Systems and methods for monitoring and controlling water consumption
Systems and methods for monitoring and controlling water consumption in a water-based system are disclosed using one or more sensors for generating signals indicative of the operation thereof. One or more interface modules are provided as breaker circuits for receiving the generated signals, and a fluid control device is operable for limiting the water consumption. A motherboard receives the interface modules and provides communication therebetween for information processing. Signals from the various sensors are supplied to a controller, which provides signals to status indicators, and also operates to provide alarm signals via network interfaces to remote locations. In an alternate embodiment, a water monitoring system is designed to shut off the water supply to the water device and to shut off either the electrical supply or the gas supply to the heating unit of the water device in response to sensing a malfunction through one or more sensed parameters.
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Utility application Ser. No. 10/668,897, filed Sep. 23, 2003, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Utility application Ser. No. 10/252,350, filed Sep. 23, 2002, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,766,835, issued Jul. 27, 2004, the contents of both of which are incorporated herein by reference.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to fluid consumption systems in the home and commercial environments. More particularly, the invention relates to automated controls and monitoring of fluid-based systems employing methods and systems for detecting, communicating, and preventing operational failures.
2. Description of the Related Art
There are various water-consuming fixtures, appliances, and systems in both residential and commercial installations. Typical water-based systems include sinks, toilets, dishwashers, washing machines, water heaters, lawn sprinklers, swimming pools and the like. For example, hot water tanks include a heating element located at the bottom of the tank, with a hot water outlet pipe and a make-up water inlet pipe connected through the top of the tank. In water tanks a thermostat is generally included for setting the desired temperature of the hot water withdrawn from the tank, and typically a blow-out outlet is connected through a pressure relief valve to allow hot air, steam and hot water to be removed from the tank through the relief valve when the pressure exceeds the setting of the relief valve. The relief valve may be periodically operated for relatively short intervals during the normal operation of the hot water tank. This allows bubbling steam and water to pass through the relief valve for discharge. Once the pressure drops below the setting of the relief valve, it turns off and normal operation of the hot water tank resumes.
After a period of time, however, mineral deposit buildup and corrosion frequently take place in relief valves and the like, as a result of these periodic operations. In time, such corrosion or scale build up may impair operation. When this occurs, the possibility of a catastrophic failure exists. In addition to the possibility of high pressure explosions taking place in water tanks, other conditions can also lead to significant damage to the surrounding structure. As hot water tanks age, frequently they develop leaks, or leaks develop in the water inlet pipe or hot water outlet pipe to the tank. If such leaks go undetected, water damage from the leak to the surrounding building structure results.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,240,022 to Franklin discloses a sensor system, utilized in conjunction with hot water tanks designed to shut off the water supply in response to the detection of water leaks. In addition, the Franklin patent includes multiple parallel-operated sensors, operating through an electronic control system, to either turn off the main water supply or individual water supplies to different appliances, such as the hot water heater tank.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,154,248 to Fulton discloses a temperature control relief valve operating in conjunction with an over heating/pressure relief sensor to remove or disconnect the heat source from a hot water tank when excess temperature is sensed. The temperature sensor of U.S. Pat. No. 4,381,075 to Cargill et al. is designed to be either the primary control or a backup control with the pressure relief valve. Three other U.S. patents, to Lenoir, U.S. Pat. No. 5,632,302; Salvucci, U.S. Pat. No. 6,084,520; and Zeke, U.S. Pat. No. 6,276,309, all disclose safety systems for use in conjunction with a hot water tank. The systems of these patents all include sensors which operate in response to leaked water to close the water supply valve to the hot water tank. The systems disclosed in the Salvucci and Zeke patents also employ the sensing of leaked water to shut off either the gas supply or the electrical supply to the hot water tank, thereby removing the heat source as well as the supply water to the hot water tank. U.S. Pat. No. 3,961,156 to Patton utilizes sensing of the operation of the standard pressure relief valve of a hot water tank to also operate a microswitch to break the circuit to the heating element of the hot water tank.
While the various systems disclosed in the prior art patents discussed above function to sense potential malfunctioning of a hot water tank to either turn off the water supply, the energy supply, or both, to prevent further damage, none of the systems disclosed in these patents are directed to a safety system for monitoring potentially damaging pressure increases in the hot water tank in the event that the pressure relief valve malfunctions. This potential condition, however, is one which is capable of producing catastrophic damage to the structure in the vicinity of the hot water tank.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,428,347 to Barron shows a water monitoring system with minimal expansion and protection capabilities. The input and outputs (I/O) offered by the system limit the number of water appliances individually protected. The Barron device was designed such that a normal installation would use a single control unit. The number and types of inputs suggest it was designed primarily to protect a single water heater, and to act as an external control unit for an air conditioner. A number of auxiliary devices could be protected using an auxiliary water sensor input. Outputs provide for control of a hot water solenoid, a cold water solenoid, three alarm signals for external buzzers or bells and an optional external air conditioner control unit. This requires that the unit control be a single standard 24 vac water control valve for the main hot water in feed and the main cold water in feed line. Thus, it can cut off the power to the unit that tripped the alarm. No matter which sensor is triggered, it appears that the unit can only cut off the main water in feed line(s) to the home and can only remove power from the unit plugged into it. However, the unit does not have a one-to-one correspondence between a sensor and a control valve. The valve control outputs are wired such that if any one of the units sense a water leak, it could close the valves.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The following summary sets forth certain example embodiments of the invention described in greater detail below. It does not set forth all such embodiments and should in no way be construed as limiting of the invention.
Embodiments of the invention relate to systems and methods of monitoring and controlling fluid-based (e.g., water-based) systems in the home or commercial business. These include, for example, water heater, sinks, toilets, dishwashers and clothes washer, swimming pool and lawn sprinklers.
Embodiments of the invention provide a monitoring and control system which overcomes the disadvantages of the prior art, which is capable of monitoring one or more parameters of fluid-based systems (e.g., water consumption parameters), which may be installed with an after-market add on, or which may be incorporated into original equipment, and which further includes the capability of remote monitoring of branches or areas of the fluid-based systems. Moreover, embodiments relate to an improved water sensor unit wherein a plurality of water-related appliances or equipment can be simultaneously monitored and, in the event of sensing water with respect to any one of the several items being monitored, appropriate action is taken, such as shutting off the power to the unit and simultaneously shutting off the water supply to that particular unit.
In an embodiment, the invention includes a system in which one or more electrical circuit interface modules communicate with a motherboard. The motherboard and each interface module “protects” a branch or area of the home or business from water/liquid based overloads or malfunctions.
Systems and methods herein involve one or more sensors in a fluid-based system for generating signals indicative of the operation thereof. One or more interface modules are provided as breaker circuits for receiving the generated signals, and a fluid control device (e.g., a control valve) is operable for limiting or otherwise regulating the fluid consumption. A motherboard receives the interface modules and provides communication therebetween for information processing. Signals from the various sensors are supplied to a controller, which provides signals to status indicators, and also operates to provide alarm signals via network interfaces to remote locations and to operate an alarm. The controller provides control signals to the interface modules, which in turn provide signals to the fluid control devices.
Interface modules can operate with direct wire connection to one or more valves and sensors. Individual interface modules can also transmit or receive wireless data, between the valve and sensor directly to the interface module. Similarly, interface modules can communicate with the controller via wire connections or wirelessly. The interface modules can also be operated in a timed mode or sensor mode.
In other embodiments, the system can be connected to a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) such as the World Wide Web, which enables users to configure, monitor, or otherwise control the system and the fluid-based systems and devices interfaced therewith.
The system can be configured to automatically cycle devices on a periodic or ad hoc basis. For instance, at a predetermined time, normally closed valves can be opened and then closed. In addition, the system can be configured to monitor and take action when sensed conditions indicate the possibility of multiple failure points in a fluid-based system.
In another embodiment, the system interfaces with other systems or devices of a building, such as the heating and/or cooling system and/or hot water tank(s) of a building. Based on detected water flow in component(s) of the water-based system, the system controls those other systems or devices. For instance, if no or negligible water movement has been detected within a predetermined time period, the heat is turned off, thus conserving energy and reducing energy costs.
In another embodiment, the system is configured to individually monitor and control the water supply to multiple units in a structure, such as an apartment building. Accordingly, the water supply can be shut off when particular tenants vacate or are delinquent, and water leaks can be contained within particular unit(s) without disrupting service to other units.
Embodiments herein also provide a water monitoring system which turns off the water supply and the energy supply to a water appliance or system upon the sensing of one or more parameters of operation of the water appliance or system. Further, embodiments provide a monitoring system for sensing excess pressure in a water appliance or system to shut off the water supply to the appliance or system and to shut off the energy supply to it.
Other embodiments provide a monitoring system including a pressure sensor located to sense the pressure variations of the water appliance or system without water flow through the pressure sensor to provide an output for shutting off the water supply and/or the energy supply to the heating unit of the water appliance or system when excess pressure is sensed.
In an alternate embodiment, a monitoring system is designed to shut off the water supply to a water appliance or system and to shut off either the electrical supply or the gas supply to the heating unit of the water appliance or system in response to sensing a malfunction of one or more of a number of different sensed parameters. These parameters can be sensed by devices including a water leak detector located beneath the water appliance, a water level float sensor, a temperature sensor to sense excess temperature, and a pressure sensor located in line.
In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, a monitoring system having an input water supply, an output water line and a source of heat energy is provided. The system includes a pressure sensor connected to sense the pressure inside the appliance or system and provide an output signal when the sensed pressure exceeds a predetermined threshold. Additional sensors also may be provided to respond to one or more additional operating parameters of the appliance or system, including excess temperature, water level, and water leaks to provide additional output signals whenever a sensed parameter reaches a predetermined threshold. A valve is located in the input water supply. A control for disconnecting the source of heat energy from the water appliance or system is also provided. A controller is coupled to receive output signals from the pressure sensor and the additional parameter sensors, if any, and operates in response to an output signal from a sensor to close the valve in the water supply line, and to cause the source of heat energy to be disconnected from the water appliance or system.BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Reference now should be made to the drawings, in which the same reference numbers are used throughout the different figures to designate the same or similar components. As used herein, the term water-based system denotes a system that involves components, devices, and/or systems that facilitate the flow of water, such as plumbing components, devices, and/or systems. Although some of the below examples relate to systems involving water, it is to be appreciated that embodiments of the invention are not limited in their application to systems involving water, and can be implemented in settings that involve one or more kinds of fluids. Moreover, various embodiments below can be integrated into larger systems that perform useful operations in addition to monitoring and controlling systems involving water and/or other fluids.
Each interface module 220 is connected to a respective sensor and/or control valve of an object (e.g., an appliance, a pipe, etc.) in the fluid-based system. As such, each interface module 220 can receive, as an input, sensor information indicative of system conditions and/or send, as an output, control information to, for example, open or close a valve.
In the system 200, multiple interface modules 220 are connected to the motherboard 210. In an embodiment, each interface module 220 plugs into the motherboard 210. The motherboard 210 receives sensor information provided by the interface modules 220. The motherboard 210 sends control information to an interface module 220.
The motherboard 210 and/or interface modules 220 are programmed to take appropriate actions in response to sensed conditions and user inputs. The motherboard 210 can communicate over one or more networks, such as a LAN, WAN, intranet, or internet. The dashed box in
The system 200 can include one or more remote interface modules 250. Each remote interface module 250 is a stand-alone module connected to a respective sensor and/or control valve, and can receive sensor information and send control information as described above. Each remote interface module 250 wirelessly communicates with the motherboard 210, which includes a receiver/transmitter 230 and an antenna 240. As such, sensor information and/or control information can be exchanged between a remote interface module 250 and the motherboard 210.
In an embodiment, an interface module 220 and a remote interface module 250 are interchangeable units that operate in dual modes (plug-in or stand-alone). In another embodiment, the interface module 220 and remote interface module 250 have some common circuitry, but are distinct units. Power for interface modules 220 can be provided by power supplies of the motherboard 210 or by another suitable power source. Power for remote interface modules 250 can be provided by a wall outlet, batteries, or another suitable power source.
Examples of alarm conditions that can be detected in the system 200 include: an interface module sensor has been tripped (i.e., the sensor is active); an RF transmitter of an interface module has a low battery; a loss of communication with an RF transmitter has occurred; a loss of communication with a slave panel has occurred; a loss of communication with an interface module has occurred; the main supply valve is active; and a valve solenoid error has occurred.
In the monitoring system shown in
Hot water produced by the tank is supplied to a water output pipe 24 in a conventional manner. The final portions of the hot water tank system include a blow-out pipe or outlet 26, which is connected to a conventional pressure relief valve 28, designed to relieve pressure in the tank 10 when the internal tank pressure exceeds a predetermined amount. Such a blow-out outlet 26 and relief valve 28 are conventional.
In the remainder of the system shown in
As indicated in
In addition to the generally conventional leak sensor 32 and float sensor 34, the hot water tank system shown in
Ideally, the pressure sensor 38 is selected to provide a signal to the controller 30 at a pressure slightly above the pressure which normally would operate the relief valve 28 for the hot water tank 10. Thus, the safety system operates prior to a condition which causes the relief valve 28 to operate.
The controller 30 is supplied with operating power from a suitable power supply 52, supplied with input from an alternating current input 50. The power supply 52 is shown in
If an alarm condition occurs, the controller 30 also sends signals to the electric shut-off valve 14 to turn off the water supply through the inlet pipe 16, and a signal to the gas/electric shut-off valve switch 20 to turn off the supply of gas or electricity to the heating element of the water heater 10. Consequently, no water is supplied to the water tank 10 and the source of heat is removed, thereby establishing as safe as possible a condition for the environment around the hot water heater 10 whenever an alarm condition exists.
At the same time, the controller 30 also may operate one or more alarms 66, which may be local or remote audible or visual alarms, and in addition, may provide, by way of a modem 68 to phone jacks 70, an automatically dialed alarm signal to a pre-established connection. In this manner, it is possible for a person at a remote location to have a call forwarded from the controller 30 indicative of the presence of shut down of the hot water tank 10 coupled with a message indicative of either an alarm condition in general, or a specific message tailored to the particular alarm condition which was sensed by the controller 30 in response to the one or more of the sensors 32, 34, 36 and 38 which created the alarm in the first place.
On opposite sides of the pipe 26 and extending outwardly at a 90° angle to the central axis between the outlet 26 and the blow-out relief valve 28, are a pair of outlets 40 and 42. The outlet 40 has a temperature sensor element 36A threaded onto it which includes a bimetallic operator. This bimetallic operator normally is not in contact with the electrical inlet leads of the sensor 36A. When temperature in excess of what is considered to be a safe amount by the manufacturer of the hot water tank 10 is reached, the bimetallic element in the temperature sensor 36A pops or is moved to the left, as viewed in
On the right-hand side of the fitting shown in
In the event a power failure should occur, the power supply 52 also is coupled with a backup battery input shown at 82 in
The sensor circuits 32, 34, 36B and 38B are illustrated diagrammatically in
The LED status indicator 60 also may be operated in conjunction with a user interface reset 10, as shown in
As shown in
In the embodiment specifically shown in
Each interface module is connected to one or more water leak sensors that detect water leaks or levels, and to one or more control valves used to control the associated water in feed. For example, a water leak sensor can be attached to a water heater and connected to an interface module. A cutoff valve is attached to the water in feed of the water heater and connected to the same interface module. The motherboard microcontroller monitors the water leak sensor. If the microcontroller detects a leak, it closes the control valve and issues an alarm. An interface module can also be used to monitor the level of water in such items as a swimming pool. A water level detector is attached to the swimming pool along with a control valve that controls the water in feed to the pool. When the microcontroller detects a low level condition, it opens the in control valve and adds water to the pool until the level is normal.
Each interface module can operate with direct wire connection, to the N.O. (normally open) or N.C. (normally closed) valve and sensor. Individual interface modules can also transmit or receive wireless data, between the valve and sensor directly to the interface module. The interface modules can also be operated in a timed mode or sensor mode. This allows the user to set multiple on/off times for the control valves. This allows the system to control a lawn sprinkler, for example, on and off at any given time.
The system motherboard and control panel of
The system also has the capability to host a web page on the Internet. This allows the owner or security service to monitor the status of all water facilities in a home or business remotely. The web page can be configured to provide remote operation and control. That is, remote commands can be issued by clicking controls on the web page. As an example, the owner of a home could shut off the main water feed remotely.
The interface module supports a video uplink. It provides sixteen standard RCA video input connectors, one for each interface module. Small low cost video cameras can be plugged in and aligned to show a picture of each water appliance. The alarm e-mail can be set up to include a JPEG video image as an attachment. The picture can be used without the network interface. The motherboard provides a graphic vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) and a keypad. The display and keypad can be used to set up, configure, and operate the system even during power failures. A sealed lead-acid battery provides power for the system during a power failure. The motherboard includes an onboard buzzer to signal alarm conditions. In addition, it provides a connection for one or more external alarm buzzers. These can be located around the home or business.
An interface module is shown in
There can be two versions of interface modules-plug-in or stand-alone. While the design of the circuitry can be identical for both versions, selective loading or placing of groups of parts (modules) on the printed circuit board (PCB) varies from version to version during manufacturing. As an example, the stand-alone version includes a radio frequency (RF) transceiver allowing wireless communications with the motherboard. It is included, or CADed in the design of the stand-alone version circuit board, but is not CADed (or added) on the plug-in version. The circuitry for the input sensor on both versions supports various types of digital or analog input sensors, including 24 vdc, 24 vac, 5 vdc, and/or 2.4 to 3.2 vdc or vac voltage sensors.
Various kinds of sensors can be implemented in embodiments of the system, including, for instance, leak detectors, flow (volume) sensors, pressure sensors, temperature sensors, level detectors, optical sensors, ultrasonic sensors, and proximity sensors. The color of interface modules in the molded panel housing can be used to identify the controlled appliance, fixture, or other water-consuming device or system. For example, blue interface modules monitor toilets, dishwashers, washing machines, hot water tanks, ice makers, sinks, swimming pools, or spas, while green interface modules control lawn sprinklers. While the PCB is the same for each, using modular CAM techniques, the circuitry for each type of input circuit is selectively loaded (installed or placed) on the circuit board as required for each interface module type.
In both versions of the interface module, the output is provided by a single pole double throw (SPDT) relay. The off state of the interface module can be jumper configured for normally open or normally closed. An interface module configured to detect leaks would use the normally open (N.O.) configuration, and close the relay (valve) during an alarm condition (leak detected). An interface module configured to control a lawn sprinkler would be normally closed, opening at a scheduled time to apply water, and closed after a programmed time period or volume had been applied. Likewise, wherein the water-based system includes a tank-less toilet, measurement and control of the water may be metered with a normally closed (N.C.) valve configuration, opening to apply water and closing thereafter for a programmed time period or volume directed through the tank-less toilet system.
In one example implementation, a primary difference between the stand-alone version of the interface module and the plug-in version of the interface module is that the stand-alone version includes an onboard microcontroller and power supply. This allows it to operate without the support provided by the motherboard. The plug-in version does not include either the microcontroller or a power supply. The inputs and outputs of the plug-in version are monitored/controlled by a microcontroller on the motherboard. Power for the plug-in version is provided by the power supplies found on the motherboard.
To provide consistency and familiarity, the motherboard, interface modules, and panel housing (see
The layout of the motherboard and associated panel housing is much more sophisticated than that found in a traditional electrical circuit breaker panel. The top of the panel is provided with a 256×64 dot matrix blue vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) surrounded by a number of keys (forming a keypad), the sum of which provide a user interface. The user interface allows the user to configure and control many of the functions and options available on the motherboard. Below the display are two rows of eight interface modules. Wires to the inputs and outputs for each interface module run out of the bottom of the unit to the appropriate sensor or valve. Alternatively or additionally, configuration of functions and options can occur from an external computer (e.g., a laptop) connected to the motherboard via a USB port provided on the motherboard.
The system provides for virtually unlimited system expansion of the number of devices protected. The initial motherboard (as referred to as the master motherboard) provides protection for sixteen devices, appliances or systems. Some devices may require two or more interface modules for full protection. As an example, if the protected device has both hot and cold water in feeds, two interface modules would be required to protect the device. Additional expansion is accomplished by simply adding additional expansion motherboards (known as slave motherboards) to the system. In an embodiment, each interface module can be interfaced with two or more valves. For instance, an interface module can be interfaced with each in feed valve (hot and cold) of a device to be protected. If a sensor interfaced with the module indicates a problem condition, both in feed valves can be shut off.
In an embodiment, each expansion motherboard provides protection for twenty-four additional devices. One hundred slave motherboards may be added to a system. Thus, 2400 additional devices can be protected in the system when fully expanded. The master motherboard communicates with and controls slave motherboards via a private controller area network (CAN) bus. Multiple systems may be connected via a local area network connection. This gives the system a 1 to N correspondence. That is, a single sensor can determine the action of N number of valves. The simplest example is a device with both hot and cold water in feeds. One sensor can control the two valves needed to stop water flow to that device.
The system is based on state of the art microcontrollers, which are in fact complete computers on a chip, or system(s) on a chip (SoC). The microcontroller is completely programmable, allowing new features and functionality to be added at any time, in the field via the Internet. When this feature is combined with the hardware expansion capabilities described previously, the system has virtually unlimited expansion capability.
A graphical user interface (GUI) provides operational information to the user. The display presents real-time display of system status, alarm conditions, configuration options, network (web) status, and power status. The status of each interface module is displayed for a set period of time, one after the other. As an example, if the display time is set for one second, then the status of each interface module is displayed for one second before moving on to the next interface module in line. The user interface also provides a number of keys, allowing the user to set the configuration and operation of each interface module, as well as various operational parameters of the motherboard. Other display options allow viewing of the status of various interface module parameters for all sixteen interface modules in a system in a single graphic screen format. Accordingly, the malfunction of, e.g., a valve coil or the like, will be informed through the interface module of the system. In an embodiment, the system is programmed to detect reduced current flow or an open circuit, which are indicative of a malfunctioning coil. Such a malfunction can be indicated, for instance, with a yellow LED.
The graphical user interface thus indicates, for example, when the blowout valve in the hot water tank is inoperable, to permit the user to replace the failed valve rather than the entire water tank. The reason for the water tank failure would be indicated separately, for instance, from identifying leaks and the like, which would require replacement of the tank itself. Failure information relating to components of a lawn sprinkler system can be similarly indicated by the user interface.
The interface module provides a TCP/IP based 10Base-T Ethernet interface. This interface by default supports DCHP protocol for dynamic IP addressing. An interface module master may be connected to either a local area network (LAN, a private network found in the home or company) or a WAN (Wide Area network) such as the Internet (World Wide Web). In addition to visual and audible warnings (internal and optional external buzzers and lights), an email alarm warning can be sent to one or more email addresses programmed by the user. As an example, the home user may program an interface module to send an alarm email to the user's office, home, cell phone and plumber. A commercial user can send emails to key management and/or maintenance personnel.
The interface module can receive emails. A text template is included with the system, and information associated with each appliance connected to the system can be graphically displayed. In particular, the main panel can display streaming text along with graphics, such as a pictorial representation of a component that has failed (e.g., a toilet). The user can edit the template and email it to his/her interface module to configure it. An interface module can be configured directly at the motherboard panel housing using input buttons, or from a computer via a USB port provided on the motherboard.
The interface module can be used to host (serve) a web page. This mode of operation is provided to allow security companies that normally monitor homes and businesses for break-ins, to monitor all water appliances from their central office. The web page provides Java applets, which allows remote control of the system. As an example, the security service or water company can issue a (password protected) command to close the main water in feed valve.
The interface module provides both physical and battery (power) backup for a power failure.
Physical backup holds the state of the valves in the event of a system failure. This is accomplished with latching relays. Once the relay is turned on, it will hold its state indefinitely until reset. As long as power is available, the valve(s) will be closed or open depending on their programmed functions. In an embodiment, each valve has a manual override function to enable a valve to be closed or opened irrespective of the control signals being provided by an interface module.
The battery backup provided by the interface module allows the system to operate normally during a power failure (optional battery packs allow longer protection). This protection allows interface modules to continue to monitor, control, and warn interested parties of a failure.
The interface module provides total, selective, configurable, protection. One sensor can be assigned to protect one or more devices, each with one or more valves. Multiple sensors can be configured to protect a single device with one or more valves.
Support for water appliances is virtually unlimited. Any device with water in feed or out feed can be protected and/or controlled. This includes, but is not limited to, water heaters, air conditioners, laundry and dish washing machines, toilets, tank-less toilets, ice makers, sinks, spa, swimming pool, sprinkler system, water meters, etc. In a tank-less toilet water-based system or lawn sprinkler system, for example, the water may be metered to apply water, closing thereafter for a programmed time period or volume directed through the respective system.
An interface module can be configured to monitor for leaks, control liquid levels or time the application of liquids. Examples include monitoring the bath tub, water heater, dishwasher, clothes washer, toilets, sinks and icemaker for leaks, controlling the water level in the spa, swimming pool, and bath tub, and timing the lawn sprinkler on/off times. Water amounts may be monitored by time or volume, such as, for example, to check whether the water company correctly read the meter and whether the lawn or the tree line on the south side of the house was sufficiently or excessively watered. Many cities do not like to see lawn sprinklers with water run-off and fine residents for excessive water usage during a period of water shortage or drought. Interface modules can be configured to deliver an exact amount of water by the gallon. In a water-based system that includes a tank-less toilet, embodiments herein can limit water consumption by controlling the water flow time period and/or volume directed through the tank-less toilet system.
With reference to
Three different serial port protocols are supported (available concurrently): 1) a standard 9-bit serial port (UART) compatible with PC COMM Ports; 2) a system management bus (SMBus) compatible with the SMBus found on many PC motherboards used to control a variety of devices found on the board; 3) a serial peripheral interface (SPI) bus used to control additional peripheral devices on a given system. Additional peripheral devices found on the device include 4 timer/counters, 5 programmable counter arrays, 10-bit analog to digital converters with 21 channels, voltage comparators, reset manager, software watchdog, brownout detector, missing clock detector, and an internal clock oscillator accurate to 2% and a real time clock. The F310 includes a JTAG interface 112. This provides support for a built-in in-circuit emulator (ICE) for direct program debugging (no expensive external ICE needed), program code download (programming) and boundary layer scanning (for device testing during manufacturing).
When configured as a plug-in version, the interface module includes an expansion connector 113. Many of the control signals used by the onboard microcontroller on the stand-alone version are routed to this connector. This allows a microcontroller found on the motherboard to monitor and control plug-in interface modules in the same manner as the onboard microcontroller on a stand-alone interface module.
These signals include the user reset switch 114 used to reset an alarm condition. An opto-isolated sensor input 115 provides the real-time state of the attached input sensor. The voltage used to power the opto-isolator is jumper configurable to allow a wide range of digital sensors to be used with an interface module. Two jumpers 116, 126 allow the voltage to be set to either 24 vac or 5 vdc. An amplifier 117 is used to detect current flow in the valve control circuit. This allows the system to detect and report a valve coil failure. The sensor input and valve output are routed to a four position, screw terminal block 118. The external sensor and valve are attached to the interface module at this connector. An alarm buzzer 120 is found on the stand-alone version, driven by a PNP transistor driver 119. The plug-in version does not support it. Instead, a single buzzer is found on the motherboard. In addition, four external buzzers or warning lights can be attached to the system (see the motherboard circuit description to follow).
A relay is used to drive the valve output 123. The relay is a latching relay. Two control drivers 121 are incorporated in the design, one to latch the relay and one to reset the relay. The latching relay can be configured to provide either 24 vac or 24 vdc, to allow the use of either an AC or DC valve set by two jumpers 122, 125. The latching relay has one pole and two contacts. One is normally open and the other is normally closed. A jumper allows the default state of the output to be set to either normally open or normally closed. Two status LEDs 130 are found on each interface module. A blue LED flashes to indicate a normal operational state. A red LED will flash during an alarm state.
Additional support circuitry includes a resettable PTC fuse 127 on the AC input. This device opens (trips) if the current flow reaches a predetermined level. A 5 vdc voltage regulator 128 and a +3.3 vdc regulator 129 form an onboard power supply for the stand-alone version of the interface module (not used on the plug-in version).
One optional circuit is found on the stand-alone version only. A radio frequency transceiver 131 operates at 912 Mhz. It is used to allow wireless operation of a stand-alone interface module within 300 feet from a motherboard.
As shown in
Nine slave microcontrollers are found on the motherboard. The first is a special purpose microcontroller module 143. Referred to as the network slave, it is designed to provide a TCP/IP based, 10 base-T Ethernet interface, allowing direct connection to a local (LAN) or wide (WAN) area network. It includes 256K of FLASH and 128K of RAM memory onboard. It also incorporates a slave port. This port is connected directly to the master F042 microcontroller's external expansion bus, allowing bi-directional communication between the two microcontrollers. The master sends warning messages across the slave bus (which includes the network address of the recipient) to the network slave, which in turn manages the TCP/IP stack protocol needed to send email warnings over the Internet. Incoming emails are passed to the master via the slave port as well. The network slave also can be configured to serve a Web status page. The basic web page is retained in the network slave. The dynamic data representing the current real-time status of the system is sent to the network slave across the slave port. The network slave collates the data and places it on the page, serving it to requesting web clients. A key purpose of the network slave is to manage web based traffic.
In addition to the sixteen plug-in interface modules directly supported on the motherboard, an additional 256 remote interface modules can be monitored and controlled by a motherboard. This is accomplished using a radio frequency (RF) link, or network. A FCC part 68 certified RF transceiver 144 is an option available on the motherboard. Operating at a frequency of 912 Mhz, a band of frequencies is set aside for among other things, process control and monitoring, and remote interface modules can be situated as far away as 300 feet.
Each motherboard incorporates a controller area network 145, known in the industry as “CAN.” It is an intelligent, bi-directional, collision detection, serial communication protocol, commonly used in industrial automation and automotive control applications. The system uses it to link multiple motherboards together to form large systems used in commercial applications.
To allow time/date stamping of alarm warnings, the motherboard incorporates a real time clock/calendar 146. The device includes battery backup to retain current time and date during power failures.
Two master status LEDs 164 are provided on the motherboard. They duplicate the functionality of the status and warning LEDs found on a stand-alone interface module. A blue status LED flashes during normal operation. A red warning LED flashes during an alarm condition.
The motherboard provides a user interface to allow its operation to be configured. A large blue 256 pixel by 64 pixels vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) 162 provides graphic information on the current status of the system. Twelve keys 163 form a keypad allowing the user to configure the system. Alternatively or additionally, the motherboard can be configured via an onboard USB port.
In other embodiments of the invention, systems herein can be configured to automatically cycle valves on a periodic (e.g., scheduled) and/or ad hoc basis. N.O. valves typically are cycled from on to off and back to on, whereas N.C. valves are cycled from off to on and back to off. For instance, at timed intervals (e.g., once every thirty days, once every fourteen days, or on the fifth and nineteenth day of a calendar month), the water supply to tank toilets can be automatically shut off and then turned back on. Such cycling can act as a test to determine whether valves in the system are working properly. Moreover, by counteracting corrosion and other problems associated with infrequent use of valves, such cycling can significantly extend the life of valves in the system, reducing the need for maintenance, repairs, and replacement and associated costs and down-time.
In a particular embodiment, the system maintains a clock and calendar and a schedule, such as via a control program. The program operates all or selected valves in accordance with the logic of the program and consistent with any configured settings by which a user specifies valves to be cycled, cycling intervals, cycling calendar days, cycling clock times, etc. It is to be appreciated that the program can take any of a number of forms consistent with the needs of a user and within the framework of the system. In an example implementation, the valves are cycled at a fixed interval of approximately thirty days. The cycling operations for a given valve can be performed as quickly as possible to ensure that normal flow functions are only interrupted for a minimal time period. Additionally, cycling can be programmed to occur during times of low system usage (e.g., during non-business hours, hours in which residents are at work or asleep, etc.).
In other embodiments, a given valve is not cycled if its associated liquid sensor valves are closed, thus indicating a fluid leak. Alternatively or additionally, selected valves in the system, including the main shut off valve and/or the valves connected to respective interface modules, can be cycled individually one at a time.
If desired, an interface module can be configured such that, responsive to a control signal, the interface module causes the control valve to cycle from an original position (e.g., closed) to its complementary position (e.g., open) and back to the original position. As such, the control program described above need only transmit one control signal to the interface module at periodic or ad hoc times when cycling is required.
Moreover, in other embodiments, an interface module can be used in a stand-alone manner at, for example, an appliance. The interface module has an onboard timer to cycle a valve on and off (or vice versa) at a predetermined interval and/or responsive to a user input. Such an interface module can have wide application in settings where installation of a system is deemed impracticable, unnecessary, or too costly, such as in older dwellings or commercial buildings.
In other embodiments of the invention, systems herein can be configured to provide additional safeguards. For instance, the system can monitor the status of multiple interface modules (breakers). If more than a predetermined number of breakers in the system are triggered within a predetermined period, then an alarm condition is registered, the main fluid supply valve is optionally shut off, and one more notifications (e.g., e-mail, voice, pager, fax, visual, audible, etc.) are optionally sent or activated.
In an example configuration, if more than four breakers are triggered simultaneously or within five minutes of each other, the system overrides the respective breakers and shuts off the main water supply valve, sending an alarm e-mail to parties that need to be notified. The master panel (see, e.g.,
In another embodiment, remote interface modules only interface with a sensor, but are not interfaced with a control valve. If a remote interface module is tripped (i.e., a problem condition is sensed), then the main controller shuts off the main water supply of the system.
The main controller 1400 includes a number of functional blocks, including a UART (universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter) block 1405, a main CPU and control logic block 1410, a user interface block 1415, an Ethernet interface block 1420, a modem interface block 1425, an RF receiver block 1430, a breaker connectors block 1435, a power supplies block 1440, a USB communication block 1445, a slave panel communication block 1450, a main valve control circuits block 1455, a flow meter circuits block 1460, and an auxiliary relay circuits block 1465.
As compared with the
The main CPU and control logic block 1410 can employ, for example, a NetSilicon NS7520 as the main processor. The NS7520 is a 32-bit ARM7-based RISC processor with a core processor based on the ARM7 TDMI processor that provides 28 address and 32 data lines. The processor uses a Vonn Neumann architecture in which a single 32-bit data bus conveys both instructions and data. In the example design of
The user interface block 1415 is used to monitor and control the system. The user interface block 1415 includes push buttons (keys) and an LCD display with a resolution of 240 by 128 pixels. The display is used in text and/or graphics mode and provides 40 columns by 16 lines of character data using a 5 by 7 dot character size. Configuration of the system is performed using a PC and one or more web pages, as described above.
The slave panel communication block 1450 provides an interface by which the motherboard can communicate with 50 slave panels (motherboards) using RS-485 multi-drop communication.
The RF receiver block 1430 includes a UHF receiver configured for a single channel at a fixed frequency of 433.92 MHz using Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) modulation. The RF channel is used to receive messages from remote sensor modules.
The USB communication block 1445 includes a half-duplex RS-232 to USB bridge, which provides a USB interface for the main controller 1400. From the PC side, the USB interface complies with the HID (Human Interface Device) USB class protocols. The bridge interface permits a maximum transfer of 800 bytes per second using a low-speed USB device. The USB port optionally can be used to configure the system from a PC.
In an embodiment, an interface module includes a push button reset switch that when depressed causes a valve interfaced to the interface module to re-open (or re-close). The reset switch also can be used as a test switch to test operation of the interface module and associated valve(s). Resetting of the reset switch on the breaker resets associated LEDs. For instance, a blue lamp is turned on, and a red lamp is turned off.
The architecture of the system is such that special purpose interface modules (breakers) can be designed for respective appliances. The main controller 1400 can be programmed to interface with such interface modules to control and monitor the appliances. For instance, a category of so-called “blue” interface modules monitors toilets, dishwashers, washing machines, hot water tanks, ice makers, sinks, swimming pools, or spas. Similarly, a category of “green” interface modules controls lawn sprinklers (e.g., turns the sprinklers on and then off based on time, quantity released per gallon per valve, etc.). The main controller 1400 can be programmed to read each interface module in real time and determine the intended application thereof. In an example implementation, an interface module can be configured to remotely read an individual water flow meter installed in each unit of an apartment building, and can be controlled to regulate the quantities of water usage per unit.
The remote interface module 4630 interfaces with the water flow sensor 4640, which provides information about water movement in a conduit of a building, such as a main water supply line to the building or a unit within the building. The remote interface module 4630 includes a switch or other suitable circuitry connected between a terminal of the thermostat 4620 (e.g., an ambient temperature thermostat) and a corresponding terminal of the climate control unit 4650. For instance, a two set screw splice can be used between the remote interface module 4630 and the thermostat 4620, and another can be used between the remote interface module 4630 and the climate control unit 4650. Alternatively, the remote interface module 4630 interfaces directly with the climate control unit 4650 (not indirectly via the thermostat 4620) to interrupt the power supply to the climate control unit 4650.
The climate control unit 4650 can be an HVAC (heating, ventilating, air conditioning) unit, a dedicated heater, a dedicated air conditioner, humidifier, hot water tank, or other device.
The controller 4610 is installed in a breaker panel housing and can receive interface modules corresponding to various components in water-based and/or other systems. The remote interface module 4630 sends status information to the controller 4610, and the controller 4610 sends control signals to the remote interface module 4630. The status information sent by the remote interface module 4630 can include information about detected water flow.
In an embodiment, if water movement detected by the remote interface module 4630 does not exceed a predetermined threshold over a predetermined period (e.g., 24 hours), then the controller 4610 sends control signals to the remote interface module 4630 that cause the remote interface module 4630 to open the switch between the thermostat 4620 and the climate control unit 4650. As such, power to the thermostat 4620 is interrupted, and the climate control unit 4650 is shut down.
In other embodiments, which can be applied, for example, in settings in which a central climate control system pumps air to other locations, the fan associated with a location is shut off when the water flow of associated pipes is nonexistent or negligible for more than a predetermined period.
In an embodiment, the remote interface module 4630 or controller 4610 is configured to prevent the temperature from falling to (or rising to) unsafe temperatures, and the switch in the remote interface module 4630 is closed and opened as necessary. For instance, in an embodiment, the remote interface module 4630 has an onboard temperature sensor, and can be configured by the controller 4610 or via a web interface, to keep the above switch closed to prevent the temperature from falling below a programmed temperature (e.g., 50 degrees). Accordingly, such an embodiment ensures that pipes do not freeze or burst. In a related embodiment, as shown in
In another embodiment, after the climate control unit 4650 is shut off, power is not restored to the climate control unit 4650 until a user pushes a reset button on the remote interface module 4630 or on an associated interface module within the breaker panel housing. Alternatively or additionally, a web interface associated with the remote interface module 4630 can be used to reactivate the climate control unit 4650.
In other embodiments, when detected water flow is insignificant over a predetermined time period, a notification is sent to an appropriate party. For instance, insignificant water flow in a unit occupied by an elderly person may be indicative of a health emergency. Similarly, insignificant water flow in a unit of a detention facility may be indicative of a possible escapee situation.
In an embodiment, installations like the installation 4700 are respectively installed for each unit of a multiple-unit structure, such as, for example, an apartment building, condominium or town home complex, hospital, or detention facility. As such, water consumption of individual units can be monitored and controlled on a centralized and/or automated basis.
In an embodiment, the water company has access (e.g., password-protected access) to the controller 4810, such as via a network connection. Accordingly, the water company can read the water consumption of each unit in the structure and send bills (e.g., electronic bills) to the associated tenants or to the landlord. Such an approach is not limited to multi-unit structures, and can be applied to any kind of structure, such as a single-family home or business, to enable remote determination of water consumption and efficient billing by a water utility.
Some embodiments herein have been implemented by Liquid Breaker (Carlsbad, California). Embodiments herein can be implemented in structures located on land, such as, for example, houses, apartments, condominiums, town houses, hospitals, commercial buildings, military bases, and detention facilities. It is to be appreciated that systems herein are not limited in application to structures located on land, but can also be implemented in structures such as boats or ships. In addition, it is to be appreciated that a controller and an associated interface module can be respectively located in different structures provided that suitable communication linkages (e.g., wired or wireless) are available.
The foregoing system is a comprehensive system for monitoring and controlling the safe operation of a system involving one or more fluids, such as water. Clearly, some components of the system may be employed in other environments than the one described previously. The foregoing description is to be considered as illustrative and not as limiting. Various other changes and modifications will occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the true scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
1. A system for monitoring and controlling water consumption, the system comprising:
- a controller configured to send control signals to control at least one device in a water-based system; and
- an interface module configured to communicate with the controller,
- the interface module being configured to receive, from a sensor, sensor information indicative of a sensed condition in the water-based system, and to send, to a fluid control device, control signals to regulate water consumption in the water-based system, and
- the interface module being configured to send, to the controller, status information indicative of an operational status in the water-based system.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the interface module is configured to wirelessly communicate with the controller.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein the controller comprises a motherboard configured to receive the interface module.
4. The system of claim 3, wherein the motherboard includes an information port for establishing a computer network interface.
5. The system of claim 4, wherein the interface module is configurable by a computer via the information port.
6. The system of claim 4, wherein the interface module is operable to host an Internet website.
7. The system of claim 3, wherein the motherboard and the received interface module are configured to be installed within a panel housing.
8. The system of claim 3, wherein the motherboard has a connection for electronic communication with one or more processors on other motherboards.
9. The system of claim 1, wherein the controller is configured to maintain a schedule, and the control signals sent by the controller cause at least one fluid control device in the water-based system to cycle in accordance with the schedule.
10. The system of claim 1, wherein the interface module is configured to maintain a schedule, and the control signals sent by the interface module cause the fluid control device to cycle in accordance with the schedule.
11. The system of claim 1, wherein the controller is configured to receive status information from a plurality of interface modules and to initiate at least one action if more than a predetermined number of interface modules send, within a predetermined period, status information indicative of a particular operational status.
12. The system of claim 11, wherein the particular operational status comprises an indication of a closed valve.
13. The system of claim 11, wherein the at least one action includes shutting off a main supply line of the water-based system.
14. The system of claim 1, wherein the sensed condition comprises water flow within a component of the water-based system.
15. The system of claim 1, wherein the sensed condition comprises pressure inside a component of the water-based system.
16. The system of claim 1, wherein the fluid control device comprises a valve in a water supply line of a component of the water-based system.
17. The system of claim 1, wherein the control signals cause the fluid control device to disconnect a water or energy source from the water-based system.
18. The system of claim 1, wherein the water-based system is in a residential or commercial structure and includes one or more of a sink, toilet, dishwasher, washing machine, water heater, swimming pool and sprinkler.
19. The system of claim 1, wherein the sending of control signals to the fluid control device is directed by the controller.
20. The system of claim 1, wherein the sending of control signals to the fluid control device is initiated by the interface module independent of the controller.
21. The system of claim 1, wherein the interface module is configured to register an indication of a malfunction in a system component.
22. The system of claim 21, wherein the system component is a valve coil.
23. A method of monitoring and controlling water consumption, the method comprising:
- sending, by a controller, control signals to control at least one device in a water-based system;
- receiving, by an interface module, from a sensor, sensor information indicative of a sensed condition in the water-based system;
- sending, by the interface module, to a fluid control device, control signals to regulate water consumption in the water-based system; and
- sending, by the interface module, to the controller, status information indicative of an operational status in the water-based system.
24. The method of claim 23, wherein the water-based system resides in a residential or commercial structure and includes one or more of a sink, toilet, dishwasher, washing machine, water heater, swimming pool and sprinkler sub-systems.
25. The method of claim 23, wherein the status information is wirelessly sent to the controller by the interface module.
26. The method of claim 23, further comprising maintaining a schedule, and wherein the control signals sent by the controller cause at least one fluid control device in the water-based system to cycle in accordance with the schedule.
27. The method of claim 23, further comprising receiving, by the controller, status information from a plurality of interface modules and initiating at least one action if more than a predetermined number of interface modules send, within a predetermined period, status information indicative of a particular operational status.
28. A system for monitoring and controlling water consumption, the system comprising:
- a controller configured to send control signals to control at least one device in a water-based system, the control signals including a signal to shut off a main water supply line of the water-based system; and
- an interface module configured to wirelessly communicate with the controller,
- the interface module being configured to receive, from a sensor, sensor information indicative of a sensed condition in the water-based system,
- the interface module being configured to wirelessly send, to the controller, status information indicative of an operational status in the water-based system, and
- wherein the controller is configured to send the control signals based at least in part on the status information sent by the interface module.
29. An interface module in a system for monitoring and controlling water consumption, the interface module comprising:
- a communications portion configured to provide communication with a controller, wherein the interface module is configured to send, to the controller, status information indicative of an operational status in a water-based system;
- a receiver configured to receive, from a sensor, sensor information indicative of a sensed condition in the water-based system; and
- a sender configured to send, to a fluid control device, control signals to regulate water consumption in the water-based system.
30. The interface module of claim 29, wherein the communication with the controller is wireless.
31. The interface module of claim 29, wherein the communication with the controller can selectively occur in a wireless mode or a wired mode.
32. The interface module of claim 29, further comprising a scheduler configured to maintain a schedule, and wherein the control signals cause the fluid control device to cycle in accordance with the schedule.
33. The interface module of claim 29, wherein the interface module is adapted to be contained within a housing that is mountable at locations remote from the controller.
34. The interface module of claim 29, wherein the status information includes an indication of a malfunction in a system component.
35. The interface module of claim 34, wherein the system component is a valve coil.
36. A method of monitoring and controlling water consumption, the method comprising:
- maintaining a schedule to define at least one predetermined time when a fluid control device in a water-based system is to be automatically cycled; and
- automatically cycling the fluid control device in accordance with the schedule.
37. The method of claim 36, wherein a controller that is in communication with an interface module maintains the schedule.
38. The method of claim 36, wherein an interface module maintains the schedule.
39. The method of claim 36, wherein the fluid control device is automatically cycled on at least a monthly basis.
40. The method of claim 36, wherein the fluid control device comprises a valve in a water supply line of a component of the water-based system.
41. A method of monitoring and controlling water consumption, the method comprising:
- detecting water flow in a component of a water-based system of a structure;
- sending, to a controller, status information indicative of an operational status in the water-based system; and
- controlling a climate control unit of the structure based at least in part on the detected water flow in the component.
42. The method of claim 41, wherein the climate control unit comprises an HVAC unit.
43. The method of claim 41, wherein the climate control unit comprises a hot water tank.
44. The method of claim 41, further comprising determining that a predetermined water flow threshold has not been exceeded within a predetermined time period.
45. The method of claim 41, wherein the controlling comprises turning off the climate control unit.
46. The method of claim 41, wherein the climate control unit is one among a plurality of climate control units in the structure.
47. A system for monitoring and controlling water consumption, the system comprising:
- a controller configured to send control signals to control at least one device in a water-based system of a structure; and
- an interface module configured to communicate with the controller,
- the interface module being configured to receive, from a sensor, sensor information indicative of detected water flow in a component of the water-based system, and to interface with a climate control unit of the structure,
- the interface module being configured to send, to the controller, status information indicative of an operational status in the water-based system, and
- the interface module being configured to control the climate control unit based at least in part on the detected water flow in the component.
48. The system of claim 47, wherein the interface module communicates wirelessly with the controller.
49. The system of claim 47, wherein the interface module interfaces with the climate control unit indirectly via a component associated with the climate control unit.
50. The system of claim 49, wherein the component associated with the climate control unit is a thermostat.
51. A system for monitoring and controlling water consumption in a multi-unit structure having a water-based system, the system comprising:
- a controller; and
- a plurality of interface modules configured to communicate with the controller,
- the controller being configured to selectively send control signals to each of the plurality of interface modules,
- each interface module being configured to receive, from a respective sensor, sensor information indicative of detected water flow in a component of the water-based system of the structure, and to interface with a respective control valve that is operable to shut off a water supply to the component, the component being associated with a unit of the structure,
- each interface module being configured to send, to the controller, status information including information indicative of the detected water flow in the component,
- the detected water flow of each interface module being readable by a user of the system, and
- each interface module being configured to control the respective control valve based at least in part on input from a user.
52. The system of claim 51, wherein the structure is an apartment building, and the unit is an apartment therein.
53. The system of claim 51, wherein at least one of the plurality of interface modules wirelessly communicates with the controller.
54. The system of claim 51, wherein the detected water flow of each interface module is readable by a user via a web interface.
55. A method of monitoring and controlling water consumption in a building having a water-based system, the method comprising:
- remotely accessing a controller in communication with an interface module of the building, the interface module configured to receive, from a sensor, sensor information indicative of detected water flow in a component of the water-based system of the building, the interface module being configured to send, to the controller, status information indicative of the detected water flow in the component;
- reading the detected water flow of the interface module; and
- billing a user based at least in part on the detected water flow.
56. The method of claim 55, wherein the user is billed electronically.
Filed: Dec 15, 2004
Publication Date: Oct 20, 2005
Inventor: R. Fima (Oceanside, CA)
Application Number: 11/013,249