a washing solvent such as an alkylamide and/or alkylsulfoxide when washing and removing high molecular substances stuck on the interior of a production apparatus or molding machine for an aromatic vinyl-acrylonitrile copolymer. A method for regenerating and recovering the washing solvent used for the above-mentioned washing and removal by means of an evaporator and distillation tower.
Abstract: An atomization/distillation unit for separating a component from a mixture containing that component having a chamber, a container incorporated within the bottom of the chamber for receiving the mixture, a heater for heating the mixture to a temperature sufficient to vaporize the component but insufficient to vaporize the entire mixture, an atomizer located within the container for spraying said mixture upward in the chamber thereby aiding in further vaporization of the component, and agitator plates operating in conjunction with the atomizer for propelling the vapor upward in the chamber. Cooling coils are located in the top portion of the chamber in order to condense the vaporized component. Once condensed, the distillate is easily removed from the chamber. The atomization/distillation system is effective in combining atomization and distillation in order to maximize recovery of the desired component in a highly energy efficient manner.
Abstract: The level of aldehyde and ketone impurities in tetrahydrofuran can be significantly reduced by bringing the tetrahydrofuran into contact with sodium borohydride and then separating the modified impurities and the tetrahydrofuran.
July 1, 1982
Date of Patent:
July 24, 1984
E. I. Du Pont De Nemours and Company
Thomas W. Del Pesco, Richard H. Goldbaum
Abstract: Isopropyl ether cannot be completely removed from isopropyl ether - methyl ethyl ketone mixtures by distillation because of the presence of the minimum binary azeotrope. Isopropyl ether can be readily removed from mixtures containing it and methyl ethyl ketone by using extractive distillation in which the extractive distillation agent is a higher boiling oxygenated, nitrogenous and/or sulfur containing organic compound or a mixture of these. Typical examples of effective agents are sulfolane; ethylene carbonate plus dimethylsulfoxide; adiponitrile plus dimethylformamide plus glycerine.
Abstract: Isopropyl ether cannot be completely removed from isopropyl ether-acetone mixtures by distillation because of the presence of the minimum binary azeotrope. Isopropyl ether can be readily removed from mixtures containing it and acetone by using extractive distillation in which the extractive distillation agent is a higher boiling oxygenated or nitrogenous organic compound or a mixture of these. Typical examples of effective agents are: dimethylsulfoxide; sulfolane and propylene glycol; glycerine, ethylene glycol and adiponitrile.
Abstract: This invention is directed to the use of a polymerization inhibitor in the distillation of readily polymerizable vinyl aromatic monomers and more specifically to the use of mixtures of 2,6-dinitro-4-ethyl-phenol as a polymerization inhibitor for vinyl aromatic monomers such as styrene and vinyl benzenes. The invention comprises the process of subjecting the vinyl aromatic monomers to distillation temperatures in the presence of mixtures of 2,6-dinitro-4-ethyl-phenol and 2,6-dinitro-paracresol to prevent polymerization.
Abstract: Ethanol is produced continuously via the carbonylation of methanol, by(a) carbonylating methanol, in a reactor R, in the presence of a carbonyl complex of a metal of group VIII of the periodic table and of a halogen compound,(b) separating, in a distillation column D1, the reactor discharge, into a top fraction comprising methyl acetate, methanol, dimethyl ether and an organohalogen compound, and into a bottom fraction comprising water, small quantities of acetic acid and the catalyst, if the latter is not in a fixed bed, the residence time being so adjusted that the greater part of the acetic acid reacts with the methanol present to give methyl acetate,(c) separating the top fraction from D1, in a distillation column D2, into a top fraction comprising small quantities of methyl acetate, methanol, dimethyl ether and the organo-halogen compound, and a bottom fraction comprising methyl acetate and methanol, and recycling the top fraction to reactor R,(d) distilling off, via the top of distillation column D3, th
January 7, 1982
Date of Patent:
June 12, 1984
Rudolf Kummer, Volker Taglieber, Heinz-Walter Schneider
Abstract: A recycle water treatment system for separating oil vapor from steam recovering the oil and heat from the steam and destroys microorganisms and exotoxins which incorporates an inclined duct connected to a barometric condenser with a container for oil at the lower end of the condenser. Oil entrained in the steam is carried up the duct and over the barometric condenser. The steam heats the condenser water that is recovered while the entrained oil flows back down the duct into a recovery container. The condenser water-steam condensate mixture is maintained at about 180.degree. F. for a period of time sufficient to destroy microorganisms and exotoxins.
Abstract: A thermally driven multi-effect distillation process and apparatus are disclosed in which liquid is introduced into a plurality of evaporating and condensing stages or chambers while heat energy is passed through the stages or chambers in a direction countercurrent to the direction of flow of the liquid which undergoes evaporation to form condensate and distilland in each stage or chamber while transferring the heat of condensation to the next downstream stage or chamber and maintaining a minimum temperature differential between stages or chambers, and separately removing condensate and distilland from each stage or chamber while rotating the stages or chambers about an axis passing through the points of introduction thereto of the liquid and heat energy.Generally the apparatus comprises a plurality of adjacent evaporation and condensation chambers and means for introducing liquid and heat energy thereto in countercurrent directions.