Patents by Inventor Nicholas A. Kotov

Nicholas A. Kotov has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 11111343
    Abstract: Branched aramid nanofibers (ANFs) can be made by controlled chemical splitting of micro and macroscale aramid fiber by adjusting the reaction media containing aprotic component, protic component and a base. Branched ANFs have uniform size distribution of diameters in the nanoscale regime (below 200 nm) and high yield exceeding 95% of the nanofibers with this diameter. The method affords preparation of branched ANFs with 3-20 branches per one nanofiber and high aspect ratio. Branched ANFs form hydrogel or aerogels with highly porous 3D percolating networks (3DPNs) frameworks that are made into different shapes. Polymers and nanomaterials are impregnated into the 3DPNs through several methods. Gelation of branched ANFs facilitates layer-by-layer deposition in a process described as gelation assisted layer-by-layer deposition (gaLBL). A method of manufacturing battery components including ion conducting membranes, separators, anodes, and cathodes is described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2021
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Nicholas A. Kotov, Jian Zhu, Siu on Tung
  • Publication number: 20210269708
    Abstract: A metamaterial shell architected on a core particle (comprising organic or inorganic material) so as to form a novel class of structurally hierarchical particle that has degrees of freedom in design parameters stemming from effective optical response of the metamaterial shell and from the electromagnetic modes in the core to elicit optical behaviours that are not easily achievable and designable in particles having simpler or smoother geometries.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 1, 2021
    Publication date: September 2, 2021
    Applicants: California Institute of Technology, Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Alireza Marandi, Joon Hwan Bang, Saman Jahani, Nicholas Kotov, Douglas G. Montjoy
  • Publication number: 20210231852
    Abstract: Material-Sensing Light Imaging, Detection, And Ranging (LIDAR) systems optionally include a laser configured to generate a light pulse, a beam steerer configured to produce a polarization-adjusted light pulse emitted towards an object, at least one polarizer configured to polarize reflected, scattered, or emitted light returned from the object, and a processor configured to detect at least one material of the object based on an intensity and polarization of the polarized reflected, scattered or emitted light from the object. The beam steerer may include a kirigami nanocomposite. Methods are also provided, including, for example, generating a light pulse, adjusting a polarization of the light pulse to produce a polarization-adjusted light pulse emitted towards an object, polarizing reflected, scattered, or emitted light returned from the object, and detecting at least one material of the object based on an intensity and polarization of the polarized reflected, scattered or emitted light from the object.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 15, 2021
    Publication date: July 29, 2021
    Applicant: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Nicholas A. KOTOV, Sharon GLOTZER, Brian SHAHBAZIAN, Ryan BRANCH, Lizhi XU, Wonjin CHOI, Minjeong CHA, Matthew SPELLINGS
  • Publication number: 20210180117
    Abstract: Provided herein are compositions, systems, and methods for detecting microorganisms. In particular, provided herein are compositions, systems, and methods for rapid, multiplex detection of microorganism in unpurified biological samples.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 6, 2018
    Publication date: June 17, 2021
    Inventors: Nicholas Kotov, Jeremy Scott VanEpps, Kevin Ward
  • Patent number: 10983219
    Abstract: Material-Sensing Light Imaging, Detection, And Ranging (LIDAR) systems optionally include a laser configured to generate a light pulse, a beam steerer configured to produce a polarization-adjusted light pulse emitted towards an object, at least one polarizer configured to polarize reflected, scattered, or emitted light returned from the object, and a processor configured to detect at least one material of the object based on an intensity and polarization of the polarized reflected, scattered or emitted light from the object. The beam steerer may include a kirigami nanocomposite. Methods are also provided, including, for example, generating a light pulse, adjusting a polarization of the light pulse to produce a polarization-adjusted light pulse emitted towards an object, polarizing reflected, scattered, or emitted light returned from the object, and detecting at least one material of the object based on an intensity and polarization of the polarized reflected, scattered or emitted light from the object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 20, 2021
    Assignee: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Nicholas A. Kotov, Sharon Glotzer, Brian Shahbazian, Ryan Branch, Lizhi Xu, Wonjin Choi, Minjeong Cha, Matthew Spellings
  • Patent number: 10935432
    Abstract: Kirigami-based optic devices are provided that include a tunable kirigami-based component comprising a plurality of bridge structures and a plurality of openings therebetween to form a grating structure. At least one surface of the kirigami-based component is micropatterned with a plasmonic material so that the grating is configured to induce or modulate rotational polarity of a beam of electromagnetic radiation as it passes through the plurality of openings. In certain aspects, the micropattern may be a gold herringbone pattern. The kirigami-based component has tunable 3D topography, which when stretched, exhibits polarization rotation angles as high as 80° and ellipticity angles as high as 34° due to the topological equivalency of helix.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2021
    Assignee: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Nicholas A. Kotov, Theodore B. Norris, Gong Cheng, Wonjin Choi
  • Publication number: 20200386892
    Abstract: Material-Sensing Light Imaging, Detection, And Ranging (LIDAR) systems optionally include a laser configured to generate a light pulse, a beam steerer configured to produce a polarization-adjusted light pulse emitted towards an object, at least one polarizer configured to polarize reflected, scattered, or emitted light returned from the object, and a processor configured to detect at least one material of the object based on an intensity and polarization of the polarized reflected, scattered or emitted light from the object. The beam steerer may include a kirigami nanocomposite. Methods are also provided, including, for example, generating a light pulse, adjusting a polarization of the light pulse to produce a polarization-adjusted light pulse emitted towards an object, polarizing reflected, scattered, or emitted light returned from the object, and detecting at least one material of the object based on an intensity and polarization of the polarized reflected, scattered or emitted light from the object.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 12, 2018
    Publication date: December 10, 2020
    Applicant: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Nicholas A. KOTOV, Sharon GLOTZER, Brian SHAHBAZIAN, Ryan BRANCH, Lizhi XU, Wonjin CHOI, Minjeong CHA, Matthew SPELLINGS
  • Patent number: 10795186
    Abstract: Optical materials for optical devices are provided that comprise a plurality of hedgehog-shaped microparticles. Each hedgehog microparticle comprises a core region formed of a first material having a first refractive index and a plurality of needles connected to and substantially orthogonal to a surface of the core region. The needles comprise a second material having a second refractive index. The optical material enhances forward scattering of a predetermined wavelength of light, while suppressing backscattering of the predetermined wavelength of light. Methods of controlling transparency in an optical material comprising a plurality of hedgehog microparticles, while suppressing backscattering are also provided. Spectral tuning with use of such optical materials is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2017
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2020
    Assignee: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Nicholas A. Kotov, Joong Hwan Bahng
  • Patent number: 10743786
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides a method of fabricating an implantable micro-component electrode. The method includes disposing an electrically non-conductive material directly onto a surface of an electrically conductive carbon fiber core to generate an electrically non-conductive coating on the electrically conductive carbon fiber core, and removing a portion of the electrically non-conductive coating to expose a region of the electrically conductive carbon fiber core. The micro-component electrode has at least one dimension of less than or equal to about 10 ?m.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 18, 2020
    Assignee: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Daryl R. Kipke, Takashi Daniel Yoshida Kozai, Nick Langhals, Joerg Lahann, Nicholas A. Kotov, Xiaopei Deng, Paras Patel
  • Publication number: 20200254527
    Abstract: Self-assembly methods are provided for making hedgehog-shaped microparticles or nanoparticles. The method may comprise combining a metal-containing (e.g., Fe, Au) precursor, a chalcogen-containing precursor (e.g., Se, S), and a self-assembly additive (e.g., dodecanethiol (DT), oleylamine (OLA), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)). At least one hedgehog-shaped nanoscale, mesoscale, or microscale particle is formed that defines a core region formed of a first material and a plurality of needles connected to and substantially orthogonal to a surface of the core region. The needles comprise a second material. At least one of the first or the second material comprises iron or gold and optionally selenium or sulfur, for example, iron diselenide (FeSe2). Hedgehog-shaped microparticles or nanoparticles formed from such self-assembly methods are also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 27, 2018
    Publication date: August 13, 2020
    Applicant: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Nicholas A. KOTOV, Dawei DENG, Wenfeng JIANG, Douglas MONTJOY
  • Patent number: 10651449
    Abstract: Ion conducting membranes based on aramid nanofibers (ANFs) can be prepared using layer-by-layer assembly, sol-gel processing, evaporation, spin coating, doctor blading, or other methods. Porosity is controlled through choice of additives and processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 12, 2020
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Nicholas A. Kotov, Siu-On Tung, Szu-Shen Ho, Samantha Rahmani
  • Patent number: 10629324
    Abstract: New stretchable electrically conductive composite materials comprising at least one polymer and a plurality of nanoparticles are provided, which exhibit high conductivity even at high strain levels. The composite may comprise polyurethane as the polymer and spherical gold nanoparticles. Such materials have conductivity levels as high as 11,000 Scm?1 at 0% strain and 2,400 Scm?1 at 110% strain. Furthermore, certain embodiments of the composite have a maximum tensile strain of 480% while still exhibiting conductivity of 35 Scm?1. The inventive materials are highly flexible, highly conductive and suitable for a variety of applications, especially for advanced medical devices, implants, and flexible electronics. The disclosure also provides methods of making such stretchable electrically conductive nanocomposites, including formation by layer-by-layer and vacuum assisted flocculation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2020
    Assignee: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Nicholas A. Kotov, Yoonseob Kim, Jian Zhu, Matthew Di Prima, Bongjun Yeom
  • Publication number: 20200025618
    Abstract: Kirigami-based optic devices are provided that include a tunable kirigami-based component comprising a plurality of bridge structures and a plurality of openings therebetween to form a grating structure. At least one surface of the kirigami-based component is micropatterned with a plasmonic material so that the grating is configured to induce or modulate rotational polarity of a beam of electromagnetic radiation as it passes through the plurality of openings. In certain aspects, the micropattern may be a gold herringbone pattern. The kirigami-based component has tunable 3D topography, which when stretched, exhibits polarization rotation angles as high as 80° and ellipticity angles as high as 34° due to the topological equivalency of helix.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 22, 2019
    Publication date: January 23, 2020
    Inventors: Nicholas A. KOTOV, Theodore B. NORRIS, Gong CHENG, Wonjin CHOI
  • Publication number: 20190256369
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides a biomimetic composite that includes a plurality of nanostructures each having at least one axial geometry region comprising an inorganic material. The nanostructures may be a plurality of substantially aligned (e.g., in a vertical orientation) axial geometry nanowires comprising zinc oxide or alternatively hedgehog-shaped nanoparticles with needles comprising zinc oxide. A polymeric matrix disposed in void regions defined between respective nanostructures of the plurality of nanostructures. The biomimetic composite exhibits a viscoelastic figure of merit (VFOM) of greater than or equal to about 0.001 up to about 0.6 or greater. Methods of making such biomimetic composites are also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 22, 2019
    Publication date: August 22, 2019
    Inventors: Nicholas A. KOTOV, Bongjun YEOM
  • Patent number: 10279394
    Abstract: New methods of forming chiral nanoparticles (e.g., nano structures) are provided. The method comprises directing circular polarized light (CPL) towards a nanoparticle precursor to cause a photo induced reaction of the nanoparticle precursor and induce chirality to form a stable chiral nanoparticle. In this manner, CPL is used to template chirality onto nanoparticles without use of any chiral component or chiral ligands for inducing chirality to the particle in such a method. The nanoparticles may include a variety of light-absorbing materials (e.g., CdTe, CdS, Au, and the like). Such methods provide a rapid, simple, and inexpensive way of forming chiral nanoparticles that have long term chiral stability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 7, 2019
    Assignee: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Nicholas A. Kotov, Jihyeon Yeom
  • Publication number: 20190085139
    Abstract: Branched aramid nanofibers (ANFs) can be made by controlled chemical splitting of micro and macroscale aramid fiber by adjusting the reaction media containing aprotic component, protic component and a base. Branched ANFs have uniform size distribution of diameters in the nanoscale regime (below 200 nm) and high yield exceeding 95% of the nanofibers with this diameter. The method affords preparation of branched ANFs with 3-20 branches per one nanofiber and high aspect ratio. Branched ANFs form hydrogel or aerogels with highly porous 3D percolating networks (3DPNs) frameworks that are made into different shapes. Polymers and nanomaterials are impregnated into the 3DPNs through several methods. Gelation of branched ANFs facilitates layer-by-layer deposition in a process described as gelation assisted layer-by-layer deposition (gaLBL). A method of manufacturing battery components including ion conducting membranes, separators, anodes, and cathodes is described.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 29, 2016
    Publication date: March 21, 2019
    Inventors: Nicholas A. Kotov, Jian Zhu, Siu on Tung
  • Patent number: 10160833
    Abstract: Dissociation of a macroscale version of an aramid fiber leads to the nanofiber form of this polymer. Indefinitely stable dispersions of uniform high-aspect-ratio aramid nanofibers (ANFs) with diameters between 3 and 30 nm controlled by the media composition and up to 10 ?m in length are obtained. ANFs can be processed in transparent thin films using layer-by-layer assembly (LBL) with superior mechanical performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 25, 2018
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of Michigan
    Inventors: Nicholas A. Kotov, Ming Yang, Keqin Cao, Michael D. Thouless, Ellen M. Arruda, Anthony M. Waas, Carlos A. Pons Siepermann, Ryan M. Anderson
  • Publication number: 20180177417
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides a method of fabricating an implantable micro-component electrode. The method includes disposing an electrically non-conductive material directly onto a surface of an electrically conductive carbon fiber core to generate an electrically non-conductive coating on the electrically conductive carbon fiber core, and removing a portion of the electrically non-conductive coating to expose a region of the electrically conductive carbon fiber core. The micro-component electrode has at least one dimension of less than or equal to about 10 ?m.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 19, 2018
    Publication date: June 28, 2018
    Applicant: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Daryl R. KIPKE, Takashi Daniel Yoshida KOZAI, Nick LANGHALS, Joerg LAHANN, Nicholas A. KOTOV, Xiaopei DENG, Paras PATEL
  • Publication number: 20180174699
    Abstract: New stretchable electrically conductive composite materials comprising at least one polymer and a plurality of nanoparticles are provided, which exhibit high conductivity even at high strain levels. The composite may comprise polyurethane as the polymer and spherical gold nanoparticles. Such materials have conductivity levels as high as 11,000 Scm?1 at 0% strain and 2,400 Scm?1 at 110% strain. Furthermore, certain embodiments of the composite have a maximum tensile strain of 480% while still exhibiting conductivity of 35 Scm?1. The inventive materials are highly flexible, highly conductive and suitable for a variety of applications, especially for advanced medical devices, implants, and flexible electronics. The disclosure also provides methods of making such stretchable electrically conductive nanocomposites, including formation by layer-by-layer and vacuum assisted flocculation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 19, 2018
    Publication date: June 21, 2018
    Applicant: The Regents of The University of Michigan
    Inventors: Nicholas A. Kotov, Yoonseob Kim, Jian Zhu, Matthew Di Prima, Bongjun Yeom
  • Publication number: 20180149887
    Abstract: Optical materials for optical devices are provided that comprise a plurality of hedgehog-shaped microparticles. Each hedgehog microparticle comprises a core region formed of a first material having a first refractive index and a plurality of needles connected to and substantially orthogonal to a surface of the core region. The needles comprise a second material having a second refractive index. The optical material enhances forward scattering of a predetermined wavelength of light, while suppressing backscattering of the predetermined wavelength of light. Methods of controlling transparency in an optical material comprising a plurality of hedgehog microparticles, while suppressing backscattering are also provided. Spectral tuning with use of such optical materials is also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 29, 2017
    Publication date: May 31, 2018
    Applicant: The Regents of The University of Michigan
    Inventors: Nicholas A. Kotov, Joong Hwan Bahng