Patents by Inventor William K. Warburton

William K. Warburton has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 10817588
    Abstract: A digital processing technique for measuring a characteristic of a digitized electronic signal pulse, particularly including its time of arrival and/or maximum. The technique is particularly suited for in-line implementation in a field programmable gate array or digital signal processor. For each detected pulse, one or more ratios are created from values of the pulse above baseline, obtained from regions of the pulse where the values change as its arrival time offset changes, and the ratio or ratios are used as variables in a reference table or equation to generate the value of the desired characteristic. The table or equation is created beforehand by using a secondary technique to study pulses of the type being measured, to establish the relationship between the ratio value or values and the desired characteristic, and to codify that relationship in the reference table or equation. Time resolutions of 2-3% of the sampling interval are demonstrated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 2017
    Date of Patent: October 27, 2020
    Assignee: XIA LLC
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Wolfgang G. Hennig
  • Patent number: 10816587
    Abstract: A technique for characterizing the noise behavior of a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector as a function of its applied bias voltage Vb by stepping the STJ's bias voltage across a predetermined range and, at each applied bias, making multiple measurements of the detector's current, calculating their mean and their standard deviation from their mean, and using this standard deviation as a measure of the STJ detector's noise at that applied bias. Because the method is readily executed under computer control, it is particularly useful when large numbers of STJ detectors require biasing, as in STJ detector arrays In a preferred implementation, the STJ is measured under computer control by attaching it to a digital spectrometer comprising a digital x-ray processor (DXP) coupled to a preamplifier that can set the STJ's bias voltage Vb using a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) controlled by the DXP.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 27, 2020
    Assignee: XIA LLC
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Jackson T. Harris
  • Patent number: 10416295
    Abstract: A digital processing technique for measuring the time of arrival of a digitized electronic signal pulse for in-line implementation in a field programmable gate array or digital signal processor. For each detected pulse, an interpolation method is used to estimate its maximum M, M is multiplied by a fraction f, and a second interpolation method is used to estimate the time when the pulse reaches the value f·M, which is then taken as the pulse's time of arrival. Various interpolation methods may be used. A particularly accurate method employs convolution of the pulse data by a kernel that is the product of the sinc function and a Gaussian. Detector physics limited time resolutions of 2-5% of the sampling interval are demonstrated. Estimating M is useful in its own right for determining pulse amplitudes, for example as a measure of the energies of photons absorbed in a detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 17, 2019
    Assignee: XIA LLC
    Inventor: William K. Warburton
  • Publication number: 20180113203
    Abstract: A digital processing technique for measuring the time of arrival of a digitized electronic signal pulse for in-line implementation in a field programmable gate array or digital signal processor. For each detected pulse, an interpolation method is used to estimate its maximum M, M is multiplied by a fraction f, and a second interpolation method is used to estimate the time when the pulse reaches the value f·M, which is then taken as the pulse's time of arrival. Various interpolation methods may be used. A particularly accurate method employs convolution of the pulse data by a kernel that is the product of the sinc function and a Gaussian. Detector physics limited time resolutions of 2-5% of the sampling interval are demonstrated. Estimating M is useful in its own right for determining pulse amplitudes, for example as a measure of the energies of photons absorbed in a detector.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 24, 2016
    Publication date: April 26, 2018
    Applicant: XIA LLC
    Inventor: William K. Warburton
  • Publication number: 20180113160
    Abstract: A digital processing technique for measuring a characteristic of a digitized electronic signal pulse, particularly including its time of arrival and/or maximum. The technique is particularly suited for in-line implementation in a field programmable gate array or digital signal processor. For each detected pulse, one or more ratios are created from values of the pulse above baseline, obtained from regions of the pulse where the values change as its arrival time offset changes, and the ratio or ratios are used as variables in a reference table or equation to generate the value of the desired characteristic. The table or equation is created beforehand by using a secondary technique to study pulses of the type being measured, to establish the relationship between the ratio value or values and the desired characteristic, and to codify that relationship in the reference table or equation. Time resolutions of 2-3% of the sampling interval are demonstrated.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 13, 2017
    Publication date: April 26, 2018
    Applicant: XIA LLC
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Wolfgang G. Hennig
  • Patent number: 9857480
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for measuring the concentrations of radioxenon isotopes in a gaseous sample wherein the sample cell is surrounded by N sub-detectors that are sensitive to both electrons and to photons from radioxenon decays. Signal processing electronics are provided that can detect events within the sub-detectors, measure their energies, determine whether they arise from electrons or photons, and detect coincidences between events within the same or different sub-detectors. The energies of detected two or three event coincidences are recorded as points in associated two or three-dimensional histograms. Counts within regions of interest in the histograms are then used to compute estimates of the radioxenon isotope concentrations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 2, 2018
    Assignee: XIA LLC
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Wolfgang G. Hennig
  • Publication number: 20160245852
    Abstract: A technique for characterizing the noise behavior of a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector as a function of its applied bias voltage Vb by stepping the STJ's bias voltage across a predetermined range and, at each applied bias, making multiple measurements of the detector's current, calculating their mean and their standard deviation from their mean, and using this standard deviation as a measure of the STJ detector's noise at that applied bias. Because the method is readily executed under computer control, it is particularly useful when large numbers of STJ detectors require biasing, as in STJ detector arrays In a preferred implementation, the STJ is measured under computer control by attaching it to a digital spectrometer comprising a digital x-ray processor (DXP) coupled to a preamplifier that can set the STJ's bias voltage Vb using a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) controlled by the DXP.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 28, 2016
    Publication date: August 25, 2016
    Applicant: XIA LLC
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Jackson T. Harris
  • Publication number: 20120166117
    Abstract: A technique for characterizing the noise behavior of a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector as a function of its applied bias voltage Vb by stepping the STJ's bias voltage across a predetermined range and, at each applied bias, making multiple measurements of the detector's current, calculating their mean and their standard deviation from their mean, and using this standard deviation as a measure of the STJ detector's noise at that applied bias. Because the method is readily executed under computer control, it is particularly useful when large numbers of STJ detectors require biasing, as in STJ detector arrays In a preferred implementation, the STJ is measured under computer control by attaching it to a digital spectrometer comprising a digital x-ray processor (DXP) coupled to a preamplifier that can set the STJ's bias voltage Vb using a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) controlled by the DXP.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 7, 2011
    Publication date: June 28, 2012
    Applicant: XIA LLC
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Jackson T. Harris
  • Patent number: 7966155
    Abstract: A spectrometry method and apparatus for filtering step-like pulses output by a preamplifier to measure the energy or other desired characteristics of events occurring in a detector attached to the preamplifier. The spectrometer provides a set of filters that are capable of measuring the desired characteristic with different accuracy or resolution, detects the pulses in the preamplifier signal, and measures the time between consecutive pairs of detected pulses. For each detected pulse, the spectrometer selects a filter from the set of available filters, based on the measured time intervals between the pulse and its immediately preceding and succeeding detected pulses, applies it to the pulse, and indexes the output of the filtering operation with one or more indices identifying the selected filter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2011
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Jackson T. Harris, Peter M. Grudberg, Gregory Roach
  • Patent number: 7342231
    Abstract: Pulse shape analysis determines if two radiations are in coincidence. A transducer is provided that, when it absorbs the first radiation produces an output pulse that is characterized by a shorter time constant and whose area is nominally proportional to the energy of the absorbed first radiation and, when it absorbs the second radiation produces an output pulse that is characterized by a longer time constant and whose area is nominally proportional to the energy of the absorbed second radiation. When radiation is absorbed, the output pulse is detected and two integrals are formed, the first over a time period representative of the first time constant and the second over a time period representative of the second time constant. The values of the two integrals are examined to determine whether the first radiation, the second radiation, or both were absorbed in the transducer, the latter condition defining a coincident event.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2008
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Hui Tan, Wolfgang Hennig
  • Patent number: 7065473
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for processing step-like output signals (primary signals) generated by non-ideal, for example, nominally single-pole (“N-1P ”) devices. An exemplary method includes creating a set of secondary signals by directing the primary signal along a plurality of signal paths to a signal summation point, summing the secondary signals reaching the signal summation point after propagating along the signal paths to provide a summed signal, performing a filtering or delaying operation in at least one of said signal paths so that the secondary signals reaching said summing point have a defined time correlation with respect to one another, applying a set of weighting coefficients to the secondary signals propagating along said signal paths, and performing a capturing operation after any filtering or delaying operations so as to provide a weighted signal sum value as a measure of the integrated area QgT of the input signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2006
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Michael Momayezi
  • Publication number: 20040158440
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for processing step-like output signals (primary signals) generated by non-ideal, for example, nominally single-pole (“N-1P ”) devices. An exemplary method includes creating a set of secondary signals by directing the primary signal along a plurality of signal paths to a signal summation point, summing the secondary signals reaching the signal summation point after propagating along the signal paths to provide a summed signal, performing a filtering or delaying operation in at least one of said signal paths so that the secondary signals reaching said summing point have a defined time correlation with respect to one another, applying a set of weighting coefficients to the secondary signals propagating along said signal paths, and performing a capturing operation after any filtering or delaying operations so as to provide a weighted signal sum value as a measure of the integrated area QgT of the input signal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 20, 2003
    Publication date: August 12, 2004
    Applicant: William K. Warburton
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Michael Momayezi
  • Patent number: 6732059
    Abstract: A method and counter for reducing the background counting rate in gas-filled alpha particle counters wherein the counter is constructed in such a manner as to exaggerate the differences in the features in preamplifier pulses generated by collecting the charges in ionization tracks produced by alpha particles emanating from different regions within the counter and then using pulse feature analysis to recognize these differences and so discriminate between different regions of emanation. Thus alpha particles emitted from the sample can then be counted while those emitted from the counter components can be rejected, resulting in very low background counting rates even from large samples. In one embodiment, a multi-wire ionization chamber, different electric fields are created in different regions of the counter and the resultant difference in electron velocities during charge collection allow alpha particles from the sample and counter backwall to be distinguished.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2004
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, John Wahl, Michael Momayezi
  • Patent number: 6609075
    Abstract: Techniques for measuring the baseline of the energy filter in nuclear and other spectrometers that filter pulses output by a preamplifier to measure the energy of events occurring in a detector connected to the preamplifier. These spectrometers capture the peak amplitudes of the filtered pulses as estimates of the underlying event energies and subtract a baseline value from these captured peak values in order to compensate for the energy filter's non-zero amplitude in the absence of any preamplifier output pulses. A second, baseline filter is connected to the preamplifier's output, where the basewidth of this baseline filter is significantly shorter than that of the energy filter. Times are determined when the baseline filter is not filtering preamplifier output pulses, output values from the baseline filter are captured during such determined times, and these baseline values captured from the baseline filter are used to create an accurate estimate of the energy filter's baseline value.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2003
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Jackson T. Harris, Peter M. Grudberg
  • Patent number: 6590957
    Abstract: For pulse processing spectrometers that use a fast channel to detect input pulses, a slow channel to measure the pulses' energies, pileup inspection circuitry pulses, and binning to produce an output spectrum of captured energy values, the correction technique extends the Harms method to produce an estimate <C> of the average ratio of the number of input pulses detected in the fast channel per non-piled-up pulse whose captured energy value is to be binned into the output spectrum and, for each such non-piled-up pulse, adding the value <C> to the corrected output spectrum in the bin dictated by the captured energy value. The uncorrected spectrum is formed in the traditional manner by simply adding 1 to the equivalent bin. Three techniques are disclosed for producing the estimate <C>, a running average, a bucket averaging, and a circular buffer method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2003
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Michael Momayezi, Peter M. Grudberg, Jackson T. Harris
  • Patent number: 6587814
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for processing step-like output signals generated by non-ideal, nominally single-pole (“N-1P”) devices responding to possibly time-varying, pulse-like input signals of finite duration, wherein the goal is to recover the integrated areas of the input signals. Particular applications include processing step-like signals generated by detector systems in response to absorbed radiation or particles and, more particularly, to digitally processing such step-like signals in high resolution, high rate gamma ray (&ggr;-ray) spectrometers with resistive feedback preamplifiers connected to large volume germanium detectors. Superconducting bolometers can be similarly treated. The method comprises attaching a set of one or more filters to the device's (e.g., preamplifier's) output, capturing a correlated multiple output sample from the filter set in response to a detected event, and forming a weighted sum of the sample values to accurately recover the total area (e.g.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2003
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Michael Momayezi
  • Publication number: 20030040877
    Abstract: A method and counter for reducing the background counting rate in gas-filled alpha particle counters wherein the counter is constructed in such a manner as to exaggerate the differences in the features in preamplifier pulses generated by collecting the charges in ionization tracks produced by alpha particles emanating from different regions within the counter and then using pulse feature analysis to recognize these differences and so discriminate between different regions of emanation. Thus alpha particles emitted from the sample can then be counted while those emitted from the counter components can be rejected, resulting in very low background counting rates even from large samples. In one embodiment, a multi-wire ionization chamber, different electric fields are created in different regions of the counter and the resultant difference in electron velocities during charge collection allow alpha particles from the sample and counter backwall to be distinguished.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 23, 2001
    Publication date: February 27, 2003
    Applicant: William K. Warburton
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, John Wahl, Michael Momayezi
  • Patent number: 6169287
    Abstract: A method for obtaining both spatial and energy resolution in compound semiconductor x-ray detectors using charge carriers of only a single polarity. A negatively biased cathode contact is applied to one side of a block detector material and an array of anode stripes is applied to the other side. Absorbed x-rays generate charge clouds in the detector block, and charge sensitive preamplifiers measure the time varying charges qi(t) induced on the anodes by the motion of these charge clouds within the detector. For each stripe j, one or more secondary signals Qk,m(t) are formed as weighted sums of the signals qk(t) from the stripe j and a combination of its near neighbors. One or another of these signals Qk,m(t) can then be processed to obtain the energy of the absorbed x-ray, the position where it was absorbed, both laterally and in depth, and the time of the absorption.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 2, 2001
    Inventor: William K. Warburton
  • Patent number: 6125165
    Abstract: A method for attenuating x-rays which is insensitive to the x-ray energy employs forward scattering through a filter element to minimize energy shifts due to Compton scattering. Efficiency can be enhanced by employing a material with a large small angle scattering cross section. Since attenuation in the filter increases rapidly with decreasing x-ray energy, the filter provides larger, thinner scattering areas for low energy x-rays and smaller, thicker scattering areas for higher energy x-rays. By adjusting the relative fractions of the scattering areas and their thicknesses, the total scattering yield through the filter can be made to be essentially independent of x-ray energy over a broad band of x-ray energies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 26, 2000
    Assignee: William K. Warburton
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Edward Oltman
  • Patent number: 5873054
    Abstract: A high speed, digitally based, signal processing system which accepts a digitized input signal and detects the presence of step-like pulses in the this data stream, extracts filtered estimates of their amplitudes, inspects for pulse pileup, and records input pulse rates and system livetime. The system has two parallel processing channels: a slow channel, which filters the data stream with a long time constant trapezoidal filter for good energy resolution; and a fast channel which filters the data stream with a short time constant trapezoidal filter, detects pulses, inspects for pileups, and captures peak values from the slow channel for good events. The presence of a simple digital interface allows the system to be easily integrated with a digital processor to produce accurate spectra at high count rates and allow all spectrometer functions to be fully automated. Because the method is digitally based, it allows pulses to be binned based on time related values, as well as on their amplitudes, if desired.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 16, 1999
    Assignee: William K. Warburton
    Inventors: William K. Warburton, Zhiquing (Carl) Zhou