INSTRUCTIONS AND LOGIC TO PROVIDE GENERAL PURPOSE GF(256) SIMD CRYPTOGRAPHIC ARITHMETIC FUNCTIONALITY
Instructions and logic provide general purpose GF(28) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality. Embodiments include a processor to decode an instruction for a SIMD binary finite field multiplicative inverse, the instruction specifying a source data operand, and an irreducible polynomial, to compute an inverse modulo the irreducible polynomial for each element of the source data operand. A result of the instruction is stored in a SIMD destination register. Some embodiments also decode an instruction for a SIMD affine transformation specifying a source data operand, a transformation matrix operand, and a translation vector. The transformation matrix and the translation vector are applied to each element of the source data operand. Some embodiments also decode an instruction for a SIMD binary finite field multiplication specifying first and second source data operands to multiply each corresponding pair of elements of the first and second source data operand modulo an irreducible polynomial.
This is a continuationinpart of application Ser. No. 11/966,658 filed Dec. 28, 2007, currently pending.
FIELD OF THE DISCLOSUREThe present disclosure pertains to the field of processing logic, microprocessors, and associated instruction set architecture that, when executed by the processor or other processing logic, perform logical, mathematical, or other functional operations. In particular, the disclosure relates to instructions and logic to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality.
BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURECryptology is a tool that relies on an algorithm and a key to protect information. The algorithm is a complex mathematical algorithm and the key is a string of bits. There are two basic types of cryptology systems: secret key systems and public key systems. A secret key system also referred to as a symmetric system has a single key (“secret key”) that is shared by two or more parties. The single key is used to both encrypt and decrypt information.
For example, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher developed by two Belgian cryptographers, Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen and adopted as an encryption standard by the United States government. AES was announced in Nov. 26, 2001 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as U.S. FIPS PUB 197 (FIPS 197).
AES has a fixed block size of 128 bits and a key size of 128, 192 or 256 bits. Key expansion using Rijndael's key schedule transforms the keys of size 128, 192 or 256 bits into 10, 12 or 14 round keys of 128 bits. The round keys are used to process the plaintext data in rounds as 128bit blocks (viewed as 4by4 arrays of bytes) and convert them to ciphertext blocks. Typically, for a 128bit input to the round (16 bytes) each byte is replaced by another byte according to a lookup table called the Sbox. This portion of the block cipher is called SubBytes. Next the rows of bytes (viewed as a 4by4 array) are cyclically shifted or rotated left by a particular offset (i.e. row zero by 0 bytes, row one by 1 byte, row two by 2 bytes and row three by 3 bytes). This portion of the block cipher is called ShiftRows. Then each of the columns of bytes are viewed as four coefficients of a polynomial in a finite field, GF(256) (also called Galois field 2^{8}), and multiplied by an invertible linear transformation. This portion of the block cipher is called MixColumns. Finally, the 128bit block is XORed with a round key to produce a ciphertext block of 16 bytes, which is called AddRoundKey.
On systems with 32bit or larger words, it is possible to implement the AES cipher by converting the SubBytes, ShiftRows and MixColumns transformations into four 256entry 32bit tables, which utilize 4096 bytes of memory. One drawback to a software implementation is performance. Software runs orders of magnitude slower than devoted hardware so it is desirable to have the added performance of a hardware/firmware implementation.
Typical straightforward hardware implementations using lookup memories, truth tables, binary decision diagrams or 256 input multiplexers are costly in terms of circuit area. Alternative approaches using finite fields isomorphic to GF(256) may be efficient in area but may also be slower than the straightforward hardware implementations.
Modern processors often include instructions to provide operations that are computationally intensive, but offer a high level of data parallelism that can be exploited through an efficient implementation using various data storage devices, such as for example, single instruction multiple data (SIMD) vector registers. The central processing unit (CPU) may then provide parallel hardware to support processing vectors. A vector is a data structure that holds a number of consecutive data elements. A vector register of size M (where M is 2^{k}, e.g. 256, 128, 64, 32, . . . 4 or 2) may contain N vector elements of size O, where N=M/O. For instance, a 64byte vector register may be partitioned into (a) 64 vector elements, with each element holding a data item that occupies 1 byte, (b) 32 vector elements to hold data items that occupy 2 bytes (or one “word”) each, (c) 16 vector elements to hold data items that occupy 4 bytes (or one “doubleword”) each, or (d) 8 vector elements to hold data items that occupy 8 bytes (or one “quadword”) each. The nature of the parallelism in SIMD vector registers could be well suited for the handling of secure hashing algorithms.
Other similar encryption algorithms may also be of interest. For example, the Rijndael specification per se is specified with various block and key sizes that may be any multiple of 32 bits, both with a minimum of 128 and a maximum of 256 bits. Another example is SMS4, a block cipher used in the Chinese National Standard for Wireless LAN WAPI (Wired Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure). It also processes the plaintext data in rounds (i.e. 32) as 128bit blocks in GF(256) but performs reductions modulo a different polynomial.
To date, options that provide efficient spacetime design tradeoffs and potential solutions to such complexities, performance limiting issues, and other bottlenecks have not been fully explored.
The present invention is illustrated by way of example and not limitation in the figures of the accompanying drawings.
The following description discloses instructions and processing logic to provide general purpose GF(2^{n}) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality, in particular where n may be equal to 2^{m }(e.g. GF(2^{8}), GF(2^{16}), GF(2^{32}), . . . GF(2^{128}), etc.). Embodiments include a processor to decode an instruction for a SIMD affine transformation specifying a source data operand, a transformation matrix operand, and a translation vector. The transformation matrix is applied to each element of the source data operand, and the translation vector is applied to each of the transformed elements. A result of the instruction is stored in a SIMD destination register. Some embodiments also decode an instruction for a SIMD binary finite field multiplicative inverse to compute an inverse in a binary finite field modulo an irreducible polynomial for each element of the source data operand. Some embodiments also decode an instruction for a SIMD affine transformation and multiplicative inverse (or multiplicative inverse and affine transformation) wherein either before or after the multiplicative inverse operation, the transformation matrix is applied to each element of the source data operand, and the translation vector is applied to each of the transformed elements. Some embodiments also decode an instruction for a SIMD a modulus reduction to compute reduction modulo a particular modulus polynomial p_{s }selected from polynomials in a binary finite field for which modulus reduction is provided by the instruction (or microinstruction). Some embodiments also decode an instruction for a SIMD binary finite field multiplication specifying first and second source data operands to multiply each corresponding pair of elements of the first and second source data operand modulo an irreducible polynomial.
It will be appreciated that general purpose GF(2^{n}) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic instructions, as in the embodiments described herein, may be used to provide cryptographic arithmetic functionality in applications such as in cryptographic protocols and Internet communication to assure privacy, data integrity, identity verification, message content authentication and message origin authentication for financial transactions, electronic commerce, electronic mail, software distribution, data storage, etc.
It will also be appreciated that providing execution of instructions at least for: (1) a SIMD affine transformation specifying a source data operand, a transformation matrix operand, and a translation vector, wherein the transformation matrix is applied to each element of the source data operand, and the translation vector is applied to each of the transformed elements; (2) a SIMD binary finite field multiplicative inverse to compute an inverse in a binary finite field modulo an irreducible polynomial for each element of the source data operand; (3) a SIMD affine transformation and multiplicative inverse (or multiplicative inverse and affine transformation) specifying a source data operand, a transformation matrix operand, and a translation vector, wherein either before or after the multiplicative inverse operation, the transformation matrix is applied to each element of the source data operand, and the translation vector is applied to each of the transformed elements; (4) a modulus reduction to compute reduction modulo a particular modulus polynomial p_{s }selected from polynomials in a binary finite field for which modulus reduction is provided by the instruction (or microinstruction); (5) a SIMD binary finite field multiplication specifying first and second source data operands to multiply each corresponding pair of elements of the first and second source data operand modulo an irreducible polynomial; wherein results of the instructions are stored in SIMD destination registers; may provide general purpose GF(256) and/or other alternative binary finite field SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality in hardware and/or microcode sequences in order to support significant performance improvements for several important performance critical applications, without excessive or undue functional units requiring additional circuitry, area or power.
In the following description, numerous specific details such as processing logic, processor types, microarchitectural conditions, events, enablement mechanisms, and the like are set forth in order to provide a more thorough understanding of embodiments of the present invention. It will be appreciated, however, by one skilled in the art that the invention may be practiced without such specific details. Additionally, some well known structures, circuits, and the like have not been shown in detail to avoid unnecessarily obscuring embodiments of the present invention.
Although the following embodiments are described with reference to a processor, other embodiments are applicable to other types of integrated circuits and logic devices. Similar techniques and teachings of embodiments of the present invention can be applied to other types of circuits or semiconductor devices that can benefit from higher pipeline throughput and improved performance. The teachings of embodiments of the present invention are applicable to any processor or machine that performs data manipulations. However, the present invention is not limited to processors or machines that perform 512 bit, 256 bit, 128 bit, 64 bit, 32 bit, 16 bit or 8 bit data operations and can be applied to any processor and machine in which manipulation or management of data is performed. In addition, the following description provides examples, and the accompanying drawings show various examples for the purposes of illustration. However, these examples should not be construed in a limiting sense as they are merely intended to provide examples of embodiments of the present invention rather than to provide an exhaustive list of all possible implementations of embodiments of the present invention.
Although the below examples describe instruction handling and distribution in the context of execution units and logic circuits, other embodiments of the present invention can be accomplished by way of data and/or instructions stored on a machinereadable, tangible medium, which when performed by a machine cause the machine to perform functions consistent with at least one embodiment of the invention. In one embodiment, functions associated with embodiments of the present invention are embodied in machineexecutable instructions. The instructions can be used to cause a generalpurpose or specialpurpose processor that is programmed with the instructions to perform the steps of the present invention. Embodiments of the present invention may be provided as a computer program product or software which may include a machine or computerreadable medium having stored thereon instructions which may be used to program a computer (or other electronic devices) to perform one or more operations according to embodiments of the present invention. Alternatively, steps of embodiments of the present invention might be performed by specific hardware components that contain fixedfunction logic for performing the steps, or by any combination of programmed computer components and fixedfunction hardware components.
Instructions used to program logic to perform embodiments of the invention can be stored within a memory in the system, such as DRAM, cache, flash memory, or other storage. Furthermore, the instructions can be distributed via a network or by way of other computer readable media. Thus a machinereadable medium may include any mechanism for storing or transmitting information in a form readable by a machine (e.g., a computer), but is not limited to, floppy diskettes, optical disks, Compact Disc, ReadOnly Memory (CDROMs), and magnetooptical disks, ReadOnly Memory (ROMs), Random Access Memory (RAM), Erasable Programmable ReadOnly Memory (EPROM), Electrically Erasable Programmable ReadOnly Memory (EEPROM), magnetic or optical cards, flash memory, or a tangible, machinereadable storage used in the transmission of information over the Internet via electrical, optical, acoustical or other forms of propagated signals (e.g., carrier waves, infrared signals, digital signals, etc.). Accordingly, the computerreadable medium includes any type of tangible machinereadable medium suitable for storing or transmitting electronic instructions or information in a form readable by a machine (e.g., a computer).
A design may go through various stages, from creation to simulation to fabrication. Data representing a design may represent the design in a number of manners. First, as is useful in simulations, the hardware may be represented using a hardware description language or another functional description language. Additionally, a circuit level model with logic and/or transistor gates may be produced at some stages of the design process. Furthermore, most designs, at some stage, reach a level of data representing the physical placement of various devices in the hardware model. In the case where conventional semiconductor fabrication techniques are used, the data representing the hardware model may be the data specifying the presence or absence of various features on different mask layers for masks used to produce the integrated circuit. In any representation of the design, the data may be stored in any form of a machine readable medium. A memory or a magnetic or optical storage such as a disc may be the machine readable medium to store information transmitted via optical or electrical wave modulated or otherwise generated to transmit such information. When an electrical carrier wave indicating or carrying the code or design is transmitted, to the extent that copying, buffering, or retransmission of the electrical signal is performed, a new copy is made. Thus, a communication provider or a network provider may store on a tangible, machinereadable medium, at least temporarily, an article, such as information encoded into a carrier wave, embodying techniques of embodiments of the present invention.
In modern processors, a number of different execution units are used to process and execute a variety of code and instructions. Not all instructions are created equal as some are quicker to complete while others can take a number of clock cycles to complete. The faster the throughput of instructions, the better the overall performance of the processor. Thus it would be advantageous to have as many instructions execute as fast as possible. However, there are certain instructions that have greater complexity and require more in terms of execution time and processor resources. For example, there are floating point instructions, load/store operations, data moves, etc.
As more computer systems are used in internet, text, and multimedia applications, additional processor support has been introduced over time. In one embodiment, an instruction set may be associated with one or more computer architectures, including data types, instructions, register architecture, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external input and output (I/O).
In one embodiment, the instruction set architecture (ISA) may be implemented by one or more microarchitectures, which includes processor logic and circuits used to implement one or more instruction sets. Accordingly, processors with different microarchitectures can share at least a portion of a common instruction set. For example, Intel® Pentium 4 processors, Intel® Core™ processors, and processors from Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. of Sunnyvale Calif. implement nearly identical versions of the x86 instruction set (with some extensions that have been added with newer versions), but have different internal designs. Similarly, processors designed by other processor development companies, such as ARM Holdings, Ltd., MIPS, or their licensees or adopters, may share at least a portion a common instruction set, but may include different processor designs. For example, the same register architecture of the ISA may be implemented in different ways in different microarchitectures using new or wellknown techniques, including dedicated physical registers, one or more dynamically allocated physical registers using a register renaming mechanism (e.g., the use of a Register Alias Table (RAT), a Reorder Buffer (ROB) and a retirement register file. In one embodiment, registers may include one or more registers, register architectures, register files, or other register sets that may or may not be addressable by a software programmer.
In one embodiment, an instruction may include one or more instruction formats. In one embodiment, an instruction format may indicate various fields (number of bits, location of bits, etc.) to specify, among other things, the operation to be performed and the operand(s) on which that operation is to be performed. Some instruction formats may be further broken defined by instruction templates (or sub formats). For example, the instruction templates of a given instruction format may be defined to have different subsets of the instruction format's fields and/or defined to have a given field interpreted differently. In one embodiment, an instruction is expressed using an instruction format (and, if defined, in a given one of the instruction templates of that instruction format) and specifies or indicates the operation and the operands upon which the operation will operate.
Scientific, financial, autovectorized general purpose, RMS (recognition, mining, and synthesis), and visual and multimedia applications (e.g., 2D/3D graphics, image processing, video compression/decompression, voice recognition algorithms and audio manipulation) may require the same operation to be performed on a large number of data items. In one embodiment, Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) refers to a type of instruction that causes a processor to perform an operation on multiple data elements. SIMD technology may be used in processors that can logically divide the bits in a register into a number of fixedsized or variablesized data elements, each of which represents a separate value. For example, in one embodiment, the bits in a 64bit register may be organized as a source operand containing four separate 16bit data elements, each of which represents a separate 16bit value. This type of data may be referred to as ‘packed’ data type or ‘vector’ data type, and operands of this data type are referred to as packed data operands or vector operands. In one embodiment, a packed data item or vector may be a sequence of packed data elements stored within a single register, and a packed data operand or a vector operand may a source or destination operand of a SIMD instruction (or ‘packed data instruction’ or a ‘vector instruction’). In one embodiment, a SIMD instruction specifies a single vector operation to be performed on two source vector operands to generate a destination vector operand (also referred to as a result vector operand) of the same or different size, with the same or different number of data elements, and in the same or different data element order.
SIMD technology, such as that employed by the Intel® Core™ processors having an instruction set including x86, MMX™, Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE), SSE2, SSE3, SSE4.1, and SSE4.2 instructions, ARM processors, such as the ARM Cortex® family of processors having an instruction set including the Vector Floating Point (VFP) and/or NEON instructions, and MIPS processors, such as the Loongson family of processors developed by the Institute of Computing Technology (ICT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, has enabled a significant improvement in application performance (Core™ and MMX™ are registered trademarks or trademarks of Intel Corporation of Santa Clara, Calif.).
In one embodiment, destination and source registers/data are generic terms to represent the source and destination of the corresponding data or operation. In some embodiments, they may be implemented by registers, memory, or other storage areas having other names or functions than those depicted. For example, in one embodiment, “DEST1” may be a temporary storage register or other storage area, whereas “SRC1” and “SRC2” may be a first and second source storage register or other storage area, and so forth. In other embodiments, two or more of the SRC and DEST storage areas may correspond to different data storage elements within the same storage area (e.g., a SIMD register). In one embodiment, one of the source registers may also act as a destination register by, for example, writing back the result of an operation performed on the first and second source data to one of the two source registers serving as a destination registers.
Embodiments are not limited to computer systems. Alternative embodiments of the present invention can be used in other devices such as handheld devices and embedded applications. Some examples of handheld devices include cellular phones, Internet Protocol devices, digital cameras, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and handheld PCs. Embedded applications can include a micro controller, a digital signal processor (DSP), system on a chip, network computers (NetPC), settop boxes, network hubs, wide area network (WAN) switches, or any other system that can perform one or more instructions in accordance with at least one embodiment.
In one embodiment, the processor 102 includes a Level 1 (L1) internal cache memory 104. Depending on the architecture, the processor 102 can have a single internal cache or multiple levels of internal cache. Alternatively, in another embodiment, the cache memory can reside external to the processor 102. Other embodiments can also include a combination of both internal and external caches depending on the particular implementation and needs. Register file 106 can store different types of data in various registers including integer registers, floating point registers, status registers, and instruction pointer register.
Execution unit 108, including logic to perform integer and floating point operations, also resides in the processor 102. The processor 102 also includes a microcode (ucode) ROM that stores microcode for certain macroinstructions. For one embodiment, execution unit 108 includes logic to handle a packed instruction set 109. By including the packed instruction set 109 in the instruction set of a generalpurpose processor 102, along with associated circuitry to execute the instructions, the operations used by many multimedia applications may be performed using packed data in a generalpurpose processor 102. Thus, many multimedia applications can be accelerated and executed more efficiently by using the full width of a processor's data bus for performing operations on packed data. This can eliminate the need to transfer smaller units of data across the processor's data bus to perform one or more operations one data element at a time.
Alternate embodiments of an execution unit 108 can also be used in micro controllers, embedded processors, graphics devices, DSPs, and other types of logic circuits. System 100 includes a memory 120. Memory 120 can be a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) device, a static random access memory (SRAM) device, flash memory device, or other memory device. Memory 120 can store instructions and/or data represented by data signals that can be executed by the processor 102.
A system logic chip 116 is coupled to the processor bus 110 and memory 120. The system logic chip 116 in the illustrated embodiment is a memory controller hub (MCH). The processor 102 can communicate to the MCH 116 via a processor bus 110. The MCH 116 provides a high bandwidth memory path 118 to memory 120 for instruction and data storage and for storage of graphics commands, data and textures. The MCH 116 is to direct data signals between the processor 102, memory 120, and other components in the system 100 and to bridge the data signals between processor bus 110, memory 120, and system I/O 122. In some embodiments, the system logic chip 116 can provide a graphics port for coupling to a graphics controller 112. The MCH 116 is coupled to memory 120 through a memory interface 118. The graphics card 112 is coupled to the MCH 116 through an Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) interconnect 114.
System 100 uses a proprietary hub interface bus 122 to couple the MCH 116 to the I/O controller hub (ICH) 130. The ICH 130 provides direct connections to some I/O devices via a local I/O bus. The local I/O bus is a highspeed I/O bus for connecting peripherals to the memory 120, chipset, and processor 102. Some examples are the audio controller, firmware hub (flash BIOS) 128, wireless transceiver 126, data storage 124, legacy I/O controller containing user input and keyboard interfaces, a serial expansion port such as Universal Serial Bus (USB), and a network controller 134. The data storage device 124 can comprise a hard disk drive, a floppy disk drive, a CDROM device, a flash memory device, or other mass storage device.
For another embodiment of a system, an instruction in accordance with one embodiment can be used with a system on a chip. One embodiment of a system on a chip comprises of a processor and a memory. The memory for one such system is a flash memory. The flash memory can be located on the same die as the processor and other system components. Additionally, other logic blocks such as a memory controller or graphics controller can also be located on a system on a chip.
Computer system 140 comprises a processing core 159 capable of performing at least one instruction in accordance with one embodiment. For one embodiment, processing core 159 represents a processing unit of any type of architecture, including but not limited to a CISC, a RISC or a VLIW type architecture. Processing core 159 may also be suitable for manufacture in one or more process technologies and by being represented on a machine readable media in sufficient detail, may be suitable to facilitate said manufacture.
Processing core 159 comprises an execution unit 142, a set of register file(s) 145, and a decoder 144. Processing core 159 also includes additional circuitry (not shown) which is not necessary to the understanding of embodiments of the present invention. Execution unit 142 is used for executing instructions received by processing core 159. In addition to performing typical processor instructions, execution unit 142 can perform instructions in packed instruction set 143 for performing operations on packed data formats. Packed instruction set 143 includes instructions for performing embodiments of the invention and other packed instructions. Execution unit 142 is coupled to register file 145 by an internal bus. Register file 145 represents a storage area on processing core 159 for storing information, including data. As previously mentioned, it is understood that the storage area used for storing the packed data is not critical. Execution unit 142 is coupled to decoder 144. Decoder 144 is used for decoding instructions received by processing core 159 into control signals and/or microcode entry points. In response to these control signals and/or microcode entry points, execution unit 142 performs the appropriate operations. In one embodiment, the decoder is used to interpret the opcode of the instruction, which will indicate what operation should be performed on the corresponding data indicated within the instruction.
Processing core 159 is coupled with bus 141 for communicating with various other system devices, which may include but are not limited to, for example, synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) control 146, static random access memory (SRAM) control 147, burst flash memory interface 148, personal computer memory card international association (PCMCIA)/compact flash (CF) card control 149, liquid crystal display (LCD) control 150, direct memory access (DMA) controller 151, and alternative bus master interface 152. In one embodiment, data processing system 140 may also comprise an I/O bridge 154 for communicating with various I/O devices via an I/O bus 153. Such I/O devices may include but are not limited to, for example, universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) 155, universal serial bus (USB) 156, Bluetooth wireless UART 157 and I/O expansion interface 158.
One embodiment of data processing system 140 provides for mobile, network and/or wireless communications and a processing core 159 capable of performing SIMD operations including a text string comparison operation. Processing core 159 may be programmed with various audio, video, imaging and communications algorithms including discrete transformations such as a WalshHadamard transform, a fast Fourier transform (FFT), a discrete cosine transform (DCT), and their respective inverse transforms; compression/decompression techniques such as color space transformation, video encode motion estimation or video decode motion compensation; and modulation/demodulation (MODEM) functions such as pulse coded modulation (PCM).
For one embodiment, SIMD coprocessor 161 comprises an execution unit 162 and a set of register file(s) 164. One embodiment of main processor 166 comprises a decoder 165 to recognize instructions of instruction set 163 including instructions in accordance with one embodiment for execution by execution unit 162. For alternative embodiments, SIMD coprocessor 161 also comprises at least part of decoder 165B to decode instructions of instruction set 163. Processing core 170 also includes additional circuitry (not shown) which is not necessary to the understanding of embodiments of the present invention.
In operation, the main processor 166 executes a stream of data processing instructions that control data processing operations of a general type including interactions with the cache memory 167, and the input/output system 168. Embedded within the stream of data processing instructions are SIMD coprocessor instructions. The decoder 165 of main processor 166 recognizes these SIMD coprocessor instructions as being of a type that should be executed by an attached SIMD coprocessor 161. Accordingly, the main processor 166 issues these SIMD coprocessor instructions (or control signals representing SIMD coprocessor instructions) on the coprocessor bus 171 where from they are received by any attached SIMD coprocessors. In this case, the SIMD coprocessor 161 will accept and execute any received SIMD coprocessor instructions intended for it.
Data may be received via wireless interface 169 for processing by the SIMD coprocessor instructions. For one example, voice communication may be received in the form of a digital signal, which may be processed by the SIMD coprocessor instructions to regenerate digital audio samples representative of the voice communications. For another example, compressed audio and/or video may be received in the form of a digital bit stream, which may be processed by the SIMD coprocessor instructions to regenerate digital audio samples and/or motion video frames. For one embodiment of processing core 170, main processor 166, and a SIMD coprocessor 161 are integrated into a single processing core 170 comprising an execution unit 162, a set of register file(s) 164, and a decoder 165 to recognize instructions of instruction set 163 including instructions in accordance with one embodiment.
Some instructions are converted into a single microop, whereas others need several microops to complete the full operation. In one embodiment, if more than four microops are needed to complete a instruction, the decoder 228 accesses the microcode ROM 232 to do the instruction. For one embodiment, an instruction can be decoded into a small number of micro ops for processing at the instruction decoder 228. In another embodiment, an instruction can be stored within the microcode ROM 232 should a number of microops be needed to accomplish the operation. The trace cache 230 refers to a entry point programmable logic array (PLA) to determine a correct microinstruction pointer for reading the microcode sequences to complete one or more instructions in accordance with one embodiment from the microcode ROM 232. After the microcode ROM 232 finishes sequencing microops for an instruction, the front end 201 of the machine resumes fetching microops from the trace cache 230.
The outoforder execution engine 203 is where the instructions are prepared for execution. The outoforder execution logic has a number of buffers to smooth out and reorder the flow of instructions to optimize performance as they go down the pipeline and get scheduled for execution. The allocator logic allocates the machine buffers and resources that each uop needs in order to execute. The register renaming logic renames logic registers onto entries in a register file. The allocator also allocates an entry for each uop in one of the two uop queues, one for memory operations and one for nonmemory operations, in front of the instruction schedulers: memory scheduler, fast scheduler 202, slow/general floating point scheduler 204, and simple floating point scheduler 206. The uop schedulers 202, 204, 206, determine when a uop is ready to execute based on the readiness of their dependent input register operand sources and the availability of the execution resources the uops need to complete their operation. The fast scheduler 202 of one embodiment can schedule on each half of the main clock cycle while the other schedulers can only schedule once per main processor clock cycle. The schedulers arbitrate for the dispatch ports to schedule uops for execution.
Register files 208, 210, sit between the schedulers 202, 204, 206, and the execution units 212, 214, 216, 218, 220, 222, 224 in the execution block 211. There is a separate register file 208, 210, for integer and floating point operations, respectively. Each register file 208, 210, of one embodiment also includes a bypass network that can bypass or forward just completed results that have not yet been written into the register file to new dependent uops. The integer register file 208 and the floating point register file 210 are also capable of communicating data with the other. For one embodiment, the integer register file 208 is split into two separate register files, one register file for the low order 32 bits of data and a second register file for the high order 32 bits of data. The floating point register file 210 of one embodiment has 128 bit wide entries because floating point instructions typically have operands from 64 to 128 bits in width.
The execution block 211 contains the execution units 212, 214, 216, 218, 220, 222, 224, where the instructions are actually executed. This section includes the register files 208, 210, that store the integer and floating point data operand values that the microinstructions need to execute. The processor 200 of one embodiment is comprised of a number of execution units: address generation unit (AGU) 212, AGU 214, fast ALU 216, fast ALU 218, slow ALU 220, floating point ALU 222, floating point move unit 224. For one embodiment, the floating point execution blocks 222, 224, execute floating point, MMX, SIMD, and SSE, or other operations. The floating point ALU 222 of one embodiment includes a 64 bit by 64 bit floating point divider to execute divide, square root, and remainder microops. For embodiments of the present invention, instructions involving a floating point value may be handled with the floating point hardware. In one embodiment, the ALU operations go to the highspeed ALU execution units 216, 218. The fast ALUs 216, 218, of one embodiment can execute fast operations with an effective latency of half a clock cycle. For one embodiment, most complex integer operations go to the slow ALU 220 as the slow ALU 220 includes integer execution hardware for long latency type of operations, such as a multiplier, shifts, flag logic, and branch processing. Memory load/store operations are executed by the AGUs 212, 214. For one embodiment, the integer ALUs 216, 218, 220, are described in the context of performing integer operations on 64 bit data operands. In alternative embodiments, the ALUs 216, 218, 220, can be implemented to support a variety of data bits including 16, 32, 128, 256, etc. Similarly, the floating point units 222, 224, can be implemented to support a range of operands having bits of various widths. For one embodiment, the floating point units 222, 224, can operate on 128 bits wide packed data operands in conjunction with SIMD and multimedia instructions.
In one embodiment, the uops schedulers 202, 204, 206, dispatch dependent operations before the parent load has finished executing. As uops are speculatively scheduled and executed in processor 200, the processor 200 also includes logic to handle memory misses. If a data load misses in the data cache, there can be dependent operations in flight in the pipeline that have left the scheduler with temporarily incorrect data. A replay mechanism tracks and reexecutes instructions that use incorrect data. Only the dependent operations need to be replayed and the independent ones are allowed to complete. The schedulers and replay mechanism of one embodiment of a processor are also designed to catch instructions that provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality.
The term “registers” may refer to the onboard processor storage locations that are used as part of instructions to identify operands. In other words, registers may be those that are usable from the outside of the processor (from a programmer's perspective). However, the registers of an embodiment should not be limited in meaning to a particular type of circuit. Rather, a register of an embodiment is capable of storing and providing data, and performing the functions described herein. The registers described herein can be implemented by circuitry within a processor using any number of different techniques, such as dedicated physical registers, dynamically allocated physical registers using register renaming, combinations of dedicated and dynamically allocated physical registers, etc. In one embodiment, integer registers store thirtytwo bit integer data. A register file of one embodiment also contains eight multimedia SIMD registers for packed data. For the discussions below, the registers are understood to be data registers designed to hold packed data, such as 64 bits wide MMX™ registers (also referred to as ‘mm’ registers in some instances) in microprocessors enabled with MMX technology from Intel Corporation of Santa Clara, Calif. These MMX registers, available in both integer and floating point forms, can operate with packed data elements that accompany SIMD and SSE instructions. Similarly, 128 bits wide XMM registers relating to SSE2, SSE3, SSE4, or beyond (referred to generically as “SSEx”) technology can also be used to hold such packed data operands. In one embodiment, in storing packed data and integer data, the registers do not need to differentiate between the two data types. In one embodiment, integer and floating point are either contained in the same register file or different register files. Furthermore, in one embodiment, floating point and integer data may be stored in different registers or the same registers.
In the examples of the following figures, a number of data operands are described.
Generally, a data element is an individual piece of data that is stored in a single register or memory location with other data elements of the same length. In packed data sequences relating to SSEx technology, the number of data elements stored in a XMM register is 128 bits divided by the length in bits of an individual data element. Similarly, in packed data sequences relating to MMX and SSE technology, the number of data elements stored in an MMX register is 64 bits divided by the length in bits of an individual data element. Although the data types illustrated in
Turning next to
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The original x86 instruction set provided for a 1byte opcode with various formats of address syllable and immediate operand contained in additional bytes whose presence was known from the first “opcode” byte. Additionally, there were certain byte values that were reserved as modifiers to the opcode (called prefixes, as they had to be placed before the instruction). When the original palette of 256 opcode bytes (including these special prefix values) was exhausted, a single byte was dedicated as an escape to a new set of 256 opcodes. As vector instructions (e.g., SIMD) were added, a need for more opcodes was generated, and the “two byte” opcode map also was insufficient, even when expanded through the use of prefixes. To this end, new instructions were added in additional maps which use 2 bytes plus an optional prefix as an identifier.
Additionally, in order to facilitate additional registers in 64bit mode, an additional prefix may be used (called “REX”) in between the prefixes and the opcode (and any escape bytes necessary to determine the opcode). In one embodiment, the REX may have 4 “payload” bits to indicate use of additional registers in 64bit mode. In other embodiments it may have fewer or more than 4 bits. The general format of at least one instruction set (which corresponds generally with format 360 and/or format 370) is illustrated generically by the following:

 [prefixes] [rex] escape [escape2] opcode modrm (etc.)
Opcode format 397 corresponds with opcode format 370 and comprises optional VEX prefix bytes 391 (beginning with C4 hex in one embodiment) to replace most other commonly used legacy instruction prefix bytes and escape codes. For example, the following illustrates an embodiment using two fields to encode an instruction, which may be used when a second escape code is present in the original instruction, or when extra bits (e.g, the XB and W fields) in the REX field need to be used. In the embodiment illustrated below, legacy escape is represented by a new escape value, legacy prefixes are fully compressed as part of the “payload” bytes, legacy prefixes are reclaimed and available for future expansion, the second escape code is compressed in a “map” field, with future map or feature space available, and new features are added (e.g., increased vector length and an additional source register specifier).
An instruction according to one embodiment may be encoded by one or more of fields 391 and 392. Up to four operand locations per instruction may be identified by field 391 in combination with source operand identifiers 374 and 375 and in combination with an optional scaleindexbase (SIB) identifier 393, an optional displacement identifier 394, and an optional immediate byte 395. For one embodiment, VEX prefix bytes 391 may be used to identify 32bit or 64bit source and destination operands and/or 128bit or 256bit SIMD register or memory operands. For one embodiment, the functionality provided by opcode format 397 may be redundant with opcode format 370, whereas in other embodiments they are different. Opcode formats 370 and 397 allow register to register, memory to register, register by memory, register by register, register by immediate, register to memory addressing specified in part by MOD field 373 and by optional (SIB) identifier 393, an optional displacement identifier 394, and an optional immediate byte 395.
Turning next to

 evex1 RXBmmmmm WvvvLpp evex4 opcode modrm [sib] [disp] [imm]
For one embodiment an instruction encoded according to the EVEX format 398 may have additional “payload” bits that may be used to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality with additional new features such as, for example, a user configurable mask register, or an additional operand, or selections from among 128bit, 256bit or 512bit vector registers, or more registers from which to select, etc.
For example, where VEX format 397 may be used to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality with an implicit mask, the EVEX format 398 may be used to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality with an explicit user configurable mask. Additionally, where VEX format 397 may be used to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality on 128bit or 256bit vector registers, EVEX format 398 may be used to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality on 128bit, 256bit, 512bit or larger (or smaller) vector registers.
Example instructions to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality are illustrated by the following examples:
It will be appreciated that general purpose GF(2^{n}) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic instructions, as in the embodiments described herein, may be used to provide cryptographic arithmetic functionality in applications such as in cryptographic protocols and Internet communication to assure privacy, data integrity, identity verification, message content authentication and message origin authentication for financial transactions, electronic commerce, electronic mail, software distribution, data storage, etc.
It will also be appreciated that providing execution of instructions at least for: (1) a SIMD affine transformation specifying a source data operand, a transformation matrix operand, and a translation vector, wherein the transformation matrix is applied to each element of the source data operand, and the translation vector is applied to each of the transformed elements; (2) a SIMD binary finite field multiplicative inverse to compute an inverse in a binary finite field modulo an irreducible polynomial for each element of the source data operand; (3) a SIMD affine transformation and multiplicative inverse (or multiplicative inverse and affine transformation) specifying a source data operand, a transformation matrix operand, and a translation vector, wherein either before or after the multiplicative inverse operation, the transformation matrix is applied to each element of the source data operand, and the translation vector is applied to each of the transformed elements; (4) a modulus reduction to compute reduction modulo a particular modulus polynomial p selected from polynomials in a binary finite field for which modulus reduction is provided by the instruction (or microinstruction); (5) a SIMD binary finite field multiplication specifying first and second source data operands to multiply each corresponding pair of elements of the first and second source data operand modulo an irreducible polynomial; wherein results of the instructions are stored in SIMD destination registers; may provide general purpose GF(256) and/or other alternative binary finite field SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality in hardware and/or microcode sequences in order to support significant performance improvements for several important performance critical applications, without excessive or undue functional units requiring additional circuitry, area or power.
In
In
The core 490 may be a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) core, a complex instruction set computing (CISC) core, a very long instruction word (VLIW) core, or a hybrid or alternative core type. As yet another option, the core 490 may be a specialpurpose core, such as, for example, a network or communication core, compression engine, graphics core, or the like.
The front end unit 430 includes a branch prediction unit 432 coupled to an instruction cache unit 434, which is coupled to an instruction translation lookaside buffer (TLB) 436, which is coupled to an instruction fetch unit 438, which is coupled to a decode unit 440. The decode unit or decoder may decode instructions, and generate as an output one or more microoperations, microcode entry points, microinstructions, other instructions, or other control signals, which are decoded from, or which otherwise reflect, or are derived from, the original instructions. The decoder may be implemented using various different mechanisms. Examples of suitable mechanisms include, but are not limited to, lookup tables, hardware implementations, programmable logic arrays (PLAs), microcode read only memories (ROMs), etc. The instruction cache unit 434 is further coupled to a level 2 (L2) cache unit 476 in the memory unit 470. The decode unit 440 is coupled to a rename/allocator unit 452 in the execution engine unit 450.
The execution engine unit 450 includes the rename/allocator unit 452 coupled to a retirement unit 454 and a set of one or more scheduler unit(s) 456. The scheduler unit(s) 456 represents any number of different schedulers, including reservations stations, central instruction window, etc. The scheduler unit(s) 456 is coupled to the physical register file(s) unit(s) 458. Each of the physical register file(s) units 458 represents one or more physical register files, different ones of which store one or more different data types, such as scalar integer, scalar floating point, packed integer, packed floating point, vector integer, vector floating point, etc., status (e.g., an instruction pointer that is the address of the next instruction to be executed), etc. The physical register file(s) unit(s) 458 is overlapped by the retirement unit 454 to illustrate various ways in which register renaming and outoforder execution may be implemented (e.g., using a reorder buffer(s) and a retirement register file(s), using a future file(s), a history buffer(s), and a retirement register file(s); using a register maps and a pool of registers; etc.). Generally, the architectural registers are visible from the outside of the processor or from a programmer's perspective. The registers are not limited to any known particular type of circuit. Various different types of registers are suitable as long as they are capable of storing and providing data as described herein. Examples of suitable registers include, but are not limited to, dedicated physical registers, dynamically allocated physical registers using register renaming, combinations of dedicated and dynamically allocated physical registers, etc. The retirement unit 454 and the physical register file(s) unit(s) 458 are coupled to the execution cluster(s) 460. The execution cluster(s) 460 includes a set of one or more execution units 462 and a set of one or more memory access units 464. The execution units 462 may perform various operations (e.g., shifts, addition, subtraction, multiplication) and on various types of data (e.g., scalar floating point, packed integer, packed floating point, vector integer, vector floating point). While some embodiments may include a number of execution units dedicated to specific functions or sets of functions, other embodiments may include only one execution unit or multiple execution units that all perform all functions. The scheduler unit(s) 456, physical register file(s) unit(s) 458, and execution cluster(s) 460 are shown as being possibly plural because certain embodiments create separate pipelines for certain types of data/operations (e.g., a scalar integer pipeline, a scalar floating point/packed integer/packed floating point/vector integer/vector floating point pipeline, and/or a memory access pipeline that each have their own scheduler unit, physical register file(s) unit, and/or execution cluster, and in the case of a separate memory access pipeline, certain embodiments are implemented in which only the execution cluster of this pipeline has the memory access unit(s) 464). It should also be understood that where separate pipelines are used, one or more of these pipelines may be outoforder issue/execution and the rest inorder.
The set of memory access units 464 is coupled to the memory unit 470, which includes a data TLB unit 472 coupled to a data cache unit 474 coupled to a level 2 (L2) cache unit 476. In one exemplary embodiment, the memory access units 464 may include a load unit, a store address unit, and a store data unit, each of which is coupled to the data TLB unit 472 in the memory unit 470. The L2 cache unit 476 is coupled to one or more other levels of cache and eventually to a main memory.
By way of example, the exemplary register renaming, outoforder issue/execution core architecture may implement the pipeline 400 as follows: 1) the instruction fetch 438 performs the fetch and length decoding stages 402 and 404; 2) the decode unit 440 performs the decode stage 406; 3) the rename/allocator unit 452 performs the allocation stage 408 and renaming stage 410; 4) the scheduler unit(s) 456 performs the schedule stage 412; 5) the physical register file(s) unit(s) 458 and the memory unit 470 perform the register read/memory read stage 414; the execution cluster 460 perform the execute stage 416; 6) the memory unit 470 and the physical register file(s) unit(s) 458 perform the write back/memory write stage 418; 7) various units may be involved in the exception handling stage 422; and 8) the retirement unit 454 and the physical register file(s) unit(s) 458 perform the commit stage 424.
The core 490 may support one or more instructions sets (e.g., the x86 instruction set (with some extensions that have been added with newer versions); the MIPS instruction set of MIPS Technologies of Sunnyvale, Calif.; the ARM instruction set (with optional additional extensions such as NEON) of ARM Holdings of Sunnyvale, Calif.).
It should be understood that the core may support multithreading (executing two or more parallel sets of operations or threads), and may do so in a variety of ways including time sliced multithreading, simultaneous multithreading (where a single physical core provides a logical core for each of the threads that physical core is simultaneously multithreading), or a combination thereof (e.g., time sliced fetching and decoding and simultaneous multithreading thereafter such as in the Intel® Hyperthreading technology).
While register renaming is described in the context of outoforder execution, it should be understood that register renaming may be used in an inorder architecture. While the illustrated embodiment of the processor also includes a separate instruction and data cache units 434/474 and a shared L2 cache unit 476, alternative embodiments may have a single internal cache for both instructions and data, such as, for example, a Level 1 (L1) internal cache, or multiple levels of internal cache. In some embodiments, the system may include a combination of an internal cache and an external cache that is external to the core and/or the processor. Alternatively, all of the cache may be external to the core and/or the processor.
The memory hierarchy includes one or more levels of cache within the cores, a set or one or more shared cache units 506, and external memory (not shown) coupled to the set of integrated memory controller units 514. The set of shared cache units 506 may include one or more midlevel caches, such as level 2 (L2), level 3 (L3), level 4 (L4), or other levels of cache, a last level cache (LLC), and/or combinations thereof. While in one embodiment a ring based interconnect unit 512 interconnects the integrated graphics logic 508, the set of shared cache units 506, and the system agent unit 510, alternative embodiments may use any number of wellknown techniques for interconnecting such units.
In some embodiments, one or more of the cores 502AN are capable of multithreading. The system agent 510 includes those components coordinating and operating cores 502AN. The system agent unit 510 may include for example a power control unit (PCU) and a display unit. The PCU may be or include logic and components needed for regulating the power state of the cores 502AN and the integrated graphics logic 508. The display unit is for driving one or more externally connected displays.
The cores 502AN may be homogenous or heterogeneous in terms of architecture and/or instruction set. For example, some of the cores 502AN may be in order while others are outoforder. As another example, two or more of the cores 502AN may be capable of execution the same instruction set, while others may be capable of executing only a subset of that instruction set or a different instruction set.
The processor may be a generalpurpose processor, such as a Core™ i3, i5, i7, 2 Duo and Quad, Xeon™, Itanium™, XScale™ or StrongARM™ processor, which are available from Intel Corporation, of Santa Clara, Calif. Alternatively, the processor may be from another company, such as ARM Holdings, Ltd, MIPS, etc. The processor may be a specialpurpose processor, such as, for example, a network or communication processor, compression engine, graphics processor, coprocessor, embedded processor, or the like. The processor may be implemented on one or more chips. The processor 500 may be a part of and/or may be implemented on one or more substrates using any of a number of process technologies, such as, for example, BiCMOS, CMOS, or NMOS.
Referring now to
Each processor 610,615 may be some version of the processor 500. However, it should be noted that it is unlikely that integrated graphics logic and integrated memory control units would exist in the processors 610,615.
The GMCH 620 may be a chipset, or a portion of a chipset. The GMCH 620 may communicate with the processor(s) 610, 615 and control interaction between the processor(s) 610, 615 and memory 640. The GMCH 620 may also act as an accelerated bus interface between the processor(s) 610, 615 and other elements of the system 600. For at least one embodiment, the GMCH 620 communicates with the processor(s) 610, 615 via a multidrop bus, such as a frontside bus (FSB) 695.
Furthermore, GMCH 620 is coupled to a display 645 (such as a flat panel display). GMCH 620 may include an integrated graphics accelerator. GMCH 620 is further coupled to an input/output (I/O) controller hub (ICH) 650, which may be used to couple various peripheral devices to system 600. Shown for example in the embodiment of
Alternatively, additional or different processors may also be present in the system 600. For example, additional processor(s) 615 may include additional processors(s) that are the same as processor 610, additional processor(s) that are heterogeneous or asymmetric to processor 610, accelerators (such as, e.g., graphics accelerators or digital signal processing (DSP) units), field programmable gate arrays, or any other processor. There can be a variety of differences between the physical resources 610, 615 in terms of a spectrum of metrics of merit including architectural, microarchitectural, thermal, power consumption characteristics, and the like. These differences may effectively manifest themselves as asymmetry and heterogeneity amongst the processors 610, 615. For at least one embodiment, the various processors 610, 615 may reside in the same die package.
Referring now to
While shown with only two processors 770, 780, it is to be understood that the scope of the present invention is not so limited. In other embodiments, one or more additional processors may be present in a given processor.
Processors 770 and 780 are shown including integrated memory controller units 772 and 782, respectively. Processor 770 also includes as part of its bus controller units pointtopoint (PP) interfaces 776 and 778; similarly, second processor 780 includes PP interfaces 786 and 788. Processors 770, 780 may exchange information via a pointtopoint (PP) interface 750 using PP interface circuits 778, 788. As shown in
Processors 770, 780 may each exchange information with a chipset 790 via individual PP interfaces 752, 754 using point to point interface circuits 776, 794, 786, 798. Chipset 790 may also exchange information with a highperformance graphics circuit 738 via a highperformance graphics interface 739.
A shared cache (not shown) may be included in either processor or outside of both processors, yet connected with the processors via PP interconnect, such that either or both processors' local cache information may be stored in the shared cache if a processor is placed into a low power mode.
Chipset 790 may be coupled to a first bus 716 via an interface 796. In one embodiment, first bus 716 may be a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus, or a bus such as a PCI Express bus or another third generation I/O interconnect bus, although the scope of the present invention is not so limited.
As shown in
Referring now to
Referring now to
In some embodiments, instructions that benefit from highly parallel, throughput processors may be performed by the GPU, while instructions that benefit from the performance of processors that benefit from deeply pipelined architectures may be performed by the CPU. For example, graphics, scientific applications, financial applications and other parallel workloads may benefit from the performance of the GPU and be executed accordingly, whereas more sequential applications, such as operating system kernel or application code may be better suited for the CPU.
In
One or more aspects of at least one embodiment may be implemented by representative data stored on a machinereadable medium which represents various logic within the processor, which when read by a machine causes the machine to fabricate logic to perform the techniques described herein. Such representations, known as “IP cores” may be stored on a tangible, machine readable medium (“tape”) and supplied to various customers or manufacturing facilities to load into the fabrication machines that actually make the logic or processor. For example, IP cores, such as the Cortex™ family of processors developed by ARM Holdings, Ltd. and Loongson IP cores developed the Institute of Computing Technology (ICT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences may be licensed or sold to various customers or licensees, such as Texas Instruments, Qualcomm, Apple, or Samsung and implemented in processors produced by these customers or licensees.
In some embodiments, one or more instructions may correspond to a first type or architecture (e.g., x86) and be translated or emulated on a processor of a different type or architecture (e.g., ARM). An instruction, according to one embodiment, may therefore be performed on any processor or processor type, including ARM, x86, MIPS, a GPU, or other processor type or architecture.
In processing block 1411 a 128bit input block including 16 byte values is logically exlusiveORed (XORed) with a round key. In processing block 1412 it is determined whether the process is encrypting, in which case processing continues from point 1418, or if the process is decrypting, in which case processing resumes in processing block 1413.
In processing block 1413 a field conversion circuit is used to convert each of the 16 byte values, respectively, from a corresponding polynomial representation in GF(256) to another corresponding polynomial representation in the composite field GF((2^{4})^{2}). For one embodiment of processing block 1413, a polynomial representation in GF(256), [a_{7}, a_{6}, a_{5}, a_{4}, a_{3}, a_{2}, a_{1}, a_{0}], can be converted to a corresponding polynomial representation in the composite field GF((2^{4})^{2})), [b_{7}, b_{6}, b_{5}, b_{4}, b_{3}, b_{2}, b_{1}, b_{0}], by multiplication of each byte value with an 8bit by 8bit conversion matrix, which may be implemented by a series of XORs as follows:
b_{0}=a_{0}⊕a_{2}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{6}⊕a_{7},
b_{1}=a_{7},
b_{2}=a_{4}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{7},
b_{3}=a_{1}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{6},
b_{4}=a_{4}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{6},
b_{5}=a_{1}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{6},
b_{6}=a_{5}⊕a_{7},
b_{7}=a_{2}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{6}⊕a_{7}.
At this point the 16 bytes may be viewed a fourbyfour block of bytes having four rows and having four columns. In processing block 1414 it is determined if the present round is the last/special round, in which case no inverse column mixing is performed, or otherwise in processing block 1415 an inversecolumnsmixing circuit is used to compute an inversecolumnsmixing transformation in GF((2^{4})^{2}) of the 16 byte values to get corresponding transformed polynomial representations in GF((2^{4})^{2}). For one embodiment the inversecolumnsmixing transformation in GF((2^{4})^{2}) of the 16 byte input values can be performed as follows:
It will be appreciated that such a matrix multiplication can be performed on [a_{3}, a_{2}, a_{1}, a_{0}, b_{3}, b_{2}, b_{1}, b_{0}] in GF((2^{4})^{2}) by computing, in a first stage, the unique terms needed to perform the multiplications by the matrix constants in the expression for each result, and then summing the unique terms to generate each result. For example the unique terms necessary for computing the above matrix multiplication, from the nibble [a_{3}, a_{2}, a_{1}, a_{0}], are: (a_{3}⊕a_{0})⊕a_{1}, (a_{2}⊕a_{1})⊕a_{3}, (a_{2}⊕a_{0})⊕a_{1}, (a_{3}⊕a_{2})⊕a_{0}, a_{3}⊕a_{1}, (a_{3}⊕a_{2})+(a_{1}⊕a_{0}). The unique terms necessary for computing the above matrix multiplication, from the nibble [b_{3}, b_{2}, b_{1}, b_{0}], are:
(b_{3}⊕b_{2})⊕b_{1}, (b_{2}⊕b_{1})⊕b_{3}, b_{3}⊕b_{0}, b_{3}⊕b_{1}, b_{1}⊕b_{0}, (b_{3}⊕b_{0})+(b_{1}⊕b_{2}).
In any case of what is determined in processing block 1414, in processing block 1416 a hardwired permutation of the rows is performed on the 16 byte values corresponding to an inverse row mixing transformation. In processing block 1417 a second field conversion circuit is used to convert each corresponding transformed polynomial representation in GF((2^{4})^{2}) and also to apply an inverse affine transformation to generate, respectively, a third corresponding polynomial representation in a finite field other than GF((2^{4})^{2}). In one embodiment of process 1401 that new finite field other than GF((2^{4})^{2}) is the composite field GF((2^{2})^{4}). This embodiment is described below in greater detail with regard to
Continuing from point 1418, a multiplicative inverse circuit is used in processing block 120 to compute, for each of the third corresponding polynomial representations of the 16 byte values respectively, a corresponding multiplicative inverse polynomial representation in that new finite field other than GF((2^{4})^{2}). In processing block 1421 it is determined whether the process is decrypting, in which case round processing is finished and outputs a result in processing block 1426, or if the process is encrypting, in which case processing resumes in processing block 1422.
In processing block 1422 a circuit is used to apply an affine transformation to each corresponding multiplicative inverse polynomial representation of the 16 byte values to generate, respectively, a transformed corresponding polynomial representation in that new finite field other than GF((2^{4})^{2}). If that new finite field is not the original field GF(256), then another field conversion can be combined with the circuit in block 1422 to convert each corresponding transformed polynomial representation back to the original field GF(256). Therefore, it may be assumed that the polynomial representation for the remainder of process 1401 is in the original field GF(256).
In processing block 1423 a hardwired permutation of the rows is performed on the 16 byte values corresponding to a forward row mixing transformation. In processing block 1424 it is determined if the present round is the last/special round, in which case no column mixing is performed, or otherwise in processing block 1425 a forwardcolumnsmixing circuit is used to compute a forwardcolumnsmixing transformation in GF(256) of the 16 byte values to get corresponding transformed polynomial representations in GF(256). It will be appreciated that because coefficients are relatively small in the forwardcolumnsmixing transformation in GF(256), no alternative field representation is used in processing block 1425. Finally, the round processing of process 1401 is finished and the 16 byte result is output in processing block 1426.
Continuing from point 1418 of process 1401, at processing block 1518 it is determined whether the process is encrypting, in which case processing continues in processing block 1519. Otherwise if the process is decrypting, a field conversion was already performed in processing block 1417 and the third corresponding polynomial representations of the 16 byte values are in the composite field GF((2^{2})^{4}). For one embodiment of processing block 1417, an inverse affine transformation can be applied and a polynomial representation in the composite field GF((2^{4})^{2}), [a_{7}, a_{6}, a_{5}, a_{4}, a_{3}, a_{2}, a_{1}, a_{0}], can be converted to a corresponding polynomial representation in the composite field GF((2^{2})^{4}), [b_{7}, b_{6}, b_{5}, b_{4}, b_{3}, b_{2}, b_{1}, b_{0}], by multiplication of each byte value with an 8bit by 8bit conversion matrix and XORs of some constants (i.e. bitwise inversions), which may be implemented by a series of XORs as follows:
b_{0}=a_{3}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{7},
b_{1}=a_{1}⊕a_{2}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{4},
b_{2}=a_{0}⊕a_{2}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{6},
b_{3}=a_{0}⊕a_{1}⊕a_{2}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{6},
b_{4}=a_{1}⊕a_{6},
b_{5}=a_{0}⊕a_{1}⊕a_{2}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{6}⊕a_{7},
b_{6}=a_{0}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{6},
b_{7}=a_{0}⊕a_{1}⊕a_{2}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{6}.
In processing block 1519 a field conversion is needed for the encryption process and so a field conversion circuit is used to convert each of the 16 byte values, respectively, from a corresponding polynomial representation in GF(256) to a corresponding polynomial representation in the composite field GF((2^{2})^{4}). For one embodiment of processing block 1519, a polynomial representation in GF(256), [a_{7}, a_{6}, a_{5}, a_{4}, a_{3}, a_{2}, a_{1}, a_{0}], can be converted to a corresponding polynomial representation in the composite field GF((2^{2})^{4})), [b_{7}, b_{6}, b_{5}, b_{4}, b_{3}, b_{2}, b_{1}, b_{0}], by multiplication of each byte value with an 8bit by 8bit conversion matrix, which may be implemented by a series of XORs as follows:
b_{0}=a_{0}⊕a_{1}⊕a_{6},
b_{1}=a_{1}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{6},
b_{2}=a_{5}⊕a_{6}⊕a_{7},
b_{3}=a_{3}⊕a_{4},
b_{4}=a_{1}⊕a_{2}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{5},
b_{5}=a_{3}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{7},
b_{6}=a_{2}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{6},
b_{7}=a_{3}⊕a_{7}.
In processing block 1520 an inversion circuit is used to compute for each of the polynomial representations in GF((2^{2})^{4}) of the 16 byte values, respectively, a multiplicative inverse polynomial representation in GF((2^{2})^{4}). For one embodiment, an input corresponding to a polynomial representation in the composite field GF((2^{2})^{4})), [a, b, c, d], and a multiplicative inverse, [A, B, C, D], are related as follows:
(a⊕c⊕d)·A⊕(b⊕c)·B⊕(a⊕b)·C⊕a·D=0
(2·a⊕b⊕c)·A⊕(a⊕b⊕d)·B⊕(a⊕c)·C⊕b·D=0
(2·a⊕2·b)·A⊕(2·a)·B⊕d·C⊕c·D=0
(2·b⊕2·c)·A⊕(2·a⊕2·b)·B⊕(2·a)·C⊕d·D=1
where ⊕ and ‘·’ denote the GF(2^{2}) additions and multiplications, respectively. The solution is: A=Δ^{−1}·Δ_{a}, B=Δ^{−1}·Δ_{b}, C=Δ^{−1}·Δ_{c}, D=Δ^{−1}Δ_{d}, where the determinant Δ is given by:
and the determinants Δ_{a}, Δ_{b}, Δ_{c }and Δ_{d }result from Δ by replacing the first, second, third and fourth columns of Δ with {0, 0, 0, 1} respectively. Again it will be appreciated that such computations may be carried out in GF(2^{2}) by expanding the determinant calculation, computing the unique terms in hardware, such as a^{2}, b^{2}, a^{3}, 3·b^{2}, etc. and the unique sums of terms required, and then summing the particular term combinations to generate the necessary results.
In processing block 1521 it is determined whether the process is decrypting, in which case processing continues in processing block 1522. In processing block 1522 another field conversion circuit is used to convert each of the 16 byte values, respectively, from a corresponding polynomial representation in the composite field GF((2^{2})^{4}) to a corresponding polynomial representation in GF(256). For one embodiment of processing block 1522, a polynomial representation in the composite field GF((2^{2})^{4})), [a_{7}, a_{6}, a_{5}, a_{4}, a_{3}, a_{2}, a_{1}, a_{0}], can be converted to a corresponding polynomial representation in GF(256), [b_{7}, b_{6}, b_{5}, b_{4}, b_{3}, b_{2}, b_{1}, b_{0}], by multiplication of each byte value with an 8bit by 8bit conversion matrix, which may be implemented by a series of XORs as follows:
b_{0}=a_{0}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{6},
b_{1}=a_{2}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{6},
b_{2}=a_{1}⊕a_{2}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{7},
b_{3}=a_{1}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{6},
b_{4}=a_{1}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{6},
b_{5}=a_{1}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{6}⊕a_{7},
b_{6}=a_{2}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{5},
b_{7}=a_{1}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{6}⊕a_{7}.
Otherwise if the process is encrypting, processing proceed to processing block 1421 of process 1401. As it was explained with regard to processing block 1422 of process 1401, the circuit that is used to apply an affine transformation to the 16 bytes in processing block 1422 can be combined with the field conversion circuit of this embodiment to convert the 16 byte values from polynomial representations in GF((2^{2})^{4}) to corresponding polynomial representations in GF(256). For one embodiment of processing block 1422, an affine transformation can be applied and a polynomial representation in the composite field GF((2^{2})^{4})), [a_{7}, a_{6}, a_{5}, a_{4}, a_{3}, a_{2}, a_{1}, a_{0}], can be converted to a corresponding polynomial representation in GF(256), [b_{7}, b_{6}, b_{5}, b_{4}, b_{3}, b_{2}, b_{1}, b_{0}], by multiplication of each byte value with an 8bit by 8bit conversion matrix and XORs with some constants (i.e. bitwise inversions), which may be implemented by a series of XORs as follows:
b_{0}=a_{0}⊕a_{1}⊕a_{2},
b_{1}=a_{0}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{5},
b_{2}=a_{0}⊕a_{2}⊕a_{6},
b_{3}=a_{0}⊕a_{1}⊕a_{3}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{5},
b_{4}=a_{0}⊕a_{1}⊕a_{4}⊕a_{5}⊕a_{7},
b_{5}=a_{4},
b_{6}=a_{3}⊕a_{6},
b_{7}=a_{2}a_{3}.
For example, embodiments of apparatus 1601 may be coupled with SIMD vector registers (e.g. physical register files unit(s) 458) comprising a variable plurality of m variable sized data fields to store values of a variable plurality of m variable sized data elements. Some embodiments of the affine map instruction to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD affine transformation functionality specify a source data operand set of elements 1612, a transformation matrix 1610 operand, and a translation vector 1614 operand. One or more execution units (e.g. execution unit(s) 462), responsive to the decoded affine map instruction, perform a SIMD affine transformation by applying the transformation matrix 1610 operand to each element 1612 of the source data operand set (e.g. in a 128bit block of 16 byte elements) through eight bitwise ANDs 16271620 of GF(256) byte multiplier array of processing block 1602, and applying the translation vector 1614 operand through eight 9input XORs 16371630 of GF(256) bit adder array of processing block 1603, to each transformed element of the source data operand set. An affine transformed result element 1618 for each element 1612 of the source data operand set of the affine map instruction is stored in a SIMD destination register (e.g. in physical register files unit(s) 458).
Embodiments of apparatus 1605 may be coupled with SIMD vector registers (e.g. physical register files unit(s) 458) comprising a variable plurality of m variable sized data fields to store values of a variable plurality of m variable sized data elements. Some embodiments of the affine inverse instruction to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD affine transformation functionality followed by computing a multiplicative inverse of the result specify a source data operand set of elements 1612, a transformation matrix 1610 operand, a translation vector 1614 operand, and optionally a monic irreducible polynomial. One or more execution units (e.g. execution unit(s) 462), responsive to the decoded affine inverse instruction, perform a SIMD affine transformation by applying the transformation matrix 1610 operand to each element 1612 of the source data operand set (e.g. in a 128bit block of 16 byte elements) through eight bitwise ANDs 16271620 of GF(256) byte multiplier array of processing block 1602, and applying the translation vector 1614 operand through eight 9input XORs 16371630 of GF(256) bit adder array of processing block 1603, to each transformed element of the source data operand set. It will be appreciated that this point in the computation may correspond to point 1418 of process 1403. A finitefield multiplicative inverse element 1648 modulo an irreducible polynomial is computed through mutiplicative inverse unit 1640 from the affine transformed result element 1618 for each element 1612 of the source data operand set. The multiplicative inverse result elements 1648 for each affine transformed result element 1618 of the affine inverse instruction is stored in a SIMD destination register (e.g. in physical register files unit(s) 458).
It will be appreciated that some embodiments of an affine inverse instruction may be useful to perform a process such as process 1403. Other embodiments may be useful to perform a process such as process 1402.
Embodiments of apparatus 1606 may be coupled with SIMD vector registers (e.g. physical register files unit(s) 458) comprising a variable plurality of m variable sized data fields to store values of a variable plurality of m variable sized data elements. Some embodiments of the inverse affine instruction to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD computing of a multiplicative inverse followed by affine transformation functionality specify a source data operand set of elements 1612, a transformation matrix 1610 operand, a translation vector 1614 operand, and optionally a monic irreducible polynomial. In processing block 1604, one or more execution units (e.g. execution unit(s) 462), responsive to the decoded inverse affine instruction, compute a SIMD binary finitefield multiplicative inverse element 1616 modulo an irreducible polynomial through multiplicative inverse unit 1640 for each element 1612 of the source data operand set. Said one or more execution units then perform a SIMD affine transformation by applying the transformation matrix 1610 operand to each multiplicative inverse element 1616 of element 1612 of the source data operand set (e.g. in a 128bit block of 16 byte elements) through eight bitwise ANDs 16271620 of GF(256) byte multiplier array of processing block 1602, and applying the translation vector 1614 operand through eight 9input XORs 16371630 of GF(256) bit adder array of processing block 1603, to each transformed inverse element of the source data operand set. An affine transformed result element 1638 for each multiplicative inverse element 1616 of element 1612 of the source data operand set of the inverse affine instruction is stored in a SIMD destination register (e.g. in physical register files unit(s) 458).
Embodiments of apparatus 1703 may be coupled with SIMD vector registers (e.g. physical register files unit(s) 458) comprising a variable plurality of m variable sized data fields to store values of a variable plurality of m variable sized data elements. Some embodiments of the finite field multiplicative inverse instruction to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD multiplicative inverse functionality specify a source data operand set of elements 1710, and a monic irreducible polynomial 1740. One or more execution units (e.g. execution unit(s) 462), responsive to the decoded finite field multiplicative inverse instruction, compute a SIMD binary finitefield multiplicative inverse modulo the irreducible polynomial for each element 1710 of the source data operand set. Some embodiments of apparatus 1703 perform the finite field multiplicative inverse operation in a composite field GF((2^{4})^{2}). Each element 1710 of the source data operand set is mapped to the composite field GF((2^{4})^{2}) in processing block 1734, which outputs 4bit field elements z_{H }1735 and z_{L }1736. For one embodiment, the inverse field element z_{L}^{−1 }1746 is computed as follows: (1) field elements z_{H }1735 and z_{L }1736 are added (bitwise XOR 1737) in the composite field; (2) field elements z_{H }1735 and the output of bitwise XOR 1737 are multiplied modulo an irreducible polynomial p in processing block 1739. In one embodiment polynomial p=z^{4}+z^{3}+1, but in alternative embodiments other 4th degree irreducible polynomials may be used. Continuing with the computation of inverse field element z_{L}^{−1 }1746: (3) field element z_{H }1735 is squared and multiplied modulo p, by a hexadecimal value, 8, in processing block 1738, the result of which is added (bitwise XOR 1741) with the output of processing block 1739 in the composite field; (4) the inverse of the output of bitwise XOR 1741 is computed in processing block 1742 and (5) multiplied modulo p with field elements z_{L }1736 in processing block 1744 to produce inverse field element z_{L}^{−1 }1746. For one embodiment, the inverse field element z_{H}^{−1 }1745 is computed as follows: steps (1) through (4) as described above; and (5) the output of processing block 1742 is multiplied modulo p with field elements z_{H }1735 in processing block 1743 to produce inverse field element z_{H}^{−1 }1745. Each pair of 4bit field elements z_{H}^{−1 }1745 and z_{L}^{−1 }1746 are then inverse mapped from the composite field GF((2^{4})^{2}) in processing block 1747 to generate a multiplicative inverse result element 1750 in GF(256). A multiplicative inverse result element 1750 for each element 1710 of the source data operand set of the finitefield multiplicative inverse instruction is finally stored in a SIMD destination register (e.g. in physical register files unit(s) 458).
Embodiments of apparatus 1801 may be coupled with SIMD vector registers (e.g. physical register files unit(s) 458) comprising a variable plurality of m variable sized data fields to store values of a variable plurality of m variable sized data elements. Some embodiments of the particular modulus reduction instruction to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD modulus reduction functionality specify a source data operand set of elements 1810, and a monic irreducible polynomial 1811B. One or more execution units (e.g. execution unit(s) 462), responsive to the decoded modulus reduction instruction, compute a SIMD binary finitefield reduction modulo the irreducible polynomial for each element 1810 of the source data operand set. An element 1810 of a source data operand set having a twobyte value is input as q_{H }1828 and q_{L }1820 into processing block 1821. Some embodiments of apparatus 1801 perform, in processing block 1821, a 12bit operation in processing block 1825, which is equivalent to:
T←q_{L}⊕(q_{II}<<4)⊕(q_{II}<<3)⊕(q_{II}<<1)⊕q_{II}.
A resulting element, T, of processing block 1825 having a partially reduced 12bit value is input as T_{H }1838 and T_{L }1830 into processing block 1831. Some embodiments of apparatus 1801 perform, in processing block 1831, an 8bit operation in processing block 1835, which is also equivalent to:
q mod p←T_{L}⊕(T_{H}<<4)⊕(T_{H}<<3)⊕(T_{H}<<1)⊕T_{H}.
It will be appreciated that in XOR operations, zero (0) inputs may be eliminated thereby further reducing the logical complexity of apparatus 1801. A particular modulus reduction result element 1850 for each element 1810 of the source data operand set of the particular modulus reduction instruction is stored in a SIMD destination register (e.g. in physical register files unit(s) 458).
Embodiments of apparatus 1802 may be coupled with SIMD vector registers (e.g. physical register files unit(s) 458) comprising a variable plurality of m variable sized data fields to store values of a variable plurality of m variable sized data elements. Some embodiments of the particular modulus reduction instruction to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD modulus reduction functionality specify a source data operand set of elements 1810, and a monic irreducible polynomial 1811B. One or more execution units (e.g. execution unit(s) 462), responsive to the decoded modulus reduction instruction, compute a SIMD binary finitefield reduction modulo the irreducible polynomial for each element 1810 of the source data operand set. An element 1810 of a source data operand set having a twobyte value is input as q[15:8] 1828 and q[7:0] 1820 into processing block 1861. Some embodiments of apparatus 1802 perform, in processing block 1861, a logical operation in XOR logic gates 18671860, which is equivalent to:
q_{0 }mod p=q_{0}⊕q_{8}⊕q_{12}⊕q_{13},
q_{1 }mod p=q_{1}⊕q_{8}⊕q_{9}⊕q_{12}⊕q_{14},
q_{2 }mod p=q_{2}⊕q_{9}⊕q_{10}⊕q_{13},
q_{3 }mod p=q_{3}⊕q_{8}⊕q_{10}⊕q_{11}⊕q_{12}⊕q_{13}⊕q_{14},
q_{4 }mod p=q_{4}⊕q_{8}⊕q_{9}⊕q_{12}⊕q_{14},
q_{5 }mod p=q_{5}⊕q_{9}⊕q_{10}⊕q_{12},
q_{6 }mod p=q_{6}⊕q_{10}⊕q_{11}⊕q_{13},
q_{7 }mod p=q_{7}⊕q_{11}⊕q_{12}⊕q_{14}.
A particular modulus reduction result element (q mod p) 1850 for each element 1810 of the source data operand set of the particular modulus reduction instruction is stored in a SIMD destination register (e.g. in physical register files unit(s) 458).
Embodiments of apparatus 1803 may be coupled with SIMD vector registers (e.g. physical register files unit(s) 458) comprising a variable plurality of m variable sized data fields to store values of a variable plurality of m variable sized data elements. Some embodiments of the particular instruction to provide an AES GCM modulus reduction in GF(2^{128}) functionality specify a source data operand set of elements 1813, and a monic irreducible polynomial 1887. One or more execution units (e.g. execution unit(s) 462), responsive to the decoded finite field modulus reduction instruction, compute a SIMD finitefield reduction modulo the irreducible polynomial for each element 1813 of the source data operand set.
An element 1813 of a source data operand set having a 32byte value is input into processing block 1871. Some embodiments of apparatus 1803 perform, in processing block 1871, a nonbitreflected operation with regard to a nonbitreflected reduction polynomial, which is equivalent to a bitreflected modulus reduction of a bit reflected product as follows:
[X_{3}, X_{2}, X_{1}, X_{0}]=q[255:0]<<1; (i)
A=X_{0}<<63; B=X_{0}<<62; C=X_{0}<<57; (ii)
D=X_{1}⊕A⊕B⊕C; (iii)
[E_{1}, E_{0}]=[D, X_{0}]>>1; [F_{1}, F_{0}]=[D, X_{0}]>>2; [G_{1}, G_{0}]=[D, X_{0}]>>7; (iv)
q[127:64]=X_{3}⊕D⊕E_{1}⊕F_{1}⊕G_{1 }(mod p); (v)
q[63:0]=X_{2}⊕X_{0}⊕E_{0}⊕F_{0}⊕G_{0 }(mod p). (vi)
Accordingly, equation (i) is achieved by shifter 1870 from element 1813 to generate [X_{3}, X_{2}, X_{1}, X_{0}] 1872. Equations (ii) are achieved by shifters 18731875. Equation (iii) is achieved by processing block 1876. Equations (iv) are achieved by shifters 18771879. Equation (v) is achieved by processing block 1885, and equation (vi) is achieved by processing block 1880. A particular modulus reduction result element (q mod p) 1853 for each element 1813 of the source data operand set of the particular modulus reduction instruction is stored in a SIMD destination register (e.g. in physical register files unit(s) 458).
Embodiments of apparatus 1901 may be coupled with SIMD vector registers (e.g. physical register files unit(s) 458) comprising a variable plurality of m variable sized data fields to store values of a variable plurality of m variable sized data elements. Some embodiments of the binary finite field multiplication instruction to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD computing of binary finite field multiplication functionality specify two source data operand sets of elements 1910 and 1912, and a monic irreducible polynomial. In processing block 1902, one or more execution units (e.g. execution unit(s) 462), responsive to the decoded binary finite field multiplication instruction, compute a SIMD carryless 8by8 multiplication to produce a 15bit product element 1915 and a reduced product 1918 modulo a selected (e.g. through selector 1916) irreducible polynomial through modulus reduction unit 1917 for each pair of elements 1910 and 1912 of the source data operand sets. A reduced product 1918 result for each binary finite field multiplication of pair of elements 1910 and 1912 of the source data operand sets is stored in a SIMD destination register (e.g. in physical register files unit(s) 458).
Embodiments of apparatus 1903 may be coupled with SIMD vector registers (e.g. physical register files unit(s) 458) comprising a variable plurality of m variable sized data fields to store values of a variable plurality of m variable sized data elements. Some embodiments of the binary finite field multiplication instruction to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD computing of binary finite field multiplication functionality specify two source data operand sets, e.g. 1920 and 1922, and a monic irreducible polynomial p. In each processing block 1902 of array 1925, one or more execution units (e.g. execution unit(s) 462), responsive to the decoded binary finite field multiplication instruction, compute a SIMD carryless 8by8 multiplication to produce product element 1915 and a reduced product 1918 modulo a selected (e.g. through selector 1916) irreducible polynomial through a modulus reduction unit 1917 for each pair of elements of the source data operand sets 1920 and 1922. A reduced product set 1928 result for the SIMD binary finite field multiplication of the source data operand sets 1920 and 1922 is stored in a SIMD destination register (e.g. in physical register files unit(s) 458).
In processing block 2011 a processor affine map instruction for a SIMD affine transformation in a finite field is decoded. In processing block 2016 decoding of the affine map instruction optionally generates microinstructions, e.g. a first microinstruction for a finite field matrixvector multiplication 1602, and a second microinstruction for a finite field vector addition (or XOR) 1603. In processing block 2021 a source data operand set of elements is accessed. In processing block 2031 a transformation matrix operand is accessed. In processing block 2041 a translation vector operand is accessed. In processing block 2051 the transformation matrix operand is applied to each element of the source data operand set. In processing block 2061 the translation vector operand is applied to each transformed element of the source data operand set. In processing block 2081 a determination is made, of whether or not processing of each element of the source data operand set has finished. If not processing of the SIMD affine transformation reiterates beginning in processing block 2051. Otherwise in processing block 2091, a result of the SIMD affine transformation is stored in a SIMD destination register.
It will be appreciated that while processes for execution of instructions to provide general purpose SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality may be illustrated above as being iterative, one or more instantiations of the various processing blocks may, and preferably are executed concurrently and/or in parallel whenever possible in order to increase execution performance and throughput.
It will be appreciated that General purpose GF(256) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic instructions may be used to provide general purpose GF(256) SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality in applications, such as cryptographic protocols and Internet communication to assure data integrity, identity verification, message content authentication and message origin authentication for financial transactions, electronic commerce, electronic mail, software distribution, data storage, etc.
Therefore, it will also be appreciated that providing execution of instructions at least for: (1) a SIMD affine transformation specifying a source data operand, a transformation matrix operand, and a translation vector, wherein the transformation matrix is applied to each element of the source data operand, and the translation vector is applied to each of the transformed elements; (2) a SIMD binary finite field multiplicative inverse to compute an inverse in a binary finite field modulo an irreducible polynomial for each element of the source data operand; (3) a SIMD affine transformation and multiplicative inverse (or multiplicative inverse and affine transformation) specifying a source data operand, a transformation matrix operand, and a translation vector, wherein either before or after the multiplicative inverse operation, the transformation matrix is applied to each element of the source data operand, and the translation vector is applied to each of the transformed elements; (4) a modulus reduction to compute reduction modulo a particular modulus polynomial p_{s }selected from polynomials in a binary finite field for which modulus reduction is provided by the instruction (or microinstruction); (5) a SIMD binary finite field multiplication specifying first and second source data operands to multiply each corresponding pair of elements of the first and second source data operand modulo an irreducible polynomial; wherein results of the instructions are stored in SIMD destination registers; may provide general purpose GF(256) and/or other alternative binary finite field SIMD cryptographic arithmetic functionality in hardware and/or microcode sequences in order to support significant performance improvements for several important performance critical applications, without excessive or undue functional units requiring additional circuitry, area or power.
Embodiments of the mechanisms disclosed herein may be implemented in hardware, software, firmware, or a combination of such implementation approaches. Embodiments of the invention may be implemented as computer programs or program code executing on programmable systems comprising at least one processor, a storage system (including volatile and nonvolatile memory and/or storage elements), at least one input device, and at least one output device.
Program code may be applied to input instructions to perform the functions described herein and generate output information. The output information may be applied to one or more output devices, in known fashion. For purposes of this application, a processing system includes any system that has a processor, such as, for example; a digital signal processor (DSP), a microcontroller, an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), or a microprocessor.
The program code may be implemented in a high level procedural or object oriented programming language to communicate with a processing system. The program code may also be implemented in assembly or machine language, if desired. In fact, the mechanisms described herein are not limited in scope to any particular programming language. In any case, the language may be a compiled or interpreted language.
One or more aspects of at least one embodiment may be implemented by representative instructions stored on a machinereadable medium which represents various logic within the processor, which when read by a machine causes the machine to fabricate logic to perform the techniques described herein. Such representations, known as “IP cores” may be stored on a tangible, machine readable medium and supplied to various customers or manufacturing facilities to load into the fabrication machines that actually make the logic or processor.
Such machinereadable storage media may include, without limitation, nontransitory, tangible arrangements of articles manufactured or formed by a machine or device, including storage media such as hard disks, any other type of disk including floppy disks, optical disks, compact disk readonly memories (CDROMs), compact disk rewritable's (CDRWs), and magnetooptical disks, semiconductor devices such as readonly memories (ROMs), random access memories (RAMs) such as dynamic random access memories (DRAMs), static random access memories (SRAMs), erasable programmable readonly memories (EPROMs), flash memories, electrically erasable programmable readonly memories (EEPROMs), magnetic or optical cards, or any other type of media suitable for storing electronic instructions.
Accordingly, embodiments of the invention also include nontransitory, tangible machinereadable media containing instructions or containing design data, such as Hardware Description Language (HDL), which defines structures, circuits, apparatuses, processors and/or system features described herein. Such embodiments may also be referred to as program products.
In some cases, an instruction converter may be used to convert an instruction from a source instruction set to a target instruction set. For example, the instruction converter may translate (e.g., using static binary translation, dynamic binary translation including dynamic compilation), morph, emulate, or otherwise convert an instruction to one or more other instructions to be processed by the core. The instruction converter may be implemented in software, hardware, firmware, or a combination thereof. The instruction converter may be on processor, off processor, or part on and part off processor.
Thus, techniques for performing one or more instructions according to at least one embodiment are disclosed. While certain exemplary embodiments have been described and shown in the accompanying drawings, it is to be understood that such embodiments are merely illustrative of and not restrictive on the broad invention, and that this invention not be limited to the specific constructions and arrangements shown and described, since various other modifications may occur to those ordinarily skilled in the art upon studying this disclosure. In an area of technology such as this, where growth is fast and further advancements are not easily foreseen, the disclosed embodiments may be readily modifiable in arrangement and detail as facilitated by enabling technological advancements without departing from the principles of the present disclosure or the scope of the accompanying claims.
Claims
1. A processor comprising:
 a decode stage to decode a first instruction for a Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) binary finite field multiplicative inverse, the first instruction specifying a source data operand set, and a monic irreducible polynomial; and
 one or more execution units, responsive to the decoded first instruction, to: compute a SIMD binary finitefield multiplicative inverse modulo the irreducible polynomial for each element of the source data operand set; and store a result of the first instruction in a SIMD destination register.
2. The processor of claim 1, wherein the first instruction specifies said SIMD destination register as a destination operand.
3. The processor of claim 1, wherein the first instruction specifies a SIMD register to hold 16 byte elements as the source data operand set.
4. The processor of claim 1, wherein the first instruction specifies a SIMD register to hold 32 byte elements as the source data operand set.
5. The processor of claim 1, wherein the first instruction specifies a SIMD register to hold 64 byte elements as the source data operand set.
6. The processor of claim 1, wherein computing the SIMD binary finite field multiplicative inverse is performed by raising each element of the source data operand set to the power 254 modulo the irreducible polynomial in the Galois field GF(28).
7. The processor of claim 1, wherein the irreducible polynomial is specified in the first instruction mnemonic as 1B to indicate x8+x4+x3+x+1 in the Galois field GF(28).
8. The processor of claim 2, wherein the irreducible polynomial is specified in an immediate operand of the first instruction as a hexadecimal control value 1B to indicate x8+x4+x3+x+1 in the Galois field GF(28).
9. The processor of claim 1, wherein the irreducible polynomial is specified in an immediate operand of the first instruction as a hexadecimal control value F5 to indicate x8+x7+x6+x5+x4+x2+1 in the Galois field GF(28).
10. A machinereadable medium to record functional descriptive material including one or more executable instructions, which if executed on behalf of a thread of a machine causes the machine to:
 access a source data operand set of elements, and a monic irreducible polynomial;
 computing a Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) binary finitefield multiplicative inverse modulo the irreducible polynomial for each element of the source data operand set; and
 store a result of the SIMD binary finitefield multiplicative inverse modulo the irreducible polynomial in a SIMD destination register.
11. The machinereadable medium of claim 10, wherein the irreducible polynomial is specified in an immediate operand of a first instruction as a hexadecimal control value 1B to indicate
 x8+x4+x3+x+1 in the Galois field GF(28).
12. The machinereadable medium of claim 10, wherein the irreducible polynomial is specified in a first instruction mnemonic as 1B to indicate x8+x4+x3+x+1 in the Galois field GF(28).
13. A method comprising:
 decoding a first instruction for a Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) binary finite field multiplicative inverse, the first instruction specifying a source data operand set, and a monic irreducible polynomial;
 computing a SIMD binary finitefield multiplicative inverse modulo the irreducible polynomial for each element of the source data operand set responsive to the decoded first instruction; and
 storing a result of the first instruction in a SIMD destination register.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein the monic irreducible polynomial is specified in an immediate operand of the first instruction as a hexadecimal control value 1B to indicate x8+x4+x3+x+1 in the Galois field GF(28).
15. The method of claim 13, wherein the irreducible polynomial is specified in the first instruction mnemonic as 1B to indicate x8+x4+x3+x+1 in the Galois field GF(28).
16. A processing system comprising:
 a memory to store a first instruction for a SIMD secure hashing algorithm round slice; and
 a processor comprising: an instruction fetch stage to fetch the first instruction; a decode stage to decode a first instruction for a Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) binary finite field multiplicative inverse, the first instruction specifying a source data operand set, and a monic irreducible polynomial; and one or more execution units, responsive to the decoded first instruction, to: compute a SIMD binary finitefield multiplicative inverse modulo the irreducible polynomial for each element of the source data operand set; and store a result of the first instruction in a SIMD destination register.
17. The processing system of claim 16, wherein the irreducible polynomial is specified in the first instruction mnemonic as 1B to indicate x8+x4+x3+x+1 in the Galois field GF(28).
18. The processing system of claim 16, wherein the irreducible polynomial is specified in an immediate operand of the first instruction as a hexadecimal control value 1B to indicate x8+x4+x3+x+1 in the Galois field GF(28).
19. The processing system of claim 16, wherein the irreducible polynomial is specified in an immediate operand of the first instruction as a hexadecimal control value 87 to indicate x128+x7+x2+x+1 in the Galois field GF(2128).
20. The processing system of claim 16, wherein the irreducible polynomial is specified in an immediate operand of the first instruction as a hexadecimal control value F5 to indicate x8+x7+x6+x5+x4+x2+1 in the Galois field GF(28).
21. The processing system of claim 16, wherein the first instruction is further for a SIMD affine transformation of each binary finite field multiplicative inverse, and said one or more execution units, responsive to the decoded first instruction, are further to:
 perform a SIMD affine transformation by applying a transformation matrix operand to the multiplicative inverse of each element of the source data operand set, and applying a translation vector operand to each transformed multiplicative inverse of an element of the source data operand set to generate a result of the first instruction.
22. The processing system of claim 21, wherein the irreducible polynomial is specified in the first instruction mnemonic as 1B to indicate x8+x4+x3+x+1 in the Galois field GF(28).
Type: Application
Filed: Jun 26, 2014
Publication Date: Mar 5, 2015
Inventor: Shay Gueron (Haifa)
Application Number: 14/316,511
International Classification: G06F 9/30 (20060101); G06F 21/60 (20060101);