ELEVATED HIGHWAY FOR MOVEMENT AND PLACEMENT OF VEHICLES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS

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The invention pertains to the field of the construction and installation of an elevated highway for moving transport means on different levels. The elevated highway for transferring and arranging transport means on different levels comprises pillars, at least three one-way traffic lanes, and entrance and exit sections. The elevated highway includes external and internal crossings for the transport means. The external crossings are adapted so that arc-shaped inclined traffic lanes are provided against the end traffic lanes on one or another floor of the multi-floor elevated highway on the external side from the ground road traffic lanes as well as from one floor to the other, for the entrance or exit of transport means into or out of the elevated highway and for their transfer from one floor to any other floor. The internal crossings for transferring the transport means sequentially from one floor to the other are realized by providing, together with at least two singlelevel traffic lanes arranged above each other and parallel to each other, an adjacent wave-shaped traffic lane with a platform. The technical result is an increase in the throughput rate of the elevated highway.

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Description

The invention relates to designing and construction of elevated highways for vehicular traffic on different levels or stories, in particular, automobile elevated highways, as well as truck or bicycle elevated highways. In addition, part of the elevated highway levels can be used for parking vehicles.

Most closely related to the present invention is an automobile elevated highway (see RU 2198976). The elevated highway comprises spans, supports and approach areas. The elevated highway has at least eleven spans along the length, two branches twinned in parallel in the cross section, each branch having at least four lanes for oppositely directed traffic relative to the other branch of the elevated highway on the carriageway and arranged along the longitudinal axis of the motor road.

However, the prior art cannot provide a sufficiently high traffic throughput to prevent jams and congestion in the peak period; traffic flows cannot be parted to one or any other sides to one-way elevated highways when required; and it is impossible to provide forward movement of vehicles on different interconnected traffic levels, i.e. the most densely packed traffic flow. In addition, the traffic flow on the elevated highway produces exhaust fumes and noise; the roadbed is quite quickly destroyed under the effect of snow, rain, temperature changes and requires costly repair that impedes movement of traffic flows.

The object of the invention is to provide conditions for avoiding jams on highways by most inexpensive and effective means, to increase traffic throughput of the elevated highway to the highest possible level, to increase several times the service life of the structure without major repairs, and to reduce the environment pollution to the lowest possible level.

The invention makes it possible to attain the following technical effects: high traffic throughput of the elevated highway, especially of its multistory embodiments (7-9 thousand vehicles per hour on two stories with three lanes on a one-way elevated highway and 20-25 thousand vehicles per hour on five stories with nine lanes on a one-way elevated highway); the ability to keep movement by avoiding the places of repair or accidents in various parts of the elevated highway; the ability to directly ascend, e.g. from a street, for parking on the upper story of the elevated highway and descend to or from any story, respectively; the ability of uninterrupted movement of vehicles at a speed of 40-90 km per hour; the uniformity of multistory elevated highway structures to provide quick assembly and installation thereof; the ability of installation and parting of multilevel elevated highways substantially above any area, particularly above road and railway routes; the ability of installation of elevated highways for both two-way and one-way traffic; the ability of installation of two-way and one-way elevated highways over congested intercity routes of any type or close to them; substantial improvement of the road safety; reduced noise and air pollution; multiple increase in the elevated highway life, as well as substantial reduction in the cost of the elevated highway itself and its maintenance.

The technical effects are achieved in an elevated highway for movement and placement of vehicles on different levels, comprising supports, at least three one-way traffic lanes, and on- and off-ramps, wherein the elevated highway further comprises external and internal crossings for vehicles, the external crossings being configured so that arc-shaped inclined traffic lanes are provided against the outermost traffic lanes on a particular story of the multistory elevated highway on the external side from the ground road traffic lanes, as well as from one story to the other, for entrance and exit of vehicles into and out of the elevated highway and for transfer from one story to another, and the internal crossings for transferring the vehicles sequentially from one story to another are formed by providing, along with at least two single-level traffic lanes arranged above each other and parallel to each other, an adjacent wave-shaped traffic lane with a platform. Furthermore, each wave-shaped lane comprises two levels in each period, said levels corresponding to the levels of adjacent single-level lanes. Furthermore, each wave-shaped lane has sloping transitions between neighboring longitudinal and horizontal areas, the vertical distance between both, upper and lower, longitudinal and horizontal areas of each wave-shaped traffic lane of the elevated highway is equal to the inter-story size, each of the lanes in the neighboring vertical row is a single-level lane sequentially joined, on its story, with the upper and lower longitudinal and horizontal area, respectively, of the wave-shaped traffic lanes of the neighboring row.

Furthermore, the arc-shaped inclined lanes are closed on the top and the sides to form curved voluminous pipe-shaped transitions from one traffic level to another.

Furthermore, the longitudinal lanes of the upper story of the elevated highway are closed on the top.

Furthermore, the elevated highway is isolated from the environment by walls on the sides.

Furthermore, the slope angle of each internal sloping transition with respect to the corresponding longitudinal and horizontal area of the traffic lane is no more than 2°.

Furthermore, the total length of each longitudinal and horizontal area of the wave-shaped traffic lane is at least forty values of the average longitudinal size of a vehicle moving on the elevated highway.

Furthermore, a standard section of the elevated highway includes at least two vertical rows of stories with a wave-shaped and single-level traffic lanes, each wave-shaped traffic lane comprises an upper and lower longitudinal and horizontal areas and two sloping transitions—a concave-convex elevation and a convex-concave descent, and each segment of the single-level lane is smooth.

Furthermore, at least one redundant lane is provided on each story of the elevated highway.

Furthermore, at least two redundant lanes are provided on each story of the elevated highway to park vehicles.

Thus, the traffic throughput of the elevated highway can vary greatly due to the possibility of transferring vehicles from one lane to another and from one story to another, and also due to the possibility of adding stories to the elevated highway vertically.

In spite of possible interference with the traffic on a lane due to accidents, repairs, etc., uninterrupted movement, is provided by moving the vehicles to less congested lanes on another story.

The ability of mounting entry and exit pipes at the external sides of the elevated highway not only from the ground road to the first story, but also e.g. from the ground road to one of the middle stories or the upper story, provides quick entry and exit of vehicles, as well as quick transition of the latter to less congested traffic lanes.

The uniformity of elevated highway sections and the ability of industrial production of all its elements, mainly from inexpensive rolled metal, provide fast assembly and installation of the elevated highway.

Placing all elevated highway lanes in a closed space reduces noise and air pollution outside of the elevated highway and also protects the traffic lanes from the environment, thereby extending the elevated highway life without major repair several times as compared to conventional open highways.

Such multistory elevated highways for newly laid roads make unnecessary the construction of ordinary roads with expensive multilayer pavement and subsequent costly repairs thereof; the elevated highways can be erected at a low height above the ground with their level raised just at intersections with other highways and structures. In addition, a low-rise elevated highway is at least two times cheaper than a highway having similar number of traffic lanes, has a high traffic throughput at peak loads and can be installed at a relatively low cost in areas where construction of roads is very difficult and extremely expensive, for example, in permafrost regions, wetlands, areas with a specific complex terrain, etc.

The elevated highway does not require additional land acquisition and can be constructed almost anywhere, without interference to the environment or urban exterior.

The design of the present elevated highway also allows mounting entry pipes, exit pipes and transition pipes between stories as dictated by the situation and at any distance from each other, for example, narrow-between at urban highways and far-between at intercity routes.

FIG. 1 shows an arrangement of traffic lanes in a three-story one-way elevated highway having two lanes on each story, side view.

FIG. 2 shows a cross sectional view of a first-type subsection of a standard one-way elevated highway.

FIG. 3 shows a fragment of the ground story of a standard section of an elevated highway comprising two one-way lanes, on- and off-ramp, and two redundant lanes.

FIG. 4 shows a fragment of the middle story of a standard section of an elevated highway with two one-way lanes and three redundant lanes.

FIG. 5 shows the arrangement of entrance, transition and exit arc-shaped inclined traffic lanes for ascending and descending a vehicle, bypassing one or more stories of the fragment of the three-story elevated highway, side view.

FIG. 6 shows an isometric view of a two-story elevated highway with entrance, transition and exit pipes.

An elevated highway 1 having two one-way lanes on each story comprises supports 2, 3, a roadway with a right wave-shaped lane 4 and a left single-level lane 5 (FIGS. 1, 2), an on-ramp 6 and an off-ramp 7 on the ground story (FIGS. 2 and 3). This structure provides the possibility of internal transitions of vehicles sequentially from one story to another. The elevated highway 1 is designed as a voluminous closed highway having from two to ten stories. One lane 4 of the elevated highway 1 is a two-level lane, the levels being spaced apart at one story height. Longitudinal and horizontal areas 9, 10 of the lane at these levels are the main areas for moving a vehicle and transferring it to the adjacent lane of the single-level lane 5. Traffic lanes in each vertical row of lanes are parallel to each other (FIG. 1). The lanes are mounted on supports 2, 3, and separated from the outer space by a side wall 8 (FIG. 2). The number of stories (from two to ten) can be chosen during the construction of elevated highways depending on the conditions of traffic flows, and the elevated highway height and the number of stories, respectively, can be changed responsive to changes in traffic conditions. The design of elevated highway lanes providing the opportunities for internal transitions of vehicles sequentially from one story to another ensures its basic feature—uninterrupted movement when obstacles occur in some sections of the elevated highway 1. Lanes 4 have the same, periodically repetitive configuration, wave-shaped with a platform. Neighboring lanes 4, 5 in each vertical row are joined on each story on areas 9, 10 of the wave-shaped lane 4 (FIGS. 1, 2); a story of a standard section includes a section of the traffic lane with two longitudinal and horizontal areas 9, 10 and two sloping transitions to them—a concave-convex elevation 11 and a convex-concave descent 12 (FIG. 4) of the wave-shaped lanes 4 and a segment of a single-level lane 5. The on-ramp 6 and off-ramp 7 are provided from end edges of the lower longitudinal and horizontal area 13 of the ground story of the elevated highway 1 to the roadway at the ground level (FIG. 3). The same Figure shows redundant lanes 14 intended for maneuvers in various traffic situations. FIG. 4 shows one of the middle stories of the elevated highway 1 with three redundant lanes 14 for maneuvering and parking of vehicles. Thus, the widening of elevated highway stories to create additional space at the edges on one, several or all stories allows using them not only for vehicular traffic, but also for parking.

For example, to avoid an appreciable congestion, that is more than 12%, the radius of curvature of both convex and concave areas should be not less than 500 meters.

The elevated highway 1 can be located along the axis of a road or railway, or on the side of a road, and it can also be an independent route. The total number of traffic lanes is defined by the number of stories in the elevated highway and the story width.

In the longitudinal direction the elevated highway is composed of identical sections. Each section contains four subsections in the longitudinal direction.

An odd-numbered first-type subsection is a multistory structure of parallel stories above the roadway. Each story comprises two joined longitudinal and horizontal areas—one area 10 relates to the wave-shaped traffic lane 4, and the other area, having the length corresponding to that of the area 10, relates to the single-level lane 5 (FIGS. 1,4). Inter-story distance is sufficient for free passage of vehicles, particularly in an automobile elevated highway the inter-story distance is about 2.5 meters. The length of the first-type subsection is about 400 meters.

The next second-type joining subsection is also a structure of parallel stories in each vertical row. Each story, beginning from the second one, includes a sloping transition of the right lane 4, an elevation 11, with a separator (not shown) between the wave-shaped lane 4 and the one-level lane 5. Inter-story distance is the same as in the first-type subsection. The slope angle of the area 11 is 2°. Edge of the sloping transition 11 is brought to the next story level (FIGS. 1, 4). In particular, in an automobile elevated highway the length of the second-type subsection, or the length of each sloping transition of the lane, is about 100 meters. The ground story of the second-type subsection differs from its subsequent stories only in that the one-way transition of a standard section is lowered on the roadway and is the on-ramp 6 (FIG. 1, 3). Off-ramp 7 is brought to the roadway on the opposite side (FIG. 3). The remaining parts of the second-type subsection are segments of the left one-level lanes 5.

The next odd-numbered third-type joining subsection is similar to the first-type subsection, but with the difference that at each story the level of the horizontal and longitudinal area of the lane 4 is shifted upwards at a one story distance and the end of the area 9 is joined to the corresponding sloping area 11 of the second-type subsection lane (FIGS. 1, 4).

The next fourth-type joining subsection is similar to the second-type subsection, but with the difference that at each story the slope angle of the transition 12 of the lane 4 changes to the opposite, and the sloping transition 12 is led to the level of traffic lanes 4 of the first-type subsection of the next standard section (FIG. 1).

Further, the elevated highway 1 is made up of similar sections.

As an example, consider an elevated highway 1 in the cross section (FIG. 2). In the first-type subsection, the elevated highway 1 comprises a framework including, in the cross-section, two vertical supports 2 and transverse supports 3 secured on the vertical supports 2. The distance between the vertical supports 2, which may be in the form of pillars or girders, matches the width of a two-lane roadway, i.e. about 6 meters for an automobile elevated highway. Height of the vertical supports 2 is defined by the number of stories in the elevated highway and the position over the roadway. If the first story of the elevated highway is positioned above the roadway at a height of 4-5 meters, the height of a three-story elevated highway is about 12 meters. The distance between vertical supports 2 along the first-type subsection of the same elevated highway is about meters. Each story of the elevated highway 1 rests on transverse supports 3 that are secured on vertical supports 2; the number of transverse supports 3 corresponds to the number of stories. A roadbed is laid on channel bars between the transverse supports 3 and comprises metal (corrugated or latticed) spans six meters long and about one meter wide.

The second-type subsection structure generally comprises a framework including, in the cross-section, two vertical supports 2 and transverse supports 3 secured on the vertical supports 2. The distance between the vertical supports 2 of the same elevated highway is about 6 meters. Each story of the elevated highway rests on transverse supports 3 about 6 meters long that are secured on vertical supports 2; the number of transverse supports 3 corresponds to the number of stories. Transition area, or an inclined traffic lane, on each story rests on a transverse bridge support 3. A roadway for traffic lanes, which comprises for the same elevated highway metal spans six meters long and about one meter wide, is laid on the transverse supports 3. The transverse supports 3 between adjacent vertical supports 2 are mounted on different levels.

The third-type subsection structure is similar to that of the first-type subsection, but with the difference that the transverse supports 3 are at the level corresponding to the one story distance above the first-type subsection.

The fourth-type subsection structure is similar to that of the second-type subsection, but with the difference that the slope of the transition 12 of the traffic lane 4 is respectively changed to the opposite.

If each story of the elevated highway is widened to create parking spaces on each side of the elevated highway, an additional row of vertical and horizontal supports can be installed (not shown).

Depending on usage and location the elevated highway 1 has different designs of on-ramps 6 and off-ramps 7 to and from the roadbed, for example, entry directly from a street road, exit to transverse direction, etc. Thus, a vehicle that is moving on a wave-shaped traffic lane, except the traffic lane on the ground story, which is connected with the roadway, periodically elevates to the level corresponding to the distance between stories, and then descends to the previous level, and can thereby reposition to single-level lanes located on each story. If a vehicle is moving on a single-level 5, it can transfer to one of the levels of the wave-shaped lane 4 and then again move up or down to the next story and so on. That is, by such repositioning the vehicle can move sequentially from story to story. For example, if a car, having entered through a sloping on-ramp 6 on a longitudinal flat area of the ground story of the right lane, continues moving on it, it will descend through the off-ramp 7 on the roadway, that is, leave the elevated highway. If a car, while moving on the longitudinal and horizontal area of the lower story of the right lane 4, repositions to the neighboring area of the left single-level lane 5 and continues moving on it, then, having reached the segment joined to the lower longitudinal and horizontal area 10 of the right wave-shaped lane 4 of the first-type subsection, it can transfer to it, and continuing movement through it, ascend through the sloping elevation 11 of the second-type subsection to the next, upper longitudinal and horizontal area 9 of the traffic lane 4 of the third-type subsection, and continue movement on this wave-shaped lane, or it can transfer to the left single-level lane 5 on the second story and continue movement on it. The car can go from this single-level lane of the second story to any joined lower longitudinal and horizontal area 10 of the right wave-shaped lane 4 of the next level and continue movement on it, or transfer again on any upper section of the wave-shaped lane to the left one-level lane 5 of the third story, and so on. In a similar way, the car can go down and leave the elevated highway.

It also means that when driving at a speed of 40-90 km/h on a traffic lane of the elevated highway, in case of a jam (repair, accident, etc.) in this lane the car can avoid the accident site by repositioning in advance to another, free lane on this or another story. This ensures uninterrupted traffic on the elevated highway without formation of congestion and jams.

Along with internal crossings, the elevated highway uses external crossings for vehicles, which results in, for example, the ability of quick entrance of cars from the street just to the upper story of the elevated highway for further travel or for parking on this story. Similarly, cars can quickly move down from a particular story, and move from story to story. The latter implies a relatively short process of filling the entire space of the elevated highway with cars in peak loads on the highways.

For this case, an elevated highway 1 with a one-way traffic lanes (FIGS. 5, 6), contains on-ramps 6 and off-ramps 7, which may be in the form of inclined arc-shaped traffic lanes (FIGS. 5, 6); in a preferred embodiment these lanes are closed on the sides and the top and resemble curved voluminous pipes (FIG. 6). Stories of the elevated highway 1 can be connected with each other on the outside by transitions 15 with arc-shaped inclined traffic lanes (FIGS. 5, 6), and in a preferred embodiment these lanes are closed at the sides and the top and resemble curved pipes (FIG. 6).

Even when obstacles are encountered in some sections of the elevated highway, uninterrupted movement is provided by the ability of moving the vehicle to the adjacent lane or to the other stories of the elevated highway 1 both through internal crossings owing to the described configuration and the arrangement of lanes, and through the external crossings in the shape of transition pipes 15 that are regularly positioned on the outer sides of the elevated highway 1 (FIGS. 5, 6).

On-ramps 6 and off-ramps 7 are regularly placed on the sides of the elevated highway as well (FIGS. 1, 5).

Depending on usage and location the elevated highway 1 has different designs of on-ramps 6 and off-ramps 7 to and from the roadbed, for example, entry directly from a street road, exit to transverse direction, etc.

To ensure the safe movement, side surfaces 8 of the elevated highway 1 may be protected by rigid shock resistant structures.

At a distance of about 2.5 meters above the lanes the top story is covered with a rigid flat structure, on which cars can park.

Thus, a vehicle may enter, in accordance with transmitted information about traffic density on the elevated highway stories, the story with the lowest density and move, e.g. on a smooth one-level traffic lane, at a speed of 40-90 km/h until the exit from the elevated highway. In case of an accident on one of the lanes or on both lanes at some story, the vehicle can avoid the accident site by transferring in advance through one of transitions to another story with normal traffic conditions.

Design features of the elevated highway provide for industrial production of all its elements. Therefore, all construction and mounting works, mostly assembly and welding, except for preparation of ground for vertical supports, are accomplished on elevated highway installation sites. The elevated highway is mounted over existing highways or over any ground sites. A standard elevated highway section (for example 1.0 km long), consisting of four different subsections, can be assembled within 3 months with the necessary equipment and personal. Accordingly, with ten-fold equipment and personal, a ten-kilometer fragment of the elevated highway can be also constructed in three months.

The elevated highway design provides for its operation in various climatic conditions. Lanes closed on all sides from the effects of different environmental factors are not virtually destroyed, and feasible filtering of the exhaust gas can make the closed elevated highways environmentally safe. Noise does not almost go beyond the elevated highway, which is important for urban highways.

Similar, even more light-weight elevated highways can be used for bicycles and other muscle-driven vehicles, while heavy elevated highways can be used for trucks.

Claims

1. An elevated highway for movement and placement of vehicles on different levels, comprising supports, at least three one-way traffic lanes, and on- and off-ramps, characterized in that the elevated highway further comprises external and internal crossings for vehicles, the external crossings being configured so that arc-shaped inclined traffic lanes are provided against the outermost traffic lanes on a particular story of the multistory elevated highway on the external side from the ground road traffic lanes, as well as from one story to the other, for entrance and exit of vehicles into and out of the elevated highway and for transfer from one story to another, and the internal crossings for transferring the vehicles sequentially from one story to another are formed by providing, along with at least two single-level traffic lanes arranged above each other and parallel to each other, an adjacent wave-shaped traffic lane with a platform.

2. The elevated highway according to claim 1, wherein each wave-shaped lane comprises two levels in each period, said levels corresponding to the levels of adjacent single-level lanes.

3. The elevated highway according to claim 2, wherein each wave-shaped lane has sloping transitions between neighboring longitudinal and horizontal areas, the vertical distance between both, upper and lower, longitudinal and horizontal areas of each wave-shaped traffic lane of the elevated highway is equal to the inter-story size, each of the lanes in the neighboring vertical row is a single-level lane sequentially joined, on its story, with the upper and lower longitudinal and horizontal area, respectively, of the wave-shaped traffic lanes of the neighboring row.

4. The elevated highway according to claim 1, wherein the arc-shaped inclined traffic lanes are closed on the top and the sides to form external curved voluminous pipe-shaped transitions from one traffic level to the other.

5. The elevated highway according to claim 1, wherein the longitudinal traffic lanes of the upper story of the elevated highway are closed on the top.

6. The elevated highway according to claim 1, wherein the elevated highway is isolated from the environment by walls on the sides.

7. The elevated highway according to claim 1, wherein the slope angle of each internal sloping transition with respect to the corresponding longitudinal and horizontal area of the traffic lane is no more than 2°.

8. The elevated highway according to claim 1, wherein the total length of each longitudinal and horizontal area of the wave-shaped traffic lane is at least forty values of the average longitudinal size of a vehicle moving on the elevated highway.

9. The elevated highway according to claim 1, wherein a standard section of the elevated highway includes at least two vertical rows of stories with a wave-shaped and single-level traffic lanes, each wave-shaped traffic lane comprises an upper and lower longitudinal and horizontal areas and two sloping transitions—a concave-convex elevation and a convex-concave descent, and each segment of the single-level lane is smooth.

10. The elevated highway according to claim 1, wherein at least one redundant lane is provided on each story of the elevated highway.

11. The elevated highway according to claim 1, wherein at least two redundant lanes are provided on each story of the elevated highway to park vehicles.

Patent History

Publication number: 20120315084
Type: Application
Filed: Dec 2, 2009
Publication Date: Dec 13, 2012
Applicants: (Moscow), (Moscow), (Moscow)
Inventor: Yury Fedorovich Makarov (Moscow)
Application Number: 13/512,787

Classifications

Current U.S. Class: Road System (e.g., Elevated, Interchange) (404/1)
International Classification: E01C 1/04 (20060101);