Patents by Inventor Ian R. Shapiro

Ian R. Shapiro has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20210113106
    Abstract: Techniques are provided for tracking heartrate metrics using different operating modes associated with different contexts of a wearable device. For example, a heartrate sensor of the wearable device may be operated in a first operating mode when an activity is being tracked within an application session of a particular application. The heartrate sensor may be operated in a second operating mode after detecting conclusion of the activity within the activity session (e.g., during sedentary time).
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 23, 2020
    Publication date: April 22, 2021
    Applicant: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Christian Schroeder, Divya Padmanabhan, Erno H. Klaassen, Evan R. Doll, Ian R. Shapiro, Jay Kriz Blahnik, Roxanne B. Brittain, Stephen J. Waydo, Joefrey S. Kibuule, Alexa VanHattum
  • Patent number: 10874313
    Abstract: Embodiments of the present disclosure can provide systems, methods, and computer-readable medium for tracking the heartrate of a user using different techniques associated with different contexts. For example, motion of a user wearing a wearable device can be tracked using at least first sensors of the one or more sensors. The physical state of the user can also be tracked using at least second sensors of the one or more sensors. In some cases it can be determines whether an application of the wearable device has been launched. Additionally, an activity category of the user can be determined based at least in part on the motion of the user, the physical state of the user, and/or whether the application has been launched. Heartrate data of the user can be collected, and the heartrate data can be categorized based at least in part on the determined category.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2017
    Date of Patent: December 29, 2020
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Christian Schroeder, Divya Padmanabhan, Erno H. Klaassen, Evan R. Doll, Ian R. Shapiro, Jay Kriz Blahnik, Roxanne B. Brittain, Stephen J. Waydo, Joefrey S. Kibuule, Alexa VanHattum
  • Publication number: 20200359919
    Abstract: An algorithm for removing motion artifacts from the PPG signal in the time domain to determine heart rate is disclosed. A device for determining a heart rate of a user can include a heart rate sensor configured to generate heart rate signals when positioned on or adjacent to a user's skin, an accelerometer configured to generate one or more acceleration signals, and processing circuitry configured to remove, in a time domain, motion artifacts from the heart rate signals based on the acceleration signals. In some examples, the removal of motion artifacts can also be based on mean-centered, variance-scaled integrated acceleration signals. In some examples, the processing circuitry can be configured to remove motion artifacts using a least squares algorithm to identify a best representation of acceleration and integrated acceleration signals in the heart rate signals.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 3, 2020
    Publication date: November 19, 2020
    Inventor: Ian R. Shapiro
  • Patent number: 10758133
    Abstract: An algorithm for removing motion artifacts from the PPG signal in the time domain to determine heart rate is disclosed. A device for determining a heart rate of a user can include a heart rate sensor configured to generate heart rate signals when positioned on or adjacent to a user's skin, an accelerometer configured to generate one or more acceleration signals, and processing circuitry configured to remove, in a time domain, motion artifacts from the heart rate signals based on the acceleration signals. In some examples, the removal of motion artifacts can also be based on mean-centered, variance-scaled integrated acceleration signals. In some examples, the processing circuitry can be configured to remove motion artifacts using a least squares algorithm to identify a best representation of acceleration and integrated acceleration signals in the heart rate signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 1, 2020
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventor: Ian R. Shapiro
  • Publication number: 20200214640
    Abstract: This relates to methods for measuring irregularities in a signal and corresponding devices. The devices can include a PPG sensor unit configured to detect multiple occurrences of a given event in the measured signal(s) over a sampling interval. In some instances, the device can register the occurrences of the events. In some examples, the device can include one or more motion sensors configured to detect whether the device is in a low-motion state. The device may delay initiating measurements when the device is not in a low-motion state to enhance measurement accuracy. Examples of the disclosure further include resetting the sample procedure based on one or more factors such as the number of non-qualifying measurements. In some examples, the device can be configured to perform both primary and secondary measurements, where the primary measurements can include readings using a set of operating conditions different from the secondary measurements.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 2, 2020
    Publication date: July 9, 2020
    Inventors: Stephen J. Waydo, Christopher J. Brouse, Ian R. Shapiro, Joseph C. McBride, Michael O'Reilly, Myra Mary Haggerty
  • Patent number: 10524735
    Abstract: This relates to methods for measuring irregularities in a signal and corresponding devices. The devices can include a PPG sensor unit configured to detect multiple occurrences of a given event in the measured signal(s) over a sampling interval. In some instances, the device can register the occurrences of the events. In some examples, the device can include one or more motion sensors configured to detect whether the device is in a low-motion state. The device may delay initiating measurements when the device is not in a low-motion state to enhance measurement accuracy. Examples of the disclosure further include resetting the sample procedure based on one or more factors such as the number of non-qualifying measurements. In some examples, the device can be configured to perform both primary and secondary measurements, where the primary measurements can include readings using a set of operating conditions different from the secondary measurements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 2018
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2020
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Stephen J. Waydo, Christopher J. Brouse, Ian R. Shapiro, Joseph C. McBride, Michael O'Reilly, Myra Mary Haggerty
  • Publication number: 20180344178
    Abstract: This disclosure relates to methods for measuring one or more physiological signals while the user is engaged in a predetermined activity. Exemplary predetermined activities can include activities such as walking, climbing stairs, biking, and the like. The physiological measurements can include, but are not limited to, heart rate signals. The physiological measurements may be affected by the predetermined activity, so the system may be configured to employ one or more criteria prior to measuring physiological information to minimize the effects. The one or more criteria can include, but are not limited to, an inter-sampling waiting time, continuous motion criteria, predetermined activity criteria, a post-physiological measurement amount of time, and a confidence value. The continuous motion criteria can be based on the type of predetermined activity. For example, walking may have walking state criteria and a step count criteria.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 29, 2018
    Publication date: December 6, 2018
    Applicant: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Siyi DENG, Stephen J. WAYDO, Jay BLAHNIK, Lun DONG, Ian R. SHAPIRO
  • Publication number: 20180344181
    Abstract: Embodiments of the present disclosure can provide systems, methods, and computer-readable medium for tracking the heartrate of a user using different techniques associated with different contexts. For example, motion of a user wearing a wearable device can be tracked using at least first sensors of the one or more sensors. The physical state of the user can also be tracked using at least second sensors of the one or more sensors. In some cases it can be determines whether an application of the wearable device has been launched. Additionally, an activity category of the user can be determined based at least in part on the motion of the user, the physical state of the user, and/or whether the application has been launched. Heartrate data of the user can be collected, and the heartrate data can be categorized based at least in part on the determined category.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 15, 2017
    Publication date: December 6, 2018
    Applicant: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Christian Schroeder, Divya Padmanabhan, Erno H. Klaassen, Evan R. Doll, Ian R. Shapiro, Jay Kriz Blahnik, Roxanne B. Brittain, Stephen J. Waydo, Joefrey S. Kibuule, Alexa VanHattum
  • Publication number: 20180279956
    Abstract: This relates to methods for measuring irregularities in a signal and corresponding devices. The devices can include a PPG sensor unit configured to detect multiple occurrences of a given event in the measured signal(s) over a sampling interval. In some instances, the device can register the occurrences of the events. In some examples, the device can include one or more motion sensors configured to detect whether the device is in a low-motion state. The device may delay initiating measurements when the device is not in a low-motion state to enhance measurement accuracy. Examples of the disclosure further include resetting the sample procedure based on one or more factors such as the number of non-qualifying measurements. In some examples, the device can be configured to perform both primary and secondary measurements, where the primary measurements can include readings using a set of operating conditions different from the secondary measurements.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 5, 2018
    Publication date: October 4, 2018
    Inventors: Stephen J. WAYDO, Christopher J. BROUSE, Ian R. SHAPIRO, Joseph C. MCBRIDE, Michael O'REILLY, Myra Mary HAGGERTY
  • Publication number: 20180110469
    Abstract: A device for determining a heart rate of a user has a PPG sensor and an accelerometer to compensate for acceleration artifacts within the PPG signal. The device transforms time domain PPG and accelerometer signals into the frequency domain using a Fourier transformation and utilizes the Fourier coefficient magnitudes as indicative of the probability of candidate heart rate values. Candidate heart rate values are determined at sampling times over a time interval and a most probable heart rate path during the time interval is determined using a reward/penalty algorithm.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 20, 2017
    Publication date: April 26, 2018
    Inventors: Ehsan MAANI, Daniel J. Culbert, Ian R. Shapiro
  • Patent number: 9867575
    Abstract: A device for determining a heart rate of a user has a PPG sensor and an accelerometer to compensate for acceleration artifacts within the PPG signal. The device transforms time domain PPG and accelerometer signals into the frequency domain using a Fourier transformation and utilizes the Fourier coefficient magnitudes as indicative of the probability of candidate heart rate values. Candidate heart rate values are determined at sampling times over a time interval and a most probable heart rate path during the time interval is determined using a reward/penalty algorithm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2018
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Ehsan Maani, Daniel J. Culbert, Ian R. Shapiro
  • Publication number: 20170164884
    Abstract: A photoplethysmogram (PPG) signal may be obtained from a pulse oximeter, which employs a light emitter and a light sensor to measure the perfusion of blood to the skin of a user, and multiple wavelengths of light may be employed. For various wavelengths, relatively long wavelengths may interrogate relatively deep blood vessels in comparison to relatively short wavelengths, which may interrogate relatively shallow blood vessels. Accordingly, for co-located emitters of different wavelengths, there may be a time delay in the pulse signal measured by each wavelength. The time delay as a function of time may vary according to the constriction and dilation of the blood vessels, which itself may vary according to the respiratory rate of a user.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 30, 2013
    Publication date: June 15, 2017
    Inventors: Daniel J. CULBERT, Ian R. SHAPIRO
  • Publication number: 20160051201
    Abstract: A device for determining a heart rate of a user has a PPG sensor and an accelerometer to compensate for acceleration artifacts within the PPG signal. The device transforms time domain PPG and accelerometer signals into the frequency domain using a Fourier transformation and utilizes the Fourier coefficient magnitudes as indicative of the probability of candidate heart rate values. Candidate heart rate values are determined at sampling times over a time interval and a most probable heart rate path during the time interval is determined using a reward/penalty algorithm.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 22, 2014
    Publication date: February 25, 2016
    Inventors: Ehsan MAANI, Daniel J. CULBERT, Ian R. SHAPIRO
  • Publication number: 20160038045
    Abstract: An algorithm for removing motion artifacts from the PPG signal in the time domain to determine heart rate is disclosed. A device for determining a heart rate of a user can include a heart rate sensor configured to generate heart rate signals when positioned on or adjacent to a user's skin, an accelerometer configured to generate one or more acceleration signals, and processing circuitry configured to remove, in a time domain, motion artifacts from the heart rate signals based on the acceleration signals. In some examples, the removal of motion artifacts can also be based on mean-centered, variance-scaled integrated acceleration signals. In some examples, the processing circuitry can be configured to remove motion artifacts using a least squares algorithm to identify a best representation of acceleration and integrated acceleration signals in the heart rate signals.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 7, 2014
    Publication date: February 11, 2016
    Inventor: Ian R. SHAPIRO
  • Patent number: 7514214
    Abstract: Embodiments in accordance with the present invention relate to techniques for the growth and attachment of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT), facilitating their use as robust and well-characterized tools for AFM imaging and other applications. In accordance with one embodiment, SWNTs attached to an AFM tip can function as a structural scaffold for nanoscale device fabrication on a scanning probe. Such a probe can trigger, with nanometer precision, specific biochemical reactions or conformational changes in biological systems. The consequences of such triggering can be observed in real time by single-molecule fluorescence, electrical, and/or AFM sensing. Specific embodiments in accordance with the present invention utilize sensing and manipulation of individual molecules with carbon nanotubes, coupled with single-molecule fluorescence imaging, to allow observation of spectroscopic signals in response to mechanically induced molecular changes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2009
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Lawrence A. Wade, Ian R. Shapiro, Charles Patrick Collier, Maria J. Esplandiu, Vern Garrett Bittner, Jr., Konstantinos P. Giapis
  • Patent number: 7211795
    Abstract: A method for fabricating assembled structures. The method includes providing a tip structure, which has a first end, a second end, and a length defined between the first end and the second end. The second end is a free end. The method includes attaching a nano-sized structure along a portion of the length of the tip structure to extend a total length of the tip structure to include the length of the tip structure and a first length associated with the nano-sized structure. The method includes shortening the nano-sized structure from the first length to a second length. The method also includes pushing the nano-sized structure in a direction parallel to the second length to reduce the second length to a third length of the nano-sized structure along the direction parallel to the second length to cause the nano-sized structure to move along a portion of the length of the tip structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2007
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Charles Patrick Collier, Ma Ziyang, Stephen R. Quake, Ian R. Shapiro, Lawrence Wade