Implant with high primary stability and accelerated secondary stability
An implant for implantation into bone tissue includes an elongated body having an outer surface. The outer surface has at least one thread. The thread makes a number of turns around the body of the implant and includes a root, a flank and a crest. The root and a segment of the flank have a roughened portion compared to the crest. A method of forming an implant having a threaded outer surface including a root, a flank, and a crest includes treating the threaded outer surface at only the root and a portion of the flank while the crest remains untreated.
Latest Biomet 3I, LLC Patents:
- Surface treatment for an implant surface
- Temporary abutment with combination of scanning features and provisionalization features
- Method for selecting implant components
- System and method for improved intra-oral protocol and calibration
- Attachment members with internally located radiopaque information markers for CT scan
This application claims priority to and the benefits of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/978,731, filed Apr. 11, 2014, the contents of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirely.COPYRIGHT
A portion of the disclosure of this patent document contains material which is subject to copyright protection. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile reproduction by anyone of the patent disclosure, as it appears in the Patent and Trademark Office patent files or records, but otherwise reserves all copyright rights whatsoever.FIELD OF THE PRESENT DISCLOSURE
The present disclosure relates to improvements in screw-type dental implants and, in particular, to dental implants having a roughened surface topography and methods of making the same.BACKGROUND
It is becoming more common to replace a missing tooth with a prosthetic tooth that is placed upon and attached to a dental implant. Dental implants are often comprised of metal and metal alloys, including titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys. The dental implant serves as an artificial root that integrates with the gingiva and the bone tissue of the mouth.
For the dental implant to function successfully, sufficient osseointegration is required. In other words, a bond between the implant and the bone must be formed and retained. The surface of the implant may be roughened to help enhance the osseointegration process. Non-limiting examples of processes for roughening an implant surface include acid etching, grit blasting, or a combination thereof, which impart roughness on the surface.
Roughening the surface of an implant, however, can lead to a compromise in the integrity of the implant's cutting geometry. More specifically, roughening the crests of the implant's thread can lead to rolling the edge of the crests and/or eroding the peaks of the crests. Additionally, roughening of the crests can change the machined macrogeometry (or thread features) intended to initially stabilize the implant. Robust initial stability is a requirement for long-term stability (permanent fixation of the implant), and without it, the implant can be more susceptible to non integration or even loss of integration, both of which generally require implant retrieval. Furthermore, the change in macrogeometry can alter the tactile feedback felt by a clinician during implant placement. This is critical, as the “feel” of the implant during installation can serve as a directional indicator by which additional clinical decisions are made (e.g., restore the implant immediately, delay loading of the implant, remove the implant, place additional torque on the implant post-seating, etc.). Unfortunately, a change in tactile feedback, such as what could result from small changes in macrogeometry, can create a false positive or false negative, and can leave the clinician misinformed.SUMMARY
An implant for implantation into bone tissue includes an elongated body. The elongated body has an upper portion configured to receive a prosthesis and a lower portion for being submerged in the bone tissue. The elongated body of the implant also includes an outer surface. The implant also includes at least one thread on the outer surface of the body. The thread makes a number of turns around the body between the upper and lower portions and includes a root, a flank, and a crest. The root and a segment of the flank have a roughened portion compared to the crest.
In another aspect of the invention, another implant for implantation into bone tissue includes at least one thread. The thread makes a number of turns around the implant. The implant also includes a roughened portion adjacent to a root of the thread, and the roughened portion extends along a length of the implant while a crest of the thread remains relatively smooth.
In a further aspect of the invention, a method of forming an implant having a threaded outer surface including a root, a flank, and a crest includes treating the threaded outer surface. More specifically, the method includes treating the threaded outer surface at only the root and a portion of the flank while the crest remains untreated.
Additional aspects of the present disclosure will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art in view of the detailed description of various aspects, which is made with reference to the drawings, a brief description of which is provided below.
While the present disclosure can be embodied in many different forms, there is shown in the drawings and will be described various exemplary aspects of the present disclosure with the understanding that the present disclosure is to be considered as an exemplification of the principles thereof and is not intended to limit the broad aspect of the present disclosure to the illustrated aspects.
The implant 10 has an elongated body. The top of the elongated body includes a head portion 12, which includes a non-rotational boss 14. In the illustrated implementation of
A threaded bottom portion 20 facilitates bonding with bone or gingiva. The threaded bottom portion 20 includes a thread 22 that makes a plurality of turns around the implant 10. The turns are typically in a helical pattern, as shown in
Further, each of the turns of the thread 22 includes a root region, a flank region and a crest region. The root region of a turn in the thread 22 is located at a minor diameter with respect to a central axis of the implant 10, while the crest region is located at a major diameter with respect to the central axis of the implant 10. The flank region is the surface connecting the root and the crest regions. The crest region provides primary stability for the implant 10 by ensuring a secure mechanical connection between the implant 10 and the bone or gingiva. Different implementations of the root, flank and crest regions will be described in detail with respect to
The thread 22 includes a roughened portion 30. The roughened portion 30 can aid in the osseointegration process by improving the integration between bone or gingiva and the implant 10. This improved integration provides a secondary level of stability for the implant. The roughened portion 30 may be generated using a variety of techniques including, for example, acid etching, grit blasting, or a combination thereof. As described below, the preferred roughening technique is grit blasting. As illustrated in
A transition point between the roughened portion 30 and the relatively smooth surface of the crest can be chosen to minimize interference with the surface of the crest regions while maximizing osseointegration with the roughened portions on the root and flank regions. As will be described in further detail below with respect to
As shown in
As described above, implants according to the disclosed subject matter include at least one thread with portions of varying roughness. The thread can include one or more turns around the central axis of the implants, and each turn can include a root region, a flank region and a crest region. The root region of a turn in thread is located at a minor diameter with respect to the central axis of the implant while the crest region is located at a major diameter with respect to the central axis. The flank region serves as a transition region between the root and the crest regions. As shown in
In certain implementations, the threaded portions of
The threaded portion of
The threaded portion of
The threaded portion of
The threaded portion of
As shown in
As shown in
Further, although not shown in
As would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art, elements of the implementations in
Treating the outer surface at step 701 may include blasting the outer surface. The blasting can optionally be performed using a blast nozzle. When a blast nozzle is used to treat the outer surface, the blast nozzle can be inserted in between adjacent crests of the implant in order to treat only the desired region or regions. Further, in certain implementations, the blasting may be performed along a helical locus of the outer surface. According to certain implementations, other treatment methods may be used. For example, in certain implementations, the surface may be acid etched to create a roughened surface on the desired roots and/or flanks of the implant's outer surface.
The blast nozzle can blast different types of materials, and the different types of materials can have different particle sizes to produce different roughnesses on the outer surface of the implant. For example, in one implementation, calcium phosphate particles can be used as a blast material to treat the outer surface of an implant. The calcium phosphate particles can range in size, for example, from 150-425 microns. In addition to material types and particle sizes, other variables such as, for example, particle shape, particle hardness, particle flow rate, the size of the blast nozzle, the distance between the blast nozzle and the surface of the implant, the angle at which the nozzle is placed, and the type of gas used to accelerate the blasted materials can affect the roughness of the implant's outer surface.
After the outer surface is treated at step 701, the outer surface of the implant can undergo a second optional treatment at step 702. The further treatment can include treatment of the crest, flank and root regions with an acid etching treatment, which provides the outer surface of the implant with additional roughness. For example, in implementations where the implant is made of commercially pure titanium, a mixture including both hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid may be used to perform acid etching, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,857,987, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. In implementations where the implant is made of titanium alloy, a mixture including both hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid can be used to perform acid etching, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 8,251,700, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
After a surface has been blasted at step 701 and acid etched at step 702, the entire threaded region has some roughness, with the crest regions remaining relatively smooth compared to the root regions and portions of the flank regions. For example, in certain implementations, the surface roughness, Ra, can be in the range of 0.7-1.6 microns along the root regions and flank regions that have been both grit-blasted and acid-etched, while the surface roughness, Ra, can be in the range of 0.3-0.7 microns along the crest regions that have been only acid-etched. In one particular implementation, the surface roughness, Ra, is about 1.3 microns along the root regions and flank regions that have been both grit blasted and acid etched, while the surface roughness, Ra, is about 0.5 microns along the crest regions that have been only acid etched. The surface roughness is preferably measured via the inverse Fourier transform (IFFT) method.
While particular implementations and applications of the present disclosure have been illustrated and described, it is to be understood that this disclosure is not limited to the precise construction and compositions disclosed herein and that various modifications, changes, and variations can be apparent from the foregoing descriptions without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
1. A dental implant for implantation into bone tissue having an exterior surface comprising:
- an elongated body having an upper portion configured to receive a prosthesis, a lower portion for being submerged in said bone tissue, and an outer surface; and
- at least one thread on said outer surface making a plurality of turns around the elongated body between the lower portion and the upper portion, the at least one thread including a root, a flank, and a crest, wherein the root and a segment of the flank have a roughened portion relative to the crest, the roughened portion having a greater roughness as compared to the crest.
2. The dental implant of claim 1, wherein the plurality of turns has a helical shape.
3. The dental implant of claim 1, where an inner section of the flank relative to a central axis of the implant has the roughened portion relative to the crest while an outer section of the flank relative to the central axis has roughness similar to the crest.
4. The dental implant of claim 1, wherein the thread includes a transition region between the root and the crest.
5. The dental implant of claim 4, wherein the transition region includes a portion of gradually decreasing roughness in a direction of the crest.
6. The dental implant of claim 1, further comprising a self-tapping region.
7. The dental implant of claim 6, wherein the self-tapping region is smooth relative to the roughened portion of the root and the roughened portion of the flank.
8. The dental implant of claim 1, wherein the crest has a flattened shape.
9. The dental implant of claim 1, wherein the crest has a rounded shape.
10. The dental implant of claim 1, wherein the crest has a peaked shape.
11. The dental implant of claim 1, wherein the root has a flattened shape.
12. The dental implant of claim 1, wherein the root has a rounded shape.
13. The dental implant of claim 1, wherein the root has a narrow-angled shape.
14. A dental implant for implantation into bone tissue, the implant having:
- at least one thread including a root, a flank, and a crest, the thread making a plurality of helical turns around the implant; and
- a roughened portion adjacent to the root of the thread, the roughened portion having a greater roughness as compared to the crest and helically extending along a length of the implant leaving the crest of the thread relatively smooth.
15. The dental implant of claim 14, where an inner section of the flank relative to a central axis of the implant has the roughened portion relative to the crest while an outer section of the flank relative to the central axis has roughness similar to the crest.
16. The dental implant of claim 14, wherein the roughened portion has a graduated roughness pattern.
17. A method of forming a dental implant having a threaded outer surface including a root, a flank, and a crest, the method comprising:
- treating the threaded outer surface at only the root and a portion of the flank such that the crest remains untreated and the root and a portion of the flank having a greater roughness as compared to the crest.
18. The method of claim 17, wherein treating the threaded outer surface comprises blasting the threaded outer surface.
19. The method of claim 17, wherein treating the threaded outer surface is performed using a blast nozzle.
20. The method of claim 17, wherein treating the threaded outer surface comprises blasting the threaded outer surface along a helical locus.
|5360448||November 1, 1994||Thramann|
|5571017||November 5, 1996||Niznick|
|5727943||March 17, 1998||Beaty|
|5829978||November 3, 1998||Day|
|5863201||January 26, 1999||Lazzara|
|5871356||February 16, 1999||Guedj|
|5876453||March 2, 1999||Beaty|
|5885079||March 23, 1999||Niznick|
|5989027||November 23, 1999||Wagner|
|6048204||April 11, 2000||Klardie|
|6090999||July 18, 2000||Bruce|
|6095817||August 1, 2000||Wagner|
|6102703||August 15, 2000||Day|
|6117249||September 12, 2000||Erikson|
|6287117||September 11, 2001||Niznick|
|6379153||April 30, 2002||Schroering|
|6379154||April 30, 2002||DeVincenzo|
|6386876||May 14, 2002||Lee|
|6402516||June 11, 2002||Ihde|
|6419492||July 16, 2002||Schroering|
|6431869||August 13, 2002||Reams, III|
|6491723||December 10, 2002||Beaty|
|6547564||April 15, 2003||Hansson|
|6599322||July 29, 2003||Amrich|
|6620332||September 16, 2003||Amrich|
|6626671||September 30, 2003||Klardie|
|6652765||November 25, 2003||Beaty|
|6969474||November 29, 2005||Beaty|
|6991463||January 31, 2006||Ihde|
|7018418||March 28, 2006||Amrich|
|7048541||May 23, 2006||Hall|
|7125253||October 24, 2006||Kitamura|
|7169317||January 30, 2007||Beaty|
|7238186||July 3, 2007||Zdeblick|
|7250055||July 31, 2007||Vanderwalle|
|7258810||August 21, 2007||Hunter|
|7264470||September 4, 2007||Hansson|
|7338493||March 4, 2008||Vandewalle|
|7341453||March 11, 2008||Coatoam|
|D583057||December 16, 2008||Kojima|
|7517218||April 14, 2009||Hansson|
|7547399||June 16, 2009||Beaty|
|7550091||June 23, 2009||Beaty|
|D595850||July 7, 2009||Koch|
|7597557||October 6, 2009||Fromovich|
|7699613||April 20, 2010||Niznick|
|7806693||October 5, 2010||Hurson|
|7845945||December 7, 2010||Canter|
|7850862||December 14, 2010||Amrich|
|7857987||December 28, 2010||Beaty|
|7883336||February 8, 2011||Hansson|
|7959440||June 14, 2011||Hansson|
|8029283||October 4, 2011||Schwarz|
|8029285||October 4, 2011||Holmen|
|8038442||October 18, 2011||Hurson|
|8128402||March 6, 2012||Lundgren|
|8197255||June 12, 2012||Fromovich|
|8221119||July 17, 2012||Valen|
|8221499||July 17, 2012||Lazzara|
|8221639||July 17, 2012||Towse|
|8241036||August 14, 2012||Breitenstein|
|8251700||August 28, 2012||Robb|
|8277219||October 2, 2012||Hansson|
|8309162||November 13, 2012||Charlton|
|8333590||December 18, 2012||Hansson|
|8337205||December 25, 2012||Reed|
|8361381||January 29, 2013||Heuer|
|8382477||February 26, 2013||Philibin|
|8403991||March 26, 2013||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8435302||May 7, 2013||Ulrich, Jr.|
|8439919||May 14, 2013||Hall|
|8469710||June 25, 2013||Bondar|
|8480749||July 9, 2013||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8496710||July 30, 2013||Bagga|
|8500449||August 6, 2013||Kwan|
|8545568||October 1, 2013||Ulrich, Jr.|
|8551176||October 8, 2013||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8556987||October 15, 2013||Hunter|
|8562684||October 22, 2013||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8562685||October 22, 2013||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8585765||November 19, 2013||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8585766||November 19, 2013||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8585767||November 19, 2013||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8591590||November 26, 2013||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8617248||December 31, 2013||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8641418||February 4, 2014||Mayfield|
|8651863||February 18, 2014||Schroering|
|8702806||April 22, 2014||Balay|
|8714977||May 6, 2014||Fromovich|
|8758442||June 24, 2014||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8758443||June 24, 2014||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8764443||July 1, 2014||Hall|
|8814939||August 26, 2014||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8827703||September 9, 2014||Hall|
|8834571||September 16, 2014||Bagga|
|8940053||January 27, 2015||Ullrich, Jr.|
|8992619||March 31, 2015||Patterson|
|8992622||March 31, 2015||Ullrich, Jr.|
|9011546||April 21, 2015||Ullrich, Jr.|
|20020061494||May 23, 2002||Klardie|
|20030158554||August 21, 2003||Hall|
|20050147942||July 7, 2005||Hall|
|20060204930||September 14, 2006||Sul|
|20100159418||June 24, 2010||Hall|
|20130248487||September 26, 2013||Mayfield|
|WO 96/16611||June 1996||WO|
- International Search Report & Written Opinion of the International Searching Authority for PCT Application No. PCT/US2015/025057 dated Aug. 25, 2015 (11 pages).
Filed: Apr 9, 2015
Date of Patent: Sep 17, 2019
Patent Publication Number: 20150289951
Assignee: Biomet 3I, LLC (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)
Inventors: Robert L. Mayfield (Jupiter, FL), Michael D. Scalise (West Palm Beach, FL), Zachary B. Suttin (Jupiter, FL)
Primary Examiner: Paula J Stice
Application Number: 14/682,826
International Classification: A61C 8/00 (20060101); B24C 1/04 (20060101); A61C 13/00 (20060101);