Abstract: A method and apparatus are described for converting physiological information into sound, suitable for such applications as anesthesiological, intensive-care or exercise monitoring. Complex, realistic bodily sounds (e.g., heartbeat sound and/or breathing sound) are synthesized algorithmically, and directly reveal certain physiological variables such as heart rate or breathing rate. Changes in other physiological variables (e.g., blood pressure or carbon dioxide level) are indicated by changes in acoustic parameters of the realistic sound (e.g., pitch or timbre). A large number of these "piggyback" variables can be made audible by controlling a plurality of acoustic parameters simultaneously, taking advantage of the ability of the auditory system to process large quantities of information in parallel.
Abstract: An evaluation system for use in conjunction with a body implantable body stimulator, the body stimulator including a stimulation delivering and depolarization sensing lead system. An input connects a digitizer to the lead system, the digitizer digitizing depolarization signals sensed by the lead system. A computing system identifies excursions in the digitized depolarization signals and evaluates identified excursions in accordance with preselected merit criteria. An output gives an indication of at least that excursion having the highest merit that satisfies said merit criteria.
Abstract: There is disclosed an implantable tissue-stimulating prosthesis, such as a cochlear prosthesis, which can not only be implemented in single-chip form, but which also permits great flexibility in stimulation strategy and data transmission format. Only sixteen electrodes are required for stimulating fifteen different sites. Each site is stimulated by a biphasic pulse under control of two adjacent electrodes whose polarities are reversed in the middle of the site stimulation cycle. Although the transmission scheme requires a pulse-width modulation format, the precise form of the format can be varied in order to accommodate widely different stimulation strategies. For example, only a single site may be stimulated during each transmission frame or multiple sites may be stimulated during the same frame. Although only one site can be stimulated at any instant of time, the system cycling is so fast that "simultaneous" site stimulations are perceived.
Abstract: An endoscope comprises an internal space extending through the substantially whole length of the endoscope, at least one cylindrical end portion which is connected to the endoscope and provided with an air port open to the outside of the endoscope, only through which the internal space communicates with the open air, and a fluid-proof cap one end of which is open for insertion of the cylindrical end portion and the other end of which is closed, whose inner peripheral wall is shaped complementary to the outer peripheral wall of the cylindrical end portion, and which is provided with an O-ring disposed in the inner peripheral wall to seal in a fluid-tight state between the outer peripheral wall of the cylindrical end portion and the inner peripheral wall of the cap, and also provided with a fitting mechanism for detachably connecting the cap to the cylindrical end portion. Where the cylindrical end portion of the endoscope is pushed into the cap, the cylindrical end portion is sealed in a fluid-tight state.
Abstract: A termination for a carbon fiber implantable lead. A tip assembly includes an electrode to which carbon fiber tips are cemented with a conductive adhesive. An outer housing cooperatively interacts with the electrode to mechanically secure the carbon fiber bundle sheathing to the electrode, and also to establish good electrical contact between the carbon fiber bundles and the electrode.
Abstract: A power supply system to operate an implanted electric-powered device such as a blood pump. A secondary coil having a biocompatible covering is implanted to subcutaneously encircle either the abdomen or the thigh at a location close to the exterior skin. The secondary coil is electrically interconnected with an implanted storage battery and the blood pump. A primary coil of overlapping width is worn by the patient at a location radially outward of the secondary coil. An external battery plus an inverter circuit in a pack is attached to a belt having a detachable buckle connector which is conventionally worn about the waist. Efficient magnetic coupling is achieved through the use of two air-core windings of relatively large diameter.
Abstract: Therapeutic faradic current generators are used for stimulation of muscles and nerves of a body. Disclosed is such a generator in one embodiment having a unijunction transistor relaxation oscillator that feeds a Schmitt trigger, the output of which gates a power oscillator. The power oscillator drives a pair of electrodes that are put in contact with the skin.
Abstract: The contact device disclosed herein is designed for applying stimulating pulses to cardiac muscle tissue to obtain artificial pacing of the heart. Fibrosis around the stimulating electrode itself is minimized by employing a non-binding, preferably quite flexible electrode to establish the contact and using relatively stiff, prong-like attaching members which are separate and substantially spaced from the stimulating electrode itself.
Abstract: An improved combination electrode for use in medical applications requiring monitoring and stimulation is provided preferably having an electrical current conductor including a connector in addition to a skin-interfacing film wherein this film may have adhesive, plastic and hydrophilic properties such as may reside in an electrically conductive, polymeric composition.
Abstract: An individual suffering from bronchial asthma can be trained to relax his or her bronchial muscles in order to facilitate breathing. In such training a microphone is located adjacent to the trachea of the individual and is utilized to provide a signal. This signal may be directly amplified and converted to an audible sound through the use of a speaker, but it is preferably utilized to provide a variable frequency signal corresponding to the amplitude of the signal from the microphone, and this latter signal is supplied to the speaker to provide a variable tone. This tonal variation effectively indicates to an individual the manner in which the individual is breathing. Such an individual can learn to control his or her breathing in such a manner as to regulate the frequency of the tone produced by the speaker so that the sound produced corresponds to the bronchial muscles being relaxed.