Patents by Inventor David Kingham

David Kingham has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20230207145
    Abstract: A method of controlling a plasma in a nuclear fusion reactor. The nuclear fusion reactor comprises sensors and plasma control inputs. An initial control model is provided, relating readings of at least a subset of the sensors to control of the plasma control inputs. A control loop is performed, comprising: operating the plasma control inputs in dependence upon the sensors according to the control model; determining correlations between readings of each of the sensors, and/or between readings of the sensors and states of the plasma control inputs; and adjusting the control model based on the determined correlations.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 20, 2023
    Publication date: June 29, 2023
    Inventors: Steven Antony Milton McNamara, Peter Buxton, David Kingham
  • Publication number: 20230106100
    Abstract: A tokamak fusion reactor. The tokamak fusion reactor comprises a toroidal plasma chamber and a plasma confinement system arranged to generate a magnetic field for confining a plasma in the plasma chamber. The plasma confinement system comprises toroidal field magnets, which generate a magnetic field, BT0, in the centre of the plasma. The toroidal field magnets are configured such that, in use, the magnetic field, on conductor of the toroidal field magnets is at least 20 Tesla. The plasma confinement system is configured such that, in use, the plasma has: an aspect ratio, A, of 2 or less; an elongation, K, of at least 2; a major radius R0 of 3.5 meters or less; a normalised beta of at least 3; an engineering safety factor, qeng, of at least 2.0; wherein the engineering safety factor qeng is defined as: geng=5 BT0R0K/A2IP where Ip is the plasma current; a ratio of the fusion gain, Qfus to the fusion power, Pfus, greater than 0.03 MW?1 at fusion power, Pfus, less than 500 MW.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 17, 2021
    Publication date: April 6, 2023
    Inventors: Alan Costley, David Kingham
  • Patent number: 11587690
    Abstract: A method of controlling a plasma in a nuclear fusion reactor. The nuclear fusion reactor comprises sensors and plasma control inputs. An initial control model is provided, relating readings of at least a subset of the sensors to control of the plasma control inputs. A control loop is performed, comprising: operating the plasma control inputs in dependence upon the sensors according to the control model; determining correlations between readings of each of the sensors, and/or between readings of the sensors and states of the plasma control inputs; and adjusting the control model based on the determined correlations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 4, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2023
    Assignee: Tokamak Energy Ltd.
    Inventors: Steven Antony Milton McNamara, Peter Buxton, David Kingham
  • Patent number: 11417434
    Abstract: A method of operating a nuclear fusion device. The nuclear fusion device comprises a toroidal plasma chamber and has poloidal field coils configured to form a plasma within the plasma chamber by one of merging compression and double null merging. A varying current is provided to the poloidal field coils. The varying current comprises a plurality of pulses. Each pulse comprises a plasma formation period having a rate of change of current which is opposite in sign to the current; and a merging period following the plasma formation period and having a current sufficiently low in magnitude as to allow plasmas within the chamber to merge into a single plasma. The current during the plasma formation period is varied such that the energy density of the single plasma immediately after merging is sufficient for fusion to occur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2022
    Assignee: Tokamak Energy Ltd.
    Inventors: Steven Antony Milton McNamara, David Kingham
  • Patent number: 10971274
    Abstract: There is disclosed a toroidal field coil for use in a spherical tokamak. The toroidal field coil comprises a central column and a plurality of return limbs. The central column comprises a plurality of exfoliated HTS tapes, and the return limbs comprise a plurality of substrated HTS tapes. Each exfoliated HTS tape comprises a ReBCO layer bonded to respective metal interface layers on each side of the ReBCO layer, each metal interface layer being bonded to a metal stabiliser layer. Each substrated HTS tape comprises a ReBCO layer bonded on one side to a metal interface layer and on the other side to an oxide buffer stack, the metal interface layer being bonded to a metal stabiliser layer and the oxide buffer stack being bonded to a substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 6, 2021
    Assignee: Tokamak Energy Ltd.
    Inventors: Greg Brittles, David Kingham, Robert Slade
  • Publication number: 20200343005
    Abstract: A method of operating a nuclear fusion device. The nuclear fusion device comprises a toroidal plasma chamber and has poloidal field coils configured to form a plasma within the plasma chamber by one of merging compression and double null merging. A varying current is provided to the poloidal field coils. The varying current comprises a plurality of pulses. Each pulse comprises a plasma formation period having a rate of change of current which is opposite in sign to the current; and a merging period following the plasma formation period and having a current sufficiently low in magnitude as to allow plasmas within the chamber to merge into a single plasma. The current during the plasma formation period is varied such that the energy density of the single plasma immediately after merging is sufficient for fusion to occur.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 19, 2018
    Publication date: October 29, 2020
    Inventors: Steven Antony Milton McNamara, David Kingham
  • Publication number: 20200335230
    Abstract: There is disclosed a toroidal field coil for use in a spherical tokamak. The toroidal field coil comprises a central column and a plurality of return limbs. The central column comprises a plurality of exfoliated HTS tapes, and the return limbs comprise a plurality of substrated HTS tapes. Each exfoliated HTS tape comprises a ReBCO layer bonded to respective metal interface layers on each side of the ReBCO layer, each metal interface layer being bonded to a metal stabiliser layer. Each substrated HTS tape comprises a ReBCO layer bonded on one side to a metal interface layer and on the other side to an oxide buffer stack, the metal interface layer being bonded to a metal stabiliser layer and the oxide buffer stack being bonded to a substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 20, 2018
    Publication date: October 22, 2020
    Inventors: Greg Brittles, David Kingham, Robert Slade
  • Publication number: 20200176132
    Abstract: There is described neutron shielding for a nuclear fusion reactor. The neutron shielding includes a cemented carbide or boride comprising a binder and an aggregate, the aggregate comprising particles of a carbide or boride compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 29, 2020
    Publication date: June 4, 2020
    Inventors: David KINGHAM, George SMITH
  • Publication number: 20200168352
    Abstract: A method of controlling a plasma in a nuclear fusion reactor. The nuclear fusion reactor comprises sensors and plasma control inputs. An initial control model is provided, relating readings of at least a subset of the sensors to control of the plasma control inputs. A control loop is performed, comprising: operating the plasma control inputs in dependence upon the sensors according to the control model; determining correlations between readings of each of the sensors, and/or between readings of the sensors and states of the plasma control inputs; and adjusting the control model based on the determined correlations.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 4, 2018
    Publication date: May 28, 2020
    Inventors: Steven Antony Milton McNamara, Peter Buxton, David Kingham
  • Patent number: 10636528
    Abstract: There is described neutron shielding for a nuclear fusion reactor. The neutron shielding includes a cemented carbide or boride comprising a binder and an aggregate, the aggregate comprising particles of a carbide or boride compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2020
    Assignee: TOKAMAK ENERGY LTD
    Inventors: David Kingham, George Smith
  • Patent number: 10332640
    Abstract: A toroidal field coil for generating a toroidal magnetic field in a nuclear fusion reactor includes a toroidal plasma chamber having a central column. The toroidal field coil has a plurality of windings configured to pass through the central column and around the outside of the plasma chamber. Each winding includes a cable having a plurality of stacked high temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes, each HTS tape including one or more layers of a high temperature superconductor material. With the toroidal field coil in place in the reactor, a face of each HTS tape is substantially perpendicular to a direction of maximal neutron flux during reactor operation as the cable passes through the center column.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2019
    Assignee: TOKAMAK ENERGY LTD
    Inventors: Alan Sykes, Mikhail Gryaznevich, David Kingham, David Hawksworth, Ziad Melhem, Steven Ball
  • Patent number: 10332641
    Abstract: A toroidal field coil for generating a toroidal magnetic field in a nuclear fusion reactor comprising a toroidal plasma chamber having a central column. The toroidal field coil comprises a portion passing through the central column. The portion passing through the central chamber comprises: ?a low temperature superconductor, LTS, layer (21) formed from LTS; ?a high temperature superconductor, HTS, layer (22) formed from HTS and located radially outward of the LTS layer. ?a non-superconducting conductive layer (23) formed from electrically conducting, non-superconducting material and located radially outward of the HTS and LTS layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2019
    Assignee: TOKAMAK ENERGY LTD
    Inventors: David Kingham, Mikhail Gryaznevich
  • Patent number: 9852816
    Abstract: An efficient compact nuclear fusion reactor for use as a neutron source or energy source is described. The reactor comprises a toroidal plasma chamber and a plasma confinement system arranged to generate a magnetic field for confining a plasma in the chamber. The plasma confinement system is configured so that a major radius of the confined plasma is 1.5 m or less. The reactor is constructed using high temperature superconducting toroidal magnets, which may be operated at low temperature (77K or lower) to provide enhanced performance. The toroidal magnetic field can be increased to 5 T or more giving significant increases in fusion output, so that neutron output is very efficient and the reactor can produce a net output of energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2017
    Assignee: TOKAMAK ENERGY LTD
    Inventors: David Kingham, Alan Sykes, Mikhail Gryaznevich
  • Publication number: 20170236600
    Abstract: A toroidal field coil for generating a toroidal magnetic field in a nuclear fusion reactor comprising a toroidal plasma chamber having a central column. The toroidal field coil comprises a portion passing through the central column. The portion passing through the central chamber comprises: a low temperature superconductor, LTS, layer (21) formed from LTS; a high temperature superconductor, HTS, layer (22) formed from HTS and located radially outward of the LTS layer. a non-superconducting conductive layer (23) formed from electrically conducting, non-superconducting material and located radially outward of the HTS and LTS layers.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 24, 2015
    Publication date: August 17, 2017
    Inventors: David Kingham, Mikhail Gryaznevich
  • Publication number: 20170186502
    Abstract: There is described neutron shielding for a nuclear fusion reactor. The neutron shielding includes a cemented carbide or boride comprising a binder and an aggregate, the aggregate comprising particles of a carbide or boride compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 7, 2015
    Publication date: June 29, 2017
    Inventors: David KINGHAM, George SMITH
  • Publication number: 20170032851
    Abstract: An efficient compact nuclear fusion reactor for use as a neutron source or energy source includes a toroidal plasma chamber and a plasma confinement system arranged to generate a magnetic field for confining a plasma in the chamber, where the plasma confinement system is configured so that a major radius of the confined plasma is 1.5 m or less and the toroidal magnetic field is operated 5 T or less and the plasma current is 5 MA or less, yet a-particles generated are confined in the plasma.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 9, 2015
    Publication date: February 2, 2017
    Applicant: Tokamak Energy Ltd.
    Inventors: Alan Sykes, Mikhail Gryaznevich, David Kingham
  • Publication number: 20160232988
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a toroidal field coil for generating a toroidal magnetic field in a nuclear fusion reactor comprising toroidal plasma chamber having a central column, the toroidal field coil comprising a plurality of windings passing through the central column and around the outside of the plasma chamber. Each winding includes a cable comprising a plurality of stacked HTS tapes, each HTS tape including one or more layers of a high temperature superconductor material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 10, 2014
    Publication date: August 11, 2016
    Inventors: Alan SYKES, Mikhail GRYAZNEVICH, David KINGHAM, David HAWKSWORTH, Ziad MELHEM, Steven BALL
  • Publication number: 20140211900
    Abstract: An efficient compact nuclear fusion reactor for use as a neutron source or energy source is described. The reactor comprises a toroidal plasma chamber and a plasma confinement system arranged to generate a magnetic field for confining a plasma in the chamber. The plasma confinement system is configured so that a major radius of the confined plasma is 1.5 m or less. The reactor is constructed using high temperature superconducting toroidal magnets, which may be operated at low temperature (77K or lower) to provide enhanced performance. The toroidal magnetic field can be increased to 5 T or more giving significant increases in fusion output, so that neutron output is very efficient and the reactor can produce a net output of energy.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 24, 2012
    Publication date: July 31, 2014
    Applicant: TOKAMAK SOLUTIONS UK LIMITED
    Inventors: David Kingham, Alan Sykes, Mikhail Gryaznevich