Patents by Inventor Eric A. Shaner

Eric A. Shaner has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 11125700
    Abstract: A time-resolved microwave reflectance apparatus comprises a pulsed or modulated optical source that irradiates a semiconductor sample with an excitation pump beam, a microwave oscillator that irradiates the sample with a continuous beam of microwaves, and a microwave detector that detects the microwaves reflected by the sample. Therefore, charge detection, rather than conventional absorption measurements (that detect the loss of photons), can be used to extract the absorption coefficient and band edge of a semiconductor material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 2019
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2021
    Assignee: National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC
    Inventors: Eric A. Shaner, Michael Goldflam, Clark N. Kadlec
  • Publication number: 20210025760
    Abstract: Systems and methods are provided for filtering coherent infrared light from a thermal background for protection of infrared (IR) imaging arrays and detection systems. A Michelson interferometer is used for coherent light filtering. In an implementation, a system includes a fixed mirror, a beam splitter, and a moving mirror which can be controlled translationally, as well as tip/tilt. The Michelson interferometer may be used as an imaging system. For imaging applications, a system may comprise a tunable array of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) mirrors. A mid-wave IR interferometer with electronic feedback and MEMS mirror array is provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 24, 2020
    Publication date: January 28, 2021
    Inventors: Daniel Wasserman, Eric A. Shaner
  • Publication number: 20200057006
    Abstract: A time-resolved microwave reflectance apparatus comprises a pulsed or modulated optical source that irradiates a semiconductor sample with an excitation pump beam, a microwave oscillator that irradiates the sample with a continuous beam of microwaves, and a microwave detector that detects the microwaves reflected by the sample. Therefore, charge detection, rather than conventional absorption measurements (that detect the loss of photons), can be used to extract the absorption coefficient and band edge of a semiconductor material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 19, 2019
    Publication date: February 20, 2020
    Inventors: Eric A. Shaner, Michael Goldflam, Clark N. Kadlec
  • Patent number: 9929293
    Abstract: In a superlattice (SL) photodetector, each period of the SL includes first and second semiconductor layers having different compositions, at least one of which comprises indium arsenide (InAs). At least one of these two semiconductor layers has a graded composition. In embodiments, the first semiconductor layer comprises InAs and the second semiconductor layer is a graded layer comprising indium arsenide antimonide (InAsSb), wherein the antimony (Sb) concentration is varied. In examples, the Sb concentration in the second layer gradually increases from the top and bottom toward the middle of the layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2018
    Assignee: National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC
    Inventors: Jin K. Kim, John F. Klem, Eric A. Shaner, Benjamin Varberg Olson, Emil Andrew Kadlec, Anna Tauke-Pedretti, Torben Ray Fortune
  • Patent number: 9705311
    Abstract: A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2017
    Assignee: National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC
    Inventors: Igal Brener, Xiaoyu Miao, Eric A. Shaner, Brandon Scott Passmore
  • Publication number: 20170085212
    Abstract: The present invention enables elective emission from a heterogeneous metasurface that can survive repeated temperature cycling at high temperatures (e.g., greater than 1300 K). Simulations, fabrication and characterization were performed for an exemplary cross-over-a-backplane metasurface consisting of platinum and alumina layers on a sapphire substrate. The structure was stabilized for high temperature operation by an encapsulating alumina layer. The geometry was optimized for integration into a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system and was designed to have its emissivity matched to the external quantum efficiency spectrum of 0.6 eV InGaAs TPV material. Spectral measurements of the metasurface resulted in a predicted 32% optical-to-electrical power conversion efficiency. The broadly adaptable selective emitter design can be easily scaled for integration with TPV systems.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 7, 2015
    Publication date: March 23, 2017
    Inventors: Eric A. Shaner, Jeffrey C. Cederberg, David N. Woolf, Joel M. Hensley
  • Publication number: 20160172527
    Abstract: An interdigitated nanoelectrode grating functions both as an absorption-enhancing sub-wavelength antenna and to minimize the distance between electron-hole creation and current collection so as to enhance photodetection schemes based upon active layers comprising two-dimensional semiconducting materials.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 8, 2016
    Publication date: June 16, 2016
    Inventors: Thomas Edwin Beechem, III, Stephen W. Howell, David W. Peters, Paul Davids, Eric A. Shaner
  • Publication number: 20160109215
    Abstract: An electrically tunable terahertz two-path plasmonic interferometer with an integrated detection element can down convert a terahertz field to a rectified DC signal. The integrated detector utilizes a resonant plasmonic homodyne mixing mechanism that measures the component of the plasma waves in-phase with an excitation field that functions as the local oscillator in the mixer. The plasmonic interferometer comprises two independently tuned electrical paths. The plasmonic interferometer enables a spectrometer-on-a-chip where the tuning of electrical path length plays an analogous role to that of physical path length in macroscopic Fourier transform interferometers.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 21, 2014
    Publication date: April 21, 2016
    Inventors: Gregory Conrad Dyer, Eric A. Shaner, Gregory Aizin
  • Patent number: 9297638
    Abstract: An electrically tunable terahertz two-path plasmonic interferometer with an integrated detection element can down convert a terahertz field to a rectified DC signal. The integrated detector utilizes a resonant plasmonic homodyne mixing mechanism that measures the component of the plasma waves in-phase with an excitation field that functions as the local oscillator in the mixer. The plasmonic interferometer comprises two independently tuned electrical paths. The plasmonic interferometer enables a spectrometer-on-a-chip where the tuning of electrical path length plays an analogous role to that of physical path length in macroscopic Fourier transform interferometers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2014
    Date of Patent: March 29, 2016
    Assignees: Sandia Corporation, Research Foundation of The City of New York
    Inventors: Gregory Conrad Dyer, Eric A. Shaner, Gregory Aizin
  • Publication number: 20150378585
    Abstract: A system and method for identifying objects possessing minute but significant details is described. At its core, the system includes a user interface, means for comparatively identifying the object and means for displaying results. Notably, because the system does not rely upon highly specialized or complex equipment, the invention is expected to have particular applicability in a wide variety of every-day situations. Moreover, the system is explicitly designed for user friendliness, so as to eliminate that need for extensive training for any prospective user of the system. The system should have particular applicability in key blank identification and key duplication processes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 10, 2015
    Publication date: December 31, 2015
    Inventors: Michael A. Bass, Richard William Ryai, SR., Michael B. Hanish, Chester O.D. Thompson, III, William Robert Mutch, David Eric Shaner, Joseph Mitchell Work
  • Patent number: 9105791
    Abstract: A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (˜?/100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2015
    Assignees: Sandia Corporation, The Research Foundation of the City University of New York
    Inventors: Gregory Conrad Dyer, Eric A. Shaner, John L. Reno, Gregory Aizin
  • Patent number: 9018642
    Abstract: A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Igal Brener, Xiaoyu Miao, Eric A. Shaner, Brandon Scott Passmore, Young Chul Jun
  • Patent number: 8987754
    Abstract: A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (˜64%) at large incidence angles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2015
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Troy Ribaudo, Eric A. Shaner, Paul Davids, David W. Peters
  • Patent number: 8482739
    Abstract: A heterodyne photomixer spectrometer comprises a receiver photomixer that is driven at a different frequency than the source photomixer, thereby maintaining the coherent nature of the detection, eliminating etalon effects, and providing not only the amplitude but also the phase of the received signal. The heterodyne technique can be applied where the source and receiver elements are components of a waveguide thereby forming an on-chip heterodyne spectrometer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 9, 2013
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Michael C. Wanke, Kevin Fortier, Eric A. Shaner, Todd A. Barrick
  • Patent number: 8450690
    Abstract: An apparatus and method are disclosed for detecting terahertz radiation at room temperature. A detecting pixel includes a sub-wavelength split-ring resonator, and is mechanically coupled to (but thermally decoupled from) a substrate via a cantilever formed from two materials that have a significant mismatch in their thermal expansion coefficients. Incident radiation causes the split-ring resonator to resonate, thereby generating heat that is transferred to the cantilever, causing the cantilever to flex. An optical readout system includes a secondary light source, such as a laser, that shines on a reflective surface on the pixel, whereby a photodiode detects the reflected light and permits calculation of a relative deflection of the pixel in the nanometer range. An exemplary detector has a noise equivalent power rating of approximately 60 pW/?Hz.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2013
    Assignees: Trustees of Boston University, Trustees of Boston College
    Inventors: Richard Averitt, Xin Zhang, Hu Tao, Andrew Strikwerda, Willie J. Padilla, Eric Shaner
  • Publication number: 20120261575
    Abstract: An apparatus and method are disclosed for detecting terahertz radiation at room temperature. A detecting pixel includes a sub-wavelength split-ring resonator, and is mechanically coupled to (but thermally decoupled from) a substrate via a cantilever formed from two materials that have a significant mismatch in their thermal expansion coefficients. Incident radiation causes the split-ring resonator to resonate, thereby generating heat that is transferred to the cantilever, causing the cantilever to flex. An optical readout system includes a secondary light source, such as a laser, that shines on a reflective surface on the pixel, whereby a photodiode detects the reflected light and permits calculation of a relative deflection of the pixel in the nanometer range. An exemplary detector has a noise equivalent power rating of approximately 60 pW/?Hz.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 4, 2011
    Publication date: October 18, 2012
    Applicant: TRUSTEES OF BOSTON UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Richard Averitt, Xin Zhang, Hu Tao, Andrew Strikwerda, Willie J. Padilla, Eric Shaner
  • Patent number: 8009356
    Abstract: A tunable extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) device wherein the tunability derives from controlled variation of the dielectric constant of a semiconducting material (semiconductor) in evanescent-field contact with a metallic array of sub-wavelength apertures. The surface plasmon resonance wavelength can be changed by changing the dielectric constant of the dielectric material. In embodiments of this invention, the dielectric material is a semiconducting material. The dielectric constant of the semiconducting material in the metal/semiconductor interfacial region is controllably adjusted by adjusting one or more of the semiconductor plasma frequency, the concentration and effective mass of free carriers, and the background high-frequency dielectric constant in the interfacial region. Thermal heating and/or voltage-gated carrier-concentration changes may be used to variably adjust the value of the semiconductor dielectric constant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 2008
    Date of Patent: August 30, 2011
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Eric A. Shaner, Daniel Wasserman
  • Patent number: 7420225
    Abstract: A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2005
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2008
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Michael C. Wanke, Mark Lee, Eric A. Shaner, S. James Allen
  • Patent number: 6573737
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for measuring material properties using guided-wave THz spectroscopy to measure the complex dielectric functions of materials. A high frequency wave is created and launched along a waveguide positioned in close proximity to a material under test. The wave is sampled initially, allowed to propagate, and sampled again. The samples are processed to derive information, such as resistivity, of the wafer. The method and apparatus of the present invention not only allows one to obtain information about the DC conductivity of metals, but also provides information about the high frequency behavior of materials—metals, and dielectrics as well—which is becoming particularly useful at the time when processor clocks are running at frequencies approaching GHz levels. The present invention provides for non-contact, non-destructive, non-contaminating testing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 3, 2003
    Assignee: The Trustees of Princeton University
    Inventors: Stephen A. Lyon, Eric A. Shaner, Igor E. Trofimov