Patents by Inventor Byung K. Choi

Byung K. Choi has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 11303720
    Abstract: This document describes systems, methods and apparatus for locating an object and/or processed versions of that object in a CDN cache system. When a CDN server needs to send a forward request to an origin server to retrieve an object, the CDN server can append a ‘cache hint’ (sometimes referred to herein as a pointer or as ‘reverse cookie’) to its request. The cache hint preferably includes information that will be stored at the origin server and provided to other CDN servers that subsequently ask for the same object. Preferably the information is a pointer that will enable the object to be located within the CDN and/or enable the location of modified version of the object that have already been created and stored within the CDN.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 2020
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2022
    Assignee: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Patent number: 11303702
    Abstract: Among other things, this document describes systems, methods and devices for performance testing and dynamic placement of computing tasks in a distributed computing environment. In embodiments, a given client request is forwarded up a hierarchy of nodes, or across tiers in the hierarchy. A particular computing node in the system self-determines to perform a computing task to generate (or help generate) particular content for a response to the client. The computing node injects its identifier into the response indicating that it performed those tasks; the identifier is transmitted to the client with particular content. The client runs code that assesses the performance of the system from the client's perspective, e.g., in servicing the request, and beacons this performance data, along with the aforementioned identifier, to a system intelligence component. The performance information may be used to dynamically place and improve the placement of the computing task(s).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2021
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2022
    Assignee: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Publication number: 20210243249
    Abstract: Among other things, this document describes systems, methods and devices for performance testing and dynamic placement of computing tasks in a distributed computing environment. In embodiments, a given client request is forwarded up a hierarchy of nodes, or across tiers in the hierarchy. A particular computing node in the system self-determines to perform a computing task to generate (or help generate) particular content for a response to the client. The computing node injects its identifier into the response indicating that it performed those tasks; the identifier is transmitted to the client with particular content. The client runs code that assesses the performance of the system from the client's perspective, e.g., in servicing the request, and beacons this performance data, along with the aforementioned identifier, to a system intelligence component. The performance information may be used to dynamically place and improve the placement of the computing task(s).
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 2, 2021
    Publication date: August 5, 2021
    Applicant: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Patent number: 11063883
    Abstract: This disclosure provides for an enhancement to a transport layer switch and, in particular the management of end points. In this approach, a memory space, such as a large logical ring buffer, is shared by incumbent connections to facilitate a space multiplexing end point management scheme. Preferably, memory allocation in the memory space is done packet-by-packet dynamically. Because the memory space is shared by all admitted connections, packets belonging to the same connection are not necessarily located physically consecutive to each other. A packet indexing mechanism that implements a set of pointers ensures that consecutiveness for packets on the same connection is maintained. This approach to end point multiplexing provides significant benefits by improving resource utilization, and enabling a higher number of connections to be served.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2019
    Date of Patent: July 13, 2021
    Assignee: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Patent number: 10924534
    Abstract: Among other things, this document describes systems, methods and devices for performance testing and dynamic placement of computing tasks in a distributed computing environment. In embodiments, a given client request is forwarded up a hierarchy of nodes, or across tiers in the hierarchy. A particular computing node in the system self-determines to perform a computing task to generate (or help generate) particular content for a response to the client. The computing node injects its identifier into the response indicating that it performed those tasks; the identifier is transmitted to the client with particular content. The client runs code that assesses the performance of the system from the client's perspective, e.g., in servicing the request, and beacons this performance data, along with the aforementioned identifier, to a system intelligence component. The performance information may be used to dynamically place and improve the placement of the computing task(s).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2019
    Date of Patent: February 16, 2021
    Assignee: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Publication number: 20200404070
    Abstract: This document describes systems, methods and apparatus for locating an object and/or processed versions of that object in a CDN cache system. When a CDN server needs to send a forward request to an origin server to retrieve an object, the CDN server can append a ‘cache hint’ (sometimes referred to herein as a pointer or as ‘reverse cookie’) to its request. The cache hint preferably includes information that will be stored at the origin server and provided to other CDN servers that subsequently ask for the same object. Preferably the information is a pointer that will enable the object to be located within the CDN and/or enable the location of modified version of the object that have already been created and stored within the CDN.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 29, 2020
    Publication date: December 24, 2020
    Applicant: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Publication number: 20200280606
    Abstract: Among other things, this document describes systems, methods and devices for performance testing and dynamic placement of computing tasks in a distributed computing environment. In embodiments, a given client request is forwarded up a hierarchy of nodes, or across tiers in the hierarchy. A particular computing node in the system self-determines to perform a computing task to generate (or help generate) particular content for a response to the client. The computing node injects its identifier into the response indicating that it performed those tasks; the identifier is transmitted to the client with particular content. The client runs code that assesses the performance of the system from the client's perspective, e.g., in servicing the request, and beacons this performance data, along with the aforementioned identifier, to a system intelligence component. The performance information may be used to dynamically place and improve the placement of the computing task(s).
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 1, 2019
    Publication date: September 3, 2020
    Applicant: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Patent number: 10764391
    Abstract: This document describes systems, methods and apparatus for locating an object and/or processed versions of that object in a CDN cache system. When a CDN server needs to send a forward request to an origin server to retrieve an object, the CDN server can append a ‘cache hint’ (sometimes referred to herein as a pointer or as ‘reverse cookie’) to its request. The cache hint preferably includes information that will be stored at the origin server and provided to other CDN servers that subsequently ask for the same object. Preferably the information is a pointer that will enable the object to be located within the CDN and/or enable the location of modified version of the object that have already been created and stored within the CDN.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 1, 2020
    Assignee: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Publication number: 20200236733
    Abstract: The technique herein optimizes delivery performance from a content delivery network (CDN) edge node, preferably by using knowledge of radio link allocation behavior. According to the technique herein, an IP address of a cellular end user (or equivalent) is recognized by the CDN edge. Then, preferably by tracking idle times both in consecutive downloading bursts in the end user session and in an on/off style radio link allocation pattern, the CDN edge adjusts transport layer network protocol parameters. The approach (which leverages the cross-layer intelligence obtainable from existing CDN infrastructure) thus enables the transport layer protocol implemented at the edge to optimize the delivery performance over the cellular mobile network.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 7, 2020
    Publication date: July 23, 2020
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Patent number: 10694005
    Abstract: This document describes, among other things, improved methods, systems, and apparatus for relaying packets on computer networks. Preferably, the relay function is accelerated at a host by implementing selected forwarding functions in hardware, such as the host's network interface card, while upper software layers at the host retain at least some access to the packet flow to handle more complex operations and/or monitoring. In a so-called “split TCP” arrangement, for example, a relay host terminates a first TCP connection from a given host and forwards packets on that connection to another given host on a second TCP connection. The relay host has a TCP forwarding table implemented at the device level, configurable by a relay management application running in the kernel or user-space. Special forwarding table modes may be used to enable full-TCP protocol support while also taking advantage of hardware acceleration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 2018
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2020
    Assignee: Akamai Technologies Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Patent number: 10616947
    Abstract: The technique herein optimizes delivery performance from a content delivery network (CDN) edge node, preferably by using knowledge of radio link allocation behavior. According to the technique herein, an IP address of a cellular end user (or equivalent) is recognized by the CDN edge. Then, preferably by tracking idle times both in consecutive downloading bursts in the end user session and in an on/off style radio link allocation pattern, the CDN edge adjusts transport layer network protocol parameters. The approach (which leverages the cross-layer intelligence obtainable from existing CDN infrastructure) thus enables the transport layer protocol implemented at the edge to optimize the delivery performance over the cellular mobile network.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2020
    Assignee: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Patent number: 10542080
    Abstract: Disclosed are methods, systems, and apparatus for load-balancing image-processing jobs based on the number of pixels in the images and/or the nature of the processing that is requested on those pixels. For example, a set of machines may run software to provide various types of image processing services, such as format conversion, recompression, resizing, cropping, among others. These are referred to as image servers. In accordance with the teachings hereof, the load on each image server can be calculated based on the number of pixels in the images that are waiting to be processed in the image server's processing queue, adjusted by the type of processing that is requested on each image. The adjustment typically reflects and adjusts for the relative time needed to perform various types of processing. Load scores can be further adjusted based on the processing capabilities of each image server, in some embodiments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2018
    Date of Patent: January 21, 2020
    Assignee: Akamai Technologies Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Patent number: 10476771
    Abstract: This disclosure provides for a Layer 4 switching approach wherein a set of L4 switches are organized into a cluster so as to act as a single (or “big”) Layer 4 switch. Connections between the L4 switches are carried out, e.g., using Layer 2 switches. To this end, an intra-cluster routing entity of the switch maintains mapping information (e.g., in a database, or set of data structures) about connections that have been established by the individual switches within the cluster. In this approach, each host (itself a switch) preferably acts like a group of ports of the larger (big) switch. This obviates having each member host from having to maintain connections to many possible destinations. Rather, the intra-cluster routing entity maintains the information about which hosts (and its ports) are connected to which destinations, and the connections are re-used as necessary, even if connections on one side of the “big” switch ceased being used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2019
    Assignee: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Publication number: 20190288958
    Abstract: This disclosure provides for an enhancement to a transport layer switch and, in particular the management of end points. In this approach, a memory space, such as a large logical ring buffer, is shared by incumbent connections to facilitate a space multiplexing end point management scheme. Preferably, memory allocation in the memory space is done packet-by-packet dynamically. Because the memory space is shared by all admitted connections, packets belonging to the same connection are not necessarily located physically consecutive to each other. A packet indexing mechanism that implements a set of pointers ensures that consecutiveness for packets on the same connection is maintained. This approach to end point multiplexing provides significant benefits by improving resource utilization, and enabling a higher number of connections to be served.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 4, 2019
    Publication date: September 19, 2019
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Patent number: 10313270
    Abstract: This disclosure provides for an enhancement to a transport layer switch and, in particular the management of end points. In this approach, a memory space, such as a large logical ring buffer, is shared by incumbent connections to facilitate a space multiplexing end point management scheme. Preferably, memory allocation in the memory space is done packet-by-packet dynamically. Because the memory space is shared by all admitted connections, packets belonging to the same connection are not necessarily located physically consecutive to each other. A packet indexing mechanism that implements a set of pointers ensures that consecutiveness for packets on the same connection is maintained. This approach to end point multiplexing provides significant benefits by improving resource utilization, and enabling a higher number of connections to be served.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2019
    Assignee: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Publication number: 20190158375
    Abstract: This disclosure provides for a Layer 4 switching approach wherein a set of L4 switches are organized into a cluster so as to act as a single (or “big”) Layer 4 switch. Connections between the L4 switches are carried out, e.g., using Layer 2 switches. To this end, an intra-cluster routing entity of the switch maintains mapping information (e.g., in a database, or set of data structures) about connections that have been established by the individual switches within the cluster. In this approach, each host (itself a switch) preferably acts like a group of ports of the larger (big) switch. This obviates having each member host from having to maintain connections to many possible destinations. Rather, the intra-cluster routing entity maintains the information about which hosts (and its ports) are connected to which destinations, and the connections are re-used as necessary, even if connections on one side of the “big” switch ceased being used.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 28, 2019
    Publication date: May 23, 2019
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Publication number: 20190089818
    Abstract: This document describes, among other things, improved methods, systems, and apparatus for relaying packets on computer networks. Preferably, the relay function is accelerated at a host by implementing selected forwarding functions in hardware, such as the host's network interface card, while upper software layers at the host retain at least some access to the packet flow to handle more complex operations and/or monitoring. In a so-called “split TCP” arrangement, for example, a relay host terminates a first TCP connection from a given host and forwards packets on that connection to another given host on a second TCP connection. The relay host has a TCP forwarding table implemented at the device level, configurable by a relay management application running in the kernel or user-space. Special forwarding table modes may be used to enable full-TCP protocol support while also taking advantage of hardware acceleration.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 26, 2018
    Publication date: March 21, 2019
    Applicant: Akamai Technologies Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Publication number: 20190082027
    Abstract: This document describes systems, methods and apparatus for locating an object and/or processed versions of that object in a CDN cache system. When a CDN server needs to send a forward request to an origin server to retrieve an object, the CDN server can append a ‘cache hint’ (sometimes referred to herein as a pointer or as ‘reverse cookie’) to its request. The cache hint preferably includes information that will be stored at the origin server and provided to other CDN servers that subsequently ask for the same object. Preferably the information is a pointer that will enable the object to be located within the CDN and/or enable the location of modified version of the object that have already been created and stored within the CDN.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 14, 2017
    Publication date: March 14, 2019
    Applicant: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Publication number: 20190052706
    Abstract: Disclosed are methods, systems, and apparatus for load-balancing image-processing jobs based on the number of pixels in the images and/or the nature of the processing that is requested on those pixels. For example, a set of machines may run software to provide various types of image processing services, such as format conversion, recompression, resizing, cropping, among others. These are referred to as image servers. In accordance with the teachings hereof, the load on each image server can be calculated based on the number of pixels in the images that are waiting to be processed in the image server's processing queue, adjusted by the type of processing that is requested on each image. The adjustment typically reflects and adjusts for the relative time needed to perform various types of processing. Load scores can be further adjusted based on the processing capabilities of each image server, in some embodiments.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 22, 2018
    Publication date: February 14, 2019
    Applicant: Akamai Technologies Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi
  • Patent number: 10193782
    Abstract: This disclosure provides for a Layer 4 switching approach wherein a set of L4 switches are organized into a cluster so as to act as a single (or “big”) Layer 4 switch. Connections between the L4 switches are carried out, e.g., using Layer 2 switches. To this end, an intra-cluster routing entity of the switch maintains mapping information (e.g., in a database, or set of data structures) about connections that have been established by the individual switches within the cluster. In this approach, each host (itself a switch) preferably acts like a group of ports of the larger (big) switch. This obviates having each member host from having to maintain connections to many possible destinations. Rather, the intra-cluster routing entity maintains the information about which hosts (and its ports) are connected to which destinations, and the connections are re-used as necessary, even if connections on one side of the “big” switch ceased being used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2019
    Assignee: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Byung K. Choi