Patents by Inventor Gene E. Lightner

Gene E. Lightner has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 7520905
    Abstract: Aqueous sulfuric acid is used for hydrolysis of a biomass, constituting a hydrolysate, to produce organic compounds. Organic compounds such as furfural and hyroxymethylfurfural are formed within the hydrolysate. Heterocyclic ring opening within hyroxymethylfurfural forms levulinic acid within the hydrolysate. Furfural and levulinic acid are extracted by a biodiesel fuel oil to increase content of biodiesel fuel oil. Biodiesel fuel oil generally consists of vegetable oils, insoluble in aqueous sulfuric acid, and affords access to, extraction of furfural and levulinic acid. Extracted hydrolysate is recycled for further hydrolysis of biomass.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2009
    Inventor: Gene E Lightner
  • Patent number: 6824576
    Abstract: Heterocyclic compounds containing furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural are derived from acidic hydrolysis of biomass. Heterocyclic compounds are vaporized and subjected to reforming and steam shifting to produce a gas containing hydrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The gas containing hydrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is scrubbed by a solvent, capable of dissolving carbon monoxide, to produce a gas containing hydrogen, carbon dioxide and substantially devoid of carbon monoxide. The solvent containing dissolved carbon monoxide is heated to provide a solvent for scrubbing and a vapor containing carbon monoxide recycled for additional steam shifting. The gas containing hydrogen, carbon dioxide substantially devoid of carbon monoxide, is further scrubbed of carbon dioxide to produce a gas substantially devoid of carbon monoxide and substantially devoid of carbon dioxide containing hydrogen suitable for use in a fuel cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 30, 2004
    Inventor: Gene E Lightner
  • Publication number: 20040211532
    Abstract: By providing a pulp slurry, containing ink and water, and subjecting the slurry to dewatering to produce pulp sludge containing water is formed and a liquid, primarily water, is obtained. Pulp sludge, removed from dewatering is subjected to pressing to produce pressed pulp and expelled water. The expelled water and liquid, primarily water, is combined and recycled to an apparatus to create additional pulp slurry. Dewatered pressed pulp is subjected to dehydration, to transfer water contained within pulp, to air. Pulp resulting from dehydration is then subject to bailing. Furthermore pulp is excluded from a deinking procedure to permit ink to remain within the pulp. Whereby this invention removes water from a pulp slurry and provides pulp substantially devoid of water.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 3, 2002
    Publication date: October 28, 2004
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Publication number: 20040213732
    Abstract: Providing a gas containing water vapor and organic vapors, derived from a biomass, is the method presented. The gas, containing water vapor and organic vapors is subjected to a reformer catalyst to react and become a gas containing water vapor, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Upon subjecting the heretofore reformed gas to a steam shift catalyst, carbon monoxide and water vapor contained within the gas, reacts and forms a gas containing hydrogen and carbon dioxide substantially devoid of carbon monoxide. Providing a solution for substantially removing carbon dioxide from the gas containing hydrogen and mingling the previously obtained gas, containing carbon dioxide and hydrogen with the solution, forms a solution containing a bicarbonate derived from carbon dioxide contained within the gas. Upon separation of the gas, containing hydrogen, from the solution containing a bicarbonate results in a gas containing hydrogen and a solution containing a bicarbonate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 4, 2002
    Publication date: October 28, 2004
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Patent number: 6773546
    Abstract: Pulp, containing black liquor, is separated to produce pulp substantially free of black liquor. An organic solvent forms a layer within a vessel and adding a pulp containing black liquor will establish three layers. From the lower layer, pulp substantially free of black liquor is removed. From the upper layer, black liquor substantially free of pulp is removed, and the layer of organic solvent is retained in place within the vessel. The resulting separation, by dissimilar densities of the organic solvent and pulp containing black liquor produces black liquor devoid of additional dilution by water whereby pulp containing black liquor is separated to create pulp substantially free of black liquor and provides black liquor separated from the organic solvent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 10, 2004
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Publication number: 20040023085
    Abstract: Gasification of carbonatious compounds from steam produces a gas containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and organic compounds subject to reforming. Resultant gas supplies fuel to a plurality of fuel cells for internal reforming and steam shifting of carbon monoxide to form hydrogen and carbon dioxide and generate electricity and create exothermic heat. High temperature fuel cells exothermic heat, in the form of steam from the fuel cell reaction, provide steam for gasification of carbonatious compounds contained in a vessel. Energy for gasification is derived from combustion of carbonatious compounds or electricity from a plurality of fuel cells wherein the vessel for gasification is maintained at a temperature of about 600 degrees Celsius to about 1,000 degrees Celsius. Carbonatious compounds regularly consist of coal or comparable carbonatious compounds, whereby gasification of carbonatious compounds provides fuel to power fuel cells to generate electricity.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 5, 2002
    Publication date: February 5, 2004
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Publication number: 20040009378
    Abstract: Production of electricity originates by providing a supply of lignocellulose and a vessel for gasification and subjecting the lignocellulose to gasification to afford access to fuel cells; thereupon conveying products of gasification to a stack of fuel cells and providing air to the fuel cells for reaction of oxygen within air, hence generating direct current and exothermic heat transferred to the gasification vessel as endothermic heat. Resulting direct current is converted to alternating current to supply alternating current to a power main. Residue, remaining from gasification, is subjected to disposal. Thereby direct current from a stack of fuel cells is generated by gasification of lignocellulose.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 9, 2002
    Publication date: January 15, 2004
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Publication number: 20040000381
    Abstract: Polynuclear compounds dissolved and contained within an organic solvent are separated from the organic solvent by rendering the organic compounds insoluble within the organic solvent. Accordingly this invention removes polynuclear compounds from a saturated organic solvent. The polynuclear compounds are derived from black liquor obtained from kraft digestion. Whereby polynuclear compounds, substantially free of an organic solvent, are obtained from the organic solvent.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 1, 2002
    Publication date: January 1, 2004
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Publication number: 20030221804
    Abstract: Depolymerized lignins contained within black liquor are transferred to an organic solvent, soluble in organic matter and insoluble of aqueous sodium compounds contained within the black liquor. Upon separation of the aqueous sodium compounds from the organic solvent, saturated with contained depolymerized lignins, depolymerized lignins are removed from the organic solvent to result in depolymerized lignins and a separated organic solvent suitable for recycling. Resulting aqueous sodium compounds are concentrated by a multiple effect evaporator to provide liquor to digest wood chips. Whereby depolymerized lignins, substantially free from sodium compounds, are separated from a black liquor. Accordingly this invention modifies black liquor without employing a lime kiln and a recovery boiler, producing a molten smelt.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 3, 2002
    Publication date: December 4, 2003
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Patent number: 6639467
    Abstract: Continuous alternating current is derived from a differential operational amplifier supplied by direct current. The differential operational amplifier produces alternating current located on the positive input of the differential operational amplifier. Output of the differential operational amplifier is received by a transformer to produce alternating current. Voltage from the transformer is fed back to the negative input of the differential operational amplifier to provide feedback for the differential operational amplifier. Whereby direct current provided to a differential operational amplifier is transformed to continuous alternating current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2003
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Publication number: 20030198841
    Abstract: Production of electricity originates by providing a supply of municipal sludge and a vessel for gasification and subjecting the municipal sludge to gasification to afford access to fuel cells; thereupon conveying products of gasification to a stack of fuel cells and providing air to the fuel cells for reaction of oxygen within air, hence generating direct current. Residue, remaining from gasification, is subjected to disposal. Thereby direct current from a stack of fuel cells is generated by gasification of municipal sludge.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 22, 2002
    Publication date: October 23, 2003
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Publication number: 20030175561
    Abstract: This method will produce electricity from fuel cells achieved by gasification of a biomass. Biomass is subjected to steam for gasification of a biomass and produce a gas containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and organic compounds subject to reforming. Resultant gas is used to power fuel cells to generate electricity and create waste heat. Exothermic heat from the fuel cell reaction is transported by thermal conduction to provide energy for gasification of a biomass contained in a vessel. Waste heat is employed to vaporize water to produce steam to be employed for gasification of a biomass, whereby gasification of aa biomass provides energy to fuel cells to generate electricity.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 18, 2002
    Publication date: September 18, 2003
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Publication number: 20030154975
    Abstract: By providing a biomass and an aqueous acidic solution to a hydrolysis vessel, hydrolysis within the hydrolysis vessel, forms sugars. The aqueous acidic solution, containing sugars, is withdrawn from the hydrolysis vessel and transferred to a phase forming vessel to form two phases; a sugar phase and an aqueous acidic solution phase. The sugar phase, upon withdrawing from the phase forming vessel, is subjected to additional processing outside the hydrolysis vessel. Residue, containing lignins remaining from the biomass, is withdrawn from the hydrolysis vessel and subjected to filtration resulting in a filtrate for recycle to the hydrolysis vessel and ffiltered residue for subsequent processing. Thereby, sugars are derived from a biomass, and residue, remaining from the biomass, is withdrawn from the hydrolysis vessel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 17, 2001
    Publication date: August 21, 2003
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Patent number: 6603026
    Abstract: Sugars derived from acidic hydrolysis of biomass consist of glucose and xyloses which are subjected to dehydration, within the hydrolysis environment, to form heterocyclic compounds, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. By providing a vessel for hydrolysis of biomass, a hydrolysate containing acid and heterocyclic compounds is formed. Upon withdrawing the hydrolysate from the vessel, and employment of separating means for removing heterocyclic compounds from the hydrolysate, a hydrolysate substantially devoid of heterocyclic compounds is provided for recycle to the vessel and will provide heterocyclic compounds. By withdrawing solids, containing lignins remaining from hydrolysis of biomass, from the vessel, and filtering the solids, to result in a filtrate for recycle to the vessel and provide filtered solids for subsequent processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2003
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Publication number: 20030143704
    Abstract: This is a method to remove ethanol from fermentation of sugars contained in a vessel. By providing carbon dioxide, containing ethanol, to the vessel, ethanol and volatile compounds formed by fermentation are humidified by the carbon dioxide. A supply of sugars for fermentation within the vessel is employed to form ethanol and carbon dioxide. Upon combining carbon dioxide, produced by fermentation, with the carbon dioxide, containing ethanol, ethanol humidified carbon dioxide is formed. Resulting humidified carbon dioxide is removed from the fermentation vessel and subjected to means for condensing ethanol from humidified carbon dioxide to supply carbon dioxide, containing ethanol, for recycle, and purged carbon dioxide, containing ethanol, to remove carbon dioxide produced by fermentation. Fermentation broth is removed from the vessel to maintain vessel level.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 25, 2001
    Publication date: July 31, 2003
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Publication number: 20030106857
    Abstract: A method for removing aqueous sulfuric acid from solids is presented. By providing an organic solvent inert, and insoluble, to aqueous sulfuric acid and subjecting solids, containing aqueous sulfuric acid, to the insoluble solvent results in a lower phase of aqueous sulfuric acid and an upper phase of solids contained within the solvent. Each phase is then separated from the solvent. The organic solvent must be of density less than the aqueous sulfuric acid and of density greater than the solids. The upper phase of the solids are sugars or lignins created from hydrolysis of a biomass. The lower phase of aqueous sulfuric acid, freed from the solids, contains about 70% sulfuric acid and is available for recycle for hydrolysis of a biomass. Thereby aqueous sulfuric acid is recovered from solids containing aqueous sulfuric acid, and solids substantially devoid of sulfuric acid, are formed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 10, 2001
    Publication date: June 12, 2003
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Patent number: 6565824
    Abstract: A method is presented for production of carbon monoxide by reacting carbon dioxide and carbon to form carbon monoxide. Carbon is obtained from pyrolysis of carbonaceous solids. Following separating carbon monoxide from carbon, reacting to form carbon monoxide, the remaining mass contains inorganic and organic components. The mass containing inorganic and organic components is subjected to combustion by air to produce a flue gas and a residue containing inorganic components. The carbon monoxide, removed from the carbon, is reacted with steam to form a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide, hydrogen and carbon monoxide which is a synthesis gas. A basic solution capable of combining with carbon dioxide is employed to remove carbon dioxide from a synthesis gas to provide synthesis gas substantially free of carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2003
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Publication number: 20030032819
    Abstract: Sugars derived from acidic hydrolysis of biomass consist of glucose and xyloses which are subjected to dehydration, within the hydrolysis environment, to form heterocyclic compounds, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. By providing a vessel for hydrolysis of biomass, a hydrolysate containing acid and heterocyclic compounds is formed. Upon withdrawing the hydrolysate from the vessel, and employment of separating means for removing heterocyclic compounds from the hydrolysate, a hydrolysate substantially devoid of heterocyclic compounds is provided for recycle to the vessel and will provide heterocyclic compounds. By withdrawing solids, containing lignins remaining from hydrolysis of biomass, from the vessel, and filtering the solids, to result in a filtrate for recycle to the vessel and provide filtered solids for subsequent processing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 7, 2001
    Publication date: February 13, 2003
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Patent number: 6518440
    Abstract: A method to produce hydroxymethylfurfural from cellulose contained within lignocellulose solids is disclosed. Hemicellulose contained in lignocellulose solids is converted to furfural. Lignocellulose solids, containing cellulose, is added to a vessel containing an aqueous acidic solution which is employed for hydrolysis of cellulose, contained within lignocellulose solids, to form glucose. Subjecting the glucose to additional hydrolysis to convert glucose and form hydroxymethylfurfural and removing hydroxymethylfurfural from the vessel are procedures applied. Solids remaining from hydrolysis containing lignins are filtered and then extracted with water to remove aqueous acidic solution contained within solids and form an extractate containing dilute aqueous acidic solution. The extactate is combined with a dilute solution of aqueous acidic solution removed from the vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2003
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner
  • Publication number: 20030008362
    Abstract: This is a method to remove ethanol from a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) contained in a vessel. The preferred method employs carbon dioxide, supplied to the vessel, to humidify ethanol and volatile compounds formed by fermentation. Ethanol from the process is transmitted to carbon dioxide to humidify the carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide containing humidified ethanol and carbon dioxide created by fermentation within the SSF process is removed from the vessel and substantially separated from the ethanol. Carbon dioxide, substantially separated from the ethanol, is recycled to the vessel to humidify additional ethanol from the fermentation process within the vessel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 9, 2001
    Publication date: January 9, 2003
    Inventor: Gene E. Lightner