Device for bringing up to speed a vehicle having an automatic transmission

Device for starting up a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission provided between a drive shaft (1) and a driven shaft (2) in a transmission housing (7) with a planetary gear (4) with a first gear (14) coupleable with the drive shaft (1), with a second gear (13, 15) coupleable with the driven shaft (2) and with the third gear (12), wherein the third gear (12) is connectable with the transmission housing (7) via a start-up brake (S), of which the brake force is controllable.

Skip to: Description  ·  Claims  · Patent History  ·  Patent History
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] 1. Field of the Invention

[0002] The invention concerns a device for bringing up to speed a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission according to the precharacterizing portion of claim 1.

[0003] 2. Description of the Related Art

[0004] Conventional multi-stage or multi-gear automatic transmissions are conventionally provided, according to the state of the art, with a start-up or low gear device for providing the necessary start-up translation from the first gear of the transmission. In this state of the art, until now only two possibilities for realizing a start-up device of this type have been known. On the one hand, there is used a wet running start clutch (plate coupling), which operates without torque amplification, and on the other hand there is used a Foettinger fluid torque converter or hydrodynamic converter, which operates with a torque amplification of greater than one.

[0005] A working example of the second mentioned variety is described in greater detail below on the basis of FIG. 4. FIG. 4 shows a gear schematic of an automatic transmission according to the state of the art with an upstream hydrodynamic converter as start-up device. The automatic transmission is an automatic six gear transmission as described in detail in the translation of European patent EP 0 434 525 B1, namely DE 690 10 472 T2. This automatic transmission as well as the arrangement described in this reference are simply referred to in the following, by reference to the inventor Pierre Lepelletier, as a Lepelletier automatic transmission. An automatic transmission 25 according to Lepelletier in accordance with the illustrative embodiment shown in FIG. 4 includes a gear box 7, in which the following indicated individual components are provided, namely a drive shaft 1 as well as a work shaft 2, a simple input planetary drive 4 as well as a double output planetary drive 5, three clutches A, B and E as well as two brakes C and B.

[0006] The input planetary drive 4 is comprised in known manner of a sun gear 9, the planetary gear 13 held by the planet arm or, as the case may be, planetary gear carrier 15 as well as the internal gear 14. From reference number 4 one can see that the sun gear 12, the planetary gear as well as the internal gear 14 engage in the conventional pair-wise manner, namely the sun gear 12 is in engagement with the planetary gear 13 and the planetary gear 13 with the internal gear 14.

[0007] The output planetary gear 5 is likewise comprised, in known manner, of a sun gear 16, an internal planetary gear 17 supported by the internal planet arm or, as the case may be, internal planetary gar carrier 21, the external planetary gear 18 held by the external planet arm or, as the case may be, external planetary gear carrier 22 as well as an internal gear 19. Further shown in this illustrative embodiment is a further sun gear 20.

[0008] From FIG. 4 one can additionally see that also the sun gear 16, the internal planetary gear 17, the external planetary gear 18 and the hollow gear 19 of the output planetary gear 5 engage in each other in a known mode and manner. Thus the hollow gear 19 is in operative engagement with the external planetary gear 18, the external planetary gear 18 is then in operative engagement with the internal gear 17 and the internal gear 17 is in operative engagement with the sun gear 16. From FIG. 4 one can further see that the sun gear 20 is also in engagement with the external planetary gear 18.

[0009] The drive shaft 1 is connected with the internal gear 14 of the input planetary drive 4. The sun gear 12 of the input planetary drive 4 is connected fixed against rotation with the gear box or transmission housing 7. The planet arm 15 is on the one side connectable with the sun gear 16 via the clutch A, on the other side also a connection with the sun gear 20 can be established via clutch B. The two planet arms connected fixed against rotation with each other, inner planet arm 21 and outer planet arm 22, of the output planetary drive 5 are on the one side connectable fixed against rotation with the gear housing 7 via the brake D, on the other hand via clutch E a connection with the drive shaft 1 can be established. Besides the possibility of connecting the sun gear 20 with the planet arm 15 of the input planetary drive 4 via the clutch B, there exists beyond this the possibility to establish via brake C a connection fixed against rotation with the gear housing 7.

[0010] It can further be seen from FIG. 4, that the internal gear 19 of the output planetary drive 5 is connected fixed against rotation with the output shaft 2.

[0011] With the aid of the five shift elements, namely the three clutches A, B and E as well as the two brakes C and D, it becomes possible by the selective pairwise engagement to effect various transmission relationships between the drive shaft 1 and the driven shaft 2. There are possible a total of six forward gears, one braked neutral position as well as one reverse gear. A detailed discussion as well as the associated functional description can be found in the above-mentioned reference DE 690 10 472 T2.

[0012] According to the state of the art in order to bring up to speed a vehicle equipped with this automatic transmission 25 according to Lepelletier there is provided upstream a start up device with a hydrodynamic converter 3 comprised of pump gear 8, turbine wheel 9 and guide wheel or idler 10. In concrete form the turbine wheel 9 is connected with the drive shaft 1 of the above-described automatic transmission 25 according to Lepelletier. The idler wheel 10 is connected in known mode and manner with the gear housing 7 via a free wheel 11. The pump wheel 10 is connected with the motor shaft M. Further in accordance with the state of the art a torque converter bridge over or intermediate lock-up clutch 6 is provided, which after completion of the bringing up to speed process makes possible a direct connection between the motor shaft M of the internal combustion engine and the drive shaft 1.

[0013] Although this type of arrangement has been basically proven itself, and in particular the realization of an automatic transmission with very small dimensions has been made possible, there remains the need to further reduce the required construction space. Beyond this, it has been found that a consequence a speed up device with a hydrodynamic converter is a comparatively high fuel consumption.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0014] The invention is thus concerned with the task, of providing a device for bringing up to speed a vehicle provided with automatic transmission between a drive shaft and a driven shaft in a transmission housing, which on the one hand exhibits small space requirement and beyond this makes possible greater fuel economy.

[0015] This task is solved by a device for bringing up to speed with the characterizing features of claim 1.

[0016] Advantageous embodiments and further developments of the invention are set forth in the dependent claims.

[0017] The invention is based upon the idea, that instead of the converter, one provides a planetary gear with at least three gears, of which one, in certain cases via further gear stages, is coupleable with the drive shaft and one, in certain cases likewise via further gear stages, is coupleable with the driven shaft and wherein the gear can be connected via a start-up brake, of which the brake force is controllable, with the transmission housing of the automatic transmission.

[0018] The planetary gear is preferably a simple planetary gear with a sun gear, a planetary gear and a internal gear, wherein for example the internal gear can be coupled with the drive shaft, the planetary gear can be coupled with the driven shaft via one or more gear stages and the sun gear is connectable with the housing via the above-mentioned start-up brake. This variant offers advantages particularly in that, since it uses a planetary gear, it involves a known simple construction with small space requirement.

[0019] In accordance with the invention it is envisioned, that the planetary gear is a component of the automatic transmission. The advantage of this variant is comprised therein, that according to the state of the art a large number of automatic transmissions include this type of planetary gear for changing gear ratio, preferably planetary gear sets.

[0020] It is frequently the case, that one gear of the above-mentioned planetary gear present as a component of the automatic transmission is connected fixed against rotation with the transmission housing. It is thus simply possible, to brake this fixed against rotation connection and to establish a controllable coupling via a start-up brake.

[0021] It is envisioned in accordance with the invention that the planetary gear, with which in accordance with the state of art one gear is connected fixed against rotation with the transmission housing, is a pre-provided step-down or reduction gear or a pre-provided step-up or increase gear of the automatic transmission. For realizing the invention this wheel is now connected with the transmission housing via the above-mentioned start-up brake.

[0022] It is envisioned in accordance with the invention to implement a device for starting up or bringing up to speed an admittedly known automatic transmission of the Lepelletier design. This variant has the advantage of a particularly small construction size.

[0023] For illustration purposes reference is made to the above-described embodiment in accordance with FIG. 4. An automatic transmission of this type includes—as has been described above in detail—a pre-provided step-down or reduction stage 27 in the form of a planetary drive. This input planetary drive 4 includes, with reference to the above description and the illustrative FIG. 4, a sun gear 12, a planetary gear 13 held by the planet arm 15 as well as an internal gear 14. This planetary gear is connected with the motor shaft M in accordance with the state of the art on the input side via the hydrodynamic converter 3 or preferably via the converter bridging clutch 6. The sun gear 12 of this input planetary gear box 4 is likewise in accordance with the state of the art connected fixed against rotation with the transmission housing 7. In accordance with the invention it is however envisioned, that the hydrodynamic converter 3 is dispensed with and the motor shaft M is directly connected with the drive shaft 1, whereby it is however also possible to provide there-between a rotation oscillation dampening device. Beyond this there is established, in place of the fixed against rotation connection of the sun gear 12 with the transmission housing 7, the above described inventive coupling of the sun gear 12 with the transmission housing 7 via a start-up brake. The gear ratio of the first gear of the wide gear ratio automatic transmission in the Lepelletier design is sufficient for carrying out the starting up processes even without a hydrodynamic torque enhancer.

[0024] It is envisioned in accordance with the invention, that the start-up brake is a friction brake, of which the slip is controllable. The employment of a friction type start-up clutch of this type with controllable or adjustable slip in the vehicle automatic transmission opens completely new and broad possibilities of the motor rotational speed adaptation, in order to increase fuel efficiency, without having to sacrifice performance. The herein introduced idea of a broadening of the function of the Lepelletier automatic transmission satisfies all current requirements of a modern vehicle transmission.

[0025] It is envisioned in accordance with the invention, to control the brake force of the start-up brake in such a manner, that this is smaller at the beginning of the start-up process than at the end of the start-up process. Preferably the brake force is so controlled, that at the beginning of the start-up process it essentially disappears, that is, that the start-up brake at the beginning at the start phase is opened, and that the brake after conclusion of the start-up process is arrested and therewith establishes a fixed against rotation connection of the sun gear to the transmission housing. Preferably the brake force is substantially continuously increased from the beginning of the start-up process up to the end of the start-up process.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

[0026] Based upon the transmission according to the state of the art according to the illustrative embodiment shown in FIG. 4 there is shown in the drawing an automatic transmission with an inventive device for start-up, which in the following will be described in greater detail. There is shown:

[0027] FIG. 1 a transmission diagram of an automatic transmission of a vehicle according to Lepelletier with the inventive device for start-up;

[0028] FIG. 2 an RPM gear ratio diagram of the automatic transmission of Lepelletier with the inventive device for start-up according to FIG. 1 —condition immediately after the beginning of the start-up process—

[0029] FIG. 3 an RPM conversion diagram of the automatic transmission according to FIG. 1 —condition directly prior to ending the start-up process—

[0030] FIG. 4 an RPM conversion diagram of an automatic transmission of Lepelletier with hydrodynamic converter as start-up device —state of the art—

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0031] The illustrative embodiment of an automatic transmission shown in FIG. 1 as a transmission schematic with the inventive device for bringing up to speed is based essentially upon the six harmonic staged Lepelletier type transmission described above and shown in FIG. 4.

[0032] The components of the automatic transmission 26 according to Lepelletier are in accordance with the above-mentioned figure wherein the identical reference numbers are used for the same or similar components:

[0033] the drive shaft 1 continuously coupled on the input side to the motor via motor shaft M, the output drive shaft 2 continuously coupled with the vehicle drive shaft F,

[0034] the upstream reduction gear 27, which is constructed as input planetary drive 4 with sun gear 12, planetary gear 13 and internal gear 14,

[0035] the output planetary drive 5 with sun gear 16, internal planetary gear 17, external planetary gear 18, internal gear 19 and sun gear 20 as well as

[0036] the pairwise engageable shift elements for shifting the gears namely clutch A, clutch B, clutch E, brake C and brake D.

[0037] For the concrete coupling of the individual components as well as for the functioning of the automatic multi-gear transmission reference is made to the above description as well as the examples in the therein mentioned reference DE 690 10 472 T2.

[0038] In accordance with the invention there is now provided, in place of the hydrodynamic converter 3 and the converter bridge clutch 6 according to the state of the art, a controlled slip friction type start-up clutch, referred to in the following as start-up brake S. This start-up brake S is provided in place of the fixed against rotation connection between the transmission housing 7 and the sun gear 12 of the input planetary drive 4 and provides a controllable connection between the transmission housing 7 and the sun gear 12 of the input planetary drive 4.

[0039] The motor shaft M is now no longer connected with the drive shaft 1 via the converter 3 or the converter bridging clutch 6, but rather is preferably provided as a preferably direct fixed against rotation or oscillation dampened connection of the motor shaft M with the drive shaft 1.

[0040] The manner in which the inventive device functions for starting up an vehicle will be described in the following in greater detail on the basis of FIGS. 2 and 3:

[0041] During the start-up process in the presently discussed automatic transmission 26 according to Lepelletier both the clutch A as well as the brake D are closed, while the clutch B and E as well as the brake C are in the open position.

[0042] At the beginning of the start phase the start-up brake S is opened. By the rotation of the drive shaft 1 connected with the motor shaft M of the internal combustion engine the internal gear 14 or the reduction gear 27 provided upstream as input planetary drive 4 is driven with motor speed of rotation nM. The internal gear rate of rotation n14 is thus identical to the motor rate of rotation nM.

[0043] The planet arm 15 of the input planetary drive 4 is connected with the drive shaft 2 and therewith with the vehicle drive shaft F via the arrested clutch A and the output planetary drive 5. Since the vehicle is not moving, the value of the vehicle drive shaft rotation speed nF and therewith likewise the planet arm rotational speed n15 of the input planetary drive 4 is zero:

nF=n15=0

[0044] Since the reduction stage 27 is not an input planetary drive 4 with a negative level of translation io, in the described case the sun gear 12 rotates with the added on start-up brake S against the motor direction of rotation with the rotational speed

ns=io×nM.

[0045] Directly after the start-up the brake force of the start-up brake S is increased. The sun gear 12 of the input planetary drive 4 is now no longer completely freely moveable. This has the consequence, that besides the rotation of all gears 12, 13, 14 of the input planetary drive 4 also a rotation of the planet arm 15 can occur.

[0046] FIG. 2 shows an RPM translation diagram of the automatic transmission 26 of Lepelletier with the inventive device for start-up according to FIG. 1 for the condition thereof directly after the beginning of the start-up process.

[0047] The left side of the diagram represents the input planetary drive 4, the right side of the diagram FIG. 2 represents the output planetary drive 5. The verticals necessary for the graphic determination of the rotation speed of the individual gears are shown in the figure using the reference numbers used in diagram of FIG. 1. Thus, the left line associated with the input planetary drive 4 in the form of a negative or minus gear is indicated with reference number 12 (sun gear), the central line by reference number 15 (planet arm) and the right line by the reference number 14 (internal gear). Accordingly the output planetary drive 5 in the form of a positive gear or gear box associated lines are indicated from left to right by the reference numbers 21 and 22 (inner planet arm and outer planet arm), 19 (internal gear) and 16 (sun gear).

[0048] As can be seen from the diagram FIG. 2, the internal gear 14 directly after the start-up of the vehicle rotates with the motor rotational speed

n14=nM.

[0049] The speed of rotation nS of the start-up brake S and therewith the rotational speed n12 of the sun gear 12 of the input planetary drive 4 is slightly reduced as a result of the brake effect:

nS=n12<io×nM.

[0050] (io=level of translation).

[0051] At the point of intersection of the degree of translation 23 determined by the rotational speed n14 of the internal gear 14 and the rotational speed n12 of the sun gear 12, with the vertical associated with the planet arm 15, there results the value of the planet arm rotational speed n15.

[0052] This planet arm rotational speed n15 is transmitted to the sun gear 16 of the output planetary drive 5 by means of the closed clutch A. The corresponding intersection with the vertical corresponding to the sun gear 16 can likewise be taken from the diagram FIG. 2. Since during start-up in the first gear the planet arms 21 and 22 of the output planetary drive 5 are not moveable for reason of the closed brake B, the degree of translation 24 and therewith the internal gear rotational speed n19 of the output planetary drive 15 can be determined. The internal gear rotational speed n19 can be read from the intersection in diagram FIG. 2 of the translational degree 24 with the vertical corresponding to the internal gear 19.

[0053] With increasing vehicle speed the start-up brake rotational speed nS drops. The driven rotational speed, represented by the vehicle drive shaft rotational speed nF, thereby increases continuously. The torque TS to be applied from the start-up brake S thereby corresponds to the factor of the reduced degree of the actual gear translation io of the transmission input torque TM:

TS=TM/io.

[0054] The reduction stage of the input planetary drive 4 in the Lepelletier system 26 generally exhibits a degree of translation io of approximately 2. Therefrom there results a reduced brake moment TS reduced by a factor of io=2 compared to the transmission input moment TM.

[0055] Diagram FIG. 3 shows a rotation speed translation diagram of the automatic transmission according to FIG. 1 in the case of an increased brake force of the start-up brake S, and therewith further reduced start-up brake rotation speed nS, which determines the rotation speed n12 of the sun gear 12. According to the above description, from this diagram in similar manner the driven-side vehicle drive shaft rotation speed nF can be determined.

[0056] The braking of the start-up brake S is continued, until its rotational speed nS and therewith also the sun gear rotation speed n12 of the input planetary drive 4 reaches a speed of zero.

[0057] Therewith the planet arm rotation speed n15 of the input planetary drive 4 increases to the maximum value n15, max. as a fixed relation to the motor rotation speed nM. The vehicle drive shaft rotation speed nF as driven rotational speed of the automatic transmission 26 reaches the relative value to the motor rotation speed nM corresponding to the translation ratio in the first gear.

[0058] Reference Number List

[0059] 1 drive shaft

[0060] 2 driven shaft

[0061] 3 hydrodynamic converter

[0062] 4 input planetary drive

[0063] 5 output planetary drive

[0064] 6 converter bridging clutch

[0065] 7 transmission or gear box housing

[0066] 8 pump gear

[0067] 9 turbine gear

[0068] 10 guide wheel or impeller

[0069] 11 free wheel

[0070] 12 sun gear

[0071] 13 planetary gear

[0072] 14 internal gear

[0073] 15 planet arm/planetary carrier

[0074] 16 sun gear

[0075] 17 internal planetary gear

[0076] 18 external planetary gear

[0077] 19 internal gear

[0078] 20 sun gear

[0079] 21 internal planet arm/internal planetary carrier

[0080] 22 external planet arm/external planetary carrier

[0081] 23 degree of translation

[0082] 24 degree of translation

[0083] 25 Lepelletier automatic transmission

[0084] 26 Lepelletier automatic transmission

[0085] 27 upstream or introducing or receiving reduction stage

[0086] A clutch

[0087] B clutch

[0088] C brake

[0089] D brake

[0090] E clutch

[0091] F vehicle drive shaft

[0092] M motor shaft

[0093] S start-up brake

[0094] nS rotational speed of start-up brake

[0095] nM motor rotation speed

[0096] nF vehicle drive shaft rotation speed

[0097] n12 sun gear rotation speed

[0098] n14 internal gear rotation speed

[0099] n14 planet arm rotation speed

[0100] n15, max maximal planet arm rotation speed

[0101] n16 sun gear rotation speed

[0102] n21 internal planet arm rotation speed

[0103] n22 external planet arm rotation speed

[0104] n19 internal gear rotation speed

[0105] io degree of translation

[0106] TS rotation speed of the start-up brake

[0107] TM gear box input torque

Claims

1. Device for starting up a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission provided between a drive shaft (1) and a driven shaft (2) in a transmission housing (7)

with a planetary gear (4) with a first gear (14) coupleable with the drive shaft (1), with a second gear (13, 15) coupleable with the driven shaft (2) and with a third gear (12),
thereby characterized, that the third gear (12) is coupleable with the transmission housing (7) via a start-up brake (S), of which the brake force is controllable.

2. Device according to claim 1, thereby characterized, that the planetary gear is a simple planetary gear (4) with one sun gear (12) at least one planetary gear (13) and an internal gear (14), wherein the first gear is the internal gear (14), the second gear is the planetary gear (13) and the third gear is the sun gear (14).

3. Device according to one of claims 1 or 2, thereby characterized, that the planetary gear (4) is a component of the automatic transmission (26).

4. Device according to claim 3, thereby characterized, that the planetary gear (4) is a previously in-place reduction gear stage (27) or a previously in-place step up stage of the automatic transmission (26).

5. Device according to claim 3 or 4, thereby characterized, that the automatic transmission is a vehicle automatic transmission (26) according to Lepelletier.

6. Device according to one of the preceding claims, thereby characterized, that the start-up brake is a friction brake (S), with controllable slip.

7. Device according to one of the preceding claims, thereby characterized, that the brake force of the start-up brake (S) is controllable in such a manner, that the brake force at the beginning of the start-up process is smaller than at the end of the start-up process.

8. Device according to claim 7, thereby characterized, that the brake force of the start-up brake (S) is controllable in such a manner, that the brake force at the beginning of the start-up process essentially disappears and that the start-up brake (S) at the end of the start-up process is arrested or is controlled for minimum slippage.

9. Device according to one of claims 7 or 8, thereby characterized, that the start-up element of the transmission is controllable by the brake force of the start-up brake (S) in such a manner, that the start-up acceleration from the beginning of the start-up process until the end of the start-up process is freely controllable by a regulator.

10. Device according to one of claims 7, 8 or 9, thereby characterized, that the brake force of the start-up brake (S) is controllable from outside the transmission.

11. Automatic transmission (26), with a device (4, S) according to one of the preceding claims.

12. Process for operation of a device for starting up according to one of claims 1 through 6, thereby characterized, that the driven rotation speed (N19, nF) of the automatic transmission brake force of the start-up brake (S) is controlled in such a manner, that it is smaller at the beginning of the start-up process than at the end of the start-up process.

13. Process according to claim 12, thereby characterized, that brake force of the start-up brake (S) is controllable in such a manner, that the brake force at the beginning of the start-up process essentially disappears and that the start-up brake at the end of the start-up process locks or is controlled for minimal slippage.

14. Process according to claim 12 or 13, thereby characterized, that the start-up element of the transmission is controllable via the brake force of the start-up brake (S) in such a manner, that the start-up acceleration from the beginning of the start process to the end of the start-up process is freely selectable or controllable via a regulator.

15. Process according to one of claims 12 through 14, thereby characterized, that the brake force of the start-up brake (S) is controllable in such a manner, that the increase in the rotational speed nF of the driven shaft (2) follows a pre-determined pattern.

Patent History
Publication number: 20030114266
Type: Application
Filed: Dec 13, 2002
Publication Date: Jun 19, 2003
Inventor: Karl-Heinz Bauer (Graben-Neudorf)
Application Number: 10318617
Classifications
Current U.S. Class: Plural Elements Selectively Braked (475/271)
International Classification: F16H003/44;