TOTABLE, SPRING-BIASED, TOGGLE-ACTION FIREARM
A hyper velocity firearm has a downwardly-hinging toggle action. The toggle action incorporates at least one coiled torsion spring that is incorporated in at least one pivot of the toggle. A first embodiment of the firearm employs two torsion springs. A second embodiment employs a single adjustable-tension torsion spring. Tension is adjustable without disassembly of the toggle mechanism. A third embodiment employs a horizontally-oriented compressible coil spring positioned above the toggle to bias the toggle. In the pre-discharge configuration, the toggle of the present invention is about 3 degrees from a straight angle linkage, with a negative degree angle representing an over-center condition. The toggle action is compact and reduces recoil and muzzle lift when the firearm is discharged.
This application for patent has a priority based on the filing of provisional patent application No. 60/765,791 is related to copending application No. 60/765,791, titled TOTABLE, TORSION-SPRING-BIASED-TOGGLE-ACTION FIREARM FOR LAUNCHING HYPERVELOCITY PROJECTILES, which was filed on Feb. 7, 2006.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The invention relates generally to firearms and, more particularly, to handguns and rifles having toggle-actions which facilitate the loading of cartridges and ejecting of spent cartridge casings, and which reduce recoil and barrel lift.
2. History of the Prior Art
Small arms which could be fired repeatedly without reloading after each shot were the focus of many inventions since the dawn of firearms. While a number of repeating firearms had already been developed by the turn of the 19th century, none of them had achieved any degree of commercial success, primarily because they were too complicated and cumbersome. It was modern cartridge ammunition that made repeating firearms practical.
In 1830, while a 16-year-old hired hand on a merchant ship bound for India, Samuel Colt developed a simple revolving ammunition cylinder for firearms in his spare time. By 1856, Colt's company was enjoying phenomenal success, with the manufacture of 150 revolver handguns a day. A rifle revolver was also produced in limited numbers. The extremely simple, highly reliable weapon had a profound effect on life in the United States and later in the rest of the world. As anyone packing a revolver could kill another almost instantly, war, crime, and law enforcement were forever altered. Even arguments became hazardous.
Christopher Spencer is generally credited with the manufacture of the first practical non-revolver repeating rifle. Model 1863, 1865 and M-1865 Spencer rifles, which were supplied to the Union forces under Federal Government contract, use a long blade on the left of the breech block carrier. In the M-1865 model, the blade is held forward with a helper spring to make single cartridge loading easier. Although Spencer rifles and carbines are credited as having turned the tide of several Civil War battles, the Henry sporting rifle of the same period was a superior firearm.
The ancestor of the Henry and Winchester rifles was the Volcanic lever action rifle designed by Horace Smith and Daniel B. Wesson. It was originally manufactured by the Volcanic Repeating Arms Company, which was later reorganized into the New Haven Arms Company, of which Oliver Winchester was the major stockholder. The Volcanic rifle used a form of “caseless” ammunition and had only limited success. Wesson had also designed an early form of rimfire cartridge which was subsequently perfected by Benjamin Tyler Henry. Henry also supervised the redesign of the Volcanic rifle to use the new ammunition, retaining only the general form of the breech mechanism and the tubular magazine. This became the Henry rifle of 1860, which was manufactured by the New Haven Arms Company and was used in considerable numbers by certain Union Army units in the Civil War. As the New haven Arms Company received no Union contracts, the Henry rifles were purchased by individual soldiers or with state funding. After the New Haven Arms Company was purchased by Oliver Winchester, the Henry rifle became the basis for the design of the famous Winchester Model 1873, 1876 and 1886 rifles. In this type of lever action rifle, rounds are individually loaded into a tubular chamber parallel to and below the barrel. A short bolt is held in place with an over-center toggle action. Once closed the over center action prevents opening solely by the force on the bolt when the weapon is fired. This toggle action is operated by a hand grip, or lever, that forms part of the trigger guard. When operated, a spring in the tubular magazine pushes a fresh round into position. Returning the operating lever to the home position chambers the round and closes the breach. An interlock prevents firing unless the toggle is fully closed.
In 1893, Hugo Borchardt, a naturalized U.S. citizen born in Germany, developed the C93 semiautomatic pistol for the Ludwig Lowe Company in Karlsruhe. It combined elements of Hiram Percy Maxim's 1884 machine gun and the toggle lever action of the Henry and Winchester rifles. Borchardt reversed the toggle action and reduced its size so that the toggle opened upwards, thereby providing space for an ammunition magazine in the pistol grip. Although a fine target pistol, the Borchardt was somewhat fragile. A bulky protrusion behind the grip, which housed the mainspring and toggle mechanism, also made the Borchardt rather cumbersome. As a result of those deficiencies, it was never a commercial success.
A colleague of Hugo Borchardt, named Georg Luger, redesigned the Borchardt handgun, making it lighter, far more compact, and more reliable. The design, which is instantly recognizable for its clean flowing lines, tapered barrel, and a magazine-containing grip that is acutely angled to the barrel centerline, remained a staple of the German military up until the adoption of the Walther P38 in 1942.
Both the Borchardt and Luger are locked-breech, magazine-fed, semi-automatic pistols that use the same unique toggle action to lock the breech momentarily during firing. The toggle action moves to the rear for a short distance with the barrel and then pivots upwards once chamber pressures have reached a safe level to unlock the action, cock the firing mechanism and eject the spent cartridge case. On its forward movement, the lock pivots down to strip a fresh round from the magazine, load the round into the chamber, and lock the breech. In addition to performing the functions related to semiautomatic operation, the toggle action has the added advantage of reducing recoil when fired. A disadvantage of the Borchardt and Luger designs is that the upward opening of the toggle increases the tendency of the front of the gun to rotate (i.e., lift, with respect to the rear, when fired).
U.S. Pat. No. 4,183,282 to Walter E. Perrine discloses a toggle action pistol in which the toggle mechanism pivots in a downward direction. The Perrine pistol is not as compact as the Luger, due to the fact that a coil mainspring is located in the hand grip, and the ammunition magazine must, consequently, be positioned in front of the trigger assembly. However, it does have an advantage in that the gun tends to remain more nearly level when fired, as the downward toggle action tends to lift the rear of the gun at the same time that the front of the gun is lifting as a consequence of the gun being held behind the barrel and below the barrel centerline. The bulkiness of the Perrine pistol most likely contributed to its failure in the marketplace.
What is needed is a downward toggling firearm which eliminates the bulkiness of the Perrine design, yet retains the excellent potential for rearward and rotational recoil reduction.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The toggle action firearm that is the focus of the present application is part of hypervelocity weapon system that also includes a cartridge casing having a primer system that is as strong as the cartridge casing, itself. Because blowout or blow-through of conventional primer cups is eliminated by the new design, ultra-high-energy charges can be used that can provide greatly enhanced muzzle velocities. The new primer system eliminates the thin-gauge metal of conventional primer cups by utilizing a primer striker, which acts as a firing pin internal to the cartridge, itself. The primer striker, which is retained in the cartridge casing by an annular shoulder at the end of a cylindrical seat within which the primer striker slides, has a forward facing nipple which dents the face of a primer cup installed inside the cartridge. The primer cup is installed within a primer carrier, and a compressible, centrally-perforated, resilient rubber wafer is positioned between the primer striker and the primer cup, thereby preventing accidental ignition of the charge caused by unintended, minor impacts to the exposed primer striker. The rubber wafer also seals the primer and propellant charges against moisture. The hypervelocity weapon system also includes a blunt-ended ramrod, which replaces the conventional firing pin. The blunt end is sized so that it can enter the aperture at the center of the annular shoulder, thereby displacing the primer striker.
The toggle action firearm of the present invention is envisioned as a hypervelocity sniper rifle, which is easily totable by a single average soldier, and which has the capability to fire 0.50 caliber rounds powered by ultra-high-energy charges with minimum recoil. It is envisioned that the weapon system can produce muzzle velocities in excess of 5,000 ft/sec. The rifle may be configured as a single-shot, semi-automatic, or fully automatic firearm. Like the toggle of Perrine, the toggle of the present invention is downward hinging. However, in place of the bulky coil spring of Perrine, the toggle action of the present invention utilizes at least one coiled torsion spring that is incorporated in at least one pivot of the toggle. For one embodiment of the rifle, a single adjustable-tension torsion spring is employed. Tension is adjustable without disassembly of the toggle mechanism. Unlike the Winchester toggle action, the action of the present invention, as well as those of Borchardt, Luger, and Perrine, dispense with the over center lock feature so that the toggle can be used to implement an automatic load and eject function. In the pre-discharge configuration, the toggle of the present invention is about 3 degrees from a straight angle linkage, with a negative degree angle representing an over-center condition.BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
The various embodiments of the invention will now be explained in detail with reference to the attached drawing figures. In order to demonstrate the functionality of the present invention, the various embodiments have been incorporated into a gas-operated AR15 rifle, which is essentially a semi-automatic commercial version of the M16 U.S. military rifle. Some versions of the M16 can be fired in a fully automatic mode for short bursts. With some additional machining of the AR-15 receiver, and replacement of the AR-15 fire control components—including the sear and bolt carrier—with corresponding automatic M16 components, the AR-15 can be converted to fully automatic. An exploded diagram of a typical AR-15 rifle is shown in
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1. A bolt-action firearm comprising:
- a frame;
- a butt-stock attached to a rear portion of said frame;
- a hollow barrel having a firing chamber;
- a bolt movable in said frame axially to and from the firing chamber of said barrel;
- a coil spring mounted in a generally horizontal position within a chamber affixed to said frame;
- a buffer slidable within said chamber biased against said coil spring;
- a toggle comprising a pair of hingeably coupled front and rear links, a foremost end of said front link being pivotally coupled to said bolt and a rear most end of said rear link pivotally coupled to said frame and incorporating an extension lever having a rounded end which operates against said buffer to compress said coil spring when the front and rear links are toggled in a downward direction when the weapon is fired and the bolt is driven rearward.
Filed: Feb 7, 2007
Publication Date: Jan 3, 2008
Inventor: Cory Newman (American fork, UT)
Application Number: 11/672,519
International Classification: F41A 3/12 (20060101);