Patents by Inventor Kandaswamy Duraiswamy

Kandaswamy Duraiswamy has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 8702910
    Abstract: A system for producing an auxiliary fuel stream containing a low concentration of sulfur compounds from a primary fuel stream includes a first separation stage to separate a portion of a primary fuel stream into a first vapor permeate stream and a first retentate stream, a first separation stage partial condenser connected to the first vapor permeate stream condensing a portion of the first vapor permeate stream into a first liquid stage stream and a first vapor stage stream, and a second separation stage partial condenser condensing a portion of the first vapor stage stream into a second liquid stage. The stream may then be processed through a sorbent bed to effectively remove the sulfur compounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2014
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Richard Root Woods
  • Patent number: 8551197
    Abstract: A hydrogen generation system is disclosed that includes an integrated steam reforming reactor. The reactor has an overall cylindrical shape, receives a reformate and separately receiving a combustion gas mixture. The reactor includes a plurality of reforming stages arranged in a stacked series of disc shaped stage configuration, wherein each reforming stage has a disc shaped combustion portion adjacent a disc shaped catalyst pack through which the reformate passes, wherein the reformate is directed axially between stages and radially within each stage; and the combustion mixture is directed radially between groups of stages and circumferentially within each stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 8, 2013
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard Root Woods, Brook Forest Porter, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Leonard Weschta, Christian Hulteberg
  • Patent number: 8491679
    Abstract: A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 23, 2013
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Anand S. Chellappa
  • Patent number: 8372170
    Abstract: A hydrogen generation system is disclosed that has a vaporization section receiving and vaporizing fuel along with water and passing the vapor to a reformer catalyst section heated by a combustor section which generates reformate gas and is fueled by off-gas from a H2 purification unit along with a combustion air source. The off-gas outlet feeds the combustor section in the reformer assembly to heat the catalyst section and the vaporization section. An H2 storage unit connected to the H2 purification unit pure H2 outlet receives the pure H2. The storage unit has an outlet selectively connectable to the reformer assembly process inlet during startup without the need for a spark igniter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2013
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard Root Woods, Brook Forest Porter, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy
  • Publication number: 20130034785
    Abstract: A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 14, 2010
    Publication date: February 7, 2013
    Applicant: INTELLIGENT ENERGY, INC.
    Inventors: Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Anand S. Chellappa
  • Patent number: 7892321
    Abstract: An integrated heating system for adding heat to a feed fuel within a module by way of an integrated heating element within the body or casing of the module. The heat may be selectively added to maintain a selected temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2011
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Diane Lee Aagesen, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy
  • Patent number: 7763086
    Abstract: A hydrogen generation system is disclosed that includes a fuel reforming reactor generating a hydrogen-rich reformate gas at a temperature greater than 150 C, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) hydrogen purification unit that separates the reformate gas into a relatively pure hydrogen stream and an off-gas stream, and a catalytic reactor down stream of the PSA unit that converts carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) contained in the relatively pure hydrogen stream into methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O). The method of purification involves generating a hydrogen-rich reformate gas at a temperature greater than 150 C in a fuel reforming reactor, separating the reformate gas into a relatively pure hydrogen stream and an off-gas stream in a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) hydrogen purification unit, and converting carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) contained in the relatively pure hydrogen stream into methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O) in a catalytic reactor down stream of the PSA unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 2008
    Date of Patent: July 27, 2010
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard Root Woods, Brook Forest Porter, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy
  • Publication number: 20100172827
    Abstract: A hydrogen generation system is disclosed that has a vaporization section receiving and vaporizing fuel along with water and passing the vapor to a reformer catalyst section heated by a combustor section which generates reformate gas and is fueled by off-gas from a H2 purification unit along with a combustion air source. The off-gas outlet feeds the combustor section in the reformer assembly to heat the catalyst section and the vaporization section. An H2 storage unit connected to the H2 purification unit pure H2 outlet receives the pure H2. The storage unit has an outlet selectively connectable to the reformer assembly process inlet during startup without the need for a spark igniter.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 14, 2010
    Publication date: July 8, 2010
    Inventors: Richard Root Woods, Brook Forest Porter, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy
  • Patent number: 7670587
    Abstract: A hydrogen generation system is disclosed that has a vaporization section receiving and vaporizing fuel along with water and passing the vapor to a reformer catalyst section heated by a combustor section which generates reformate gas and is fueled by off-gas from a H2 purification unit along with a combustion air source. The off-gas outlet feeds the combustor section in the reformer assembly to heat the catalyst section and the vaporization section. An H2 storage unit connected to the H2 purification unit pure H2 outlet receives the pure H2. The storage unit has an outlet selectively connectable to the reformer assembly process inlet during startup without the need for a spark igniter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2010
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Brook Forest Porter, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Richard Root Woods
  • Publication number: 20090220394
    Abstract: A hydrogen generation system is disclosed that includes an integrated steam reforming reactor. The reactor has an overall cylindrical shape, receives a reformate and separately receiving a combustion gas mixture. The reactor includes a plurality of reforming stages arranged in a stacked series of disc shaped stage configuration, wherein each reforming stage has a disc shaped combustion portion adjacent a disc shaped catalyst pack through which the reformate passes, wherein the reformate is directed axially between stages and radially within each stage; and the combustion mixture is directed radially between groups of stages and circumferentially within each stage.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 17, 2006
    Publication date: September 3, 2009
    Applicant: INTELLIGENT ENERGY, INC.
    Inventors: Richard Root Woods, Brook Forest Porter, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Leonard Weschta, Christian Hulteberg
  • Publication number: 20090166264
    Abstract: A system for producing an auxiliary fuel stream containing a low concentration of sulfur compounds from a primary fuel stream includes a first separation stage to separate a portion of a primary fuel stream into a first vapor permeate stream and a first retentate stream, a first separation stage partial condenser connected to the first vapor permeate stream condensing a portion of the first vapor permeate stream into a first liquid stage stream and a first vapor stage stream, and a second separation stage partial condenser condensing a portion of the first vapor stage stream into a second liquid stage. The first vapor permeate stream is preferable sent through a vapor phase reactive desulfurization catalyst reactor to condition any sulfur compounds present into species that can be easily separated from the fuel stream.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 25, 2008
    Publication date: July 2, 2009
    Inventors: Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Richard Root Woods
  • Patent number: 7523724
    Abstract: A method of and system for reducing engine environmental atmospheric pollution emissions from a vehicle having a combustion engine utilizing hydrocarbon fuel for at least one of propulsion and auxiliary electrical power is disclosed. The method basically includes providing an unprocessed bulk fuel storage container and a clean processed fuel tank on the vehicle, supplying the engine for propulsion with fuel from the unprocessed fuel storage container when the vehicle is beyond a predetermined distance from an area having environmental restrictions passing a portion of unprocessed fuel through a desulphurization process to fill a clean fuel storage container while the vehicle is in motion and supplying the combustion engine for one of propulsion and auxiliary electrical power from clean fuel in the processed fuel storage container when the vehicle is within an area having environmental restrictions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2009
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Anand Chellappa
  • Publication number: 20090041641
    Abstract: A hydrogen generation system is disclosed that includes a fuel reforming reactor generating a hydrogen-rich reformate gas at a temperature greater than 150 C., a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) hydrogen purification unit that separates the reformate gas into a relatively pure hydrogen stream and an off-gas stream, and a catalytic reactor down stream of the PSA unit that converts carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) contained in the relatively pure hydrogen stream into methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O). The method of purification involves generating a hydrogen-rich reformate gas at a temperature greater than 150 C. in a fuel reforming reactor, separating the reformate gas into a relatively pure hydrogen stream and an off-gas stream in a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) hydrogen purification unit, and converting carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) contained in the relatively pure hydrogen stream into methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O) in a catalytic reactor down stream of the PSA unit.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 5, 2008
    Publication date: February 12, 2009
    Applicant: Intelligent Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard Root Woods, Brook Forest Porter, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy
  • Patent number: 7452404
    Abstract: A process and system for separating a fuel stream containing a low concentration of sulfur compounds from a primary fuel stream is disclosed. The process includes isolating a stage-one permeate stream and a stage-one retentate stream from the primary fuel stream, evaporating the stage-one permeate stream at a vacuum, and isolating a stage-two permeate stream and a stage-two retentate stream from the stage-one permeate stream. The stage-two retentate stream is a fuel stream containing low concentrations of sulfur compounds. The system includes a fuel supply, a stage-one separator for separating a fuel stream into a stage-one permeate stream and a stage-one retentate stream, a stage-two separator, a first supply line connecting a portion of the fuel supply to the stage-one separator, and a second supply line connecting the stage-one separator permeate stream to the stage-two separator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2008
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Richard Root Woods
  • Patent number: 7452405
    Abstract: A system for producing an auxiliary fuel stream containing a low concentration of sulfur compounds from a primary fuel stream includes a first separation stage to separate a portion of a primary fuel stream into a first vapor permeate stream and a first retentate stream, a first separation stage partial condenser connected to the first vapor permeate stream condensing a portion of the first vapor permeate stream into a first liquid stage stream and a first vapor stage stream, and a second separation stage partial condenser condensing a portion of the first vapor stage stream into a second liquid stage. The first vapor permeate stream is preferable sent through a vapor phase reactive desulfurization catalyst reactor to condition any sulfur compounds present into species that can be easily separated from the fuel stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2008
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Richard Root Woods
  • Patent number: 7439273
    Abstract: A hydrogen generation system is disclosed that includes a fuel reforming reactor generating a hydrogen-rich reformate gas at a temperature greater than 150 C, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) hydrogen purification unit that separates the reformate gas into a relatively pure hydrogen stream and an off-gas stream, and a catalytic reactor down stream of the PSA unit that converts carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) contained in the relatively pure hydrogen stream into methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O). The method of purification involves generating a hydrogen-rich reformate gas at a temperature greater than 150 C in a fuel reforming reactor, separating the reformate gas into a relatively pure hydrogen stream and an off-gas stream in a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) hydrogen purification unit, and converting carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) contained in the relatively pure hydrogen stream into methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O) in a catalytic reactor down stream of the PSA unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2008
    Assignee: Intelligent Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard Root Woods, Brook Forest Porter, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy
  • Publication number: 20070212295
    Abstract: A hydrogen generation system is disclosed that includes a fuel reforming reactor generating a hydrogen-rich reformate gas at a temperature greater than 150 C, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) hydrogen purification unit that separates the reformate gas into a relatively pure hydrogen stream and an off-gas stream, and a catalytic reactor down stream of the PSA unit that converts carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) contained in the relatively pure hydrogen stream into methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O). The method of purification involves generating a hydrogen-rich reformate gas at a temperature greater than 150 C in a fuel reforming reactor, separating the reformate gas into a relatively pure hydrogen stream and an off-gas stream in a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) hydrogen purification unit, and converting carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) contained in the relatively pure hydrogen stream into methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O) in a catalytic reactor down stream of the PSA unit.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 28, 2006
    Publication date: September 13, 2007
    Applicant: INTELLIGENT ENERGY, INC.
    Inventors: Richard Root Woods, Brook Forest Porter, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy
  • Publication number: 20070212293
    Abstract: A hydrogen generation system is disclosed that has a vaporization section receiving and vaporizing fuel along with water and passing the vapor to a reformer catalyst section heated by a combustor section which generates reformate gas and is fueled by off-gas from a H2 purification unit along with a combustion air source. The off-gas outlet feeds the combustor section in the reformer assembly to heat the catalyst section and the vaporization section. An H2 storage unit connected to the H2 purification unit pure H2 outlet receives the pure H2. The storage unit has an outlet selectively connectable to the reformer assembly process inlet during startup without the need for a spark igniter.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2006
    Publication date: September 13, 2007
    Applicant: INTELLIGENT ENERGY, INC.
    Inventors: Brook Forest Porter, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Richard Root Woods
  • Publication number: 20070012184
    Abstract: A system for producing an auxiliary fuel stream containing a low concentration of sulfur compounds from a primary fuel stream includes a first separation stage to separate a portion of a primary fuel stream into a first vapor permeate stream and a first retentate stream, a first separation stage partial condenser connected to the first vapor permeate stream condensing a portion of the first vapor permeate stream into a first liquid stage stream and a first vapor stage stream, and a second separation stage partial condenser condensing a portion of the first vapor stage stream into a second liquid stage. The first vapor permeate stream is preferable sent through a vapor phase reactive desulfurization catalyst reactor to condition any sulfur compounds present into species that can be easily separated from the fuel stream.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2006
    Publication date: January 18, 2007
    Applicant: INTELLIGENT ENERGY, INC.
    Inventors: Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Richard Woods
  • Publication number: 20060216228
    Abstract: A hydrogen production apparatus for generating hydrogen comprises a first input for mixing a stream of liquid water with a stream of feed gas to produce a feed gas-water mixture stream and a heating mechanism for heating the feed gas-water mixture stream to a temperature sufficient to evaporate the water in the feed gas-water mixture stream to steam to produce a humidified feed-gas stream. A second input is provided for mixing the humidified feed-gas stream with a hydrocarbon fuel to produce a reformer reactant mixture of fuel, oxidant, and steam. A steam-methane reforming component reacts the hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in the reformer reactant mixture in a steam-methane reforming reaction to reform the hydrocarbon fuel in the reformer reactant mixture and produce a hydrogen enriched reformer product gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 22, 2006
    Publication date: September 28, 2006
    Inventors: Richard Woods, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy