Patents by Inventor Scott E. Spence

Scott E. Spence has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 9939249
    Abstract: A birefringent Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is provided for optically sensing a small fluctuation from an un-polarized light beam. The birefringent MZI includes first and second birefringent crystals arranged coaxially, the first crystal to receive the beam; and first and second 45° polarizers positioned behind respective the first and second crystals. The first crystal divides the beam into first ordinary and extraordinary rays. The first polarizer converts the first rays into first 45° rays. The second crystal divides the first 45° rays into second ordinary, extraordinary and recombination rays. The second polarizer converts the second rays into second 45° rays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 30, 2017
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2018
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Scott E. Spence
  • Patent number: 9116122
    Abstract: An optical biosensor is provided for detecting a bio-molecular sample by Goos-Hänchen (GH) enhancement of Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman (AAV) amplification to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detector. The sensor includes pre- and post-selection polarizers respectively upstream and downstream of a right-isosceles prism with a metal film and a liquid medium disposed on a diagonal side of the prism. Laser light passes through the first polarizer, reflects at the film, passes through the second polarizer and is detected with a shift determined by a pointer estimator to indicate the sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 25, 2015
    Assignee: The United States of America as Represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Scott E. Spence, Rose M. Hayden
  • Patent number: 8970844
    Abstract: A signal amplifier is provided via a triple Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) apparatus for determining intensity distribution at either a first port or a second port by a photon from a source. The first and second ports correspond to respective first and second directions. The MZI apparatus includes four beam-splitters disposed co-linearly in parallel between the source and the ports, six parallel mirrors, and first and second path projectors. Three of these mirrors are displaced along the first direction from the beam-splitters, while the remaining mirrors are displaced along the second direction. The path projectors conduct weak measurement of a photon occupation number and are disposed between the second beam-splitter and an adjacent downstream mirror. The output port is disposed beyond the fourth beam-splitter in the first direction. The intensity distribution at the output port is positive in response to one of the first measurement being positive and the second measurement being negative.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignee: The United States of America as Represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Scott E. Spence
  • Publication number: 20140333930
    Abstract: An optical biosensor is provided for detecting a bio-molecular sample by Goos-Hänchen (GH) enhancement of Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman (AAV) amplification to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detector. The sensor includes pre- and post-selection polarizers respectively upstream and downstream of a right-isosceles prism with a metal film and a liquid medium disposed on a diagonal side of the prism. Laser light passes through the first polarizer, reflects at the film, passes through the second polarizer and is detected with a shift determined by a pointer estimator to indicate the sample.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 19, 2014
    Publication date: November 13, 2014
    Applicant: United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Scott E. Spence, Rose M. Hayden
  • Patent number: 8674688
    Abstract: An apparatus is provided for determining a target wavelength ? of a target photon beam. The apparatus includes a photon emitter, a pre-selection polarizer, a prism composed of a Faraday medium, a post-selection polarizer, a detector and an analyzer. The photon emitter projects a monochromatic light beam at the target wavelength ? substantially parallel to a magnetic field having strength B. The target wavelength is offset from established wavelength ?? as ?=??+?? by wavelength difference of ??<<?. The Faraday prism has Verdet value V. After passing through the pre-selection polarizer, the light beam passes through the prism and is incident to an interface surface at incidence angle ?0 to the normal of the surface and exits into a secondary medium as first and second circularly polarized light beams separated by target separation angle ? and having average refraction angle ?. The secondary medium has an index of refraction of n0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2014
    Assignee: The United States of America as Represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Scott E. Spence
  • Patent number: 8619261
    Abstract: A quantum dynamical non-locality device is provided for establishing a photon traveling along a path in a binary state. The device includes twin Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), a shutter and a detector. The twin MZI includes first and second right-isosceles triangle prisms, corresponding first and second trombone mirrors, and corresponding first and second spacers. The prisms join at a beam-splitter interface. The mirrors reflect the photon by an offset substantially perpendicular to photon's travel direction. The spacers are respectively disposed between their respective prisms and mirrors to produce corresponding spatial gaps. The path through the prisms includes traversing spacers and gaps. The detector detects a quantum state of the photon after passing the prisms and the mirrors. The shutter switches to one of disposed within and removed therefrom the first gap. The shutter shifts said quantum state of the photon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Scott E. Spence
  • Patent number: 8520214
    Abstract: An optical gyroscope is provided for measuring a small angular difference. The gyroscope includes a laser, a pre-selection polarizer, a first beam splitter, a coil of optical fiber, a second beam splitter, a post-selection polarizer, a spectrometer and an analyzer. The laser emits a pulse beam of coherent photons. The beam has pulse duration ?. The pre-selection polarizer pre-selects the photons, and the first beam splitter separates the photons by their horizontal |+ and vertical |? polarization eigenstates. These beams are launched into a fiber optical coil of radius r, which preserves polarization. The coil rotates by a difference rotation angle ??. The second beam splitter recombines the polarized photon beams as they exit the coil. The post-selection polarizer post-selects the photons. The spectrometer captures the post-selected photons and measures the associated frequency translation ??.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2013
    Assignee: The United States of America as Represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Scott E. Spence
  • Patent number: 8514478
    Abstract: A two-photon absorption (TPA) switch is provided for minimizing which-path information in quantum optic interference. The TPA switch includes a pulse laser, first and second dichroic mirrors, a down-conversion crystal, a reflector, and a beam-splitter. The pulse laser emits a pump photon traveling along a photon-incident direction. The dichroic mirrors are disposed along the incident direction and oriented to enable photons to either pass there-through or perpendicularly reflect perpendicular to the incident direction. The down-conversion crystal is disposed between the dichroic mirrors along the incident direction and is non-critically phase-matched with signal and idler photons controlled by temperance of the crystal. The beam-splitter is disposed along one of the reflection directions to probabilistically reflect one of the signal and idler photons to pass through the crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 20, 2013
    Assignee: The United States of America as Represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Scott E. Spence
  • Patent number: 8411278
    Abstract: An accelerometer instrument is provided for measuring acceleration. The instrument includes a laser, a Mach-Zender interferometer (MZI), a mechanical spring, a detector, a camera, and an analyzer. The laser emits a coherent light beam of photons. The MZI includes first and second beam-splitters along with first and second mirrors. The first mirror has an established mass m and connects to the spring for vibrating substantially perpendicular to its reflection plane. The mechanical spring has an established spring constant k. The MZI has an established weak measurement Nw based on a known offset ? for the beam-splitters. The detector detects the beam beyond the second beam-splitter. The camera provides a pointer measurement shift ?q of the photons. The camera is disposed after the detector. The analyzer determines the acceleration ? based on a = ( k mN w ) ? ? ? ? q .
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2013
    Assignee: The United States of America as Represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Scott E. Spence
  • Publication number: 20130050707
    Abstract: A quantum dynamical non-locality device is provided for establishing a photon traveling along a path in a binary state. The device includes twin Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), a shutter and a detector. The twin MZI includes first and second right-isosceles triangle prisms, corresponding first and second trombone mirrors, and corresponding first and second spacers. The prisms join at a beam-splitter interface. The mirrors reflect the photon by an offset substantially perpendicular to photon's travel direction. The spacers are respectively disposed between their respective prisms and mirrors to produce corresponding spatial gaps. The path through the prisms includes traversing spacers and gaps. The detector detects a quantum state of the photon after passing the prisms and the mirrors. The shutter switches to one of disposed within and removed therefrom the first gap. The shutter shifts said quantum state of the photon.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 24, 2011
    Publication date: February 28, 2013
    Applicant: United States Government, as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Scott E. Spence
  • Publication number: 20130027710
    Abstract: An accelerometer instrument is provided for measuring acceleration. The instrument includes a laser, a Mach-Zender interferometer (MZI), a mechanical spring, a detector, a camera, and an analyzer. The laser emits a coherent light beam of photons. The MZI includes first and second beam-splitters along with first and second mirrors. The first mirror has an established mass m and connects to the spring for vibrating substantially perpendicular to its reflection plane. The mechanical spring has an established spring constant k. The MZI has an established weak measurement Nw based on a known offset ? for the beam-splitters. The detector detects the beam beyond the second beam-splitter. The camera provides a pointer measurement shift ?q of the photons. The camera is disposed after the detector. The analyzer determines the acceleration a based on a = ( k mN w ) ? ? q .
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 26, 2011
    Publication date: January 31, 2013
    Applicant: United States Government, as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Scott E. Spence
  • Publication number: 20130016342
    Abstract: An optical gyroscope is provided for measuring a small angular difference. The gyroscope includes a laser, a pre-selection polarizer, a first beam splitter, a coil of optical fiber, a second beam splitter, a post-selection polarizer, a spectrometer and an analyzer. The laser emits a pulse beam of coherent photons. The beam has pulse duration ?. The pre-selection polarizer pre-selects the photons, and the first beam splitter separates the photons by their horizontal |? and vertical |? polarization eigenstates. These beams are launched into a fiber optical coil of radius r, which preserves polarization. The coil rotates by a difference rotation angle ??. The second beam splitter recombines the polarized photon beams as they exit the coil. The post-selection polarizer post-selects the photons. The spectrometer captures the post-selected photons and measures the associated frequency translation ??.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 13, 2011
    Publication date: January 17, 2013
    Applicant: United States Government, as repressented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Scott E. Spence
  • Publication number: 20120314215
    Abstract: An apparatus is provided for determining a target wavelength ? of a target photon beam. The apparatus includes a photon emitter, a pre-selection polarizer, a prism composed of a Faraday medium, a post-selection polarizer, a detector and an analyzer. The photon emitter projects a monochromatic light beam at the target wavelength ? substantially parallel to a magnetic field having strength B. The target wavelength is offset from established wavelength ?? as ?=??+?? by wavelength difference of ??<<?. The Faraday prism has Verdet value V. After passing through the pre-selection polarizer, the light beam passes through the prism and is incident to an interface surface at incidence angle ?0 to the normal of the surface and exits into a secondary medium as first and second circularly polarized light beams separated by target separation angle ? and having average refraction angle ?. The secondary medium has an index of refraction of n0.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 6, 2011
    Publication date: December 13, 2012
    Applicant: United States Government, as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Scott E. Spence
  • Patent number: 8149494
    Abstract: A monolithic Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) is provided for photon beam-splitting and beam-combining with accurate super-positioning of the outgoing beams, which creates the interference. The MZI includes a complimentary pair of right-isosceles triangular prisms, and several reflector units. The triangular prisms are configurable to physically join together along associated hypotenuse surfaces that form a beam-splitter interface, thereby producing a rectangular prism having a square cross-section with four outer side surfaces. Each reflector unit forms a right-isosceles mirror that rigidly faces a corresponding surface of the four outer side surfaces of the rectangular prism. The MZI further includes a spacer disposed between the corresponding surface and the each reflector unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2012
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Scott E. Spence
  • Patent number: 7006635
    Abstract: A method for synchronizing a master clock to a slave clock located in master and slave devices communicating with one another via a laser signal beam and a communications channel, each of the devices including a homodyne detector for determining a respective correlation pattern with respect to a phase tuned local oscillator includes steps for recording master and slave correlation patterns while the signal beam cycles between first and second operating modes, transmitting the master correlation pattern and associated first and second times at which the signal beam shifted between the first and second operating modes and between the second and first operating modes over the communications channel, comparing a portion of the master correlation pattern between the first and second times to the slave correlation pattern to thereby determine the time offset between the master and slave correlation patterns, and applying the time offset to the slave clock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2006
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Gregory A. Balchin, Scott E. Spence
  • Patent number: 6854004
    Abstract: Using irregular optical interconnections to compensate for non-uniformities in analog optical processors, such as matrix-vector (M-V) optical processors, is disclosed. An M-V processor of one embodiments includes two optical devices, such as spatial light modulators (SLM's). One of the devices represents a matrix, and the other device represents a vector. Each device has non-uniformities. The non-uniformities of the devices are at least substantially matched to one another, where the optical interconnections between the devices are irregular. Light traveling through the devices represents the product of the matrix and the vector. An analog-to-digital (A/D) processor, or converter, can be used to subtract any errors in the product even after substantially matching the non-uniformities, by non-digital electrical or photonic processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2005
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Scott E. Spence
  • Publication number: 20030120696
    Abstract: Using irregular optical interconnections to compensate for non-uniformities in analog optical processors, such as matrix-vector (M-V) optical processors, is disclosed. An M-V processor of one embodiments includes two optical devices, such as spatial light modulators (SLM's). One of the devices represents a matrix, and the other device represents a vector. Each device has non-uniformities. The non-uniformities of the devices are at least substantially matched to one another, where the optical interconnections between the devices are irregular. Light traveling through the devices represents the product of the matrix and the vector. An analog-to-digital (A/D) processor, or converter, can be used to subtract any errors in the product even after substantially matching the non-uniformities, by non-digital electrical or photonic processing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 26, 2001
    Publication date: June 26, 2003
    Applicant: Government of the United States of America
    Inventor: Scott E. Spence
  • Publication number: 20020041687
    Abstract: A method for synchronizing a master clock to a slave clock located in master and slave devices communicating with one another via a laser signal beam and a communications channel, each of the devices including a homodyne detector for determining a respective correlation pattern with respect to a phase tuned local oscillator includes steps for recording master and slave correlation patterns while the signal beam cycles between first and second operating modes, transmitting the master correlation pattern and associated first and second times at which the signal beam shifted between the first and second operating modes and between the second and first operating modes over the communications channel, comparing a portion of the master correlation pattern between the first and second times to the slave correlation pattern to thereby determine the time offset between the master and slave correlation patterns, and applying the time offset to the slave clock.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 30, 2001
    Publication date: April 11, 2002
    Inventors: Allen D. Parks, Gregory A. Balchin, Scott E. Spence
  • Patent number: 5251052
    Abstract: A reconfigurable digital optical lookup table for solving Boolean equations sing an array of bistable optical devices is provided. A single light source is divided into a matrix of light beams using binary phase gratings and a lens system. This matrix of beams is modulated by a spatial light modulator symmetric self electro-optic effect device (S-SEED) according to the desired lookup table. The modulated light beams are used to set an S-SEED array with the lookup table. The rows and columns of the S-SEED array are then reset according to the inputs to the Boolean equation. Once all of the inputs have been processed, the S-SEED array will have only one member whose state has not been affected by the inputs, and the value of this S-SEED corresponds to the solution to the Boolean equation. The final result is output by using a matrix of equal intensity light beams and a mask to read out the state of one side of the S-SEEDs, and focusing the result onto a detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1993
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Roy M. Reyes, Scott E. Spence