System for managing data objects
A device for managing image and audio files displays thumbnails, which are representative of the files, on a screen in different arrangements, depending on the selected layout and order. When the user enters input to indicates that he or she wishes to browse through the thumbnails, the thumbnails move across the screen in sequence, following a path through a focus outline in the center of the screen. The path followed by the thumbnails depends on the selected layout.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to an on-screen graphical user interface, and database management.
2. Related Art
Digital cameras, mini disks, and other devices for recording and playing digital media are becoming quite popular. These devices store digital media as data objects in memories such as flash memories, hard disks, and on-line storage.
There are many methods available for managing large numbers of data objects. For example, data objects are frequently managed using windows and folders. U.S. Pat. No. 5,917,488 describes a system for displaying and manipulating image data sets. First, a window including programmed groups is, displayed. When a user selects one of the programmed groups, then a second window is displayed with thumbnails that represent data objects of the selected programmed group.
Data objects are also handled in hierarchical lists, using static light-box metaphors. A light-box metaphor displays images in the manner of “slides” all the same size on a white background. The “slides” are arranged in a grid.
There are methods known for selecting a format for displaying data objects. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,673,429 describes a system that displays a list of different display formats. When the user selects a desired display format from the list, then items that match the selected format are pulled from a database and displayed in a list that depends on the selected display format.
Memory is becoming available in increasingly large capacities, which enable storage of increasingly large numbers of data objects. For example, memory cards are available that are capable of storing data for several hundred different digital photographs. However, conventional techniques, such as windows, folders, and lists, have a problem in that they are insufficient for presenting such large numbers of data objects in a manner that a user can easily and quickly understand.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
It is an objective of the present invention to solve the above-described problems, and to provide a method and device that allows a user to easily browse, view, manage, select, and command a large number of data objects.
In order to achieve this objective, a device according to the present invention for managing data objects, includes displaying means, defining means, moving means, and enable/disable means.
The displaying means is for displaying thumbnails representative of data objects. The defining means is for defining a focus region that indicates a focus thumbnail subject to processes. The moving means is for moving the displayed thumbnails along a predetermined path through the focus region.
The enable/disable means is for selectively enabling and disabling the moving means. When the enable/disable means disables the moving means, then the displaying means statically displays a single thumbnail in the focus region. When the enable/disable means enables the moving means, then the displaying means displays the thumbnails to move along the predetermined path through the focus region.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The above and other objects, features and advantages of the invention will become more apparent from reading the following description of the embodiment taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENT
Next, a system according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described while referring to the accompanying drawings. The system is for managing data objects such as digital image files, digital audio files, text files, executable programs, program files, and movie files.
As shown in FIGS. 1 to 4, the system displays a window 20 including a thumbnail screen 21 and a layout/order interface 22. Thumbnails 23, that represent a variety of data objects, are displayed in the screen 21. As shown in
The thumbnails 23 can be displayed in any of four different graphical display layouts: a line layout as shown in
As shown in
An information tab 26 is displayed within the focus outline 24 at a position below the focus thumbnail 25. The information tab 26 includes further information about the focus thumbnail 25 such as a file name, date, size, and file type of the data object that corresponds to the focus thumbnail 25.
The layout/order interface 22 is displayed at the bottom of the screen 21 below the display of the thumbnails 23, and includes a layout interface 27 and an order interface 28. The layout interface 27 includes icons 27a to 27b representing each of the four different layouts. The user can select a desired display layout by selecting the corresponding icon 27a to 27d, using a mouse and cursor for example. The icon 27a to 27d that represents the presently selected layout is displayed near the center of the layout/order interface 22 to indicate the presently selected layout. The selected icon can also be changed by clicking on the center icon, or by clicking on an icon 27e. With each click, the icons 27a to 27d switch places with the selected icon one after another in order. The graphical icons 27a to 27d allows a user to select a display layout with more confidence that when selecting by using a list.
The order interface 28 is for selecting one of four different sequence orders that determined arrangement of the thumbnails 23 in the selected layout. The four orders include: name of data object, type of data object, size of the data file, and time the file was stored. The order interface 28 is displayed at the right bottom of the screen, and includes words 28a to 28d that represent each of the four different order types. The word, name 28a in this example, that represents the selected order is displayed near the center of the layout/order interface 22. The selected icon can be changed by either clicking on a desired word, or by clicking on an icon 28e.
Here, a more detailed description of the four layouts will be provided. As shown in
As shown in
As shown in
As shown in
Next, configuration of the file management system for displaying the window 20 will be explained, along with further explanation of various features of the file management system. As shown in
The memory card 21 can be any memory card, such as a Memory Stick™, a SmartMedia™ memory card, or a Compact Flash™ memory card. The memory card 2 stores data files for a large number of photographs, songs, or any other type of data objects. The other modules of the system can write data objects into, or read data objects from, the memory card 2. The user input unit 4 can be any user interface for inputting commands and the like, such as a keyboard, a jog-dial, a game controller, or an on-screen unit such as a mouse or a pen.
The computer 1 includes a slot 2a for insertion of the memory card 2, a memory card interface 10, a CPU 11, a ROM 12, a RAM 13, a hard disk 14, a user interface 15, a display interface 16, and a network interface 17, all connected together by a bus 16. The user interface 15 is connected to the user input unit 4. The display interface 16 is connected to the display 3. The network interface 17 is connected to a network 5.
The file manager 11 reads data objects from the memory card 2 and stores them in memory, such as the RAM 13.
The layout/order template stock 15 is memory, such as the hard disk 14, that holds a layout/out template for each combination of the four layouts and the four orders. Each layout/order template contains two primary rule sets for the corresponding layout, one set of rules for setting relative positions of thumbnails 23 and another set of rules for movement of thumbnails 23.
Although rules in the layout/order templates will be described later, with respect to relative position of thumbnails, a layout/order template for the grid layout includes layout rules that indicate that each thumbnail should be positioned immediately to the right of the preceding thumbnail, unless the thumbnail is sixth in a thumbnail sequence. If the thumbnail is sixth in the sequence, then the thumbnail should be positioned underneath the first image in the sequence in order to begin a new sequence, that is, to start a new row in the grid. The templates for the line, circle, and helix layouts indicate that the thumbnails should be aligned in line, circle, and helix patterns, respectively.
With respect to rule for movement of the thumbnails, the grid template also includes rules defining that the thumbnails in the grid layout move as shown in
The program manager 14 reads a layout/order template from the layout/order template stock 15 for the presently selected layout and order. The program manager 14 writes the template into the file manager 11 to apply the template to the data objects stored by the file manager 11. The program manager 14 reads templates from the layout/order template stock 15 and writes them in the file manager 11 each time the layout or order is changed, because only one set of display rules needs to be in active memory at any one time.
The layout/order manager 12 reads information about the data objects in the file manager 11, and draws the corresponding thumbnails 23 accordingly in the presently selected layout. The file layout/order manager 12 controls the display 2 to display the thumbnails accordingly.
The search engine 13 enables a user to search for data objects based on inputted search criteria. The search engine 13 incrementally writes the criteria in the file manager 11. The display 3 changes the screen 21 to display only thumbnails of data objects that satisfy the search criteria. The search engine 13 supports key words and file attributes, such as date, size, color.
Here, operations of the computer 1 will be described while referring to the flowcharts in FIGS. 7 to 10. In S1, the operating system of the computer 1 recognizes the memory card 2 when the memory card 2 is inserted into the slot 2a. As a result, the operating system launches an executable application for performing the functions of the file manager 11, the layout/order manager 12, and the other function modules in
On the other hand, if the memory card 2 stores data objects (S2:YES), then in S3 the file manager 11 loads the data objects from the memory card 2 one at a time into the RAM 13. In S4, the program manager 14 determines the presently selected layout and order for display of thumbnails to represent the data objects. In the present example, the line layout is set as the default layout, and file name is set as the default order. The program manager 14 then pulls the appropriate layout/order template from the layout/order template stock 15 and stores the layout/order template in the RAM 12. The program manager 14 writes the template on the file manager 11, thereby applying the template to each data object in the file manager 11.
In S5, the file layout/order manager 12 draws a data view for the thumbnails 23 according to the presently selected layout and order, and controls the display 2 to display the thumbnails accordingly.
Each thumbnail 23 is displayed as soon as retrieved by the file manager 11, and during the loading process the thumbnails are dynamically arranged on the screen according to the presently selected layout. That is, as shown in
As shown in
During and after the loading process, the layout/order manager 12 controls the display 3 to move the thumbnails in the line layout dynamically with a reciprocal pivoting motion, based on the oscillation of a pendulum. The center of the focus thumbnail 25 serves as the unmoving axis of the pivoting movement. In
This movement of the thumbnail layout also informs the user that the thumbnail can be interacted with in a dynamic manner. For example, the user can choose to change the layout or order of the thumbnails (S6), to look closer at the data object that is presently selected (S7), or to browse through the thumbnails (S8).
If the user wishes to browse through the thumbnails (S8:YES), then in S9 the program manager 14 receives browsing input from the user. In S10, the layout/order manager 12 controls the display 3 to adjust how the thumbnails 23 are displayed, according to the browsing input from the user. In S11, the layout/order manager 12 continuously adjusts display screen of the display 3 as long as input is received from the user. Once the user stops providing browsing input (S11:NO), then the routine returns to S6.
When the browsing input is singular in nature, such as from pressing an arrow key on a keyboard once, then this indicates that the user wishes to change the selected thumbnail 25 to the thumbnail adjacent to the current selected thumbnail, that is, the thumbnail either prior or subsequent to the center thumbnail in the displayed thumbnail train. As a result, the layout/order manager 12 controls the display 3 to smoothly shift the thumbnail in the thumbnail train one position in the direction that moves the indicated adjacent thumbnail to the center of the screen. Although the focus outline 24 remains generally at the center of the screen 21, it can also be moved slightly toward the adjacent thumbnail as the adjacent thumbnail is shifted toward center, to further increase the smooth flowing movement of the displayed layout.
When the browsing input is continuous in nature, such as when the user continuously holds down an arrow key, then the layout/order manager 12 controls the display 3 to continuously stream the thumbnails train through the focus outline 24 on the screen 21. This enables the user to browse through the thumbnails of all the loaded data objects, even when the memory card 2 stores a great number of data objects, so that not all thumbnails can be displayed on the display 3 at the same time.
In the case of the circle layout, the displayed circle of thumbnails rotates so that the thumbnails 23 in the loop move through the focus outline 24. This allows the user to browse in a circular manner. The user does not have to be conscious of the beginning or end because they are linked. As mentioned above, when the ring can include a large number of thumbnail, then only a portion of the thumbnails are displayed at one time in an arc as shown in
In the case of the grid layout, all the thumbnails 23 remain in the same position with respect to each other during the browsing operation. When the user input indicates horizontal scroll, then as shown in
In the case of the helix layout, when the user input indicates horizontal scroll, the helix spirals vertically in order to move the thumbnails 23 through the focus outline 24. The amount that the helix screwingly rotates depends on the number of thumbnails 23 scrolled. When more than a few thumbnails are scrolled in succession, then as shown in
When the user wishes to change the layout or order of the thumbnails (S6:YES), then the routine proceeds to S20 of the flowchart of
When the processes in S21 to S22 are performed to implement a new layout, the icon that represents the selected layout is shifted rightward to near the center bottom of the screen to indicate its selected condition. The icon of the preceding selected layout shifts leftward to the side to join the icons of the other non-selected layouts. This enables a user to easily know when he properly selected a layout icon. At the same time, the thumbnails 23 are repositioned from the preceding layout into the newly selected one.
For example, while the thumbnails 23 are being displayed in the line layout as shown in
When the processes in S21 to S22 are performed to implement a new order, then in a manner similar to implementation of a new layout, the word that represents the newly selected order is shifted leftward to near the center bottom of the screen to indicate its selected condition. The word of the preceding selected order shifts rightward to the side to join the words of the other non-selected orders. At the same time, the thumbnails 23 are repositioned from the sequence of the preceding order into the sequence of the newly selected order.
In the example shown in
A user can get a closer look at a desired thumbnail by increasing the scale of the thumbnail in the focus outline 24 to a larger scale. When the user wishes to look closer at the data object that is presently selected (S7:YES), then the routine proceeds to S30 of the flowchart of
Next in S34, the user has the opportunity to use the command interface 40 to perform a variety of different processes on the selected data object. If the user does not wish to process the selected data object (S34:NO), then in S35 user input to this effect is received, such as from the user again pressing the return key while the arrows 40d surround all of the icons 40a to 40c, which indicates that no particular application has been selected. In S36, the layout/order manager 12 reduces the thumbnail 25 back to the original small scale. Then the flow returns to S6 or S30.
On the other hand, if the user wishes to process the selected data object (S34:YES), then the flow proceeds to S40 shown in the flowchart of
When the application is closed, before completely stopping display of the thumbnails, the thumbnails are shown scattering off the screen, to stress that the application has been terminated.
Here, the layout/order templates for determining mutual position and movement of thumbnails in each layout will be described in more detail. The layout manager 14 also includes information for defining the focus outline 24 at a position at or near the center of the screen 21. In templates for all layouts, the inter-thumbnail distance is set to a constant value of 64 pixels on the screen 21.
With respect to the line layout, the thumbnails are aligned on a line separated by 64 pixels. The line extends to a length L, which equals the number n of thumbnails times the constant 64 pixels (L=64n).
The content of the layout/order template for producing the reciprocal pivoting motion of the thumbnail line will be described with reference to
wherein x and y are coordinates on the display screen 21;
- t is time in seconds; and
- c0 and c1 are the coordinates at the center of the screen 21.
In the example of
The template for the circle layout will be explained with reference to
The center of the thumbnail circle is determined based on the following formula:
(xcircle1, Ycircle1)=(xcent, Ycent−r−64)
The center of filename circle is determined based on the following formula:
(xcircle2, Ycircle2)=(xcent, Ycent+r+64)
The position of each thumbnail in the thumbnail circle is determined based on the following formula:
The position of each file name in the file name circle is determined based on the following formula:
Here, the template for displaying the helix layout will be explained with reference to
wherein i is a thumbnail number representing a target thumbnail of all the thumbnails. For example, to determine the position of a second thumbnail in the thumbnail train, the value of i is set to two. The value of j is determined by subtracting n from i (j=i−n), wherein n is the thumbnail number of the focus thumbnail. For example, if the target thumbnail is the focus thumbnail, then j would equal zero. The scale of each thumbnail 23 is determined based on its Z-axis coordinate.
Next, content of the templates for determining slide movement during browsing will be explained while referring to FIGS. 23(a) to 25. The example will be given for the situation shown in
When the user input indicates to change the focus thumbnail to the next higher in the thumbnail line, that is, to the thumbnail 232, then the layout/order manager 12 sets target positions Di for the thumbnails 231 to 234 based on the thumbnail 232 being centered in the screen as the focus thumbnail 25 as shown in box b of
Next, a routine performed by the program manager 14 for changing the display of thumbnails in this manner will be described while referring to the flowchart in
In S52, the target position Di of the ith thumbnail is set based on the new focus thumbnail selected in S50. It should be noted that the target position Di is also set based on the present layout. For example, if the present layout is the helix layout, then the target position Di will be a position somewhere on the helix shape defined by the helix layout template. This is true for all the layouts.
In S53, a new position Sinew for the ith thumbnail is calculated based on the ith thumbnail's present position Sipresent and the target position Di. The new position Sinew is determined based on the following formula:
That is, as shown in
Then, in S54 the thumbnail number i is incremented by one to change focus of the routine to the next thumbnail in the thumbnail train. Once the routine has been performed for all the thumbnails in the thumbnail train (S55:YES). then this routine is ended.
As a result of repeated runs of this routine, the thumbnails will eventually reach their target positions. Because of the process in S53, the thumbnails will move quickly at first, and then reduce speed as they approach their new target positions in a type of movement commonly referred to as “easing in.” This gives the effect that the thumbnails settle into their new target positions.
As mentioned above, the focus outline 24 moves slightly to greet the next thumbnail in the thumbnail train during browsing operations. The templates include information for displaying this motion.
The thumbnail for the audio file is divided into the same number of sections as the retrieved music data, that is, into 300 sections in this example, by dividing a thumbnail into 300 sections (15×20). The color gradations determined by the three 16-bit sets of each section are used to display color in the corresponding section of the thumbnail as shown in the second square from the top in
As shown in
While the invention has been described in detail with reference to specific embodiments thereof, it would be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined by the attached claims.
For example, the embodiment described data objects being loaded from a memory card into a computer. However, the memory card can be replaced by any local storage device, such as flash memory, recordable media, hard disk, or CD-ROM. Alternatively, data objects can be provided over a networked server, or from any combination of local memories and networks.
Further, data objects could be transferred via a network protocol by using a standalone application or browser applet. Such a configuration could be used as an on-line multimedia photo album, wherein a user uploads data-objects to a server, and others browse the data-objects from remote terminals. Alternately, the user's computer itself could be used as a server.
When the data objects are provided from a CD-ROM, then in this case also the data objects can be loaded from the CD-ROM into the file manager automatically upon insertion of the CD-ROM into the computer. However, as shown in
This contrast to the case of a memory card. As shown in
Although the embodiment describes launching an application in S41 for a single data object, an application could be launched for more than one data object. For example, the user can bookmark several thumbnails using the bookmark interface, and then launch the application for all of the book marked thumbnails.
The layout interface 27 uses icons to represent layouts, and the order interface 28 uses words to represent orders. However, any indicia can be used to represent layouts and orders.
Although the embodiment described layouts and orders as being predetermined, the computer could be modified to enable a user to define new layouts and orders. New layouts can be defined using a visual programming function that a user uses to position and size a series of thumbnails or other data object representatives in a repeatable pattern. Such new layouts can be shared and distributed through a plug-in architecture. New orders can be defined by the user simply adding a new file attribute to the list of order parameters. Search criteria could also be stored and used as order parameters.
In the embodiment, thumbnails and the overall layout are displayed in the same manner regardless of the selected order. However, the thumbnails and layout could be displayed in a manner dependent on the selected order. For example, when file size is chosen as the order, then as shown in
When time is chosen as the order, the sequence or pattern of how thumbnails are displayed can be varied based on how close together the data objects are in time. For example, the time between two data objects can be represented by varying the space between two thumbnail. In the example shown in
Alternately, thumbnails can be grouped together, and the groups separated from each other, as shown in
A more sophisticated algorithm can take into account overall image taking frequency, total elapsed time, and image criteria to adjust the groupings dynamically. Examples of how image taking frequency, total elapsed time, and image criteria can be used to adjust grouping will be given for the situation of taking images with a digital camera.
Image taking frequency can be measured by determining the time intervals between all images taken, finding the average interval, and comparing each time interval with the average interval. Whether images have a time interval greater or less than average can be used as a weighting factor for determining whether or not thumbnails should be displayed in different groups.
Total elapsed time refers to the entire duration of time from when the first image was taken to when the last image was taken. The standard time difference used to determine what thumbnails are grouped together can be varied depending on the elapsed time. For example, if only an hour has elapsed since the first image was taken, then the standard time difference might be set to ten minutes. However, if 10 hours has elapsed, then the standard time difference might be set to one hour.
Image criteria refers to using certain criteria, such as brightness level, color, and pattern recognition of images, to determine whether images should be grouped together or not. Each image is analyzed for certain criteria, and thumbnails for images sharing the same characteristics are grouped together.
Any dynamic element, such as icons, can be used instead of thumbnails to represent the data objects. However, thumbnails are preferable to icons, because the thumbnail is the essence of the data object itself. For example, when the thumbnail is a depiction of an image, the thumbnail is the essence of the image itself in a smaller size. An icon is a generic representation of a file type, in which case all of the same type of image would have the same icon.
The outline 24 need not be provided for indicating the focus thumbnail 25, which is the focus of operations induced by input from the user. The focus thumbnail 25 can be designated merely by placement in a focus region, without displaying the focus outline 24 itself.
In the embodiment, the application is launched when the memory card 2 is inserted into the slot 2a. However, the application can be launched when the memory card 2 is selected based on input from the user input unit 4.
In the embodiment, the same application is launched when any memory card is selected or inserted. However, different applications can be launched depending on the data in the memory card or the type of memory card, or to launch an application only for certain memory cards.
Although the embodiment described the system as being user controlled, the system could also be autonomous. For example, a slide show mode can be provided for randomly presenting thumbnails, automatically without user control. This is similar to a slide show program that randomly displays images in a certain folder. The slide show mode can be initiated automatically in the manner of a screen saver mode after a period of in-action by the user. The user can easily interrupt the screen saver mode by taking any action. It would also be possible for the user to directly initiate this slide show function.
6. A device for managing data objects, comprising:
- displaying means for displaying thumbnails representative of data objects;
- defining means for defining a focus region that indicates a focus thumbnail subject to processes;
- moving means for moving the displayed thumbnails along a predetermined path through the focus region; and
- enable/disable means for selectively enabling and disabling the moving means, the displaying means statically displaying a single thumbnail in the focus region when the enable/disable means disables the moving means, the displaying means displaying the thumbnails to move along the predetermined path through the focus region when the enable/disable means enables the moving mean;
- wherein the displaying means further displays an interface portion with a plurality of indicia, and further comprising selection means for selecting one of the indicia of the interface portion;
- wherein the indicia include a plurality of layout indicia each representing one of a plurality of layouts, the displaying means displaying the thumbnails in relative positions, and the moving means moving the thumbnails along a predetermined path, in accordance with the layout indicium selected by the selection means; and
- wherein the displaying means further displays file names of files containing the data objects of the thumbnails, the displaying means displaying the file names in a pattern that is inverse a pattern formed by the thumbnails.
Filed: Mar 11, 2005
Publication Date: Jul 21, 2005
Inventors: Eduardo Sciammarella (Tokyo), Junichi Rekimoto (Tokyo), Haruo Oba (Kanagawa), Makoto Imamura (Tokyo), Hideyuki Agata (Tokyo), Masakazu Hayashi (Chiba), Masato Kuninori (Tokyo)
Application Number: 11/078,766