Charles F. Morrison has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
Abstract: A "pressure" gauge which measures density of a gas in a vacuum system is temperature-compensated to give more accurate pressure readings by taking into account the actual gas temperature in the gauge as well as the temperature of the gas during calibration of the gauge. The calibration is for gauge output current versus measured gas pressures; during calibration, the gas temperature is also measured. During pressure measurement gas temperature is measured in the gauge and a microcomputer is used for computations and for lookup of calibration pressure values which nominally corespond to gauge output current values. The output current is first compensated for temperature correction by multiplying it by the actual absolute gas temperature and dividing the product by the absolute calibration gas temperature. This new temperature-compensated output current is used by the microprocessor to access the stored calibration data and to provide a temperature-compensated pressure value.
Abstract: Method and apparatus for arc evaporating a large target having a surface area of at least about 20 square inches, including a device for confining the arc to the target surface and a magnetic field source for establishing at least one magnetic field in a predetermined direction over the target surface to thus direct the cathode spot of the arc in a direction substantially perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field and accordingly effect substantially uniform evaporation of the target by the arc where the magnetic field may be either pulsed or continuous.
Abstract: A system for monitoring a condition such as tire air pressure where the monitor at each tire is remotely energized by radio waves, there being two embodiments disclosed for effecting this. A loop antenna concentrically mounted with respect to each tire receiver and/or transmits electrical energy to the remote location which is typically at the operator's console. Each pressure sensitive device is mounted away from the valve stem and may include a strain gauge mounted on the tire side wall or between the wall and rim. An infra-red detector may also be employed as a pressure monitoring device.
Abstract: Different approaches are described, in ionization gauges or the like, which either prevent dangerous open ground conditions and/or sense the presence of the open ground whereby the controller power may be automatically turned off. Circuitry for extending the measurement range of ionization gauges is also described.
Abstract: A magnetron sputtering device wherein a plurality of magnetic field sources are employed to enhance uniformity of cathode sputtering. Each of the magnetic field sources is independently capable of establishing a discharge at the cathode if the other magnetic field sources are removed so that portions of a V-shaped erosion pattern produced by a primary discharge are also eroded to thus effect the more uniform cathode sputtering.In one embodiment of the invention, a magnetic field dome of a first polarity is disposed over a second magnetic field dome of the opposite polarity, the domes being disposed over the cathode so that a closed plasma loop is established, the loop including a first sputtering path which extends over the cathode and a second non-sputtering return path which is disposed over the sputtering path and between the first and second magnetic field domes.
Abstract: Apparatus and method for evaporation arc stabilization including a target having a surface of material of non-permeable material to be evaporated; circuitry for establishing an arc on the target surface for evaporating the target material, the arc being characterized by the presence of charged particles and a cathode spot which randomly migrates over the target surface; and a confinement ring surrounding the target surface, the ring being composed of a magnetically permeable material to confine the cathode spot to the target. The anode is closely spaced to the ring to prevent the arc from moving off the target and the ring, during initial arc cleaning of the target. In lieu of the magnetically permeable confinement ring, the anode itself may be permeable. Various configurations of the confinement ring are also disclosed together with various features for improving the operation thereof.
Abstract: Method and apparatus for sputtering an element with a magnetron plasma source where a plasma is formed between two generator cathode surfaces of the source and a generator anode disposed adjacent the plasma ejects it toward the element to be sputtered. Various applications are described including selective coating of substrates of different electrical conductivity, substrate cleaning, ion milling, retrieval of expensive or dangerous coating materials, heating with little loss in the heat source, sputtering with reactive ions, sensitization or charge neutralization, and pumping of active gases.
Abstract: A magnetron sputtering apparatus for high permeable materials where the target may include first and second elements separated from one another by a gap and the magnetic field source preferably exceeds 1000 gauss adjacent a pole thereof. The source is preferably a solid, oriented crystal ferrite magnet. A number of different configurations are disclosed.
Abstract: Apparatus for sputtering a target including at least first and second elements spaced from one another by a gap; a plasma generator disposed in the gap; and a trapping magnetic field which confines at least some of the plasma adjacent the target where the target may comprise a magnetically permeable material. First and second magnets may generate the trapping magnetic field and a further field which includes a gap field across the gap where the gap field is utilized by the plasma generating means. If the target comprises a magnetically permeable material, the trapping field will pass through and over the target while the further field will pass sequentially through said first target element, the gap, and then the second target element.
Abstract: Method and apparatus for sputtering an element with a magnetron plasma source where a plasma is formed between two electrostatic field defining surfaces of the source and a generator anode disposed adjacent the plasma ejects it toward the element to be sputtered. Various applications are described including selective coating of substrates of different electrical conductivity, substrate cleaning, ion milling, retrieval of expensive or dangerous coating materials, heating with little loss in the heat source, sputtering with reactive ions, sensitization or charge neutralization, and pumping of active gases.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for establishing the magnetic field in a magnetically enhanced sputtering device wherein a predetermined plasma path is formed adjacent a layer of target material to be sputtered wherein a first component of the magnetic field is substantially perpendicular to the plasma path and a second component thereof is substantially parallel to the path. Various embodiments are described for generating the foregoing magnetic field components.
Abstract: Method and apparatus for producing a variable intensity pattern of sputtering material on a substrate by providing a mask having a patterned opening therein between the cathode of a sputtering device and the substrate to be coated, the mask being so positioned as (a) to not affect the plasma over the cathode surface and (b) to be out of contact with the substrate surface, there being relative movement between at least the cathode and the substrate. The substrate may be either flat, curved or tubular, for example, there also being described apparatus and a method of making a broad band, dipole antenna.
Abstract: A magnetically enhanced sputtering device including magnet means for establishing a magnetic field where the lines of force thereof extend over and may pass through the cathode sputtering surface at one predetermined area thereof. Preferably, the majority of the lines of force passing through said predetermined area of the sputtering surface are inclined at angles of 45.degree. or less with respect to the surface. The magnet means may be disposed on the side of the cathode opposite the sputtering surface where the flux therein extends substantially parallel to the sputtering surface.
Abstract: A magnetically enhanced sputtering device including first magnet means for establishing a magnetic field where the lines of force thereof extend over and may pass through the cathode sputtering surface at one predetermined area thereof. The first magnet means may be disposed on the side of the cathode opposite the sputtering surface where the flux therein may be substantially parallel to or inclined with respect to the sputtering surface. Second magnet means are preferably included in the path of the flux projected from the first magnet means so that the second magnet means not only contributes to the magnetic field formed over the sputtering surface, but it also blocks flux from extending below the first magnet means to thereby enhance the strength of the field formed over the first magnet means. Various embodiments are disclosed for effecting the foregoing.
Abstract: In a planar magnetron sputtering device including a cathode of target material having a planar sputtering surface, at least a portion of which is disposed about a center line perpendicular to said surface, an anode adapted for establishing an accelerating electric field between the anode and cathode, and magnetic means for establishing a magnetic field adjacent the planar sputtering surface of the cathode for lengthening the path traveled by electrons removed from said cathode, and wherein the lines of force of the magnetic field extend over the sputtering surface of said cathode and pass through the cathode in the vicinity of the center line, the improvement where the magnetic means includes first magnet means for causing a majority of the magnetic lines of force to pass through the cathode in the vicinity of the center line at angles of 45.degree.
Abstract: A planar magnetron sputtering device where the magnetic lines of force pass through the center of the planar cathode at angles of 45.degree. or less with respect to the planar surface of the cathode to thereby promote uniformity of cathode erosion. The magnetic structure may comprise mangetic tape stacked or rolled to form a solid, flat coil parallel to the cathode where at least some of the tape is tipped or slanted with respect to the cathode. Other magnetic structures are also disclosed which promote uniformity of cathode erosion.
Abstract: A vapor injector for use with a fuel combustion system which system has an air intake assembly and a combustion area. The vaporizer includes a platform floating on a reservoir of water. A tube extends from the platform into the reservoir a predetermined distance, the lower end of the tube is slotted. The distance the tube extends into the reservoir remains constant regardless of the level of the reservoir. The upstream end of the tube communicates directly with ambient. The vaporizer is connected to the air intake assembly. A negative pressure is applied to the vapor chamber and a saturated air stream flows from the chamber and into the combustion area.
Abstract: A vapor injector for use with a fuel combustion system which system has an air intake assembly and a combustion area. The vaporizer includes a platform floating on a reservoir of water. A vacuum chamber is defined by the platform and the surface of the reservoir. A perforated adjustable sleeve extends from the platform into the reservoir and determines the volume of the vacuum chamber. The volume of the chamber remains constant regardless of the level of the reservoir. The vaporizer is connected to the air intake assembly. A negative pressure is applied to the chamber and a saturated air stream flows from the chamber and into the combustion area.