Chronic Access System for Extracorporeal Treatment of Blood Including a Continuously Wearable Hemodialyzer
A patient wearable, continuously operating extracorporeal pump apparatus which accesses the patient's arterial venous pressure differential by applying external pressure to a subcutaneous graft that has been cannualized to modulate blood flow through an extracorporeal circuit and to drive the pump for delivering a medicament, such as an anticoagulant, to the site of an intravenous cannula to prevent clogging thereof and also to move a dialysate through a circuit, including a dialyzer and a dialysate rejuvenating cartridge, whereby kidney failure can be treated without recourse to prior art hemodialysis machines found in most treatment facilities. With slight modification, the present invention can be used to remove excess fluids from CHF patients, to remove toxins from the blood in those suffering from liver failure and to facilitate administration of insulin to diabetics and/or glucose to those having hypoglycemia.
The present application is a Divisional Application of National phase application Ser. No. 12/448,178, filed Jun. 11, 2009, based upon PCT application serial no. PCT/US07/25864, filed Dec. 19, 2007, and based upon U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/875,633, filed Dec. 19, 2006, the contents of each are hereby being incorporated by reference.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
This invention relates generally to artificial organs and in particular to a blood access system for the treatment of end stage kidney failure. The apparatus comprising a preferred embodiment includes a patient-wearable, extracorporeal system which accesses a patient's arterial/venous pressure differential and regulates the extracorporeal arteriovenous blood flow and proportionally with that blood flow, pumps and regulates dialysate flow in the case of hemodialysis (HD) for kidney failure. The externally wearable unit offers portable, continuous, HD for a patient. The HD unit of this invention also proportionally with the blood and dialysate, pumps and regulates anti-coagulant and CaMg additions.
2. Discussion of the Prior Art
Patients suffering from chronic end stage renal disease or acute traumatic kidney failure regularly undergo the process of HD in which chemical waste and water are removed from the blood using a system of semi-permeable membranes. Conventional chronic treatment requires the patient to remain sedentary for three sessions per week. Each treatment session constitutes approximately three to six hours at a treatment center or at home and additional hours for travel and recovery. It is an uncomfortable and tiring procedure, since patients must remain sedentary and because of the rapid rate at which their body fluids are adjusted toward normal. Approximately 100 times the usual daily intake of water, in the form of dialysate, passes by the artificial membranes opposite the blood during an average session. Consequently, failure of the dialysate preparation or membrane conduction systems may have severe consequences.
The process of HD becomes necessary when disease or trauma causes the kidneys to fail or become so impaired that they no longer adequately remove toxins and/or water from the blood. It involves mechanically and chemically assisted removal of toxins (largely urea) and water in a manner that restores a balance of fluids and electrolytes in the blood. The essential components for this process are a semi-permeable membrane and a dialysate solution that will absorb the unwanted blood components after they have passed through the membrane. A way of preventing clotting of blood in and around the dialyzer unit is required.
Interest in miniaturizing the equipment used in hemodialysis has resulted in the availability of small portable (as opposed to truly ambulatory) dialysis devices. Ash and Kessler in U.S. Pat. No. 4,071,444 provide an example of a portable dialysis machine.
As is pointed out in the Twardowski U.S. Pat. No. 5,336,165 there is a real need for equipment that will make at-home hemodialysis possible. There are nearly 500,000 patients on dialysis in the United States at any one time. Most of these patients must visit kidney dialysis centers three times a week and spend several hours on each of those days tied to a machine that includes an extracorporeal circuit for extracting blood, “cleaning” it, and returning it back into the patient. This not only exposes the patient or a third-party payer to very significant medical costs, but also adversely affects quality of life considerations. In an attempt to address this problem, Twardowski describes an at-home hemodialysis system that includes a dialyzer membrane and provision for passage of a dialysis solution along one side of the membrane and blood with ureinic components along the other side.
The Beltz U.S. Pat. No. 5,284,470 describes a portable, artificial kidney in the form of a self-contained unit whose size and shape is such that it is lightweight and relatively small so that it can be worn by the patient who is able to go about routine daily activities. The Beltz system includes a blood plasma separator unit, a chemical treatment unit, and a water removal unit. It also includes a cannula inserted in an arteriovenous shunt for gaining access to the patient's blood stream. The toxic whole blood is routed to the artificial kidney and then returned in detoxified form back to the patient. The artificial kidney includes a separator packet for extracting a predetermined amount of plasma from the patient's blood and then a further packet containing a treatment chemical for cleansing the plasma is included in the flow path. Means are provided to remove water from the plasma before the cleansed plasma is returned to the patient's body. Blood flow through the unit is due primarily to the hydrostatic blood pressure of the patient, but it is recognized that a lightweight pump and battery may be needed to generate additional pressure for routing the cleansed plasma back into the patient.
A continuous-use ambulatory hemodialysis unit is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,864,259 of Newhart. It features a harness that secures a dialysate reservoir to the patient's hip and a perfusion unit on the anterior thigh, connected to a femoral shunt. The perfusion unit has multiple dialysis tubules bathed in dialysate, enabling the removal of waste products from the blood in the tubules. The apparatus consists of seven exterior parts: harness, diaphragm pump, reservoir, perfusion unit, dialysate exchange unit, and femoral arterial and venous cannulae. The exchanger is smaller than the perfusion unit at approximately 8.5 cm×6 cm and 1 cm deep. It should be apparent that this apparatus is cumbersome and uncomfortable.Objects
A principal object of the invention is to provide a new and improved apparatus for extracorporeal treatment of blood, including hemodialysis and hemofiltration in the form of a wearable unit. This wearable HD unit is more convenient than standard treatment, since it performs HD substantially continuously, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and largely eliminates the need for time-consuming, sedentary, hospital or clinic dialysis. The patients are also spared the alternative of having to endure liters of an ascites-like peritoneal dialysis solution in their abdominal cavity and needing to spend several hours each day carrying out the necessary fluid exchanges for CAPD.
A further object is to broaden applicability by utilizing a blood arterio/venous pressure differential powered pump design that offers mechanical advantage due to the lever arm principle. This particular pump design has broad application as an extracorporeal blood treatment system, independent of the hemodialyzer component.
Yet another important object of the invention is to provide an apparatus that nearly continuously accesses A/V pressure differential by interchangeably applying external pressure over a subcutaneous plastic fistula graft or an in situ debranched arteriovenous fistula segment, at two separate sites so as to avoid tissue necrosis.
A still further object of the present invention is to provide a patient-wearable hemodialysis and/or hemofiltration system which is miniaturized such that it is wearable without discomfort and conveniently situated on a patient's limb, as on the wrist and forearm.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention comprises a blood dialysis apparatus for ambulatory patients so that substantially continuous removal of urea, water, salts and other waste products from the patient's blood stream is accomplished. Supplementary accelerated hemofiltration can also be accomplished at night in a recumbent setting by applying suction around a collection bag. The device comprises a pair of superposed flexible cuffs adapted to be wrapped about and secured to a limb of a patient, each cuff comprising first and second superposed sheets of plastic film selectively bonded to one another to define a plurality of isolated fluid flow paths including, but not limited to, a blood circuit, a dialysate circuit, an anti-coagulant administrative path and a calcium-magnesium (CaMg) introduction path.
Enclosed in the cuff is a liquid impervious chamber containing a plurality of hollow, tubular dialysis/hemofiltration fibers. The chamber is connected in the blood circuit and the dialysate circuit such that blood can flow through the lumens of the tubular dialyzer fibers from an inlet end to an outlet end thereof while dialysate flows about the exterior of the dialysis fibers within the chamber. Alternatively, the chamber can be arranged on that the dialysate flows through the lumens and the blood over the fiber exteriors. The cuff also temporarily supports one or more parallel-chambered dialysate toxins adsorbing cartridges.
A first cannula is used to access arterial blood that is coupled through the blood circuit to an inlet end of the tubular dialyzer fibers and a venous cannula is coupled to the outlet end of those dialyzer fibers. The anti-coagulant administration path preferably includes a first compressible reservoir for containing a quantity of a liquid anti-coagulant drug. Likewise, the CaMg path includes a flexible compressible chamber for containing a solution of calcium and magnesium ions.
A specially designed pump arrangement is provided that is adapted to be actuated by blood flow through the blood circuit to force proportionally metered quantities of anti-coagulant drug from the first compressible reservoir to a location near the inside of the tip of the arterial cannula and a proportionally metered quantity of CaMg solution from the second compressible reservoir into the dialysate inlet to the dialyzer.
In accordance with the operation, the pump arrangement may comprise a first roller cage disposed over one of the first and second disposables and overlying a portion of first anti-coagulant and first CaMg paths and a second roller cage disposed over a second of the first and second RF sealed disposables, overlying portions of the second anticoagulant and the second CaMg paths. The roller cages are adapted to be rotated by a wedge-shaped lever and a ratchet pawl that is actuated by the flow of the patient's blood due to the arterial/venous pressure differential and when cooperating with the flexible flow paths, acts as a peristaltic pump for delivery of the anticoagulant and the CaMg solution.
Basic to the concept is the method for obtaining access to arterial and venous pressures, chronically, by biweekly inserting small catheters into plastic fistula grafts or a debranched venous equivalent, both proximal and distal to reciprocal compression sites. Also basic to the concept is how control of the rate of extracorporeal blood flow is exercised, how a dialysate flow rate proportional and approximately equal to the blood flow is maintained and how proportional control over the rate of the pump delivering the anticoagulant and CaMg supplements is maintained. All of these are accomplished by a swinging lever mechanism whose displacement is based on controlled blood flow in and out of expandable ventricles in the disposable cuffs blood circuit. The lever serves to appropriately limit and define blood flow and to transfer power from the blood to the dialysate, anticoagulant, and CaMg delivery functions.
The foregoing features, objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description of preferred embodiment, especially when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which like numerals in the several views refer to corresponding parts.
Certain terminology will be used in the following description for convenience in reference only and will not be limiting. The words “upwardly”, “downwardly”, “rightwardly” and “leftwardly” will refer to directions in the drawings to which reference is made. The words “inwardly” and “outwardly” will refer to directions toward and away from, respectively, the geometric center of the device and associated parts thereof. Said terminology will include the words above specifically mentioned, derivatives thereof and words of similar import.
Concentrating first on the upper disposable, plastic, blood-contacting member 14 that is more particularly illustrated in the plan view of
As is known in the art, the dialysis fibers comprise semi-permeable membranes, typically composed of cellulose or polymeric directives. A pair of miniature dialyzers like that contemplated may, together, provide a generous total exchange surface of about 1000-1500 square centimeters (0.1-0.15 square meters). A suitable manifold of known construction is provided so that arterial blood flowing into the dialyzer 38, via the tubular branches A, B and C and the blood ventricle 50 in
Blood exits the dialyzer member 38 via a tubular path segment D defined between the superposed sheets of plastic comprising the upper disposable member 14. The manner in which a patient's blood is accessed will be described in greater detail herein below.
With continued reference to
Disposed in segment C of the blood path of the upper disposable member 14 on its undersurface is an expansible blood ventricle 50 which serves to displace a pump actuating lever 53 (
A reservoir 52 formed by selective welding of the sheets comprising disposable member 14 is configured to contain a suitable anti-coagulant, e.g., heparin, possibly guarded in a crushable ampule, and it is adapted to feed the anti-coagulant via tubing segment K to the bloodstream just proximate the interior of the tip of the arterial cannula (not shown) used to access the patient's circulatory system. As will be explained further herein below, the anti-coagulant is metered out from the reservoir by a peristaltic pump driven by the patient's own arterial/venous pressure differential and serves to prevent clotting of blood within the cannula needle entry and throughout the device, while avoiding undesirable systemic delivery of the anti-coagulant.
A bladder 54 formed in the upper disposable between its laminated sheets is adapted to contain a calcium magnesium (CaMg) solution, also possibly guarded in a crushable ampule, that is added to the cleansed dialysate via tubular segments I and J leading to the dialyzer dialysate inflow port 46.
As is explained in fuller detail below, the CaMg aqueous solution helps rejuvenate the dialysate solution after it passes through the toxin removing sorbent cartridge 24/26.
Connected in series with the dialysate ventricle 42 are passive check valves 56 and 58 which selectively open and close to permit emptying and filling of the dialysate ventricle as the pump lever 53 presses upon or retreats from its contact with ventricle 42.
The lower disposable member 18 shown in
As seen in the exploded view of
Secured to a side surface of the spools 83 are annular ratchet gears 88 and 90. Referring still to
As the lever plate is made to pivot in the upward counterclockwise direction when viewed in
As the rollers 86 rotate about the spools 83, they are pressed against RF sealed conduits disposed in the roller races 96 and 98 (
Also formed in the upper and lower surfaces of the side walls 64 and 66 and front wall 68 and top and bottom end plates 12 and 20 are somewhat circular depressions as at 116-124 in
The tubular passageways leading from the anticoagulant reservoirs 52 and 52′ and the CaMg reservoirs 54 and 54′ are located to cooperate with pump assemblies 78 and 80 so as to function as peristaltic roller pumps. That is to say, as the roller pumps 78 and 80 are driven by the pivoting action of the lever plate 53 in the manner already described, the rollers three measured proportional quantities of an anti-coagulant and CaMg solution from their respective reservoirs 52, 52′ and 54, 54′ and along conduits leading to the arterial cannula or in to the cleansed dialysate conduits.
The permanent magnets occluders 104 and 106 serve as conduit occluders and function to open and close the lumens of the blood flow circuit C and C′ to allow the arterial/venous pressure differential to alternatively fill and empty the blood pump ventricles 50 and 50′ under influence of electromagnets 30 and 34 carried by the upper and lower end plates 12 and 20. As will be later explained, the electromagnets are operated in time phase and spatial polarity oriented equality, both North poles to the left and both South poles to the right, or visa versa. That is to say, when electromagnets 30-34 are pulsed, they function to cooperatively, directionally, attract and repel the North and South poles of each permanent magnet 104 and 106 to cooperatively move the conduit occluder upward or downward. The two conduit occluder permanent magnets' poles being identically oriented and under the influence of the opposite ends of the identically oriented electromagnets, the permanent magnets are moved in opposite directions in order to position them to block the flow of blood into the first bladder 50 and out of the second 50′.
Subsequently, with current reversal, the permanent magnets occluders 104 and 106 are attracted and repelled in the opposite directions with regard to near contact with the corresponding points on the others of the four blood conduits, blocking the flow of blood out of the first bladder 50 and into the second 50′.
Small, linear plastic knife edges (not shown) may be affixed to the RF sealed disposable precisely over the conduits that are meant to be occluded for blood cycling function. Affixing knife edges to the disposable is superior to having them be part of the permanent magnet occluders because positioning is thereby perfect every time and not dependent on positioning of the whole RF disposable between the frame 16 and the upper and lower end plates.
The wrist and forearm-wearable artificial kidney, as depicted in
The disposable cuffs 14 and 18 are sealed while there is some air pressure within or suction without, to assure that the sealed in ducts conduits tend toward having open circular lumens and do not collapse and stick together, plastic sheet to plastic sheet, when not distended by a contained liquid.
The device of the present invention operates to meter-modulate blood flow at a certain rate which automatically coordinates proportionally with the heparin anticoagulant administration, a heparin administration that is plentiful for preventing clotting within the device, but insufficient to result in systemic (total body) anticoagulation. Desirable prophylactic anticoagulation of the body does result.
Blood cleansing requirements must be considered as well. About 20-30 ml/min of blood flow through the device, 168 hours a week, will serve generously for the dialysis task. Dialysate is not only being modulated, but also pumped, secondarily, by the blood pressure differential. In this case, there is a proportional, approximately equal, countercurrent blood and dialysate flow. Proportionality also applies to added CaMg, which is required to reconstitute these two substances that have been completely stripped from the dialysate during one pass through the adsorbent cartridge. Since it is all gone, it can be wholly, proportionally, replaced into the dialysate flow with confidence.
Potassium is also stripped from the dialysate by the adsorbent cartridge 24/26 but it usually exists in excess, or at least in abundance, in uremic and other severely challenged patients. So, depending on lab findings, K+ may be aggressively removed by adding no potassium in to the dialysate, it might be drawn down slowly by including a normal small amount of K+ in the dialysate or it might actually be replaced if too much has been removed. It is anticipated that the very safe second option will be utilized most often in chronic, non-traumatic patients who will thus remain within normal limits without much manipulation. In the system we are describing, there is of course no exogenous dialysate replacement and cartridges with different K+ scrubbing capabilities will be utilized per the physician's prescription.
The inflow and outflow of dialysate from its pump ventricles can be directed either by one-way passive check valves that are located in the dialysate circuits at a physical position wherein the check valves will reside in the depressions 126-134 (
The direction of flow of the DC current supplied by battery 28, hence the polarity of the horizontal electromagnets 30 and 34 should be reversed about every 5-15 seconds. Preferably located near the apex (tip) or side of the lever plate 53 is a small permanent magnet 133 (
In preparing a patient for use of the wearable hemodialyzer of the present invention, a conventional, plastic tube arteriovenous fistula graft can be surgically implanted in the patient's forearm or, alternatively, and perhaps preferably, an in situ debranched vein fistula graft may be surgically created by anastomosing an artery to the debranched vein as seen in
When the fistula graft is compressed at a predetermined location thereon, the portion of the graft proximal of the compression site will be at arterial pressure and the portion of the graft distal of the compression site will be at venous pressure. When the compression is released, the whole fistula graft will be at approximately venous pressure.
As best seen in
The disposable, blood-contacting RF welded members 14 and 18 are preferably designed to be replaced at 3½ day intervals to inhibit infection and, more importantly, to replenish the supply of anticoagulant and calcium magnesium solution. Removal of the cannulae at 3½ day intervals should allow the in situ graft tissues to heal rapidly and without complication.
The tabs 116 and 118 of the disposables are adapted to be wrapped around the forearm and adhered to each other with Velcro fasteners thereon, thereby accommodating considerable variations in patients' anatomy. Offsets in mounted height between the two disposables assure that the dialyzers, anticoagulant and calcium magnesium reservoirs and other components will not directly overly each other, rather will nestle side-by-side, resulting in the least obtrusive space occupied around the forearm.
As shown in
As can be seen in
A thin elastic bladder-like container (not shown) can be stretched over the cartridge to encompass the outlet ports 125 to both contain necessary dialysate to fill the circuit and to permit excess dialysate to collect around the cartridge until it can be emptied in an appropriate facility. It is also contemplated that a bedside suction pump and limited sized collection bag in a vacuum chamber can be utilized to assist the removal of a predetermined, limited, volume of excess fluid while the patient is asleep.
The top end plate 12 and the bottom end plate 20 each have a pattern of grooves formed inward that when placed in registration with the frame member 16 create channels for receiving segments of the fluid carrying conduits on the upper and lower RF sealed disposables 14 and 18 without distorting, i.e., closing the fluid flow paths.
The lower RF sealed blood contacting disposable 18 differs from the upper one 14 in only two small ways. The lower disposable 18 has its parallel anticoagulant and CaMg ducts located more to the left while the corresponding ducts on the upper disposable 14 are more to the right when viewed in
Having described the mechanical construction of the continuously wearable hemodialyzer comprising a preferred embodiment, consideration will next be given to its mode of operation. In this regard, let it be assumed that a cycle has just been completed in which arterial engorgement of the ventricle 50 on the upper disposable 14 has driven the lever 53 to its lowermost disposition within the frame 16. The electronic control circuit of
At this time, the permanent magnet 104 (
As a result, the lever plate 53 is driven upward as the blood ventricle 50′ is being filled with blood under arterial pressure. The movement of the lever plate against the upper blood ventricle 50 directs its blood through the upper dialyzer 38 and back into the downstream segment of the fistula graft which is at a venous pressure. At the same time, the contents of the upper dialysate ventricle 42 is squeezed out to flow through the one-way valves 58, 131, 129 and 127 and into the upper left quadrant of cartridge 24/26.
As the lever plate 53 rises, it drives one of the roller pumps 80 to cause anti-coagulant to be injected into the tip of the arterial catheter and CaMg solution into the inflow of the dialyzer 38, respectively.
Also, as the lever plate 53 is driven upward, the Hall sensor in the frame 16 senses the passage of a small permanent magnet mounted to the lever plate causing a reversal in the polarity of the electromagnets preliminary to a subsequent pass of the lever plate 53 in a downward direction.
A DC electrical impulse from the control circuit of
The downward movement of the lever plate 53 results in rotation of the opposite roller pump 78, causing anticoagulant to be injected into the tip of the arterial catheter and CaMg into the inflow of the lower dialyzer.
The downward movement of the lever plate is again sensed by the Hall sensor of the control circuit of
It can be seen that the apparatus of the present invention disclosed in
While the kidney dialysis design described above features both upper and lower RF sealed disposables as well as electromagnets arrayed both above and below, some advantage might be gained from eliminating the lower disposable and the lower electromagnets. Coil or other spring return would be substituted and as a result, not only would a considerable component-expense be eliminated, there would also be the opportunity to slim the profile of the system on the arm.
With only minor revisions to the disposable, flexible plastic, blood-contacting members illustrated in
Also unlike and in reverse from the kidney, the patient's arterial blood pressure containing ventricles 226, 226′ and associated electromagnets and permanent magnet occluders are located closer to the fulcrum 84 of the swinging lever 53 than are the dog's ventricles 208, 208′ and their passive check valves. This constitutes one of several strategies employed to assure that the dog's blood can never achieve a higher pressure than the patient's blood. One would wish to assure that there can never be contamination of the patient with dog's blood, even in case of a broken fiber. One would thereby avoid any likelihood of a patient vs. dog's blood allergic reaction. Other features employed in the artificial liver embodiment toward the same purpose of assuring that dog's blood is unlikely to ever contaminate patient's blood include: utilizing only veno venous cannulation of the dog's fistula graft without compression-arterialization. While the dog's blood ventricles 208, 208′ are now located further from the fulcrum 84, they are capable of pumping their circuits, the dog's ventricles filling pressure being supplied by attaching the artificial liver apparatus onto the dog's harness where the dog's venous pressure (and gravity) can distend those relaxed ventricles.
The dog has been provided a compressible, but in this case non-compressed, arterial venous fistula graft in a pedicle of skin around the back of the neck that is adapted to be accessed by needle cannulae (not shown) coupled to the tubing segment 202′ so that blood can be made to flow through a future antigen filter 204′ and the tubing segment B′ formed between the RF welded layers comprising the disposable 200′ The tubing segment B′ is shown as leading to a first passive check valve 206′, a dog's blood inflatable ventricle 208′ and a second passive check valve 210″ connected by tubing segment C′ to an inlet of an exchanger 212′ similar in construction to the dialyzer 38 of the kidney embodiment in that it contains a large plurality of tubules comprising semi-permeable membranes. Appropriate manifolds are provided on that the dog's blood entering the exchanger 212′ from the tubing segment C′ is made to flow through the plurality of lumens of the tubules before exiting the exchanger via tubing segment D″ that leads to a needle cannula (not shown) in the fistula graft preferably located in the dog's neck.
Plastic tubing 214′ connects to a needle-cannula (not shown) insertable into an arterial venous fistula graft in the patient's arm and connects to a tubing segment E′ formed in the disposable 200′. Connected in series with tubing segment E′ are one-way valves 216′, 218′ and 220′ which, together with compressible bladders 222′ and 224′, form an auxiliary pump for possibly moving patient's arterial blood through a tubing segment F′ to a patient's blood ventricle 226′, still another way to assure that the patient's blood will be at a higher pressure than the animal's. The inflatable, compressible ventricle 226′ is then connected via tubing segment G′ formed in the disposable 200′ leading to the patient's blood inlet 213′ of the membrane exchanger 212′. The patient's blood flows over the outer surface of the tubules through which the dog's blood is made to pass.
The patient's blood exits the exchanger 212′ by way of a tubing segment H′ that is traceable back to an external plastic tube 228′ leading to a needle cannula insertable into the fistula graft, downstream from the patient's fistula graft compressors, at a point exposed to venous pressure.
Formed between the layers comprising the laminated structure of the disposable 200′ is a reservoir 230′ that contains an anticoagulant, such as heparin, possibly preserved in a crushable ampule. The pumping action afforded by inflation and deflation of the ventricles 226, 226′ acting on the lever plate 53 and the roller pumps (
Recalling from the description of the artificial kidney embodiment how the non-disposable pump structure cooperates with the upper and lower disposable members through appropriate energization of the electromagnets. The human blood inflow occluder (not shown) related to patient's ventricle 226 on the upper liver disposable is made to open while the (identical) human blood inflow occluder on the lower disposable becomes closed. Simultaneously, the human blood outflow occluder (not shown) on the upper disposable becomes closed while the (identical) human blood outflow occluder on the lower disposable becomes open. The upper human blood ventricle 226, therefore, begins to fill and to displace the lever plate 53 downward to press against the corresponding human blood ventricle 226′, emptying both it and the lower dog's blood ventricle 208′ via passive in and out check valves 206′ and 210′. The dog's blood is emptied through the fibers of dialyzer 212′ via tubing segment D′.
As the lever plate 53 is driven downward, it presses on the patient's blood ventricle 226′ forcing the patient's blood through the tubing segment G′, and, after bathing the outside of the fibers in the dialyzer 212′, out through the tubing segment H′. Slightly less efficient cocurrent flow is accepted in this case (instead of counter current flow as in the kidney embodiment) as a necessary part of the transcendent strategy to, as much as possible, maintain a higher pressure on the patient's side compared with the dog's side. Toxins present in the patient's blood pass in through the membrane walls of the hollow fibers contained within the exchanger 212′ to the dog's blood and are ultimately removed therefrom by the dog's functioning liver.
Similar to the case of the kidney embodiment, movement of the pump's lever plate down drives the roller pump assembly 78 in a direction to move anticoagulant from the reservoir 230′ to the dog's cannula via tubing segment A′. Lever plate movement upward drives anticoagulant by means of roller pump assembly 80 from reservoir 230 of the upper disposable on through tubing segment A and into the patient's arterial cannula.
As has already been explained in connection with the artificial kidney embodiment, as the lever plate 53 is driven in one direction or the other by the filling of the human blood ventricles on the upper or lower disposables, a Hall sensor affixed to the frame senses the passage of a permanent magnet affixed to the lever plate and sends a signal to the electronic circuitry of
Often when medical or surgical efforts fail, patients die miserably of suffocation. A variety of ancillary pathologies might intervene, e.g., pneumonia. Therefore, cardiologists stealing from the nephrologists' playbook have begun intermittently “hemodiafiltering” or “hemofiltering” patients of watery solvent. This is preformed by means of either conventional hemodialysis machines or with what are, to most intents and purposes, dialysis machines retaining most of the capabilities but lacking the capacity to carry out solute exchange. The emphasis, rather, is on squeezing fluid out of blood through a semi-permeable membrane acting as a sieve. Cardiologists typically carry out such hemofiltrations at intervals suited to the individual, and they typically may remove several liters of fluid from the bloodstream and eventually from the tissues within a few hours time. This is a strenuous procedure for both patients and staff and predicatively yields limited and temporary benefits.
It would, therefore, be desirable for such hemofiltration to be carried out slowly and continuously and with much greater effect. Nearly identical apparatus as depicted in
As with the earlier described embodiments, under control of magnetically-actuated occluders, blood is made to fill and empty from an expandable ventricle 314′. Excess water in the blood passes through the walls of the semi-permeable membranes comprising the tubules within the cartridge 308′ and are allowed to flow through tubing segment C′ to a common collection bag 316.
As the reader will understand from the previously described embodiments, permanent magnet occluders attracted and repelled by electromagnets selectively occlude and unocclude the ducts leading to and from the two blood ventricles 314 and 314′ on the corresponding upper and lower disposables. Physically, the lower and upper disposables differ only in the location of the tubular segments identified as D′ and D where segment D′ is on the lower disposable and segment D is on the upper disposable.
When the lower and upper disposables are positioned as shown in the exploded view of
The cyclic filling and emptying of the ventricle 314′ on the lower disposable and the corresponding one on the upper disposable 314 causes the lever plate 53 to oscillate back and forth and thereby rotate the cage wheel assemblies to pump anti-coagulant in very small quantities during each stroke. The blood flowing through the filter 308′ and the corresponding one 308 on the upper disposable extracts excess water from the blood, emptying it into the collection vessel 316 where it can be periodically emptied by suction or otherwise.
A third alternative embodiment illustrates the manner in which the present invention can be adapted to administration of insulin to a patient suffering from insulin dependent diabetes. Insulin dependent diabetes is related to decreased production of insulin by the Islets of Langerhans cells of the pancreas. Diabetes, in both its Type I and Type II manifestations, has long been treated with insulin or insulin-like substances. Diabetes is notorious because of the dangers of unregulated blood sugar causing immediate death or harm to a wide variety of vital body systems—peripheral vascular, eyes, kidneys, etc.
To directly diagnose and treat blood, rather than subcutaneous tissue, temporary needles-catheters may have to be inserted into a vein, with ongoing threats of infection and thrombosis, especially in infection prone diabetics. Thrombosis might occur in the veins or it might clog the needles being utilized for sampling. Frequent or continuous sampling, as would be required for instant feedback control, would require return of blood samples to the circulation and the blood could not be permitted to clot in the external system. Total therapeutic level anticoagulation would be required in the extracorporeal circuit. At least prophylactic anticoagulation might also be desirable in the patient, which, as has been described herein, is routinely implemented by the apparatus of the present invention. A truly intravascular glucose sensor on the end of a needle cannula would thus seem desirable, but could pose its own problems interacting with the blood. Such miniaturization would produce its own difficulties. Furthermore, without a fistula or fistula graft of some kind, the limited number of prominent naturally available veins would be unlikely to weather a lifetime of needle perforations and continuously indwelling catheters.
The present invention offers a practical alternative. It utilizes a new blood access system to resolve the conundrum without enduring the special problems of a totally implantable meter/pump feedback system. It provides the same advantages by means of the In Situ Debranched Vein Fistula Graft VFG and slight modifications of the standard wrist and forearm worn device described herein. As already explained, the VFG permits ready access to the arterial venous pressure differential simply by alternately compressing it from without at two adjacent sites, resulting in arterial pressure upstream and venous pressure downstream from the point of transcutaneous compression. The device not only mediates the compressions, it also utilizes the arterial venous pressure differential obtained in order to modulate blood flow through the device and dispense anticoagulant into the entire extracorporeal circuit. Modulation of blood flow is to a low but adequate level for the task, e.g., 20-30 ml/min. in the case of the artificial kidney, and probably even less in the case of diabetes care where full therapeutic levels of anticoagulation can be achieved in the extracorporeal circuit without beginning to threaten the whole patient with more than prophylactic levels of anticoagulation.
As those skilled in the art can appreciate from a reading of the present specification, the VFG holds considerable advantage over alternative blood access arrangements. It does not require repeated cannulizations of centrally leading arteries and/or veins where even a single untoward event might impair an important segment of the vascular system and even threaten the life of the patient. Plastic AV fistula grafts are notorious for infection, calcification, distal anastomosis narrowing and thrombosis. Direct fistulae do not offer arterial venous pressure differential and, interestingly, when plagued with various and multiple downstream venous thromboses, are routinely converted to a single vessel “VFG” through multiple ligations of vein branches. The VFG has no downstream anastomosis. Remaining in situ, it retains its own vasavasorum and lymphatic and nerve connections, making it more resistant to infection and capable of rapid healing from day one, especially from penetrations by the small needles-cannulae required for these very low blood flows.
The blood is easily diverted from the arterialized segment of the VFG upstream from the compression location and anticoagulated to therapeutic levels from the very tip of the cannula through a second lumen extruded in the cannula or a hollow fiber laid within the blood lumen. The arterial blood then flows directly to the modulating ventricle which regulates the extracorporeal flow to the desired rate, utilizing reciprocating volumetric means. Thereafter, the blood is returned by the venous cannula to the downstream segment of the VFG. The reciprocations of the swinging lever plate also drive the miniature roller peristaltic pumps and the anticoagulant along with it. Arterial blood glucose can be continuously monitored upstream in the device and, through an electronic feedback control loop, appropriate rapid-acting (regular) insulin can be added downstream in the case of hyperglycemia, with perhaps a requirement for more than one reading and some “gradularity” built in to prevent over-reaction and swings of the glucose level up and down. Glucose might alternatively be administered, to rapidly, but not too rapidly, correct for hypoglycemia. The objective of this alternative embodiment of the invention is to conveniently place a lock on the blood glucose level for the balance of a patient's lifetime, in order to avoid the possibly immediate lethal effects of hypoglycemia as well as the chronically disastrous debilitating effects of hyperglycemia. It is expected to be especially applicable to the large proportion of diabetic patients already on dialysis, whose renal failure derives directly from their diabetes. Two therapies can easily be combined into one by including an external glucose meter, electronic feedback loop and external insulin pump directly onto the Wrist and Forearm Wearable Artificial Kidney previously described.
As in the earlier described embodiments, flow of blood into and from the expansible ventricle 408′ on the lower disposable 400′ and the corresponding expansible ventricle located on the upper disposable member (not shown but substantially identical to disposable member 400′) is by way of magnetically actuated occluders as more particularly described in connection with the artificial kidney embodiment of
This invention has been described herein in considerable detail in order to comply with the patent statutes and to provide those skilled in the art with the information needed to apply the novel principles and to construct and use such specialized components as are required. However, it is to be understood that the invention can be carried out by specifically different equipment and devices, and that various modifications, both as to the equipment and operating procedures, can be accomplished without departing from the scope of the invention itself. For example, the invention is readily adaptable to a wide variety of excorporeal blood treatments.
43. A medical device for delivering metered quantities of a medicament into a patient's vascular system comprising:
- (a) a reservoir containing a medicament, the reservoir being in fluid communication with at least one percutaneous cannula via a compressible tube segment; and
- (b) an extracorporeal peristaltic pump having a roller coacting with the compressible tube segment and adapted to be powered by the patient's arteriovenous pressure differential for moving the medicament through the at least one cannula.
44. The medical device of claim 43 wherein the reservoir is in fluid communication with the cannula via a compressible tube segment and the pump is a peristaltic pump having a roller coacting with the compressible tube segment.
45. The medical device of claim 44 wherein said peristaltic pump comprises:
- (a) a frame having a central opening;
- (b) a lever plate pivotally mounted to the frame and occupying the central opening;
- (c) first and second expandable and compressible ventricles each having an inlet port and an outlet port and adapted to be selectively filled and emptied of the patient's blood disposed on opposed sides of the lever plate and arranged such that expanding the first bladder pivots the lever plate in a direction to compress the second ventricle and expanding the second bladder pivots the lever plate in a direction to compress the first ventricle;
- (d) means for selectively opening and closing said inlet ports and outlet ports of the first and second bladders; and
- (e) means coupling the pivotally mounted lever plate to the roller for rotating the roller in one of a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction.
46. The medical device of claim 45 wherein the first and second ventricles each have an inlet port and an outlet port and are adapted to be selectively filled and emptied of the patient's blood in expanding and compressing the first and second ventricles, respectively.
47. The medical device of claim 43 wherein the medicament is an anti-coagulant.
48. The medical device of claim 46 and further including means for selectively opening and closing said inlet ports and outlet ports of the first and second bladders.
49. The medical device of claim 48 wherein said means for selectively opening and closing said inlet ports and said outlet ports comprises:
- (a) permanent magnets slidably mounted in the frame and individually in alignment with the inlet ports and outlet ports of the first and second ventricles; and
- (b) electromagnets disposed relative to the permanent magnets to selectively attract and repel the permanent magnets.
50. The medical device of claim 45 and further including:
- (a) a dialyzer having a plurality of semi-permeable membranous wall surfaces contained within a liquid impervious housing, said housing having a pair of inlet ports and a pair of outlet ports;
- (b) means for connecting a first of the pair of inlet ports and a first of the pair of outlet ports into the vascular system of a lower animal;
- (c) means for connecting a second of the pair of inlet ports and a second of the pair of outlet ports in the vascular system of a human patient; and
- (d) the first and second inlet ports and the first and second outlet ports in the housing arranged such that blood of the lower animal flows on one side of the wall surfaces and blood of the human patient flows over a second side of the wall surfaces.
51. The medical device of claim 46 wherein the means for connecting the first and second inlet ports includes at least one cannula.
52. A method for obtaining access to a patient's arteriovenous pressure differential comprising the steps of
- (a) selecting a venous segment in the patient's forearm and surgically debranching the selected venous segment and tying off the distal end thereof;
- (b) surgically anastomosing the distal end portion of the debranched vein to a selected artery in the patient's forearm;
- (c) inserting a needle cannula percutaneously into the debranched vein segment; and
- (d) sequentially applying pressure to the forearm sufficient to substantially occlude blood flow through the debranched vein segment and releasing the pressure whereby when the pressure is being applied, the needle cannula is exposed to arterial pressure and when released, the cannula is exposed to venous pressure.
53. A method for obtaining therapeutic anticoagulation of an extracorporeal circuit comprising the steps of: providing the medical device of claim 43, where the medicament is an anti-coagulant;
- (a) percutaneously inserting the cannula into a debranched vein segment or a VFG;
- (b) periodically compressing and releasing the debranched vein segment or the VFG to expose the blood exiting and entering said cannula to arterial pressure and venous pressure; and
- (c) actuating the pump being activated based on the difference between the arterial pressure and the venous pressure of the blood entering and exiting the cannula.
54. The method of claim 53 and further including the steps of:
- (a) providing a dialyzer having a plurality of semi-permeable membranes within an outer housing;
- (b) connecting the dialyzer to the cannula such that blood flows through a ventricle to power the pump and thence over a first surface of the plurality of membranes;
- (c) the pump circulating dialysate through the housing and over a second surface of the membranes in proportion to the flow rate of the blood through the dialyzer; and
- (d) providing a dialysate rejuvenating cartridge using the pump to move dialysate through said cartridge.
55. The method of claim 54 and further including the step of:
- (a) providing a dialysate rejuvenating cartridge using the pump to move dialysate through said cartridge.
56. The method of claim 55 and further including the step of:
- (a) providing an amberoid for blocking dialysate flow through the cartridge after a predetermined period of use of the dialysate.
Filed: Dec 14, 2011
Publication Date: Apr 19, 2012
Inventor: Arnold J. Lande (St. Paul, MN)
Application Number: 13/325,445
International Classification: A61M 5/142 (20060101);