Patents by Inventor Robert E. Johnston

Robert E. Johnston has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 10987501
    Abstract: Certain embodiments according to the present invention provide sleeve devices suitable for a wide range of therapeutic uses. In accordance with certain embodiments, the therapeutic sleeve device includes a nanofiber fabric assembly, which defines a plurality of pores, and at least one layer of cells embedded in the nanofiber fabric assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 2019
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2021
    Assignee: The Johns Hopkins University
    Inventors: Chao-Wei Hwang, Zhiyong Xia, Virginia E. Bogdan, Jeffrey A. Brinker, Gary Gerstenblith, Peter V. Johnston, Steven P. Schulman, Gordon Tomaselli, Robert G. Weiss
  • Patent number: 8821897
    Abstract: The present invention provides viral adjuvants for enhancing an immune response to an immunogen. In particular embodiments, the viral adjuvant is an alphavirus adjuvant or a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis viral adjuvant. Also provided are compositions comprising the viral adjuvant and an immunogen, and pharmaceutical formulations comprising the viral adjuvant or compositions of the invention in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Further provided are methods of producing an immune response against an immunogen in a subject comprising administering the immunogen and a viral adjuvant of the invention to the subject.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 24, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2014
    Assignee: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Joseph M. Thompson
  • Patent number: 8486420
    Abstract: The present invention provides novel self-replicating and self-propagating chimeric viral vectors and chimeric virus particles comprising a modified genome of a carrier RNA virus packaged within structural proteins of a second virus. Also provided are pharmaceutical formulations comprising the chimeric viral vectors and virus particles and methods of inducing an immune response by administration of the same to a subject.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2013
    Assignees: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Children's Hospital, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Philip R. Johnson, Christy K. Jurgens, Kelly Young Poe
  • Publication number: 20120121650
    Abstract: The present invention provides novel self-replicating and self-propagating chimeric viral vectors and chimeric virus particles comprising a modified genome of a carrier RNA virus packaged within structural proteins of a second virus. Also provided are pharmaceutical formulations comprising the chimeric viral vectors and virus particles and methods of inducing an immune response by administration of the chimeric viral vectors and virus particles or nucleic acids (e.g., DNA and/or RNA) encoding the same to the subject.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 16, 2007
    Publication date: May 17, 2012
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Christy Jurgens, Kelly Young Poe
  • Publication number: 20110064772
    Abstract: The present invention provides viral adjuvants for enhancing an immune response to an immunogen. In particular embodiments, the viral adjuvant is an alphavirus adjuvant or a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis viral adjuvant. Also provided are compositions comprising the viral adjuvant and an immunogen, and pharmaceutical formulations comprising the viral adjuvant or compositions of the invention in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Further provided are methods of producing an immune response against an immunogen in a subject comprising administering the immunogen and a viral adjuvant of the invention to the subject.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 24, 2010
    Publication date: March 17, 2011
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Joseph M. Thompson
  • Patent number: 7862829
    Abstract: The present invention provides viral adjuvants for enhancing an immune response to an immunogen. In particular embodiments, the viral adjuvant is an alphavirus adjuvant or a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis viral adjuvant. Also provided are compositions comprising the viral adjuvant and an immunogen, and pharmaceutical formulations comprising the viral adjuvant or compositions of the invention in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Further provided are methods of producing an immune response against an immunogen in a subject comprising administering the immunogen and a viral adjuvant of the invention to the subject.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2011
    Assignee: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Joseph M. Thompson
  • Patent number: 7651998
    Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods for delivering a nucleotide sequence to a cell using an alphavirus vector that is complexed with an enhancing antibody that specifically binds to the alphavirus vector. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis vectors are preferred. The cell may be a cell in vitro or in vivo. Alternatively, the cell may be removed from a subject, administered the alphavirus vector ex vivo and then administered to a subject. Antigen-presenting cells are preferred, with dendritic cells being more preferred. Also provided are methods of producing an immune response in a subject, e.g., for producing an immune response against an antigen associated with a pathogen or for immunotherapy of cancer of tumors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 26, 2010
    Assignee: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Inventors: Gene H. MacDonald, Robert E. Johnston
  • Publication number: 20090162395
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to alphavirus vectored vaccine contructs encoding paramyxovirus proteins that find use in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus or human metapneumovirus infections. In particular, these vaccines induce cellular and humoral immune responses that inhibit RSV. Also disclosed are improved methods for producing alphavirus vectored paramyxovirus vaccines.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2008
    Publication date: June 25, 2009
    Inventors: James E. Crowe, JR., Hoyin Mok, Robert E. Johnston, John V. Williams, Nancy L. Davis
  • Publication number: 20080279891
    Abstract: The present invention provides viral adjuvants for enhancing an immune response to an immunogen. In particular embodiments, the viral adjuvant is an alphavirus adjuvant or a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis viral adjuvant. Also provided are compositions comprising the viral adjuvant and an immunogen, and pharmaceutical formulations comprising the viral adjuvant or compositions of the invention in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Further provided are methods of producing an immune response against an immunogen in a subject comprising administering the immunogen and a viral adjuvant of the invention to the subject.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 8, 2005
    Publication date: November 13, 2008
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Joseph M. Thompson
  • Publication number: 20080260775
    Abstract: The present invention provides novel self-replicating and self-propagating chimeric viral vectors and chimeric virus particles comprising a modified genome of a carrier RNA virus packaged within structural proteins of a second virus. Also provided are pharmaceutical formulations comprising the chimeric viral vectors and virus particles and methods of inducing an immune response by administration of the same to a subject.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 15, 2006
    Publication date: October 23, 2008
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Philip R. Johnson
  • Patent number: 7235235
    Abstract: The present invention provides a helper cell for expressing an infectious, replication defective, alphavirus particle in an alphavirus-permissive cell. The helper cell includes (a) a first helper RNA encoding (i) at least one alphavirus structural protein, and (ii) not encoding at least one alphavirus structural protein; and (b) a second helper RNA separate from the first helper RNA, the second helper RNA (i) not encoding the alphavirus structural protein encoded by the first helper RNA, and (ii) encoding the at least alphavirus one structural protein not encoded by the first helper RNA, such that all of the alphavirus structural proteins assemble together into alphavirus particles in the cell. Preferably, the helper cell also includes a replicon RNA encoding an alphavirus packaging sequence and an inserted heterogeneous RNA.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2007
    Assignee: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Nancy L. Davis, Jonathan F. Smith, Peter Pushko, Michael Parker, George Ludwig
  • Patent number: 7106232
    Abstract: A diversity receiver circuit system (10) including a primary channel (20) and a diversity channel (22), where analog input signals are converted to differential signals in both channels (20, 22). The receiver circuit system (10) includes a multiplexer (14) and a variable gain amplifier (12) formed on a single RF integrated circuit chip (16), where the multiplexer (14) is positioned before the amplifier (12). The differential signals in the primary channel (20) and the diversity channel (22) are applied to an amplified path (72, 78) and a non-amplified path (76, 82) in the multiplexer (14). A control signal selects one of the amplified primary channel signal, the non-amplified primary channel signal, the amplified diversity channel signal or the non-amplified diversity channel signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2006
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Harry S. Harberts, David L. Gannon, Robert E. Johnston, William R. Goyette, Colin S. Phan
  • Patent number: 6982087
    Abstract: Provided herein are alphavirus vectors derived from South African Arbovirus No. 86 (S.A.AR86) comprising attenuating mutations and methods of making the same. Also provided are improved viral vectors and helper constructs comprising a S.A.AR86 capsid enhancer sequence. The present invention also provides S.A.AR86 replicon and helper constructs comprising an alphavirus capsid enhancer sequence. Further provided are methods of administering an alphavirus vector comprising a heterologous nucleotide sequence (preferably encoding an immunogen or a therapeutic polypeptide) according to the invention to a cell or subject. In preferred embodiments, the alphavirus vector delivers the heterologous nucleotide sequence to the cells of the bone, bone marrow, and/or bone-associated connective tissue.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 3, 2006
    Assignee: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Mark T. Heise, Dennis Simpson
  • Patent number: 6844188
    Abstract: The present invention provides methods of preventing and/or treating cancers (including tumors). In one preferred embodiment, the invention is practiced to induce regression of an existing cancer or tumor and/or to prevent metastasis and/or to prevent growth of metastatic nodules. In other preferred embodiments, the invention may be used as a prophylaxis to prevent the development of primary cancers through a childhood or adult vaccination program against specific tumor antigens for cancers with high incidences. In an alternate preferred embodiment, the present invention provides methods of establishing an immune response against a universal artificial tumor antigen through a childhood or adult vaccine program, thus providing a long-term immune response that can be utilized at any point to treat any cancer which develops later in life. The present invention also provides cancer and tumor cells stably expressing an artificial antigen, preferably an artificial cell-surface antigen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 18, 2005
    Assignee: University of North Carolina at CHapel Hill
    Inventors: Gene H. MacDonald, Brian K. Martin, Robert E. Johnston, Jenny P.-Y. Ting
  • Publication number: 20040121466
    Abstract: The present invention provides a helper cell for expressing an infectious, replication defective, alphavirus particle in an alphavirus-permissive cell. The helper cell includes (a) a first helper RNA encoding (i) at least one alphavirus structural protein, and (ii) not encoding at least one alphavirus structural protein; and (b) a second helper RNA separate from the first helper RNA, the second helper RNA (i) not encoding the alphavirus structural protein encoded by the first helper RNA, and (ii) encoding the at least one alphavirus structural protein not encoded by the first helper RNA. Preferably, the helper cell is co-transfected with a replicon RNA encoding an alphavirus packaging segment and an inserted heterogeneous RNA, such that all of the alphavirus structural proteins assemble together into alphavirus particles in the cell, with said replicon RNA packaged therein.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 10, 2003
    Publication date: June 24, 2004
    Applicant: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Nancy L. Davis, Jonathan F. Smith, Peter Pushko, Michael Parker, George Ludwig
  • Publication number: 20040030117
    Abstract: Provided herein are alphavirus vectors derived from South African Arbovirus No. 86 (S.A.AR86) comprising attenuating mutations and methods of making the same. Also provided are improved viral vectors and helper constructs comprising a S.A.AR86 capsid enhancer sequence. The present invention also provides S.A.AR86 replicon and helper constructs comprising an alphavirus capsid enhancer sequence. Further provided are methods of administering an alphavirus vector comprising a heterologous nucleotide sequence (preferably encoding an immunogen or a therapeutic polypeptide) according to the invention to a cell or subject. In preferred embodiments, the alphavirus vector delivers the heterologous nucleotide sequence to the cells of the bone, bone marrow, and/or bone-associated connective tissue.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 7, 2003
    Publication date: February 12, 2004
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Mark T. Heise, Dennis Simpson
  • Publication number: 20030232036
    Abstract: The present invention provides a helper cell for expressing an infectious, replication defective, alphavirus particle in an alphavirus-permissive cell. The helper cell includes (a) a first helper RNA encoding (i) at least one alphavirus structural protein, and (ii) not encoding at least one alphavirus structural protein; and (b) a second helper RNA separate from the first helper RNA, the second helper RNA (i) not encoding the alphavirus structural protein encoded by the first helper RNA, and (ii) encoding the at least alphavirus one structural protein not encoded by the first helper RNA, such that all of the alphavirus structural proteins assemble together into alphavirus particles in the cell. Preferably, the helper cell also includes a replicon RNA encoding an alphavirus packaging sequence and an inserted heterogeneous RNA.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2003
    Publication date: December 18, 2003
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Nancy L. Davis, Jonathan F. Smith, Peter Pushko, Michael Parker, George Ludwig
  • Publication number: 20030185250
    Abstract: A diversity receiver circuit system (10) including a primary channel (20) and a diversity channel (22), where analog input signals are converted to differential signals in both channels (20, 22). The receiver circuit system (10) includes a multiplexer (14) and a variable gain amplifier (12) formed on a single RF integrated circuit chip (16), where the multiplexer (14) is positioned before the amplifier (12). The differential signals in the primary channel (20) and the diversity channel (22) are applied to an amplified path (72, 78) and a non-amplified path (76, 82) in the multiplexer (14). A control signal selects one of the amplified primary channel signal, the non-amplified primary channel signal, the amplified diversity channel signal or the non-amplified diversity channel signal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 2, 2002
    Publication date: October 2, 2003
    Inventors: Harry S. Harberts, David L. Gannon, Robert E. Johnston, William R. Goyette, Colin S. Phan
  • Patent number: 6583121
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method of delivering immunogenic or therapeutic proteins to bone marrow cells using alphavirus vectors. The alphavirus vectors disclosed herein target specifically to bone marrow tissue, and viral genomes persist in bone marrow for at least three months post-infection. No or very low levels of virus were detected in quadricep, brain, and sera of treated animals. The sequence of a consensus Sindbis cDNA clone, pTR339, and infectious RNA transcripts, infectious virus particles, and pharmaceutical formulations derived therefrom are also disclosed. The sequence of the genomic RNA of the Girdwood S.A. virus, and cDNA clones, infectious RNA transcripts, infectious virus particles, and pharmaceutical formulations derived therefrom are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2003
    Assignee: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Nancy L. Davis, Dennis A. Simpson
  • Patent number: 6541010
    Abstract: The present invention provides a helper cell for expressing an infectious, replication defective, alphavirus particle in an alphavirus-permissive cell. The helper cell includes (a) a first helper RNA encoding (i) at least one alphavirus structural protein, and (ii) not encoding at least one alphavirus structural protein; and (b) a second helper RNA separate from the first helper RNA, the second helper RNA (i) not encoding the alphavirus structural protein encoded by the first helper RNA, and (ii) encoding the at least one alphavirus structural protein not encoded by the first helper RNA. Preferably, the helper cell is co-transfected with a replicon RNA encoding an alphavirus packaging segment and an inserted heterogeneous RNA, such that all of the alphavirus structural proteins assemble together into alphavirus particles in the cell, with said replicon RNA packaged therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2003
    Assignee: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Inventors: Robert E. Johnston, Nancy L. Davis, Jonathan F. Smith, Peter Pushko, Michael Parker, George Ludwig