Patents by Inventor Santosh G. Abraham

Santosh G. Abraham has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 7930694
    Abstract: Intelligent prediction of critical sections is implemented using a method comprising updating a critical section estimator based on historical analysis of atomic/store instruction pairs during runtime and performing lock elision when the critical section estimator indicates that the atomic/store instruction pairs define a critical section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2011
    Assignee: Oracle America, Inc.
    Inventors: Craig S. Anderson, Santosh G. Abraham, Stevan Vlaovic
  • Patent number: 7827383
    Abstract: In one embodiment, a processor comprises execution circuitry and a translation lookaside buffer (TLB) coupled to the execution circuitry. The execution circuitry is configured to execute a store instruction having a data operand; and the execution circuitry is configured to generate a virtual address as part of executing the store instruction. The TLB is coupled to receive the virtual address and configured to translate the virtual address to a first physical address. Additionally, the TLB is coupled to receive the data operand and to translate the data operand to a second physical address. A hardware accelerator is also contemplated in various embodiments, as is a processor coupled to the hardware accelerator, a method, and a computer readable medium storing instruction which, when executed, implement a portion of the method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2010
    Assignee: Oracle America, Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence A. Spracklen, Santosh G. Abraham, Adam R. Talcott
  • Patent number: 7809895
    Abstract: In one embodiment, a method is contemplated. Access to a hardware accelerator is requested by a user-privileged thread. Access to the hardware accelerator is granted to the user-privileged thread by a higher-privileged thread responsive to the requesting. One or more commands are communicated to the hardware accelerator by the user-privileged thread without intervention by higher-privileged threads and responsive to the grant of access. The one or more commands cause the hardware accelerator to perform one or more tasks. Computer readable media comprises instructions which, when executed, implement portions of the method are also contemplated in various embodiments, as is a hardware accelerator and a processor coupled to the hardware accelerator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 5, 2010
    Assignee: Oracle America, Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence A. Spracklen, Adam R. Talcott, Santosh G. Abraham, Sothea Soun, Sanjay Patel, Farnad Sajjadian
  • Patent number: 7793044
    Abstract: In accordance with one embodiment, an enhanced chip multiprocessor permits an L1 cache to request ownership of a data line from a shared L2 cache. A determination is made whether to deny or grant the request for ownership based on the sharing of the data line. In one embodiment, the sharing of the data line is determined from an enhanced L2 cache directory entry associated with the data line. If ownership of the data line is granted, the current data line is passed from the shared L2 to the requesting L1 cache and an associated enhanced L1 cache directory entry and the enhanced L2 cache directory entry are updated to reflect the L1 cache ownership of the data line. Consequently, updates of the data line by the L1 cache do not go through the shared L2 cache, thus reducing transaction pressure on the shared L2 cache.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2010
    Assignee: Oracle America, Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence A. Spracklen, Yuan C. Chou, Santosh G. Abraham
  • Patent number: 7757047
    Abstract: Maintaining a cache of indications of exclusively-owned coherence state for memory space units (e.g., cache line) allows reduction, if not elimination, of delay from missing store operations. In addition, the indications are maintained without corresponding data of the memory space unit, thus allowing representation of a large memory space with a relatively small missing store operation accelerator. With the missing store operation accelerator, a store operation, which misses in low-latency memory (e.g., L1 or L2 cache), proceeds as if the targeted memory space unit resides in the low-latency memory, if indicated in the missing store operation accelerator. When a store operation misses in low-latency memory and hits in the accelerator, a positive acknowledgement is transmitted to the writing processing unit allowing the store operation to proceed. An entry is allocated for the store operation, the store data is written into the allocated entry, and the target of the store operation is requested from memory.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 13, 2010
    Assignee: Oracle America, Inc.
    Inventors: Santosh G. Abraham, Lawrence A. Spracklen, Yuan C. Chou
  • Patent number: 7543112
    Abstract: The storage of data line in one or more L1 caches and/or a shared L2 cache of a chip multiprocessor is dynamically optimized based on the sharing of the data line. In one embodiment, an enhanced L2 cache directory entry associated with the data line is generated in an L2 cache directory of the shared L2 cache. The enhanced L2 cache directory entry includes a cache mask indicating a storage state of the data line in the one or more L1 caches and the shared L2 cache. In some embodiments, where the data line is stored in the shared L2 cache only, a portion of the cache mask indicates a storage history of the data line in the one or more L2 caches.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2009
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Yuan C. Chou, Santosh G. Abraham, Lawrence A. Spracklen
  • Patent number: 7529911
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention provides a system that improves the effectiveness of prefetching during execution of instructions in scout mode. Upon encountering a non-data dependent stall condition, the system performs a checkpoint and commences execution of instructions in scout mode, wherein instructions are speculatively executed to prefetch future memory operations, but wherein results are not committed to the architectural state of a processor. When the system executes a load instruction during scout mode, if the load instruction causes a lower-level cache miss, the system allows the load instruction to access a higher-level cache. Next, the system places the load instruction and subsequent dependent instructions into a deferred queue, and resumes execution of the program in scout mode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2009
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence A. Spracklen, Yuan C. Chou, Santosh G. Abraham
  • Patent number: 7475230
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention provides a system that performs register file checkpointing to support speculative execution within a processor. During operation, the system commences speculative execution of a program from a point of speculation, at which the outcome of a long latency instruction is speculatively predicted. During this speculative execution, registers are updated by checkpointing an old value of the register, if the register has not already been checkpointed, and then updating the architectural state of the register with the new value. In this way, only registers that are updated during the speculative execution are checkpointed, instead of checkpointing all of the architectural registers prior to commencing speculative execution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 6, 2009
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Yuan C. Chou, Santosh G. Abraham
  • Patent number: 7472256
    Abstract: Profile information can be used to target read operations that cause a substantial portion of misses in a program. A software value prediction technique that utilizes latency and is applied to the targeted read operations facilitates aggressive speculative execution without significant performance impact and without hardware support. A software value predictor issues prefetches for targeted read operations during speculative execution, and utilizes values from these prefetches during subsequent speculative execution, since the earlier prefectches should have completed, to update a software value prediction structure(s). Such a software based value prediction technique allows for aggressive speculative execution without the overhead of a hardware value predictor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2008
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Sreekumar R. Nair, Santosh G. Abraham
  • Patent number: 7434031
    Abstract: RAW aliasing can be predicted with register bypassing based at least in part on execution displacement alias prediction. Repeated aliasing between read and write operations (e.g., within a loop), can be reliably predicted based on displacement between the aliasing operations. Performing register bypassing for predicted to alias operations facilitates faster RAW bypassing and mitigates the performance impact of aliasing read operations. The repeated aliasing between operations is tracked along with register information of the aliasing write operations. After exceeding a confidence threshold, an instance of a read operation is predicted to alias with an instance of a write operation in accordance with the previously observed repeated aliasing. Based on displacement between the instances of the operations, the register information of the write operation instance is used to bypass data to the read operation instance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2008
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence A. Spracklen, Santosh G. Abraham, Stevan Vlaovic
  • Patent number: 7434004
    Abstract: Predicting prefetch data sources for runahead execution triggering read operations eliminates the latency penalties of missing read operations that typically are not addressed by runahead execution mechanisms. Read operations that most likely trigger runahead execution are identified. The code unit that includes those triggering read operations is modified so that the code unit branches to a prefetch predictor. The prefetch predictor observes sequence patterns of data sources of triggering read operations and develops prefetch predictions based on the observed data source sequence patterns. After a prefetch prediction gains reliability, the prefetch predictor supplies a predicted data source to a prefetcher coincident with triggering of runahead execution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2008
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence A. Spracklen, Santosh G. Abraham, Stevan Vlaovic, Darryl J. Gove
  • Publication number: 20080222383
    Abstract: In one embodiment, a processor comprises execution circuitry and a translation lookaside buffer (TLB) coupled to the execution circuitry. The execution circuitry is configured to execute a store instruction having a data operand; and the execution circuitry is configured to generate a virtual address as part of executing the store instruction. The TLB is coupled to receive the virtual address and configured to translate the virtual address to a first physical address. Additionally, the TLB is coupled to receive the data operand and to translate the data operand to a second physical address. A hardware accelerator is also contemplated in various embodiments, as is a processor coupled to the hardware accelerator, a method, and a computer readable medium storing instruction which, when executed, implement a portion of the method.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 9, 2007
    Publication date: September 11, 2008
    Inventors: Lawrence A. Spracklen, Santosh G. Abraham, Adam R. Talcott
  • Publication number: 20080222396
    Abstract: In one embodiment, a method is contemplated. Access to a hardware accelerator is requested by a user-privileged thread. Access to the hardware accelerator is granted to the user-privileged thread by a higher-privileged thread responsive to the requesting. One or more commands are communicated to the hardware accelerator by the user-privileged thread without intervention by higher-privileged threads and responsive to the grant of access. The one or more commands cause the hardware accelerator to perform one or more tasks. Computer readable media comprises instructions which, when executed, implement portions of the method are also contemplated in various embodiments, as is a hardware accelerator and a processor coupled to the hardware accelerator.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 9, 2007
    Publication date: September 11, 2008
    Inventors: Lawrence A. Spracklen, Adam R. Talcott, Santosh G. Abraham, Sothea Soun, Sanjay Patel, Farnad Sajjadian
  • Patent number: 7373482
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention provides a system that improves the effectiveness of prefetching during execution of instructions in scout mode. During operation, the system executes program instructions in a normal-execution mode. Upon encountering a condition which causes the processor to enter scout mode, the system performs a checkpoint and commences execution of instructions in scout mode, wherein the instructions are speculatively executed to prefetch future memory operations, but wherein results are not committed to the architectural state of a processor. During execution of a load instruction during scout mode, if the load instruction is a special load instruction and if the load instruction causes a lower-level cache miss, the system waits for data to be returned from a higher-level cache before resuming execution of subsequent instructions in scout mode, instead of disregarding the result of the load instruction and immediately resuming execution in scout mode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 13, 2008
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence A. Spracklen, Yuan C. Chou, Santosh G. Abraham
  • Patent number: 7340567
    Abstract: Typically, missing read operations instances account for a small fraction of the operations instances of an application, but for nearly all of the performance degradation due to access latency. Hence, a small predictor structure maintains sufficient information for performing value prediction for the small fraction of operations (the missing instances of read operations) that account for nearly all of the access latency performance degradation. With such a small predictor structure, a processor value predicts for selective instances of read operations, those selective instances being read operations that are unavailable in a first memory (e.g., those instances of read operations that miss in L2 cache). Respective actual values for prior missing instances of the read operations are stored and used for value predictions of respective subsequent instances of the read operations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2008
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Yuan C. Chou, Santosh G. Abraham
  • Patent number: 7185323
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention provides a system that uses value speculation to break constraining dependencies in loops. The system operates by first identifying a loop within a computer program, and then identifying a dependency on a long-latency operation within the loop that is likely to constrain execution of the loop. Next, the system breaks the dependency by modifying the loop to predict a value that will break the dependency, and then using the predicted value to speculatively execute subsequent loop instructions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 27, 2007
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Sreekumar R. Nair, Santosh G. Abraham
  • Patent number: 7127592
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention provides a system that dynamically allocates physical registers in a windowed processor architecture. The system includes a physical register file and a register map that maps architectural registers defined within an executing program to physical registers within the physical register file. The system also includes a window allocation mechanism that allocates a new name space for a register window without allocating physical registers for the register window, thereby allowing the physical registers to be dynamically allocated as needed instead of being allocated at window initialization time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2006
    Assignee: SUN Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Santosh G. Abraham, Yuan C. Chou
  • Patent number: 7124254
    Abstract: A method and structure for equipping a cache with information to enable the processor to track and report whether a given speculative access causes prefetches and/or pollutions of the cache. Two types of events are tracked in one of two different ways: first by counting/tracking prefetch operations, either globally or on a per instruction address basis and then by counting/tracking cache pollutions, either globally or on a per instruction address basis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 17, 2006
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Brian M. Fahs, Sreekumar Nair, Santosh G. Abraham
  • Patent number: 6963823
    Abstract: Design spaces for systems, including hierarchical systems, are programmatically validity filtered and quality filtered to produce validity sets and quality sets, reducing the number of designs to be evaluated in selecting a system design for a particular application. Validity filters and quality filters are applied to both system designs and component designs. Component validity sets are combined as Cartesian products to form system validity sets that can be further validity filtered. Validity filters are defined by validity predicates that are functions of discrete system parameters and that evaluate as TRUE for potentially valid systems. For some hierarchical systems, the system validity predicate is a product of component validity predicates. Quality filters use an evaluation metric produced by an evaluation function that permits comparing designs and preparing a quality set of selected designs. In some cases, the quality set is a Pareto set or an approximation thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 8, 2005
    Assignee: Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
    Inventors: Santosh G. Abraham, Robert S. Schreiber, B. Ramakrishna Rau
  • Publication number: 20040230778
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention provides a system that performs register file checkpointing to support speculative execution within a processor. During operation, the system commences speculative execution of a program from a point of speculation, at which the outcome of a long latency instruction is speculatively predicted. During this speculative execution, registers are updated by checkpointing an old value of the register, if the register has not already been checkpointed, and then updating the architectural state of the register with the new value. In this way, only registers that are updated during the speculative execution are checkpointed, instead of checkpointing all of the architectural registers prior to commencing speculative execution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 16, 2003
    Publication date: November 18, 2004
    Inventors: Yuan C. Chou, Santosh G. Abraham