Patents by Inventor Eileen Galligan

Eileen Galligan has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20210066581
    Abstract: A dielectric material structure is formed laterally adjacent to a bottom portion of a bottom electrode metal-containing portion that extends upward from an electrically conductive structure that is embedded in an interconnect dielectric material layer. The physically exposed top portion of the bottom electrode metal-containing portion is then trimmed to provide a bottom electrode of unitary construction (i.e., a single piece) that has a lower portion having a first diameter and an upper portion that has a second diameter that is greater than the first diameter. The presence of the dielectric material structure prevents tilting and/or bowing of the resultant bottom electrode. Thus, a stable bottom electrode is provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 29, 2019
    Publication date: March 4, 2021
    Inventors: Bruce B. Doris, Eileen A. Galligan, Nathan P. Marchack, Pouya Hashemi
  • Publication number: 20090316096
    Abstract: The present invention includes a method of preparing a dry deposited liquid-crystal alignment layer using one of a mechanical mask, photo-resist, UV treatment, and ridge and fringe field methods. The present invention further provides a multi-domain, wide viewing angle liquid-crystal display, comprising: a bottom substrate; a first transparent conductive layer; a top substrate; a color filter layer; a second transparent conductive layer; a first dry deposited liquid-crystal alignment layer; a second dry deposited liquid-crystal alignment layer, the second dry deposited liquid-crystal alignment layer being spaced adjacent to and facing the first dry deposited liquid-crystal alignment layer; spacers; and a liquid-crystal material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 27, 2009
    Publication date: December 24, 2009
    Inventors: Alessandro Cesare Callegari, Praveen Chaudhari, James Patrick Doyle, Eileen Galligan, James Andrew Lacey, Shui-Chih Alan Lien
  • Patent number: 7316831
    Abstract: A liquid crystal display device includes an alignment layer with constituent materials. The constituent materials have a stoichiometric relationship configured to provide a given pretilt angle. Liquid crystal material is provided in contact with the alignment layer. A method for forming an alignment layer for liquid crystal displays includes forming the alignment layer on a substrate by introducing an amount of material to adjust a stoichiometric ratio of constituent materials wherein the amount is determined to provide a given pretilt angle to the alignment layer. Ions are directed at the alignment layer to provide uniformity of the pretilt angle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2008
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Paul S. Andry, Praveen Chaudhari, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih A. Lien, Minhua Lu
  • Patent number: 7097884
    Abstract: A method for preparing an alignment layer surface provides a surface on the alignment layer. The surface is bombarded with ions, and reactive gas is introduced to the ion beam to saturate dangling bonds on the surface. Another method for preparing an alignment layer surface provides a surface on the alignment layer. The surface is bombarded with ions and quenched with a reactive component to saturate dangling bonds on the surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2006
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Alessandro C. Callegari, Praveen Chaudhari, Fuad E. Doany, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, James H. Glownia, Gareth G. Hougham, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih Lien, Minhua Lu, Alan E. Rosenbluth, Kei-Hsiung Yang
  • Publication number: 20060150912
    Abstract: An apparatus for depositing and aligning an amorphous film in a single step, a method of forming an aligned film on a substrate in a single step by combining the deposition and alignment of an alignment layer into a single-step using ion beam processing and an amorphous film having an aligned atomic structure prepared by a method in which an aligned film is deposited and aligned in a single step are provided. The film is deposited and aligned in a single step by bombarding a substrate with an ion beam at a designated incident angle to simultaneously (a) deposit the film onto the substrate and (b) arrange an atomic structure of the film in at least one predetermined aligned direction.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 9, 2006
    Publication date: July 13, 2006
    Inventors: Alessandro Callegari, Praveen Chaudhari, James Doyle, Eileen Galligan, Yoshimine Kato, James Lacey, Shui-Chih Lien, Minhua Lu, Hiroki Nakano, Shuichi Odahara
  • Patent number: 6954247
    Abstract: Multi-domain liquid crystal cells having twist angles less than 90 degrees, and LCDs containing such liquid crystal cells, are provided. Such liquid crystal cells are stable, particularly at zero and high fields, and provide wide viewing angles. Also provided are methods of using an adjustable particle beam in combination with a mask to generate multi-domains alignments. Such methods are useful for producing liquid crystal cells in general, and for producing the novel multi-domain low twist angle liquid crystal cells of the present invention in particular.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 11, 2005
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Praveen Chaudhari, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih Lien, Minhua Lu, Hiroki Nakano, Kei-Hsiung Yang
  • Publication number: 20050062920
    Abstract: Multi-domain liquid crystal cells having twist angles less than 90 degrees, and LCDs containing such liquid crystal cells, are provided. Such liquid crystal cells are stable, particularly at zero and high fields, and provide wide viewing angles. Also provided are methods of using an adjustable particle beam in combination with a mask to generate multi-domains alignments. Such methods are useful for producing liquid crystal cells in general, and for producing the novel multi-domain low twist angle liquid crystal cells of the present invention in particular.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 5, 2004
    Publication date: March 24, 2005
    Applicant: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Praveen Chaudhari, James Doyle, Eileen Galligan, James Lacey, Shui-Chih Lien, Minhua Lu, Hiroki Nakano, Kei-Hsiung Yang
  • Publication number: 20040105061
    Abstract: A liquid crystal display device includes an alignment layer with constituent materials. The constituent materials have a stoichiometric relationship configured to provide a given pretilt angle. Liquid crystal material is provided in contact with the alignment layer. A method for forming an alignment layer for liquid crystal displays includes forming the alignment layer on a substrate by introducing an amount of material to adjust a stoichiometric ratio of constituent materials wherein the amount is determined to provide a given pretilt angle to the alignment layer. Ions are directed at the alignment layer to provide uniformity of the pretilt angle.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 12, 2003
    Publication date: June 3, 2004
    Applicant: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Paul S. Andry, Praveen Chaudhari, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih A. Lien, Minhua Lu
  • Publication number: 20040086662
    Abstract: A method for preparing an alignment layer surface provides a surface on the alignment layer. The surface is bombarded with ions, and reactive gas is introduced to the ion beam to saturate dangling bonds on the surface. Another method for preparing an alignment layer surface provides a surface on the alignment layer. The surface is bombarded with ions and quenched with a reactive component to saturate dangling bonds on the surface.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 26, 2003
    Publication date: May 6, 2004
    Applicant: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Alessandro C. Callegari, Praveen Chaudhari, Fuad E. Doany, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, James H. Glownia, Gareth G. Hougham, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih Lien, Minhua Lu, Alan E. Rosenbluth, Kei-Hsiung Yang
  • Patent number: 6731361
    Abstract: Display panels and methods for fabrication are disclosed for an in-plane switching mode display to reduce or eliminate image sticking. The display panel includes a substrate with a first electrode formed on the substrate. A dielectric layer is formed on the substrate, and the dielectric layer forms an opening down to the first electrode so that the dielectric layer is eliminated over the first electrode. A second electrode is formed on the dielectric layer, and an alignment layer is formed on the first electrode, the second electrode and the dielectric layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2004
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Paul S. Andry, Praveen Chaudhari, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, Richard A. John, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih A. Lien, Minhua Lu
  • Patent number: 6682786
    Abstract: A liquid crystal display cell having liquid crystal molecules positioned in a vertical or a substantially vertical alignment is provided. The liquid crystal display cell includes at least two substantially homogeneous fluorinated alignment layers disposed on transparent electrodes; a liquid crystal layer of liquid crystal molecules disposed between the alignment layers; and, a means of applying voltage across the transparent electrodes. Methods for forming these liquid crystal display cells are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2004
    Assignee: IBM Corporation
    Inventors: Shui-Chih Alan Lien, Alessandro C. Callegari, Paul S. Andry, Praveen Chaudhari, James A. Lacey, Sampath Purushothaman, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, Richard A. John, John J. Ritsko, Yuhichi Momoi, Christopher Jahnes
  • Patent number: 6665033
    Abstract: A method for preparing an alignment layer surface provides a surface on the alignment layer. The surface is bombarded with ions, and reactive gas is introduced to the ion beam to saturate dangling bonds on the surface. Another method for preparing an alignment layer surface provides a surface on the alignment layer. The surface is bombarded with ions and quenched with a reactive component to saturate dangling bonds on the surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2003
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Alessandro C. Callegari, Praveen Chaudhari, Fuad E. Doany, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, James H. Glownia, Gareth G. Hougham, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih Lien, Minhua Lu, Alan E. Rosenbluth, Kei-Hsiung Yang
  • Patent number: 6660341
    Abstract: A liquid crystal display device includes an alignment layer with constituent materials. The constituent materials have a stoichiometric relationship configured to provide a given pretilt angle. Liquid crystal material is provided in contact with the alignment layer. A method for forming an alignment layer for liquid crystal displays includes forming the alignment layer on a substrate by introducing an amount of material to adjust a stoichiometric ratio of constituent materials wherein the amount is determined to provide a given pretilt angle to the alignment layer. Ions are directed at the alignment layer to provide uniformity of the pretilt angle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 9, 2003
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Paul S. Andry, Praveen Chaudhari, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih A. Lien, Minhua Lu
  • Publication number: 20030142257
    Abstract: Multi-domain liquid crystal cells having twist angles less than 90 degrees, and LCDs containing such liquid crystal cells, are provided. Such liquid crystal cells are stable, particularly at zero and high fields, and provide wide viewing angles. Also provided are methods of using an adjustable particle beam in combination with a mask to generate multi-domains alignments. Such methods are useful for producing liquid crystal cells in general, and for producing the novel multi-domain low twist angle liquid crystal cells of the present invention in particular.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 28, 2002
    Publication date: July 31, 2003
    Applicant: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Praveen Chaudhari, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih Lien, Minhua Lu, Hiroki Nakano, Kei-Hsiung Yang
  • Patent number: 6583847
    Abstract: It is important to accurately align a pair of substrates, such as liquid crystal display (LCD) panels before they are affixed together. This is accomplished, according to the invention, by depositing a number of magnetic field generating elements on one substrate and a plurality of magnetic field-detecting elements on the other substrate. For example, the field-generating elements can be permanent magnets, while the field-detecting can be correspondingly located elements of a magnetic material. Alternatively, both the field-generating and field-detecting elements may be made from permanently magnetic materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2003
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Alessandro C. Callegari, Praveen Chaudhari, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih Alan Lien, Sampath Purushothaman, John J. Ritsko, James J. Speidell
  • Publication number: 20020191143
    Abstract: It is important to accurately align a pair of substrates, such as liquid crystal display (LCD) panels before they are affixed together. This is accomplished, according to the invention, by depositing a number of field generating elements on one substrates and a corresponding plurality of field-detecting elements on the other substrate. For example, the field-generating elements can be permanent magnets, while the field-detecting can be correspondingly located elements of a magnetic material. Alternatively, both the field-generating and field-detecting elements may be formed from a high surface tension material, such as solder having a melting point above room temperature.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 18, 2001
    Publication date: December 19, 2002
    Applicant: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Alessandro C. Callegari, Praveen Chaudhari, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih Alan Lien, Sampath Purushothaman, John J. Ritsko, James L. Speidell
  • Publication number: 20020186336
    Abstract: A liquid crystal display device includes an alignment layer with constituent materials. The constituent materials have a stoichiometric relationship configured to provide a given pretilt angle. Liquid crystal material is provided in contact with the alignment layer. A method for forming an alignment layer for liquid crystal displays includes forming the alignment layer on a substrate by introducing an amount of material to adjust a stoichiometric ratio of constituent materials wherein the amount is determined to provide a given pretilt angle to the alignment layer. Ions are directed at the alignment layer to provide uniformity of the pretilt angle.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 7, 2001
    Publication date: December 12, 2002
    Applicant: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Paul S. Andry, Praveen Chaudhari, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih A. Lien, Minhua Lu
  • Publication number: 20020186337
    Abstract: Display panels and methods for fabrication are disclosed for an in-plane switching mode display to reduce or eliminate image sticking. The display panel includes a substrate with a first electrode formed on the substrate. A dielectric layer is formed on the substrate, and the dielectric layer forms an opening down to the first electrode so that the dielectric layer is eliminated over the first electrode. A second electrode is formed on the dielectric layer, and an alignment layer is formed on the first electrode, the second electrode and the dielectric layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 7, 2001
    Publication date: December 12, 2002
    Inventors: Paul S. Andry, Praveen Chaudhari, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, Richard A. John, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih A. Lien, Minhua Lu
  • Publication number: 20020063830
    Abstract: A method for preparing an alignment layer surface provides a surface on the alignment layer. The surface is bombarded with ions, and reactive gas is introduced to the ion beam to saturate dangling bonds on the surface. Another method for preparing an alignment layer surface provides a surface on the alignment layer. The surface is bombarded with ions and quenched with a reactive component to saturate dangling bonds on the surface.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 30, 2000
    Publication date: May 30, 2002
    Inventors: Alessandro C. Callegari, Praveen Chaudhari, Fuad E. Doany, James P. Doyle, Eileen A. Galligan, James H. Glownia, Gareth G. Hougham, James A. Lacey, Shui-Chih Lien, Minhua Lu, Alan E. Rosenbluth, Kei-Hsiung Yang
  • Patent number: 5286599
    Abstract: A composition containing novolak polymer, and/or poly(p-vinylphenol), an organometallic material, an amino polymer a cationic photocatalyst. The composition can also include a cosensitizer material which makes a composition sensitive to near U.V. radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 15, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Edward D. Babich, Eileen A. Galligan, Jeffrey D. Gelorme, Richard P. McGouey, Sharon L. Nunes, Jurij R. Paraszczak, Russell J. Serino, David F. Witman