Patents by Inventor John P. Caldwell

John P. Caldwell has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20200261421
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to compounds of Formula I, pharmaceutical compositions comprising the same, and their use in the inhibition of HIV protease, the inhibition of HIV replication, the prophylaxis of infection by HIV, the treatment of infection by HIV, and the prophylaxis, treatment, and delay in the onset or progression of AIDS.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 19, 2017
    Publication date: August 20, 2020
    Applicant: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
    Inventors: Brian McKittrick, John P. Caldwell, John A. McCauley, Henry Vaccaro, Tin-Yau Chan, Hyunjin Kim, Elizabeth Smith, Liwu Hong, Tanweer Khan, Shihong Ying, Hongwu Wang
  • Publication number: 20200261436
    Abstract: Novel compounds of the structural formula I, and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, are inhibitors of TarO and may be useful in the prevention, treatment and suppression of diseases mediated by TarO, such as bacterial infections, including gram negative bacterial infections and gram positive bacterial infections such as MRSA and MRSE, alone or in combination with a ?-lactam antibiotic.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 13, 2016
    Publication date: August 20, 2020
    Applicant: MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP.
    Inventors: John P. CALDWELL, Reynalda DE JESUS, Fa-Xiang DING, Charles J. GIll, Ginny Dai HO, Sookhee N. HA, Sandra J. KOSEOGLU, Marc A. LABROLI, Sang Ho LEE, Christina MADSEN-DUGGAN, Mihir MANDAL, Terry ROEMER, Jing SU, Christopher Michael TAN, Zheng TAN, Haifeng TANG, Hao WANG, Christine YANG, Shu-Wei YANG
  • Publication number: 20200261410
    Abstract: Novel compounds of the structural formula I, and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, are inhibitors of TarO and may be useful in the prevention, treatment and suppression of diseases mediated by TarO, such as bacterial infections, including gram negative bacterial infections and gram positive bacterial infections such as MRSA and MRSE, alone or in combination with a ?-lactam antibiotic.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 13, 2016
    Publication date: August 20, 2020
    Applicant: MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP.
    Inventors: John P. CALDWELL, Ginny Dai HO, Sookhee N. HA, Sandra J. KOSEOGLU, Marc A. LABROLI, Sang Ho LEE, Christina MADSEN-DUGGAN, Mihir MANDAL, Jianping PAN, Weidong PAN, Terry ROEMER, Jin SU, Christopher Michael TAN, Zheng TAN, Hao WANG, Christine YANG, Shu-Wei YANG
  • Publication number: 20200069691
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to compounds of Formula I pharmaceutical compositions comprising the same, and their use in the inhibition of HIV protease, the inhibition of HIV replication, the prophylaxis of infection by HIV, the treatment of infection by HIV, and the prophylaxis, treatment, and delay in the onset or progression of AIDS.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 19, 2017
    Publication date: March 5, 2020
    Applicant: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
    Inventors: Brian McKittrick, John P. Caldwell, John McCauley, Henry Vaccaro, Tin-Yau Chan, Hyunjin Kim, Elizabeth Smith, Liwu Hong, Tanweer Khan, Shihong Ying, Hongwu Wang, Peter D. Williams, Jae-Hun Kim, M. Brad Nolt, Maryann Caplen
  • Patent number: 10414775
    Abstract: Described herein are compounds of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The compounds of Formula I act as Cyp8b1 inhibitors and can be useful in preventing, treating or acting as a remedial agent for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 17, 2019
    Assignee: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
    Inventors: John P. Caldwell, Mary Ann Caplen, Jared N. Cumming, Kevin D. Dykstra, Alan Hruza, Claire Lankin, Derun Li, Hong Liu, Amy McCracken, Brian McKittrick, Ashwin Rao, Jayaram Tagat, Haiqun Tang, Brandon M. Taoka, Andreas Verras, Shawn P. Walsh, Wen-Lian Wu, Tianyuan Zhang
  • Publication number: 20190218224
    Abstract: Described herein are compounds of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The compounds of Formula I act as Cyp8b1 inhibitors and can be useful in preventing, treating or acting as a remedial agent for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 10, 2017
    Publication date: July 18, 2019
    Applicant: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
    Inventors: John P. Caldwell, Mary Ann Caplen, Jared N. Cumming, Kevin D. Dykstra, Alan Hruza, Claire Lankin, Derun Li, Hong Liu, Amy McCracken, Brian McKittrick, Ashwin Rao, Jayaram Tagat, Haiqun Tang, Brandon M. Taoka, Andreas Verras, Shawn P. Walsh, Wen-Lian Wu, Tianyuan Zhang
  • Patent number: 9416129
    Abstract: In its many embodiments, the present invention provides certain iminothiazine dioxide compounds, including compounds Formula (I): (I) and tautomers and stereoisomers thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of said compounds, said tautomers and said stereoisomers, wherein the middle ring (referred to herein as “ring B”) of the tricyclic substituent is an optionally substituted 6-membered ring, and each of the remaining variables shown in the formula are as defined herein. The novel compounds of the invention are useful as BACE inhibitors and/or for the treatment and prevention of various pathologies related thereto. Pharmaceutical compositions comprising one or more such compounds (alone and in combination with one or more other active agents), and methods for their preparation and use, including Alzheimer's disease, are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2016
    Assignee: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
    Inventors: Eric J. Gilbert, Jared N. Cumming, Andrew W. Stamford, Younong Yu, Jack D. Scott, Ulrich Iserloh, Lingyan Wang, John P. Caldwell
  • Publication number: 20150284379
    Abstract: In its many embodiments, the present invention provides certain iminothiazine dioxide compounds, including compounds Formula (I): (I) and tautomers and stereoisomers thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of said compounds, said tautomers and said stereoisomers, wherein the middle ring (referred to herein as “ring B”) of the tricyclic substituent is an optionally substituted 6-membered ring, and each of the remaining variables shown in the formula are as defined herein. The novel compounds of the invention are useful as BACE inhibitors and/or for the treatment and prevention of various pathologies related thereto. Pharmaceutical compositions comprising one or more such compounds (alone and in combination with one or more other active agents), and methods for their preparation and use, including Alzheimer's disease, are also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 14, 2013
    Publication date: October 8, 2015
    Applicant: MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP.
    Inventors: Eric J. Gilbert, Jared N. Cumming, Andrew W. Stamford, Younong Yu, Jack D. Scott, Ulrich Iserloh, Lingyan Wang, John P. Caldwell
  • Publication number: 20150057246
    Abstract: The present invention relates to novel Silyl-Containing Heterocyclic Compounds of Formula (I): (I) and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, wherein A, B, C, D and R2 are as defined herein. The present invention also relates to compositions comprising at least one Silyl-Containing Heterocyclic Compound, and methods of using the Silyl-Containing Heterocyclic Compounds for treating or preventing HCV infection in a patient.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 11, 2012
    Publication date: February 26, 2015
    Inventors: Michael P. Dwyer, Kartik M. Keertikar, Qingbei Zeng, Robert D. Mazzola, JR., John P. Caldwell, Haiqun Tang, Anilkumar Gopinadhan Nair, Bandarpalle B. Shankar, Stuart B. Rosenblum, Joseph A. Kozlowski
  • Patent number: 8927559
    Abstract: This application provides for compounds of the formula Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the individual variables are defined herein, as well as processes to prepare these compounds, pharmaceutical compositions comprising the same and their use in treating disease state associated with the CRTH2 receptor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 6, 2015
    Assignee: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
    Inventors: Robert G. Aslanian, Christopher W. Boyce, Robert D. Mazzola, Jr., Brian A. McKittrick, Kevin D. McCormick, Anandan Palani, Jun Qin, Haiqun Tang, Dong Xiao, Younong Yu, John P. Caldwell, Elizabeth Helen Kelley, Hongjun Zhang, Phieng Siliphaivanh, Rachel N. MacCoss, Joey L. Methot, Jolicia Polivina Gauuan, Qin Jiang, Andrew J. Leyhane, Purakkattle Johny Biju, Li Dong, Xianhai Huang, Ning Shao, Wei Zhou, Pawan K. Dhondi, Ashwin U. Rao
  • Patent number: 8829036
    Abstract: Disclosed are compounds of the formula I or a stereoisomer, tautomer, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein each variable in Formula 1 are as defined in the specification; and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds of formula I. Also disclosed are methods of inhibiting aspartyl protease, and in particular, the methods of treating cardiovascular diseases, cognitive and neurodegenerative diseases, and the methods of inhibiting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, plasmepins, cathepsin D and protozoal enzymes. Also disclosed are methods of treating cognitive or neurodegenerative diseases using the compounds of formula I in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor or a muscarinic m1 agonist or m2 antagonist.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Assignees: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Pharmacopeia Inc.
    Inventors: Zhaoning Zhu, Brian McKittrick, Zhong-Yue Sun, Yuanzan C. Ye, Johannes H. Voight, Corey O. Strickland, Elizabeth M. Smith, Andrew W. Stamford, William J. Greenlee, Robert D. Mazzola, Jr., John P. Caldwell, Jared N. Cumming, Lingyan Wang, Yusheng Wu, Ulrich Iserloh, Xiaoiang Liu, Tao Guo, Thuy X. E. Le, Kurt W. Saionz, Suresh D. Babu, Rachael C. Hunter, Michelle L. Morris, Huizhong Gu, Gang Qian, Dawit Tadesse, Ying Huang, Guoqing Li, Jianping Pan, Jeffrey A. Misiaszek, Gaifa Lai, Jingqi Duo, Chuanxing Qu, Yuefei Shao
  • Patent number: 8691833
    Abstract: Disclosed are compounds of the formula I or a stereoisomer, tautomer, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein each variable in Formula 1 are as defined in the specification; and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds of formula I. Also disclosed are methods of inhibiting aspartyl protease, and in particular, the methods of treating cardiovascular diseases, cognitive and neurodegenerative diseases, and the methods of inhibiting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, plasmepins, cathepsin D and protozoal enzymes. Also disclosed are methods of treating cognitive or neurodegenerative diseases using the compounds of formula I in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor or a muscarinic m1 agonist or m2 antagonist.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2014
    Assignees: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Pharmacopeia Inc.
    Inventors: Zhaoning Zhu, Brian McKittrick, Zhong-Yue Sun, Yuanzan C. Ye, Johannes H. Voight, Corey O. Strickland, Elizabeth M. Smith, Andrew W. Stamford, William J. Greenlee, Robert D. Mazzola, Jr., John P. Caldwell, Jared N. Cumming, Lingyan Wang, Yusheng Wu, Ulrich Iserloh, Xiaoiang Liu, Tao Guo, Thuy X.E. Le, Kurt W. Saionz, Suresh D. Babu, Rachael C. Hunter, Michelle L. Morris, Huizhong Gu, Gang Qian, Dawit Tadesse, Ying Huang, Guoqing Li, Jianping Pan, Jeffrey A. Misiaszek, Gaifa Lai, Jingqi Duo, Chuanxing Qu, Yuefei Shao
  • Patent number: 8691831
    Abstract: Disclosed are compounds of the formula I or a stereoisomer, tautomer, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein each variable in Formula I are as defined in the specification; and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds of formula I. Also disclosed are methods of inhibiting aspartyl protease, and in particular, the methods of treating cardiovascular diseases, cognitive and neurodegenerative diseases, and the methods of inhibiting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, plasmepins, cathepsin D and protozoal enzymes. Also disclosed are methods of treating cognitive or neurodegenerative diseases using the compounds of formula I in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor or a muscarinic m1 agonist or m2 antagonist.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2014
    Assignees: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Pharmacopeia Drug Discovery, Inc.
    Inventors: Zhaoning Zhu, Brian McKittrick, Zhong-Yue Sun, Yuanzan C. Ye, Johannes H. Voight, Corey O. Strickland, Elizabeth M. Smith, Andrew W. Stamford, William J. Greenlee, Robert D. Mazzola, Jr., John P. Caldwell, Jared N. Cumming, Lingyan Wang, Yusheng Wu, Ulrich Iserloh, Xiaoxiang Liu, Tao Guo, Thuy X. E. Le, Kurt W. Saionz, Suresh D. Babu, Rachael C. Hunter, Michelle L. Morris, Huizhong Gu, Gang Qian, Dawit Tadesse, Ying Huang, Guoqing Li, Jianping Pan, Jeffrey A. Misiaszek, Gaifa Lai, Jingqi Duo, Chuanxing Qu, Yuefei Shao
  • Publication number: 20130210805
    Abstract: This application provides for compounds of the formula Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the individual variables are defined herein, as well as processes to prepare these compounds, pharmaceutical compositions comprising the same and their use in treating disease state associated with the CRTH2 receptor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 6, 2011
    Publication date: August 15, 2013
    Inventors: Robert G. Aslanian, Christopher W. Boyce, Robert D. Mazzola, JR., Brian A. McKittrick, Kevin D. McCormick, Anandan Palani, Jun Qin, Haiqun Tang, Dong Xiao, Younong Yu, John P. Caldwell, Elizabeth Helen Kelley, Hongjun Zhang, Phieng Siliphaivanh, Rachel N. MacCoss, Joey L. Methot, Jolicia Polivina Gauuan, Qin Jiang, Andrew J. Leyhane, Johny Biju, Li Dong, Xian Huang, Ning Shao, Wei Zhou, Pawan K. Dhondi
  • Publication number: 20120276118
    Abstract: Disclosed are compounds of the formula I or a stereoisomer, tautomer, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein each variable in Formula 1 are as defined in the specification; and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds of formula I. Also disclosed are methods of inhibiting aspartyl protease, and in particular, the methods of treating cardiovascular diseases, cognitive and neurodegenerative diseases, and the methods of inhibiting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, plasmepins, cathepsin D and protozoal enzymes. Also disclosed are methods of treating cognitive or neurodegenerative diseases using the compounds of formula I in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor or a muscarinic m1 agonist or m2 antagonist.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2012
    Publication date: November 1, 2012
    Applicants: Pharmacopeia Inc., Schering Corporation
    Inventors: Zhaoning Zhu, Brian McKittrick, Zhong-Yue Sun, Yuanzan C. Ye, Johannes H. Voight, Corey O. Strickland, Elizabeth M. Smith, Andrew Stamford, William J. Greenlee, Robert D. Mazzola, John P. Caldwell, Jared N. Cumming, Lingyan Wang, Yusheng Wu, Ulrich Iserloh, Xiaoxiang Liu, Tao Guo, Thuy X.E. Le, Kurt W. Saionz, Suresh D. Babu, Rachael C. Hunter, Michelle L. Morris, Huizhong Gu, Gang Qian, Dawit Tadesse, Ying Huang, Guoqing Li, Jianping Pan, Jeffrey A. Misiaszek, Gaifa Lai, Jingqi Duo, Chuanxing Qu, Yuefei Shao
  • Publication number: 20120231017
    Abstract: Disclosed are compounds of the formula I or a stereoisomer, tautomer, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein each variable in Formula 1 are as defined in the specification; and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds of formula I. Also disclosed are methods of inhibiting aspartyl protease, and in particular, the methods of treating cardiovascular diseases, cognitive and neurodegenerative diseases, and the methods of inhibiting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, plasmepins, cathepsin D and protozoal enzymes. Also disclosed are methods of treating cognitive or neurodegenerative diseases using the compounds of formula I in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor or a muscarinic m1 agonist or m2 antagonist.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 8, 2012
    Publication date: September 13, 2012
    Applicants: Pharmacopeia Inc., Schering Corporation
    Inventors: ZHAONING ZHU, Brian McKittrick, Zhong-Yue Sun, Yuanzan C. Ye, Johannes H. Voigt, Corey O. Strickland, Elizabeth M. Smith, Andrew Stamford, William J. Greenlee, Robert D. Mozzola, John P. Caldwell, Jared N. Cumming, Lingyan Wang, Yusheng Wu, Ulrich Iserloh, Xiaoiang Liu, Tao Guo, Thuy X. E. Le, Kurt W. Sainoz, Suresh D. Babu, Rachael C. Hunter, Michelle L. Morris, Huizhong Gu, Gang Qian, Dawit Tadesse, Ying Huang, Guoqing Li, Jianping Pan, Jeffrey A. Misiaszek, Gaifa Lai, Jingqi Duo, Chuanxing Qu, Yuefei Shao
  • Publication number: 20120231018
    Abstract: Disclosed are compounds of the formula I or a stereoisomer, tautomer, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein each variable in Formula 1 are as defined in the specification; and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds of formula I. Also disclosed are methods of inhibiting aspartyl protease, and in particular, the methods of treating cardiovascular diseases, cognitive and neurodegenerative diseases, and the methods of inhibiting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, plasmepins, cathepsin D and protozoal enzymes. Also disclosed are methods of treating cognitive or neurodegenerative diseases using the compounds of formula I in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor or a muscarinic m1 agonist or m2 antagonist.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 9, 2012
    Publication date: September 13, 2012
    Applicants: Pharmacopeia Inc., Schering Corporation
    Inventors: Zhaoning Zhu, Brian McKittrick, Zhong-Yue Sun, Yuanzan C. Ye, Johannes H. Voigt, Corey O. Strickland, Elizabeth M. Smith, Andrew Stamford, William J. Greenlee, Robert D. Mozzola, John P. Caldwell, Jared N. Cumming, Lingyan Wang, Yusheng Wu, Ulrich Iserloh, Xiaoxiang Liu, Tao Guo, Thuy X. E. Le, Kurt W. Saionz, Suresh D. Babu, Rachael C. Hunter, Michelle L. Morris, Huizhong Gu, Gang Qian, Dawit Tadesse, Ying Huang, Guoqing Li, Jianping Pan, Jeffrey A. Misiaszek, Gaifa Lai, Jingqi Duo, Chuanxing Qu, Yuefei Shao
  • Patent number: 8242112
    Abstract: Disclosed are compounds of the formula I or a stereoisomer, tautomer, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein W is a bond, —C(?S)—, —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —C(?O)—, —O—, —C(R6)(R7)—, —N(R5)— or —C(?N(R5))—; X is —O—, —N(R5)— or —C(R6)(R7)—; provided that when X is —O—, U is not —O—, —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —C(?O)— or —C(?NR5)—; U is a bond, —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —C(O)—, —O—, —P(O)(OR15)—, —C(?NR5)—, —(C(R6)(R7))b— or —N(R5)—; wherein b is 1 or 2; provided that when W is —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —O—, or —N(R5)—, U is not —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —O—, or —N(R5)—; provided that when X is —N(R5)— and W is —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —O—, or —N(R5)—, then U is not a bond; and R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, and R7 are as defined in the specification; and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds of formula I.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2012
    Assignees: Schering Corporation, Pharmacopeia Drug Discovery, Inc.
    Inventors: Zhaoning Zhu, Brian McKittrick, Zhong-Yue Sun, Yuanzan C. Ye, Johannes H. Voigt, Corey Strickland, Elizabeth M. Smith, Andrew W. Stamford, William J. Greenlee, Robert D. Mazzola, Jr., John P. Caldwell, Jared N. Cumming, Lingyan Wang, Yusheng Wu, Ulrich Iserloh, Tao Guo, Thuy X. H. Le, Kurt W. Saionz, Suresh D. Babu, Rachael C. Hunter, Michelle L. Morris, Huizhong Gu, Gang Qian, Dawit Tadesse
  • Patent number: 7973067
    Abstract: Disclosed are compounds of the formula I or a stereoisomer, tautomer, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein W is a bond, —C(?S)—, —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —C(?O)—, —O—, —C(R6)(R7)—, —N(R5)— or —C(?N(R5))—; X is —O—, —N(R5)— or —C(R6)(R7)—; provided that when X is —O—, U is not —O—, —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —C(?O)— or —C(?NR5)—; U is a bond, —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —C(O)—, —O—, —P(O)(OR15)—, —C(?NR5)—, —(C(R6)(R7))b— or —N(R5)—; wherein b is 1 or 2; provided that when W is —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —O—, or —N(R5)—, U is not —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —O—, or —N(R5)—; provided that when X is —N(R5)— and W is —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —O—, or —N(R5)—, then U is not a bond; and R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, and R7 are as defined in the specification; and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds of formula I.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 2008
    Date of Patent: July 5, 2011
    Assignee: Schering Corporation
    Inventors: Zhaoning Zhu, Brian McKittrick, Zhong-Yue Sun, Yuanzan C. Ye, Johannes H. Voigt, Corey Strickland, Elizabeth M. Smith, Andrew Stamford, William J. Greenlee, Robert D. Mazzola, Jr., John P. Caldwell, Jared N. Cumming, Lingyan Wang, Yusheng Wu, Ulrich Iserloh, Tao Guo, Thuy X. H. Le, Kurt W. Saionz, Suresh D. Babu, Rachel C. Hunter, Michelle L. Morris, Huizhong Gu, Gang Qian, Dawit Tadesse
  • Publication number: 20110009392
    Abstract: In its many embodiments, the present invention provides a novel class of heterocyclic compounds as modulators of gamma secretase, methods of preparing such compounds, pharmaceutical compositions containing one or more such compounds, methods of preparing pharmaceutical formulations comprising one or more such compounds, and methods of treatment, prevention, inhibition, or amelioration of one or more diseases associated with the central nervous system using such compounds or pharmaceutical compositions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 4, 2008
    Publication date: January 13, 2011
    Inventors: Zhaoning Zhu, William J. Greenlee, John P. Caldwell, Robert D. Mazzola, JR., Brian McKittrick, Chad E. Bennett, Xianhai Huang, Hubert B. Josien, Duane A. Burnett