Method, Device and Tool for Cleaning, Surveying, Inspecting, Etc. Unpiggable Pipelines
The invention relates to a method for introducing a pig-like tool into an operating pipeline, such as a fluid pipe. According to the invention the pipeline is drilled during operation and the tool is injected into the pipeline through the drilled hole. During a corresponding tool removal from the pipeline a method is provided for prereconnaissance for the determination of a degree of contamination, cleaning, surveying, inspecting, repairing, etc. of pipelines by means of a corresponding, pig-like tool. The invention also relates to a device and a tool permitting the performance of the inventive method. Thus, otherwise unpiggable pipelines can be worked in a cost-efficient manner.
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The invention relates to a method for introducing a pig-like tool into a pipeline which is operating, such as a fluid pipe. The invention also relates to a method for collecting data concerning such an operating pipeline. The invention also relates to a device for introducing a pig-like tool into an operating pipeline, such as a fluid pipe. The invention finally relates to a tool for introduction into such a pipeline, particularly according to one of the aforementioned methods and/or using an aforementioned device. A fluid pipe according to the invention can carry gases or liquids and in the latter case more particularly oil.
Nowadays preferably use is made of so-called pigs or scrapers for cleaning, surveying or inspecting pipelines, particularly gas or oil pipelines laid underground. Such a scraper can be generally defined as a travel or fitting member, which can pass through a pipeline with its own drive or using external energy in order to perform certain tasks . The degree of suitability of a pipeline for a pig passage is also referred to as piggability. Piggable pipe-lines are those which fulfil specific requirements of pig operation, particularly also with respect to welding technology and installation. In addition, a piggable pipeline must have at least one so-called pig station or lock, which is a fitting for inserting or removing one or more pigs with respect to a pipeline.
Since the appearance of intelligent pigs, i.e. those not solely comprising mechanical components, but also having an electrical/electronic part and which can therefore acquire, process, store and transmit measurement data, certain types of pipelines are regularly provided with such pig stations in order to be able to e.g. carry out cleaning or inspection on work without having direct access to the pipeline, i.e. without digging up the pipeline with the resulting cost disadvantage.
However, there are still numerous old pipes, which e.g. in the case of gas pipes in cities, can be 90 to 100 years old and where there is virtually no information concerning their condition. Such pipelines are buried in the ground regularly at a depth of around 1 to 2 m, whilst the depth under roads can be 4 or 5 m. In addition, such pipelines often have numerous valves or slide valves and travel with closely restricted bends, so that e.g. pipelines are frequently categorized as unpiggable. Hitherto direct access to such pipes, e.g. for cleaning, surveying or inspection purposes, has only been possible from the outside, which more particularly in cities involves very high effort and expenditure.
The problem of the invention is to provide a method through whose use the aforementioned disadvantages can be avoided in conjunction with work on hitherto unpiggable pipelines. The further problem of the invention is to provide a device usable with such a method and to provide a corresponding tool.
The problem is solved by a method for introducing a pig-like tool into an operating pipeline, such as a fluid pipe, the pipeline being drilled during operation and the tool is injected into the pipeline through the drilled hole, i.e. without the medium flow in the pipe being interrupted. According to the invention a pig is injected into a pipeline without flow interruption by fitting a so-called hot tap, only a locally defined access to the pipeline being necessary.
In order to facilitate the introduction of the tool into the pipeline, according to a first development of the inventive method, the drilling of the pipeline and the injection of the tool takes place under an angle between 30 and 90ø, from approximately 45ø relative to a longitudinal axis of the pipeline, preferably between 30 and 60ø and in particular at approximately 45ø. For the same reason, prior to the introduction of the tool into the pipeline a guide assembly for the tool is at least partly introduced into the same.
In order to be able to reliably use the inventive method even in the case of relatively high operating pressures in the pipeline, according to a highly preferred development of the inventive method, at least the guide assembly is held in position by a holding device counter to an operating pressure in the pipeline. The tool can also be injected into the pipeline from a transportation/storage container connected to at least the guide assembly.
The aforementioned set problem is also solved by a method for cleaning, surveying, inspecting, repairing, etc. pipe-lines by means of a corresponding pig-like tool, the latter being introduced into the pipeline in accordance with one of the aforementioned methods and is correspondingly removed from the pipeline again. Thus, according to the invention, quasi random sections of unpiggable pipelines can be inexpensively worked. Within the scope of an extremely preferred development of the inventive method, for bridging obstacles in the pipeline for the tool, such as a slide valve or the like, on either side of the obstacle drillings are performed on the pipeline and connected by a bypass pipeline for the tool.
The aforementioned problem is also solved by a method for collecting data concerning an operating pipeline, such as a fluid pipe or the like, and comprising the following steps:
a) performing a first prereconnaissance for establishing at least a degree of dirtying of the pipeline into which is introduced a reconnaissance device small compared with a decisive pipeline dimension, such as a diameter;
b) optionally in the case of a substantially cleaner pipe-line cleanable with standard cleaning methods, such as the use of metal brushes or chemical cleaning procedures, the performance of a further prereconnaissance for establishing. a geometrical state of the pipeline as in step a);
c) optionally in the case of a pipeline not cleanable using standard cleaning procedures or a pipeline with damaged geometry working out corresponding, specific cleaning or geometry repair methods optionally together with a customer;
d) optionally in connection with step c), performance of an evaluation as to whether the worked out special method or methods can be performed cost-efficiently;
e) optionally in the case of a positive evaluation in step d) performance of the worked out special method or methods;
f) alternatively to step c) or following onto step e) performance of at least one of the above-described, inventive methods;
g) optionally in the case of a negative evaluation in step d) performance of at least one alternative method, particularly for exposing and for expert appraisal of the pipeline from the outside and/or for the hydrostatic monitoring of the pipeline.
Thus, the above-described methods for using pig-like tools in operating pipelines form part of a complete method sequence aiming at collecting data concerning a substantially unknown pipeline in an optimum use-specific adapted manner and with minimum costs for the contractor.
For solving the above-defined method the invention also provides a device of the aforementioned type with a guide assembly at least partly introduceable into a drilled hole of the pipeline having a substantially straight first pipe part and which at least in an introduction section is at an angle to the pipeline longitudinal axis and which has a curved, channel-shaped extension, which in the introduced state engages on a pipeline wall facing the drilled-hole. Thus, according to the invention, the tool can be introduced into the pipeline without there being a hard abutment of the tool against the pipeline wall. Instead the curved guide assembly extension ensures that the tool on penetrating the pipeline has a velocity substantially solely in the pipeline longitudinal axis direction. To this end, according to a highly preferred development of the inventive device, the curved guide assembly extension is provided in the engagement area with a tangent parallel to the pipeline longitudinal axis.
In addition, according to a further development of the inventive device, it has an inside bulge extending over a partial circumference of the first pipe part and substantially diametrically faces the extension. This inside bulge ensures that the tool is continuously guided around an edge formed on the rim of the pipeline drilled hole, without there being any sticking or damage to the tool. For the aforementioned reasons the angle between the pipeline longitudinal axis and the substantially straight path of the. first pipe part is preferably 45° (or also between 30 and 45° or between 45 and 90°).
According to a preferred development of the inventive device the guide assembly has on its end remote from the introduction section a further curved pipe part with a path bending away from the running direction of the first pipe part, the bend preferably being substantially 90°. Thus, according to the invention, it is possible to reduce the mechanical loading of the pipeline and the guide assembly on introducing the tool into the latter, particularly if, according to a further development of the inventive device, in the introduced state of the guide assembly a running direction of the second pipe part on its end remote from the first pipe part is oriented at least locally in a plane substantially parallel to a running plane of the pipeline. Advantageously the running direction of the second pipe part at its end remote from the first pipe part is oriented under an angle of substantially 90° with respect to the pipeline longitudinal axis, so that the tool can be introduced into the guide assembly transversely to the pipeline longitudinal axis.
In order to be able to insert the tool in an operating, pressurized pipeline, according to an extremely preferred further development, the inventive device is provided in a joint area between the first and second pipe parts with a sealing means, which is preferably constructed in the form of a slide valve for the pressure-tight sealing of the guide assembly. A transportation/storage container connectable to the end of the guide assembly remote from the introduction section can be provided for the tool. After fitting the transportation/storage container and the optional opening of the sealing means, the tool can preferably be injected into the pipeline through the guide assembly from the transportation/storage container.
In conjunction with a particularly preferred development of the inventive device, the transportation/storage container is placed on a load bearing or carrying device, so that only very small mechanical forces act on the guide assembly and the pipeline. The load carrying device is movable and in particular travelable. In an extremely preferred development of the inventive device, the load carrying device. is a flat-bed or a flat-bed trailer.
In order to be able to keep the guide assembly in position against an operating pressure in the pipeline, the inventive device preferably has a corresponding holding device which, according to a further development of the inventive device, can be constructed as a ram means acting from the outside on the guide assembly. According to a variant of the inventive device, for acting on the guide assembly the holding device is constructed in the vicinity of the bend of the second pipe part thereof.
For a reliable, defined introduction of the guide assembly into the pipeline, according to a particularly preferred development of the inventive device, there is a bush with flange extension fittable to the pipeline and which is permanently fixed thereto during its drilling, more particularly by welding. According to a further development of the inventive device, the sealing means and holding device can be jointly connected to the flange extension of said bush and in particular the sealing means and holding device constitute a structural unit.
For solving the set problem the invention also proposes a tool in the form of a flexible, multimember pig, whose functional members, such as the pulling unit, magnetizing arrangements, sensor supports, etc., have dimensions in the pig longitudinal direction such that it is possible to travel through pipeline sections with a radius of curvature of the order of magnitude of a pipeline diameter. Such a tool construction is vital in order to be able to introduce it from the transportation/storage container through the guide assembly into the pipeline.
According to a highly preferred development of the inventive tool, its functional members have in each case inwardly and outwardly swingable support arm arrangements for the functional elements, such as sealing sleeves, magnetizers or sensors. This makes it possible to flexibly adapt the shape and in particular the diameter of the tool functional members, so that it is possible to bypass obstacles in the pipeline, such as in the introduction section of the guide assembly into said pipeline. Moreover, an inventive tool constructed in this way can also be used in so-called multidiameter applications, in which a pipeline in known or unknown manner has a non-constant diameter, the support arm arrangements ensuring that the functional members at all times assume their optimum working spacing from the pipeline wall.
For safety reasons the inventive tool can have two successively arranged pulling units, which in a passive development of the tool can be conventional sealing sleeves, which as a result of the pressure of the medium flowing through the pipeline ensure a tool movement. Alternatively the pulling units can be constructed as actively driven tractors and have corresponding drive means such as wheels, motors and a corresponding power supply. It is also inventively possible to provide “intelligent” pulling units in the form of robots, which can in particular effect an independent adaptation to the pipeline geometry.
If when inspecting the pipeline use is made of magnetic inspection methods, such as magnetic flux leakage, so that corresponding magnetizing arrangements are provided on the tool, according to a highly preferred development of the inventive tool, the magnetizing arrangements are formed by shortened magnetizers. Hereinafter the term conventional magnetizing arrangements is understood to mean arrangements for magnetizers of a specific length normally used for a given pipeline diameter. Through the use of smaller magnets for a given diameter, naturally less magnetic power is available for pipeline inspection, but the possibly existing disadvantages with regards to measurement accuracy pass into the background when compared with the inventive unavoidable flexibility of the arrangement which is obtained.
In order to reduce wear to the tool in the vicinity of the magnetizing arrangements, particularly with a view to an active pig with tractor pulling units, according to a further development roll or roller means are integrated into the magnetizing arrangements.
To bring about a complete coverage of the pipeline wall in multidiameter applications, according to an extremely preferred development of the inventive tool, at least two successively provided magnetizing arrangements exist and their magnetizers are circumferentially offset.
Further advantages and characteristic of the invention can be gathered from the following description of embodiments relative to the attached drawings, wherein show:
In order to be able to perform inspection and maintenance work using pig-like tools 2 in fundamentally unpiggable pipelines 4 for cost saving reasons, use can be made of the inventive device 1 diagrammatically shown in
For the reliable, defined introduction of tool 2 into pipeline 4, the inventive device 1 according to
Thus, from the method standpoint and optionally following a corresponding prereconnaissance via branches 4.1b, 4.2b and pipe valve arrangement 5, the pipeline 4 is drilled under an angle of e.g. α˜45° (drilled hole 4.4). In the vicinity of the drilled hole 4.4 the bush 1.1 with flange extension 1.1a and slide valve 1.2 fixed thereto is installed for sealing the drilled hole 4.4. By means of further pipe parts 1.3a, 1.3b described in greater detail hereinafter, the pipeline 4 when the slide valve 1.2 is open is linked with the transportation/storage container 1.4 for inventive tool 2.
Tool 2 is a novel, pig-like tool, explained in greater detail hereinafter relative to
As a result of its special design with curved extension. 1.6a, pipe part 1.6 serves to guide the tool 2 around the bend or kink between the inserted device 1 and pipeline 4 in the vicinity of drilled hole 4.4, without there being any damage or jamming to tool 2.
The diagrammatic representation of
From load carrying device 1.5 is also provided in the manner of an “injection needle” a preferably pneumatically or hydraulically operated cylinder 1.7 used for injecting tool 2 (cf.
In addition, the load carrying device 1.5 has an arrangement of preferably hydraulically or pneumatically operated telescopic legs 1.8a, 1.8b through which it is possible to adjust a position of the load carrying device 1.5 and in particular container 1.4 in such a way that in the inventive device 1 according to
In a detailed sectional view
Fundamentally the inventive device shown in
The slide valve 1.2 already illustrated by means of
The development of the inventive device 1 according to
In order to keep the arrangement of pipelines 1.6, 1.9 in position counter to the operating pressure P in pipeline 4, according to
In the vicinity of its bend, the second pipe part 1.9 has a larger diameter compared with the first pipe part 1.6 so as to facilitate a passage of the tool in this area. Also in the vicinity of its bend, the pipe part 1.9 has a ram-like shoulder 1.12 serving as a bearing surface for a correspondingly shaped ram body 1.10a (cf.
In order to avoid damage to the tool in the vicinity of an edge K of drilled hole 4.4 (cf.
Of decisive importance according to the invention is the shortened construction x of magnetizers 2.6 compared with conventional tools. If they are excessively long in the direction of the pig longitudinal axis L′, it is no longer possible to traverse confined pipeline bends according to
As can also be seen in
According to the developments of the inventive tool 2 shown, rolls 2.9 are integrated into the magnetizing arrangements 2.2, 2.2′ and during the operation of the tool 2 engage with pipeline wall 4a (cf.
Then in step S3 an interrogation or inquiry is made with respect to said data as to whether the pipeline is clean. If the interrogation in step S3 is affirmed (j), then in step S4 there is a following interrogation as to whether the geometry of the pipeline is in order or whether there is damage and deformation. If there is a negative reply in step S3 (n), in step S4 there is an interrogation to establish whether the contamination in the pipeline can be eliminated using conventional cleaning methods. These cleaning methods can e.g. involve the use of metal brushes or chemicals for pipeline cleaning.
If the interrogation in step S5 is affirmed, then the already explained interrogation in step S4 takes place. However, if there is a negative response in step S5, it is necessary in step S6 to work out jointly with the customer a specific cleaning program. Correspondingly in the case of a negative reply in step S4, it is necessary in step S7 to evolve a corresponding repair program for the pipeline geometry. Both in method step S6 and method step S7, in step S8 there is an interrogation as to whether the worked out program or programs can be performed in a cost-efficient manner. If this is the case, in a following method step S9 the corresponding special method or methods are performed. In the case of a negative response in step S8, in a following step S10 an attempt is made to draw up an alternative program. The possibilities are e.g. the creation of direct access to the pipeline (digging up, exposure; step 10′) or the performance of hydrostatic tests, as is known to the expert (step S10″).
In the case of a positive response in step S4 or following onto step S9, according to the invention a full size hot tap is fitted, i.e. with a cross-section substantially corresponding to the diameter D of pipeline 4 (cf. e.g.
The introduced tool 2 can be a cleaning pig (step S12), a caliper pig (step S13) or an injection pig (step S14), as shown in
Thus, the invention permits cost-efficient working particularly oriented to the requirements of the customer with respect to unpiggable pipelines.LIST OF REFERENCE NUMERALS
- 1 Device
- 1.1 Bush
- 1.1a Flange extension
- 1.2 Slide valve
- 1.3a, 1.3b Pipe part
- 1.4 Transportation/storage container
- 1.4a Pipe
- 1.4b Rotary flange
- 1.5 Load carrying device, flat-bed
- 1.6 First pipe part
- 1.6a Curved extension
- 1.6b Opening
- 1.7 Cylinder
- 1.8a, 1.8b Telescopic leg
- 1.9 Second pipe part
- 1.10 Holding device, ram
- 1.10a Ram body
- 1.11 Sealing body
- 1.12 Shoulder
- 2 Tool, pig
- 2.1, 2.1′ Pulling unit
- 2.1a Wheel
- 2.2, 2.2′ Magnetizing arrangement
- 2.3 Sensor support
- 2.4 Support arm
- 2.5 Sealing sleeve
- 2.6 Magnetizer
- 2.7 Sensor
- 2.8 Battery body
- 2.9 Roll
- 3a Ground
- 3b Ground surface
- 4 Pipeline
- 4a Pipeline wall
- 4.1, 4.2 Pipeline portion
- 4.1a, 4.2a Pipeline wall
- 4.1b, 4.2b Branch, hot tap
- 4.3 Valve
- 4.4 Drilled hole
- 5 Pipe valve arrangement
- α Angle
- A Dimension
- B Joining area
- C Introduction section
- D Diameter
- F Flow direction
- Fp Force
- j Affirmed interrogation
- K Edge
- L Pipeline longitudinal axis
- L′ Longitudinal axis
- n Negative interrogation
- p Operating pressure
- R Radius of curvature
- S Axis of symmetry
- S1-14 Method step
- T Tangent
- U Circumferential direction
- V Running direction
- x Dimension
39. A method for introducing a pig-like tool into an operating pipeline or a fluid pipeline, the method comprising the steps of:
- a) spot drilling the pipeline during operation thereof; and
- b) injecting the tool through a spot drilled hole in the pipeline using a pneumatically or hydraulically operated cylinder.
40. The method of claim 39, wherein spot drilling of the pipeline and injecting of the tool take place under an angle between 30° and 90° relative to a longitudinal axis of the pipeline.
41. The method of claim 40, wherein said angle is between 30° and 60° or approximately 45°.
42. The method of claim 39, further comprising at least partly introducing a guidance arrangement for the tool into the pipeline prior to step b).
43. The method of claim 42, further comprising using a holding device to hold the guidance arrangement in position in the pipeline against an operating pressure.
44. The method of claim 42, further comprising connecting a transportation/storage container to the guidance arrangement for insertion of the tool into the pipeline.
45. A method for cleaning, measuring, inspecting or repairing pipelines using a pig-like tool which is introduced into and removed from the pipeline using the method of claim 39.
46. The method of claim 39, wherein pipeline spot drillings are made and connected by a bypass pipeline for bridging obstacles for the tool in the pipeline.
47. A method for collecting data concerning an operating pipeline or a gas pipeline using the method of claim 39, the method comprising the steps of:
- a′) carrying out a first prior reconnaissance for determining a degree of contamination of the pipeline by introducing a reconnaissance probe which is small compared to characteristic dimensions of the pipeline or compared to a diameter of the pipeline;
- b′) optionally performing a further prior reconnaissance analogous to step a′) in order to determine a geometrical state of a substantially clean pipeline or of a pipeline which is to be cleansed using standard cleaning methods;
- c′) optionally establishing special cleaning or geometry repair methods in optional consultation with a customer should the pipeline be non-cleanable using standard cleaning methods or for a pipeline having damaged geometry;
- d′) should step c′) be executed, subsequently evaluating whether the special methods can be performed cost-effectively;
- e′) in case of a positive result for step d′), performing the special method;
- f′) alternatively to step c′) or following step e′), executing steps a) and b);
- g′) in case of a negative evaluation in step d′), performing an alternative method or an alternative method for uncovering and surveying the pipeline from an outside thereof and/or for hydrostatic inspection of the pipeline.
48. A device for introducing a pig-like tool into an operating pipeline or a gas pipeline, the device comprising:
- a guidance means which is at least partly introduced into a spot drilled hole of the pipeline, said guidance means having a substantially straight first pipe part having an introductory section disposed at an angle a with respect to a longitudinal axis of the pipeline and with a curved, channel-like extension which, in an introduced state, seats on a wall of the pipeline facing the spot drilled hole; and
- a pneumatically or hydraulically operated cylinder for injecting the tool into the pipeline.
49. The device of claim 48, wherein an engagement area of said curved extension has a tangent which is substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipeline.
50. The device of claim 48, wherein said guidance means comprises an internal bulge substantially diametrically facing said channel-like extension and extending over a partial circumference of said first pipe part.
51. The device of claim 48, wherein said guidance means has a further, curved second pipe part with a path bent with respect to a running direction of said first pipe part and disposed on an end remote from said introductory section.
52. The device of claim 51, wherein said bent path is substantially 90°.
53. The device of claim 51, wherein said second pipe part is locally oriented in a plane substantially parallel to a running plane of the pipeline in an introduced state of said guidance means and at an end thereof remote from said first pipe part.
54. The device of claim 50, further comprising a closing means disposed in a joining area between said first and said second pipe parts.
55. The device of claim 54, wherein said closing means is constructed as a slider for pressure-proof closure of said guidance means.
56. The device of claim 53, further comprising a transportation/storage container for the tool connectable to said guidance means at an end thereof remote from said introductory section.
57. The device of claim 56, wherein the tool is injected into the pipeline through said guidance means from said transportation/storage container.
58. The device of claim 56, wherein said transportation/storage container is disposed on a load support device.
59. The device of claim 58, wherein said load support device is mobile or transportable.
60. The device of claim 58, wherein said load support device is constructed as a low loader.
61. The device of claim 54, further comprising a holding device for holding said guidance means in position against an operating pressure in the pipeline.
62. The device of claim 61, wherein said holding device is constructed as a ram means acting from an outside on said guidance means.
63. The device of claim 61, wherein said holding device is constructed to act on said guidance means in a vicinity of a bend.
64. The device of claim 61, further comprising a bushing with flange extension fittable to the pipeline and into which said guidance means is introduced.
65. The device of claim 64, wherein said closing means and said holding device are jointly connectable to said flange extension.
66. The device of claim 48, wherein said angle a is between 30° and 90°.
67. The device of claim 66, wherein said angle a is approximately 45°.
68. A tool for introduction into an operating pipeline or a gas pipeline using the method of claim 39, the tool comprising a flexible, multi-element pig whose functional elements comprise at least one of a towing unit, magnetizing means, and sensor supports and having dimensions in a longitudinal direction of the pig which permit traversal of pipeline sections having a radius of curvature approximately equal to a diameter of the pipeline.
69. The tool of claim 68, wherein said functional elements have an associated inwardly and outwardly foldable support arm systems said functional elements comprising at least one of sealing sleeves, magnetizers, and sensors.
70. The tool of claim 68, further comprising two successively arranged towing units.
71. The tool of claim 70, wherein said towing units are constructed as passive towing units having sealing sleeves.
72. The tool of claim 70, wherein said towing units are constructed as actively driven tractors.
73. The tool of claim 70, wherein said towing units are constructed as robots.
74. The tool of claim 68, wherein said magnetizing means are formed from magnetizers shortened compared to conventional magnetizing means.
75. The tool of claim 68, further comprising rolling means integrated into said magnetizing means.
76. The tool of claim 68, further comprising at least two successively arranged magnetizing means whose magnetizers are displaced in a circumferential direction.