Patents by Inventor Ludwig Pohl

Ludwig Pohl has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 4713197
    Abstract: Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds of the formula IR.sup.I --(A--Z).sub.n --A--R.sup.2 Iwherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 in each case independently of one another are alkyl group with 1-15 C atoms, wherein one or two non-adjacent CH.sub.2 groups can also be replaced by 0 atoms and/or --CO-- group and/or --O--CO-- groups and/or --CO--O-- groups, and one of the radicals R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 can also be H, CN, F, Cl or Br, the groups A in each case independently of one another are a 1,4-phenylene group, wherein one or two CH groups can also be replaced by N atoms, a 1,4-cyclohexylene group, wherein one or two CH.sub.2 groups which are not adjacent can be replaced by 0 atoms, a 1,3-dithiane-2,5-diyl group, a 1,4-bicyclo(2,2,2)-octylene group, a decahydronapthalene-2,6-diyl group or a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-2,6-diyl group, the group Z in each case independently of one another are --CO--O--, --O--CO--, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 --, --OCH.sub.2 --, --CH.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 1985
    Date of Patent: December 15, 1987
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Rudolf Eidenschink, Joachim Krause, Reinhard Hittich, Eike Poetsch, Bernhard Scheuble, Georg Weber, Ludwig Pohl
  • Patent number: 4707295
    Abstract: Bicyclooctane derivatives of the formula IR.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --R.sup.2 IwhereinR.sup.1 and R.sup.2 independently of one another are each an alkyl group which has 1-12 C atoms and in which it is also possible for one or two non-adjacent CH.sub.2 groups to be replaced by O atoms and/or CO groups and/or --O13 CO groups and/or --CO--O groups and/or --CH.dbd.CH-- groups, one of the radicals R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 being also --A.sup.3 --R.sup.3,A.sup.1 is a 1,4-cyclohexylene group which is unsubstituted or substituted in the 1-position and/or 2-position and/or 3-position and/or 4-position by alkyl which has in each case 1-5 C atoms and is unsubstituted or substituted or fluorinated, and in which it is also possible for one or two non-adjacent CH.sub.2 groups to be replaced by one or two different groupings from the group --O--, --CO--, --CH.dbd.CH--, --S--, --SO-- or --SO.sub.2 --, or is substituted by F, Cl, Br, CN and/or CHO,A.sup.2 is a 1,4-bicyclo[2.2.2] octylene group,--A.sup.3 --R.sup.3 is --Cy--R.sup.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 17, 1987
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Ludwig Pohl, Bernhard Scheuble, Andreas Wachtler, Reinhard Hittich, Peter Fuss
  • Patent number: 4545922
    Abstract: A Cyclohexylbiphenyl of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl of 1-12 C atoms;R.sub.6 is alkyl or alkoxy each of 1-12 C atoms, CN or fluorine; andR.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 each is hydrogen or fluorine, with the proviso that at least one, but not more than two of R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5 and R.sub.6 are fluorine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 8, 1985
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Rudolf Eidenschink, Ludwig Pohl
  • Patent number: 4510069
    Abstract: Cyclohexane derivatives of formula IR.sup.1 --(A.sup.1).sub.m --Z.sup.1 --A--Z.sup.2 --(A.sup.2).sub.n --R.sup.2 Iwherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are each H, an alkyl group which has 1-10 C atoms and in which one or two CH.sub.2 groups can also be replaced by O atoms, F, CL, Br, CN or --O--COR, A.sup.1 and A.sup.2 are each 1,4-phenylene, 1,4-cyclohexylene, 1,3-dioxane-2,5-diyl, piperidine-1,4-diyl, 1,4-bicyclo(2,2,2)-octylene or pyrimidine-2,5-diyl groups which are unsubstituted or substituted by 1-4 F atoms, A is a 1,4-cyclohexylene group which is substituted in the 1-position and/or 4-position by alkyl, alkoxy, fluorinated alkyl or fluorinated alkoxy, each of which has 1-5 C atoms, F, Cl, Br and/or CN and which can also carry 1 or 2 further F, Cl or Br atoms and/or CN groups, Z.sup.1 and Z.sup.2 are each --CO--O--, --O--CO--, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 --, --OCH.sub.2 --, --CH.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 9, 1985
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Rudolf Eidenschink, Gunther Haas, Ludwig Pohl, Michael Romer, Bernhard Scheuble, Georg Weber
  • Patent number: 4505837
    Abstract: A phenylcyclohexene of the formula ##STR1## wherein n is 1 or 2, X is --H, --R, --OR, --OCOR, --OCOOR, --CF.sub.3 or --F, and when n is 1, X can also be ##STR2## R is alkyl of 1-8 C atoms and when two R groups are present they can be the same or different, has valuable liquid crystalline properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1983
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1985
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Michael Romer, Ludwig Pohl, Rudolf Eidenschink
  • Patent number: 4469618
    Abstract: A liquid crystal composition comprising, as the essential components, trans-4-n-propyl-(4-ethylphenyl)-cyclohexane, trans-4-n-propyl-(4-cyanophenyl)-cyclohexane, trans-4-n-pentyl-(4-cyanophenyl)-cyclohexane, trans-4-n-pentyl-(4'-ethylbiphenyl-4)-cyclohexane and 4-(trans-4-n-pentylcyclohexyl)-4'-(trans-4-n-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl is drivable over a wide temperature range and can be operated rapidly at low temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 4, 1984
    Assignees: Hitachi, Ltd., Merck Patent GmbH
    Inventors: Shinji Hasegawa, Kazuhisa Toriyama, Ludwig Pohl, Georg Weber
  • Patent number: 4464283
    Abstract: A liquid crystal composition comprising trans-4-n-propyl-(4-ethylphenyl)-cyclohexane, trans-4-n-pentyl-(4-cyanophenyl)-cyclohexane, trans-4-n-pentyl-(4' -ethylbiphenyl-4)cyclohexane, trans-4-n-pentyl-(4'-cyanobiphenyl-4)-cyclohexane, 4-n-propylphenyl-4-(trans-4-n-propylcyclohexyl)benzoate, and 4-(trans-4-n-pentyl-cyclohexyl)-4'-(trans-4-n-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl is drivable over a wide temperature range and can be operated rapidly at low temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 7, 1984
    Assignees: Hitachi, Ltd., Merck Patent GmbH
    Inventors: Shinji Hasegawa, Kazuhisa Toriyama, Ludwig Pohl, Georg Weber
  • Patent number: 4419264
    Abstract: Compounds of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are identical or different and each is alkyl or alkoxy each of up to 8 C atoms, and one or two of the substituents X are fluorine and the others are hydrogen are valuable liquid crystalline materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 1982
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1983
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Rudolf Eidenschink, Michael Romer, Ludwig Pohl
  • Patent number: 4415470
    Abstract: A Cyclohexylbiphenyl of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl of 1-12 C atoms;R.sub.6 is alkyl or alkoxy each of 1-12 C atoms, CN or fluorine; andR.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 each is hydrogen or fluorine, with the proviso that at least one, but not more than two of R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5 and R.sub.6 are fluorine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1981
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1983
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Rudolf Eidenschink, Ludwig Pohl
  • Patent number: 4402849
    Abstract: Liquid-crystalline tetrahydroquinazolines of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl, alkoxy, alkanoyloxy or alkoxycarbonyloxy of up to 8 carbon atoms in each case, CN, CF.sub.3, halogen or NO.sub.2 ; and R.sub.2 is alkyl of up to 10 carbon atoms are valuable components for liquid crystalline dielectrics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1980
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1983
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Joachim Krause, Ludwig Pohl
  • Patent number: 4400293
    Abstract: Cyclohexylphenyl derivatives of the formula ##STR1## wherein X is --CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --, --CH.sub.2 --O--, --CH.sub.2 --S--, --O--CH.sub.2 -- or --S--CH.sub.2 --; R.sub.1 is alkyl of up to 8 carbon atoms; R.sub.2 is alkyl or alkoxy each of up to 8 carbon atoms, fluorine, chlorine, bromine or cyano; and R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 are both hydrogen or one is hydrogen and the other is fluorine, chlorine, bromine or cyano, with the proviso that R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 are both hydrogen when X is --CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 -- or R.sub.2 is fluorine, chlorine, bromine or cyano, are valuable liquid crystalline compounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1981
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1983
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Michael Romer, Joachim Krause, Ludwig Pohl
  • Patent number: 4398803
    Abstract: Liquid crystal display elements based on a twisted nematic cell are almost free from interference colors and show only a very little angular dependence of the contrast, if the product of the layer thickness and the optical anisotropy of the liquid crystalline dielectric has a value of 150 to 600 nanometers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1981
    Date of Patent: August 16, 1983
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit Beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Ludwig Pohl, Rudolf Eidenschink, Fernando del Pino, Georg Weber
  • Patent number: 4386007
    Abstract: Liquid crystalline naphthalene derivatives of the formula ##STR1## wherein ring A is 1,4-phenylene, trans-1,4-cyclohexylene or 1,4-cyclohex-1-enylene and ring system BC is 2,6-naphthylene, 3,4-dihydro-2,6-naphthylene or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,6-naphthylene, with the proviso that A is not 1,4-phenylene when BC is 2,6-naphthylene; and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2, which are identical or different, are each alkyl of up to 8 C atoms or, when the rings to which they are bonded are aromatic, also can be alkoxy, alkanoyloxy or alkoxycarbonyloxy having up to 8 C atoms in each case; or one of R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 also can be CN, halogen, CF.sub.3 or NO.sub.2 are valuable components for liquid crystalline dielectrics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1980
    Date of Patent: May 31, 1983
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Joachim Krause, Michael Romer, Ludwig Pohl
  • Patent number: 4382012
    Abstract: Diketones of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl, perfluoroalkyl or alkoxy, each of 1-18 carbon atoms; R.sub.2 is alkyl or perfluoroalkyl, each of 1-12 carbon atoms; and X is 1,4-trans-cyclohexylene, 1,4-phenylene or 4,4'-cyclohexylphenyl are liquid crystalline compounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1981
    Date of Patent: May 3, 1983
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschraenkter Haftung
    Inventors: Rudolf Eidenschink, Ludwig Pohl
  • Patent number: 4331552
    Abstract: Partially hydrogenated oligo-1,4-phenylenes of the formula ##STR1## wherein n is 1 or 2, the rings A and B are identical or different and are trans-4-alkylcyclohexyl or 4-alkylcyclohex-1-enyl, and the alkyl groups in each case are of up to 10 carbon atoms, have valuable liquid crystalline properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1980
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1982
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Rudolf Eidenschink, Ludwig Pohl, Michael Romer, Fernando del Pino
  • Patent number: 4330426
    Abstract: Compounds of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl of 1-12 C atoms and R.sub.2 is an optionally perfluorinated alkyl, alkoxy or alkanoyloxy group, each of 1-12 C atoms are valuable liquid crystalline components for broadening the mesophase temperature range of liquid crystalline dielectrics having negative dielectric anisotropy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 1980
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1982
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Rudolf Eidenschink, Dietrich Erdmann, Joachim Krause, Ludwig Pohl
  • Patent number: 4302352
    Abstract: Fluorophenylcyclohexanes of the formula ##STR1## wherein R is alkyl of 1 to 17 carbon atoms and Z is carbonyl or methylene, are valuable components for use in liquid crystal dielectrics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1980
    Date of Patent: November 24, 1981
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit Beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Rudolf Eidenschink, Ludwig Pohl
  • Patent number: 4297515
    Abstract: Diketones of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl, perfluoroalkyl or alkoxy, each of 1-18 carbon atoms; R.sub.2 is alkyl or perfluoroalkyl, each of 1-12 carbon atoms; and X is 1,4-trans-cyclohexylene, 1,4-phenylene or 4,4'-cyclohexylphenyl are liquid crystalline compounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1980
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1981
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit Beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Rudolf Eidenschink, Ludwig Pohl
  • Patent number: 4285829
    Abstract: A liquid-crystalline dielectric having a positive dielectric anisotropy comprises a biphenyl derivative of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl of 1-4 C atoms or alkoxy of 1-3 C atoms, and a phenylcyclohexane derivative of the formula ##STR2## wherein R.sub.2 is alkyl of 1-4 C atoms, in a weight ratio of 3:1 to 1:3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1979
    Date of Patent: August 25, 1981
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Rudolf Eidenschink, Ludwig Pohl, Georg Weber, Fernando Del Pino
  • Patent number: 4237026
    Abstract: Carboxylic acid esters of the formula ##STR1## in which one of A or B is 1,4-disubstituted phenyl and the other is trans-1,4-disubstituted cyclohexane and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are independently each alkyl of 1-10 carbon atoms have liquid crystalline properties and are valuable components of liquid crystalline dielectrics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1979
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1980
    Assignee: Merck Patent Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
    Inventors: Rudolf Eidenschink, Joachim Krause, Ludwig Pohl