Patents by Inventor Irving J. Higgins

Irving J. Higgins has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 5527509
    Abstract: A colorimetric enzymic analytical test element comprises a support and a plurality of reaction zones incorporating a dried enzyme composition, dyestuff and reagent adapted to provide a substantial dosage independent colorimetric display when the concentration of an analyte applied to the elements exceeds a predetermined value.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 18, 1996
    Assignee: Cranfield Biotechnology Ltd.
    Inventors: Timothy D. Gibson, John R. Woodward, Irving J. Higgins, William J. Aston, David A. Griffiths
  • Patent number: 5509410
    Abstract: A sensor system that detects a current representative of a compound in a liquid mixture features a two-electrode strip adapted for releasable attachment to signal readout circuitry. The strip comprises an elongated support (preferably flat) adapted for releasable attachment to the readout circuitry; a first conductor and a second conductor each extend along the support and comprise means for connection to the circuitry. An active electrode, positioned to contact the liquid mixture and the first conductor, comprises a deposit of an enzyme capable of catalyzing a reaction involving the compound and (preferably) an electron mediator, capable of transferring electrons between the enzyme-catalyzed reaction and the first conductor. A reference electrode is positioned to contact the mixture and the second conductor. The system includes circuitry adapted to provide an electrical signal representative of the current. The two-electrode strip is manufactured, e.g.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 23, 1996
    Assignee: MediSense, Inc.
    Inventors: Hugh A. O. Hill, Irving J. Higgins, James M. McCann, Graham Davis
  • Patent number: 4711245
    Abstract: This invention relates to equipment and methods for detecting the presence of, measuring the amount of, and/or monitoring the level of, one or more selected components in a liquid mixture, employing an electrode sensing system.We have discovered that a class of mediating compounds has extremely useful properties for mediating the transfer of charge between enzyme-catalyzed reactions and electrode surfaces (15) in electrode sensing systems.Specifically, the specification discloses as electrode sensor mediators, organometallic compounds composed of at least two organic rings, each of which has at least two double bonds in a conjugated relationship; a metal atom is in electron-sharing contact with those rings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 1984
    Date of Patent: December 8, 1987
    Assignee: Genetics International, Inc.
    Inventors: Irving J. Higgins, Hugh A. O. Hill, Elliot V. Plotkin
  • Patent number: 4545382
    Abstract: A sensor electrode to detect one or more components in a liquid mixture comprises an electrically conductive material having at least an an external surface, the combination of an enzyme catalytic for a reaction of the desired component, and a mediator compound which transfers electrons from the enzyme to the electrode when such catalytic activity takes place. It can be used as an in vivo glucose sensor either with a silver electrode coated with e.g. glucose oxidase and a polyviologen as the mediators, or with a particulate carbon electrode, glucose oxidase and chloranil or fluoranil as mediator. Another system is to use bacterial glucose dehydrogenase or glucose oxidase as the enzyme and/or ferrocene or a ferrocene derivative as the mediators compound to give electrodes with improved linearity, speed of response and insensitivity to oxygen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 8, 1985
    Assignee: Genetics International, Inc.
    Inventors: Irving J. Higgins, Hugh A. O. Hill, Elliot V. Plotkin
  • Patent number: 4473643
    Abstract: A process of oxidizing a hydrocarbon which is an alkane or alkene or substituted alkane or alkene by contacting it with a culture of a bacterium as deposited under accession number NCIB 11613 or a mutant or derivative thereof which is capable of utilizing an alkane having from 6 to 28 carbon atoms as a source of carbon and energy or an enzyme extract thereof, and separating an oxidized derivative of the hydrocarbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 25, 1984
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries PLC
    Inventor: Irving J. Higgins
  • Patent number: 4455373
    Abstract: Microbiological oxidations of organic compounds including C6 to C28 alkanes, C2 to C18 alkenes and cyclic compounds such as cyclohexane and benzene carried out using as catalysts methane-utilizing bacteria adapted to utilize methanol as a carbon source. The application also covers methane-utilizing bacteria adapted to utilize methanol as a carbon source and a method for producing such bacteria. In the method methane-utilizing bacteria are cultured in the presence of methanol vapor as principal carbon source for sufficient time to allow adaptation to occur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1981
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1984
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries PLC
    Inventor: Irving J. Higgins
  • Patent number: 4323649
    Abstract: A process for the partial degradation of complex cyclicorganic compounds such as 1-phenylheptane and m-chlorotoluene using methane-utilizing microorganisms or enzyme extracts thereof containing the enzymes methane mono-oxygenase and/or a de-halogenase. The preferred microorganism is Methylosinus trichosporium strain OB3b (NCIB 11131).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1980
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1982
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries Limited
    Inventor: Irving J. Higgins
  • Patent number: 4318784
    Abstract: There are provided processes for carrying out enzymatic reactions, especially processes for the oxidative or reductive transformation of organic compounds catalyzed by enzymes, in which the enzymes require a continuing supply of reducing equivalents to regenerate reduced enzyme species in enzymatically active form, and in which the reducing equivalents are derived electrochemically, including electrochemically from molecular hydrogen, the reducing equivalents preferably being passed directly to the enzyme from the cathode of an electrochemical system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1980
    Date of Patent: March 9, 1982
    Assignee: National Research Development Corporation
    Inventors: Irving J. Higgins, Hugh A. O. Hill