Multimodality Medical Procedure Mattress-Based Device
A mattress system is provided that is optimized for the hospital setting and includes a guiderail system that accepts a variety of accessories for attachment thereto. The guiderail system may have integrated data lines, power lines, gas lines, and/or fluid lines. Also provided are radioabsorbant shields, trays and other components designed for optimal use with the mattress system.
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This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 62/008,495 filed Dec. 5, 2014 entitled A Multimodality Medical Procedure Mattress-Based Device, and to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 62/240,409 filed Oct. 12, 2015 entitled Radioabsorbent Assemblies, both of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present application relates generally to the use of devices during medical procedures (e.g. heart catheterization, surgery, medical imaging) in which a patient lies on a surface.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Patient tables are used in a wide variety of settings for medical procedures and for patient transport. In most or all of these procedures, the patients lie upon a mattress that rests atop the patient table and typically consists of a soft pad that is contained within a flexible cover. While on the mattress, the patient is often connected to any one of a number of monitors that may be used to monitor pulse oximetry, blood pressure, electrocardiogram tracings, heart rate or other physiologic information. In addition, medical treatment devices, such as intravenous infusion pumps and cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices are connected to the patient on the mattress and attached to surrounding structures, such as a gurney or free standing pole.
The intention of the mattress design is to provide a durable, easily cleanable, relatively comfortable location for the patient to lie through the procedure with a shape that matches the table upon which it is to be used. This type of mattress is present on all patient tables throughout the hospital. While providing some modicum of patient comfort, this mattress is not designed with any additional features to provide value to the patient or clinician. In fact, patient mattresses are frequently surrounded by a variety of monitoring and therapeutic devices that are attached to the patient in one way or another. This results in a confusing array of cables, tubes, power sources, gas sources (such as oxygen), and displays. All of these require attachment to the patient or travel with the patient, creating a complex web of devices around and connected to the patient. These connections are prone to inadvertent mis-application and disconnection. Moreover, the need for a battery power supply in some devices increases weight and creates a need for recharging of multiple devices.
Many of the ancillary medical devices referred to above are attached to a table or gurney that supports the patient mattress. X-ray tables with rails that support patient mattresses have been developed (e.g. Philips Allura Centron table) and rail systems for stretchers have been described (application Ser. Nos. 12/107,730, 11/784,994 [lapsed], Ser. No. 12/651,601). The rails attached to the table prevent patient movement without moving from the table rails all ancillary equipment attached to the patient. That impedes patient transfer to a bed and often leaves the patient unmonitored while electrodes are reattached.
Support structures within mattresses have been described, but these do not protrude from the mattress, are not intended to be attached to medical devices, and do not carry power or data conductors, or gas tubing (U.S. Pat. No. 8,984,690, US 763442, U.S. Pat. No. 4,676,687).
Mattresses with flexible covering to aid sliding and evacuation of patients from hazardous environments have also been described (PCT/IB2011/000190, PCT/IB2011/003057, U.S. Ser. No. 13/452,079, U.S. Ser. No. 12/968,840, U.S. Ser. No. 11/617,061), as well as ones with integral spinal protection boards within the mattress to stabilize the spinal cord during transport and straps to stabilize the patient within the evacuation apparatus. While helpful for evacuation of patients, these products do not support ancillary medical equipment such as pumps, monitoring devices, or radiation shielding.
Stith described a life support bed where the medical equipment needed for life support reside on the carriage of the bed (U.S. Pat. No. 4,584,989). This device obviously could not be easily transported or used for x-ray imaging.
In the medical procedure environment, the mattress and associated patient table are two of many pieces of equipment commonly used. Often times, there are monitors for electrocardiogram tracings, pulse oximetry, blood pressure and other purposes. For each of these monitors, there are associated cables or leads used to connect to the patient. These cables often become entangled and there is always a risk that leads are inappropriately managed or connected to the patient. Challenges with cable management can lead to procedural delays, entanglement with other devices, and potential patient misdiagnosis.
Medical procedures are performed often on patients lying horizontally on a mattress, such as an operating table. Ancillary equipment such as intravenous pumps, control consoles and imaging displays are often attached to a side rail on the operating table or bed frame. These rails are composed of metal and are configured to allow the attachment of a clamp or locking mechanism to fix the equipment to the rail. One problem with this method of attaching medical equipment to tables is that the table is usually fixed to a rigid structure such as an x-ray unit, stretcher, or large bed. Therefore, when patients are moved, the entire set of control devices and other medical devices attached to the patient must to detached and reattached to another bed structure or simply held by a caregiver or the patient. In addition, many of the devices attached to the rails require electrical power, connections to other devices, or pressurized gas. This creates a clutter of wires and tubes around the bed and also may impede efficient patient transfer from one area to another.
Another aspect of a patient mattress is the fact that the mattress must be thoroughly cleaned after each use. Concerns of viral or bacterial transmission from patient to patient necessitate an extensive cleaning process that includes manual spraying and wiping of all patient surfaces. Following that process, other potential disinfecting steps such as UV light or other sterilants may be used in an attempt to reduce the risk of contamination and disease transmission.
In the instance of a patient table used in an interventional catheterization laboratory, there are additional aspects to the use of the table and mattress. Arm boards are commonly used to support the arms of the patient, both with standard arm boards during a typical interventional procedure as well as with custom arm boards designed to manage the arm during a radial artery access procedure, in which the radial artery of the arm is accessed for catheterization. The current state of the art with these boards is simply to slide a polymeric sheet under the back of the patient to stabilize the board, which cantilevers over the edge of the mattress to support the arms. This can be a difficult maneuver to insert the board, and the rigid board directly beneath the back and shoulders of the patient may be uncomfortable.
The patient's wrist can be placed in any number of support devices that lay on the arm board. These support devices generally extend the wrist to provide better access to the radial artery. The disadvantage is that the support devices must themselves be secured to the arm board. In addition, procedures are usually performed with the physician on the patient's right side. Access to the patient's left arm for radial or brachial artery access to difficult. Typically, the entire operating team has to move to the patients left side and the room monitors (for example, x-ray and physiologic monitoring) must be moved to the opposite side. As a result, many surgeons have the patient drape their left arm across their abdomen in order to access the left arm arteries from the patient's right side. In this position, the surgeon's exposure to x-ray increases significantly. A number of devices have been developed to support the left arm in this position, but none have integrated x-ray shielding.
In addition to the discomfort to the patient, there is risk during radiographic procedures to the physician and cath lab staff due to radiation exposure. The fluoroscopy unit that provides imaging during the procedure emits x-rays that pass through the patient with the intent of reaching the image intensifier for the image to be transferred to the monitor. However, significant portions of the radiation intended for imaging are scattered by interaction with the patient and spread around the cath lab. Some of this x-ray radiation is ultimately absorbed by the physician and staff, increasing their overall radiation exposure.
Radiation protection during medical procedures requiring x-rays or other ionizing radiation is a major health concern for health care workers (HCW). There are numerous methods of shielding the HCW from radiation. Commonly used methods include the use of flat, inflexible, clear or opaque shields impregnated or covered with lead or lead equivalent materials. These are cumbersome to operate and require constant movement by the HCW to shield themselves from radiation. Frequently, they also do not conform to the patient's body habitus and contours. In addition, shields often get in the way of adequate fluoroscopic visualization of the patient or key areas of the patient that require easy access or monitoring. Another major impediment of existing methods is that the HCW has to move these heavy equipment manually and also conform their bodies to visualize around the impediments caused by the existing devices. This is a major cause for musculoskeletal morbidity of the HCW resulting in chronic neck, back injuries. Consequently, it is common for the HCW to sacrifice radiation protection for better visualization as well as better ergonomics by moving the current shields out of the way or positioning them in a markedly sub-optimal protection position. In addition, many times the HCW forgets to move the shields for adequate protection.
Systems of radiation shielding have been described. These systems, however, employ extensive heavy shields or encase the operator in a restrictive enclosure.
The device described herein offers continuous and critical radiation protection by partially or fully automating the radiation protection process as well as providing optimal patient and HCW ergonomics.
The primary problem with prior attempts to provide x-ray scatter radiation shielding is that the shield must conform to the patient's body contour and also be able to conform to the x-ray imaging device. Patients come in a wide variety of shapes. X-ray units are bulky and the physician often needs to image the patient at widely varied angles relative to the patient's long axis. For example, cardiac imaging requires the x-ray camera to be positioned in all four quadrants (over the left and right shoulder and over the left and right rib cage). The physician usually inserts a catheter into a blood vessel at a specific location such as the femoral artery, radial artery or jugular vein. The physician often needs to stand next to that body part during the procedure. As a result, an ideal shielding system would be able to conform to both the patient shape and the position of the x-ray camera.
A number of shields have been developed to absorb scatter x-ray. The most commonly employed is an apron, vest or skirt with integrated x-ray absorbing material that is worn by the user. X-ray absorbing gloves, glasses, and head caps have been worn to prevent x-ray exposure of specific body areas. These devices are cumbersome, heavy, and have been associated with orthopedic injuries. X-ray absorbing pads have also been developed (U.S. Pat. No. 6,674,087, U.S. Pat. No. 7,677,214). Problems keeping the pads clean from patient to patient have led to their use in a disposable form. This adds to medical cost and toxic waste. Finally, fixed, durable x-ray shielding has been used extensively. These devices primarily include leaded glass or acrylic in planar sheets hung from the ceiling, attached to the rails of an x-ray table, or placed into a free-standing structure (such as a wheeled structure or apparatus hung from the ceiling). Cocoons (in which the physician resides while operating) that absorb x-ray and large x-ray absorbing barriers have also been described (US20020109107, U.S. Pat. No. 7,091,508). These devices have shown to be too cumbersome to be of practical use. A number of other fixed or mobile x-ray shields have also been described. They provide partial x-ray protection for the physician and staff.
One challenge to x-ray visualization in the cath lab is ensuring that the area of treatment in the patient is not blocked by radiopaque materials that prevent adequate x-ray penetration for imaging. Typically, any radiopaque clip, instrument or wiring that is near the patient will appear on x-ray and potentially prevent visualization of critical anatomy. In particular, cables such as ECG leads that may drape across the patient can cause imaging difficulty. Many medical procedures require imaging of body parts and simultaneous monitoring of physiologic functions, such as an electrocardiogram, blood oximetry, respiratory rate, and blood pressure. Many conductors of electricity, such as copper and gold, are visible under x-ray and interfere with medical imaging. Even aluminum, which is less visible under medical x-ray, can be seen when the wire diameter is sufficiently large or when multiple wires are stacked together, such as when conductors are circled by a shielding material. These problems interfere with the monitoring of patients undergoing x-ray examinations.
While there are concerns that clips and wiring may interfere with visualization of patient anatomy, there is a need for connections to the patient in a manner that provide critical diagnostic information. Pulse oximetry, electrocardiographic traces and blood pressure readings are all examples of data that may be vitally important during a medical procedure. Currently, the methods used to gather this information are not streamlined or synchronized in a manner that is conducive to simple and easy use in the interventional cath lab or other medical settings. Solesbee (U.S. Pat. No. 6,721,977) described the use of wires in a patient mattress to allow integration of patient monitoring cables. Wilson and Kim (U.S. Pat. No. 8,491,473) describe a conduit system within a patient mattress, where the conduit carries wires for monitoring and patient treatment. These are useful additions to the patient mattress, but the conductors and conduits are visible on x-ray imaging when the x-ray camera is turned in some directions (such as when the x-ray tube is under the patient's right shoulder aimed at an x-ray detector that is over the patient's left lateral chest). Wiring that is conductive but nearly invisible under x-ray would improve the inventions of Solesbee et al (U.S. Pat. No. 6,721,977) and Wilson et al (U.S. Pat. No. 8,491,473).
Others have described mattresses of composite construction, including possible components such as flexible inner members with a range of stiffness and an outer containment jacket or cover. However, no present invention envisions a mattress of composite construction that utilizes the materials of the construction to provide for a rigid frame, patient comfort and a suite of features that may provide solutions to previously unresolved issues related to imaging, radiation exposure, cleaning and modular attachment of arm boards or other devices and monitors.OBJECTS AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Aspects of the invention described herein generally include:
- 1. A mattress on which a patient lies, where the mattress is contained within an outer, more rigid shell
- 2. Rails attached to the mattress or mattress shell are used to attach medical devices and shielding, where the rails may contain a power supply, medical gasses, and conductors for data and computer communication
- 3. A flexible x-ray shielding system that conforms partially to the patient and x-ray system independently
- 4. A wiring system composed of flat conductors that are minimally visible on x-ray
- 5. A blood pressure cuff that can be applied around the arm or leg like a clamshell
- 6. One or more work surfaces that attach to the mattress rail and provide attachments for clips and other devices to stabilize catheters in the sterile field, an inductive power supply to the sterile field, and radiation shielding
- 7. One or more heating elements in the mattress with one or more surface temperature feedback sensors that can be used to warm patients in selective body locations or to sterilize the mattress with heat
- 8. An attachment for cardiopulmonary resuscitation that attaches to the mattress rails and derives power or data control from the rails or mattress.
- 9. An intravenous infusion pump that receives power from the mattress rails or data control from the mattress or mattress rails.
- 10. A capacitive ECG sensor that is imbedded into the mattress cover or located below the cover and associated electronic signal processing to provide an ECG signal from the patient lying on the mattress.
- 11. A device to hold the patient's head that provides radiation shielding, stabilization of head position, and a wrap around the neck that allows for rapid circumferential cooling of the neck to provide brain hypothermia.
This invention describes a medical procedure mat designed to provide integrated patient monitoring and comfort by having a mattress and perimeter shell. The shell is composed of a material more rigid than the foam mattress supporting the patient, such as closed cell foam, fiber glass, carbon fiber, or other rigid material that has minimal x-ray absorption, and an inner insert with open cell or more elastic material to provide comfort. The surface upon which the patient will reside is covered with either flexible closed-cell foam or another appropriate textile that is durable and easily cleaned after use. Medical monitoring and connections to the monitoring devices may reside in between the rigid and flexible layers.
The invention is an object on which a human can lay or sit, where the object contains sensors to monitor physiologic functions. In addition, the object may contain therapeutic devices to provide treatment. In addition, the device has a variety of compartments to house medical equipment and a perimeter rail attached directly to the mattress to provide additional monitoring and therapeutic devices, and a system for distributing electrical power, medical gasses, computer data transmission, and radio receivers and transmitters.
In one embodiment, the object is composed of carbon fiber. The carbon fiber supplies sufficient rigidity to support the remainder of the object, including the included devices and the patient. The carbon fiber structure has cavities or drawers for storage of devices and wiring (including electrical and optical cables, with optional electromagnetic shielding). In addition, the closed carbon fiber may also have rigid members within or covering the foam to provide additional structural integrity.
In one embodiment, the main cavity of the closed cell foam 1 is filled with a softer foam 2 for patient comfort. In one embodiment, one or more top layers of foam are provided to further enhance comfort or to provide specialized functions, such as electrical conductivity, magnetic properties, radiation blocking agents, antibacterial, antifungal or antiviral properties, or photon transmission.
In one series of embodiments, the procedure mat is designed to integrate with commonly used procedure tables that have been installed in the hospital or clinic. In this way, the mat replaces the simple mattress that sits upon the table with a device that provides for patient comfort as well as patient monitoring and cable management.
In one such embodiment, the procedure mat is a relatively rectangular shell structure constructed of relatively rigid closed-cell foam with an open top surface. In another embodiment, the shell is composed of carbon fiber. In yet another embodiment, the shell is composed of aluminum. This shell contains a cavity to house an inner mattress component while acting to provide structural rigidity to the composite device, allowing for routing of cables or wiring throughout the mat and locations to which other structural members such as rails or monitors may be mounted. The inner mattress component is a compliant material which provides for patient comfort. The upper surface of the mat will be covered by a flexible, non-permeable material that will provide for patient comfort as well as furnish a non-porous surface that is impermeable to fluids, resists staining and is easily cleanable.
This profile of this structure may also be adapted to better match patient anatomy and provide closer access to the patient from the caregiver or for diagnostic, therapeutic or imaging equipment. In these configurations, the head region of the mat is narrowed, with the mat increasing in width at the shoulder level and possibly again at the hip level on a supine patient. This type of mat configuration and others may be dimensionally specified to match geometries with procedure tables produced for interventional cardiology, radiology, surgery or other use. In another embodiment, the flexible portion of the mat has protrusion or indentations that facilitate the positioning of the patient on the mat, such as a protrusion at the superior shoulder level to guide optimal positioning of the patient in the long axis of the mat. Similarly, indentations or protrusions for the trunk head, or legs help position these body areas in the left-right axis of the mat.
In yet another embodiment of the procedure mat, the mat contains other features to improve functionality for specific uses. In the region within the mat on which the patient's torso rests, the mat may contain a more rigid support structure that supports the chest of the patient The purpose of this more rigid structure to improve the effectiveness of chest compressions if they are required for cardiac resuscitation.
Another feature of the outer more rigid structure of foam or carbon fiber is the ability to create outer ridges that prevent patients from falling off of the mattress. In one embodiment, the outer ridge can by folded to the outer side of the mattress to allow easier transfer of the patient of the mattress. Moreover, the hinged segment, once folded over, provides an extended surface for transfer.
The anchoring of components to the mat is deemed beneficial in particular when considering the range of procedures that may be performed on a patient residing upon the mat. In the case of interventional cardiology, arm boards are often desired to provide a location upon which the patient may rest their arms. Current technology uses a rigid polymeric sheet that is anchored by placing it under the torso of the patient, an unwieldy and uncomfortable environment. The anchoring component of the mat allows for arm boards 4 made of foam or other material to be designed to be integrated with the anchoring component so that they may be attached or detached as desired. This provides simple, modular and comfortable use of arm boards when necessary for a procedure.
The resuscitation aspect of the embedded reinforcing structure provides a significant benefit when compared to the current state of the art. At the present time, if a patient suffers from cardiac arrest and requires resuscitation, the physician will initiate chest compressions while the patient is lying on a standard mattress. The typical mattress has significant compressibility, meaning that for each chest compression applied by the physician, a substantial amount of the energy goes into compressing the mattress rather than compressing the rib cage and ultimately the heart. The result is less-effective compressions, causing a significantly higher level of fatigue to the physician and reduced cardiac output. By adding a rigid component in place of a portion of the mattress under the chest of the patient, the compressibility of the mat is reduced. Therefore, the result is more effective chest compressions which result in lower physician fatigue and better clinical results.
In addition to the modular arm boards that may be added to the edges of the mat, additional components may be added to the mat itself or modularly added to arm boards that are attached to the mat. In one particular embodiment, flexible radiation shields may be reversibly affixed to the arm boards on a mat used in interventional cardiology or radiology procedures in such a way that they may extend vertically, horizontally or in a curved manner around the patient. These radiation shields are designed such that they prevent x-ray radiation that reflects or backscatters from the patient from reaching the physician or catheter lab staff. Other modular radiation shields may be placed at or near the waist of the patient and/or near the neck of the patient to prevent backscatter radiation from exiting the imaging field. Each of these shields are designed such that they will flex out of the way when contacted by the image intensifier of the c-arm or x-ray imaging unit as it rotates around the patient.
These modular shields may be designed such that they act independently of one another so that movement or use of one component does not affect the other components. Alternatively, they may be designed to mate with one another such that they are attached to one another during use with clips, snaps or magnets, or their geometric design may be such that the components nest within one another in their static position. In one embodiment, the edges of the components are magnetically attracted to one another so that they provide continuous radiation protection around the patient through direct contact between the components, but when the image intensifier pushes on the component the magnetic attraction between components is broken and the impacted radiation shield is free to bend and flex out of the way.
In another embodiment, the winged radiation shield attached to the mattress can bend on a hinge, for example a hinge with a spring that biases the hinge to a position such that the radiation shield is in an upright position. When an x-ray camera needs to be positioned such that the radiation shield would prevent the user from obtaining the desired radiographic projection, the shield can be reversibly moved aside by the movement of the camera by the shield pivoting on the hinge. If a view is desired that is more lateral than can be provided by the wing with the spring-loaded hinge, a release mechanism can be actuated that deactivates the spring and allows the hinge to rotate completely downward, moving the wing out of the field of view.
In yet another embodiment, the neck and waist components of the radiation shield are specifically adapted to ensure that vascular access can be gained for an interventional procedure. There are notches or cutouts provided in the shield so that the femoral artery and femoral vein may be reached in the leg, and the carotid artery and jugular vein may be reached in the neck. Additionally, the radiopacity of the shield components may be reduced in key regions so that areas that may require visualization such as the distal aorta and the iliac arteries can be seen through the shield.
In yet another embodiment, the waist component of the device consists of a “Flag” with elements to conform to patients' body habitus and other elements to flexibly and reversibly deform to accommodate other equipment in the environment of the operating room.
The flag consists of an element that attaches the Flag to the patient's mattress, the table the patient lies on, a free standing device or to a wall or ceiling mount. The attachment mechanism has one or more rigid arms connected at an angle, such that an arm(s) are horizontal and extend from the Attachment mechanism. Below one of the arms is a radiation absorbing material configured in such a way as to conform to the patient's body. Above the same or another arm is a radio-absorbing material that can be reversibly displaced. For example, an x-ray camera can be positioned such that it pushes the upper part of the shield away to allow the camera to be positioned for a particular x-ray view.
The upper functional unit has a degree of internal flexibility/elasticity and has a horizontal articulation with a lower functional unit and a vertical articulation with a lateral functional unit. This allows the upper unit to freely move on a horizontal axis as well as have some elastic stretch when the equipment in the room such as an image intensifier pushes it to enable optimal imaging conditions. This allows the lower functional unit to remain in place on the patient continuing to block radiation scatter from the patient's body while the upper unit bends away and conforms to the image intensifier. In addition, the Flag can have vertical supports throughout. The supports contain a hinge or spring apparatus to allow the Flag to bend in the vertical plane. This allows the Flag to conform to other radiation absorbing material, allowing the Flag continues to form a shell around the patient to continue blocking the radiation scatter. Because the Flag has elastic properties, when the image intensifier moves away from an interfering position, the Flag returns to its initial position, preventing gaps in the shielding where radiation may be emitted towards the HCW.
In one embodiment, the Flag has asymmetric curves that contour to a patient body habitus in the lower functional unit to maximize radiation protection to the HCW.
This novel invention contrasts with current devices, which are pushed out of the way by the image intensifier or the HCW to prevent getting in the way of the HCW being able to work with catheters etc.
The invention allows the lower portion of the flag to stay in place without moving away and also adds the ability of the upper functional unit to continue to offer radiation protection. This combination minimizes or eliminates the interference to the HCW work flow and allows them to continue their procedure uninterrupted.
The third functional unit in the current embodiment includes a contoured lateral unit which has a vertical articulation with the upper and lower units of the flag. The lateral unit curves towards the patient to block the radiation that currently reaches the HCW due to the wide gap between the floating ceiling-mounted shield and a lateral shield sometimes used by HCWs. The vertical articulation also allows for the flag to conform with the lateral wing described previously. In addition, there are also cut out areas along the lower border of the lateral and lower functional units to contour to the patients forearm and the groin area to allow for maximal visualization.
The radioabsorbent barriers on the top or bottom of the Flag can be composed of multiple overlapping material, such that an object displacing one piece of material would not displace the adjacent section. This would improve radiation protection.
The flag units can be constructed of radioabsorbent fully or partially transparent material or could have a radioabsorbent clear window in portions to allow for optimal patient visualization. The Flag also can hold a patient instruction and or entertainment window where a screen could be placed.
In another embodiment, the flexible portion of upper part of the radiation shield is composed of multiple rigid elements that are attached to the shield with at a hinge. The elements absorb x-ray and can flex at the hinge point passively as the x-ray detector pushes them. The hinge can be a simple spring hinge that rotates in one plane or a ball hinge that rotates in two planes. It is recognized that many types of hinges could provide a rotating mechanism. An advantage of multiple hinged shields is that only a portion of the shield will be displaced, improving radiation protection of the operator and also reducing the force needed to move the portion of the shield that obstructs the x-ray detector. An additional benefit is the transparent shielding material, which is inherently inflexible, can be incorporated into the shield. This has the advantage of allowing the physician to see the patient through the flexible shield.
In another embodiment, the multiple rigid elements are composed of a mixture of flexible and in flexible material. For example, leaded glass can be combined with a flexible polymer material, such that a portion of the individual element is flexible and a portion is rigid.
In another embodiment, the multiple element shield can be attached to the workbench, such that the element rotate from the workbench, which serves as a supporting member.
The Flag is anchored to the mattress or patient table, to another free standing mechanism or to a wall or ceiling with features that allow for rapid stowage. The Flag has freedom to rotate on 3-axes and also has spring loading mechanisms built in such that it assists the HCW in moving the flag with minimal use of force and allows for the flag to return back to a neutral position or to another position between neutral and extreme flexion or extension to contours to the patient and the equipment in the room as closely as possible.
Invasive angiography and other medical procedures and operations are often performed on patient lying on support structures known as operating tables. In some patients, the upper extremities are instrumented, particularly the radial artery in the wrist. The arm usually rests on an arm board that is attached to the operating table. The arm is often abducted to allow better access to the wrist or antecubital fossa. The arm board holding the abducted arm often pivots away from the operating table to support the abducted arm.
In procedures where catheters or other medical instruments extend from the arm in a caudal direction there is no supporting surface on which the catheter or instruments can lie. As a result, the physician either holds the catheter manually or drapes it over the operating table by curving the catheter or instrument. This leads to catheters or instruments falling off the table or diminishes the physician's ability to manipulate the catheter or device. The problem is particularly present in patients undergoing radial artery catheterization, where multiple catheters and guidewires can extend out of the radial artery for over a meter in length.
There are support surfaces that attach to operating tables or are positioned partially between the mattress and the operating table. Although helpful, the attachment point is below of the surface of the mattress and the tables must be removed during patient transport. In addition, these tables are simple surfaces, some with x-ray absorbing capacity but no ancillary capabilities to manage the catheters and wires emanating from the patient or attachment of devices to supply inductive power to the sterile field.
The invention described here is a generally rectangular table that can be attached to the procedure mattress, usually by attaching to a rail on the mattress. One feature of this board is the ability to attach clips to hold catheters or wire. Another feature is the presence of an induction coil to transfer power to devices in the sterile field. Yet another feature is a quick release mechanism. Another feature is a mechanism to fold or rotate the table against the operating table to allow for the transport of patients on and off of the operating table and mattress.
In another embodiment, the outer ridge of the outer shell is hinged such that it can be folded over to the outside of the mattress, creating a flat structure that extends from the mattress outward. This flat surface can then serve as a table for the physician to use during the procedure.
The ability to clip or hold catheters and guidewires in place would improve procedure safety, free the surgeon's hands for other tasks, and facilitate faster catheter exchanges over the guidewires. The problem with clips is that the operating table is typically covered with a sterile drape. The drape is loose fitting and moves. To solve this problem, two methods are described for attachment of devices to hold wires or catheters. In one embodiment, magnets (such as NdFeB) are placed at or within the surface, at certain spots on the board. Wire or catheter holders on the top of the sterile drape mate with the magnets. The holders have either oppositely polarized magnets or a magnetically attractive material (such as steel or iron). This allows them to hold position through the drape material. In addition, the use of two oppositely polarized magnets on one side prevents movement further. In another embodiment, the clip holder has the magnet and the board has areas of magnetically attractive material, (either discrete areas, tracks, or the entire board). Alternatively, the wire holder could be a simple magnet or magnetic material that is designed to mate with the magnets embedded within the surface of the patient mattress. The intravascular device such as a wire or catheter is placed on the drape atop the magnet, and a magnet or magnetic material covered in a soft polymer such as silicone is placed on top of the wire or catheter. The magnetic attraction between the two components will apply pressure on the wire or catheter, and the combination of the pressure and the coefficient of friction of the polymeric material will prevent movement of the interventional device. The soft polymeric material will also prevent damage to the sometimes fragile interventional device.
Another embodiment of a connector from the sterile field to the table is a clip. The clip is typically attached to the table. The opening is wide enough to allow the drape to lie within the clip. A wire or catheter holder then sits on top of the drape. It has a configuration that mates with the underlying holder, reversibly locking the upper holder to attach to the table.
In another embodiment, an adhesive pad attached to the underside of the drape or the surface of the table holds the drape to the table. The wire or catheter holder is attached adhesively to the attached drape.
Another embodiment of a clip mechanism that provides for simple attachment and release may be constructed of a highly compliant material such as silicone rubber or foam with a magnetic component in the base to affix to the table surface as described above. This compliant component has a notch or space in which the interventional device to be held will reside. Manual compression of the edges of the device compress the notch and grip the device. The deformation of the device by the act of compression causes clips mounted on either one or both sides of the non-compressed axis to extend beyond one end of the device and lock the device in the closed configuration. The ends of the clips on the non-attached side of the device extend beyond the compressible component of the device. Compression of these clip ends lever the locking end of the clips and release the compression. In this way, the locking can be effected using two fingers in compression on the complaint material and unlocking can be effected by using two fingers to compress the clip ends. The combination of the use of a simple attachment and release mechanism and highly compliant materials provide for a highly effective and easy to use component that is protective of the potentially fragile devices used in interventional procedures.
It is recognized that a combination of the attachment mechanisms could be used together.
Delivering electrical power to devices in a sterile field has always been difficult. Typically, the power is provided by sterile batteries or by a wire that is wrapped in a sterile drape. In this aspect of the invention, an induction coil is located within the operating table or side table. The induction coil sits in the non-sterile part of the field and is attached at one end to a power source and at the other end to the coil. Typically, the coil is mounted on the table in plane and at or near the surface of the table. A sterile receiving coil is placed over the coil, above the sterile drape. There is a mechanism for fixing the position of the receiving coil relative to underlying coil. These mechanisms include: adhesion of the receiving coil to the drape and drape adhesion to the table, magnetic connectors as described above, and clip connectors as described above.
In another embodiment, the inductive power source is used to control a medical device through changes in the power delivered. For example, the power to a motor used to drive an ultrasound probe to spin within a catheter can be adjusted to control the rate of spin and the position of the ultra sound generating element within the log axis of the catheter in the patient.
A table described above must be able to be moved out of the way in order for a patient to get onto the operating table. The table described herein can be attached through a quick-connect. In addition, it is anticipated that one could fold the table against the operating room table side.
Another type of work surface that may be used in conjunction with the mattress is a workbench that resides over the patient on the table, particularly over the lower legs of the patient. This device provides radiation protection, improves workflow, provides equipment storage, can easily be draped with a sterile bag, provides access for vascular catheter access, and can easily and quickly be removed from the operating field. In addition, one embodiment facilitates application of pressure to the body to reduce bleeding.
This device component consists of a horizontal tray that curves downward on the end facing the operator. The tray is positioned across the patient's body. The tray is composed of a radio-opaque material that blocks x-radiation. The radio-opaque material absorbs x-ray photons emitting from the patient while the patient is undergoing an x-ray imaging procedure. The curve of the tray blocks radiation emitting from the side or legs of the patient. The operator radiation exposure is therefore reduced.
The tray is connected to an attachment apparatus to then connect the device to a supporting structure (such as a bed or x-ray table). The attachment apparatus is fastened to the mattress or table that the patient lies on or a side-rail. A mechanism in the attachment apparatus allows the tray to rotate around the axis of the attachment apparatus, to flip up toward the attachment apparatus, and to tilt with one edge of the tray closer or farther away from the patient. The attachment mechanism itself can travel in a vertical up and down motion to move the tray above the patient and to lower the tray to the patient's body. This allows the tray to be positioned across and just above the patient easily, which allows the device to accommodate patients of different body shapes. It also allows for the tray to be removed up and out of the way quickly in case of emergency.
In another embodiment, the tray is a laminar construct with one or more layers of radio-opaque material and one or more layers of material with minimal x-ray absorption. In another embodiment the tray is composed a clear x-ray absorbing material such as a clear plastic polymer with a high content of an x-ray absorbing material (such as boron, beryllium, barium). In another embodiment, the tray has attachments that do not absorb x-rays, such as a piece that connects to the attachment apparatus and the tray. In another embodiment, the tray has a forward edge that curves upward to more comfortably rest against the patients belly to further block radiation from the body.
In another embodiment, the tray is attached to a free standing device.
In another embodiment, the dimensions of the tray are adjustable to fit different patient sizes. Since the tray is connected to an attachment device, the distance between the attachment device and an anatomical landmark (such as the femoral artery) needs to be adjustable so that the functional aspects (such as the cutouts for access to the femoral artery) can be located over the appropriate body location. Additionally, the tray functional aspects might need to be placed over two or more body areas. The tray can also have multiple sliding or rotating adjustable surfaces to fit the body dimensions of the patient. On mechanism is one or more sliding elements. Another mechanism in a rotation of two elements on a swivel hinge.
The tray has cut outs to facilitate access to parts of the body, such as the femoral artery and vein, while minimizing x-ray transmission. In addition, radio-opaque flaps or barriers attached to the access sites can be opened and closed to allow access when the x-ray is off. In addition, ridges near the access site block x-ray photons that are directed at the operator's position.
The tray has attachment devices to hold sterile surgical instruments, imaging devices, or supplies. These attachments allow the operator to have free hands for other tasks, such a puncturing an artery while the attachment holds an ultrasound probe to visualize the artery through the skin. In one embodiment, the attachments are connected to the tray underneath the sterile barrier or surgical drape and in another embodiment, the instruments are attached over a sterile barrier or surgical drape.
The tray also has indentations that provide storage areas for surgical devices and supplies, such as needles, guidewire attachments, gauze, suture, and sterile fluids. In addition, the tray has spring clips and other attachment devices to hold catheters and wires emanating from the body. This stabilizes the positions of the catheters or wires and frees up the operators hands.
A light may be attached to the tray illuminates the surgical area. The light may be controlled by a switch on the tray or by a remote device (such as a wireless device). The light can provide general lighting to the procedure area or a focused light on a particular area of interest. The lights are often dimmed in the x-ray imaging rooms and white light can interfere with the operators viewing of procedure monitors. In one embodiment, lights of different colors are used to provide lighting that optimizes the viewing of x-ray and vital sign monitors.
In another embodiment, advantage is taken of the position of the tray over the body. During some types of surgical procedures, pressure needs to be applied to the body, for example, to stop bleeding or compress a hematoma. This can be challenging when the bleeding occurs next to the surgical site. The operator needs to be manipulating catheters or surgical devices and cannot press on the body at the same time. An assistant's hands in the field obstruct the operator's hands. A balloon or active device under the tray can be inflated or activated to produce pressure on the body. When a balloon is employed, the balloon can be inflated by an electric pump, a manual pump operated by an assistant outside the sterile field, a manual pump pumped through the drape by the operator. Alternatively, a simple broad foot can be extended mechanically (such as a ratchet mechanism) down from the lower surface or side of the tray and mechanically locked into place.
Other balloon compression or mechanical compression devices exist. A balloon device is employed in a band that surrounds the patient. Mechanical C-clamps are used with one portion of the C-clamp under the patient and a compression foot is over the body. These devices are difficult to employ during a sterile procedure and require contact with the posterior and anterior aspects of the patient.
A key feature of this device is that it is used during sterile procedures. The asymmetrical connection to the attachment device permits easy draping with a sterile pouch or cover that covers both the upper side of the tray (where the gloved operator touches) and the lower side of the tray that meets the patient's sterilely prepped skin or the sterile drape covering the patient. In an alternative embodiment, the entire tray is delivered sterile and attached to the attachment mechanism by a gloved operator. In yet another embodiment, the attachment mechanism and the tray are sterile and are attached to the mattress, rail, table or freestanding device by a globed operator.
Another embodiment includes a dedicated mount that attaches to the bed or tray, to which an IV pole or other device (infusion pump, etc) could be mounted. The device has flexibility of position so that it can be pivoted to multiple positions or otherwise moved out of the way if necessary.
Devices are described that are usable to attach a catheter, wire, or other medical device to an operating table. The device has an attachment mechanism whereby the holder can be affixed to a drape or operating table (with or without a sterile drape), as described above. The holder is type of clip device, where the inner surface of the clip is covered with an elastomeric material or a material treated to facilitate attachment to a medical device by a friction fit. On example of an elastomer is a foam material. Another is silicone. Another is a gel material. An example of a friction enhancing material is silicone, certain rubbers, and materials where the surface is treated. Surface treatments include grit, ribs and grooves.
Measurement of blood pressure in a clinical environment typically is done using a cuff that surrounds the arm and a pressure gauge. The cuff contains an air bladder that can be reversibly pressurized using a pump. The air bladder is connected to a pressure gauge. The cuff containing the air bladder is typically a strip a long rectangular shape that can be wrapped around a arm or leg and fastened with a variety of fasteners (such as Velcro, hooks, or buckles) to approximate the air bladder to the size of the arm. The air bladder is typically pressurized to a level that arterial blood flow to the arm is obstructed by the pressure of the bladder encircling the arm. As the pressure is let out of the bladder, blood will flow into the arm intermittently when the encircling pressure falls below the systolic blood pressure. Flow will become continuous when the pressure falls below the diastolic blood pressure. The occurrence of intermittent and continuous flow can be determined using several methods, most often by listening for Karotkoff sounds using a stethoscope or using the occillometric method.
One problem with the measurement of blood pressure using a cuff is that the cuff must be placed circumferentially around the arm. This requires the person applying the cuff to use two hands to apply the cuff to the arm. In addition, creating a cuff that automatically attaches to the arm has been difficult.
Provided is a clamshell-like device containing an air bladder that reversibly attaches to the arm or leg. The advantage of the device is that a blood pressure cuff can be attached easily using one hand, without the need to circumferentially wrap the bladder around the arm or leg. In addition, the clamshell device can be attached to a surface and provide an automatic attachment by the motion of the arm into the open clamshell. The force of the arm into the clamshell activates the closure of the clamshell by mechanical means or by triggering a switch that secondarily cause closure (such as using a motorized closure).
Factors that affect pressure measurement by the occillometric method are the housing around the air bladder, the completeness of the encircling air bladder, and the elasticity of the encircling air bladder. In testing, it was found that a rigid outer constraining device causes more discomfort and changes the oscillatory changes in pressure relative to the blood pressure. In one embodiment of this invention, the outer housing of the air bladder is a rigid hemi-cylinder and interposed between the rigid outer housing and the air bladder is an elastic material that is compressed as the air bladder is pressurized. This allows the airbladder to pulsate as the pressure is reduced to less than systolic, but higher than diastolic pressure during blood pressure measurement. The material could be a foam or could simply be an air void where the bladder is attached to the rigid structure along its edges.
The two edges of the encircling housing may be attached securely in order to apply circumferential pressure to the limb. One method of fixing the clamshell into a closed position around the arm is to employ a spring mechanism, biasing the clamshell in the closed position. It was found that this type of configuration had two drawbacks. First, the spring constant required for effective closure was very high and posed problems for a user to open the clamshell with one hand. Second, the spring altered the oscillation of air bladder pressure relative to the actual blood pressure, making measurement of blood pressure less accurate. Closure of the clamshell at the parting line was much more effective. This can be accomplished using a number of methods, such as a magnetic attachment, a hook or clasp, a releasable ratchet mechanism, or a pin and receptacle releasable lock. In one embodiment, the attachment and release is performed with one hand.
The housing for the air bladder may be composed of a rigid shell, such as a metal or polymer. This provides the easiest manipulation of the device. Alternatively, the outer housing can be made from a flexible material (such as cloth, polymer, or foam) with a support skeleton compose of a more rigid material, such as steel, nitinol, or rigid polymer. In another embodiment, a rigid foam material can be used without the need for internal support. The advantage of this embodiment is that the inflation of the bladder causes less discomfort.
In one embodiment, the clamshell device is attached to a medical procedure mattress, arm board, chair or other surface. In one aspect of the embodiment, the air tubing to connect the air bladder with the pressure gauge is integral to the surface on which the cuff is mounted, that is, the tubing is attached to the mattress arm board or chair, or in a channel within the supporting devices.
In another embodiment, tubes emanating from the airbladder attach to the supporting structure by means of a valved or non-valved plug-in connection.
In another embodiment, the parting line is not closed for the measurement of blood pressure (
In another embodiment, the distance between two levers attached to the clamshell measured by any of a variety of means (such as a laser) measured over time describes the change in clamshell cross-sectional area. An air bladder in the clamshell is inflated until the inner cross sectional area no longer fluctuates because the inflow of blood has stopped. As the air bladder increases in size, the clamshell is expanded open against the spring type device near the hinge point, increasing the nearly circumferential pressure around the limb until blood flow into the limb ceases. The pressure in the air bladder is then reduced slowly. When the fluctuation in clamshell dimensions appears, the pressure in the air bladder is assumed to be the systolic blood pressure. As the pressure is reduced further, there will be a reduction in pulsation as the blood flow becomes continuous when the pressure in the bladder is less than the diastolic pressure. This will be the diastolic blood pressure, which can be displayed. In another embodiment, there is no air bladder. Instead, the spring pressure is increased to increase the closing pressure of the clamshell. The spring pressure can be increased by a number of mechanisms. For example, the spring can be turned manually or using a motor to increase spring tension. An air bladder can be inflated under or over the spring. Electromagnetic force can be applied by energizing a magnet or bringing it into opposition with an oppositely polarized magnet. Alternatively, a constraining cable can be placed on the spring and the length of the cable (or constraining device) can be increased to “unleash” the closing force of the spring.
Patients undergoing medical transport or procedures often lie on a mattress. Described above is a mattress with cabling where medical wires or other sensor conduits are routed through the patient mattress. The specific type of monitoring equipment needed for individual patients varies from person to person. In addition, the site of attachment may vary from person to person. For example, the blood pressure may be taken from either arm or leg, depending on the patient's injury or anatomy. Similarly, a pulse oximetry may be attached to the fingers, toes, ears or other body parts. Electrocardiographic leads may be attached from 2 to over 12 locations.
Herein described is a medical device consisting of a support structure that patients can lie, sit or stand on, where there are multiple attachments for sensor leads, such as electrocardiogram leads, pulse oximeter leads, ultrasound transducer wiring, or blood pressure cuff air tubing channels. In this invention, the leads can be reversibly attached from one or more of two or more ports, such that the unattached ports will be automatically inactive by virtue of the receiving port not having a sensor input attachment.
In the case of a blood pressure measurement system, at least two ports in the support structure are available for sensor attachment. For example, in an occilimetric method blood pressure cuff the sensor is attached to a pressure gauge by tubing so that the oscillation in pressure in the cuff can be measured and the blood pressure can be calculated. Since the blood pressure cuff could be attached to the right or left arm or leg, it would be advantageous to have a receiving port at multiple points in the support structure. An open tubing system with multiple openings would vent the system to ambient air pressure, eliminating the signal from the air bladder in the blood pressure cuff. A one end the tubing is connected to the air sensor. At the other ends, the tubing branches into multiple outlets. In the first embodiment, a valved system is provided which is bias-closed, whereby the insertion of the tube from the blood pressure cuff into the receptacle opens the valve and connects the cuff bladder to the sensor. The other ports remain closed because of the bias-closed valves. In one embodiment, the valves are passive. In another embodiment, the valves are active, such that opening of one valve closed the others. The active valve can be driven by electricity and can communicated with each other wirelessly or by conductors.
One potential problem with the tubing system connected multiple ports is that the air volume of the tubing system increases. That could make occillometric blood pressure detection more difficult. The problem is solved by creating an internal valving system that closes the unused ports from the main tube to the sensor, unless the receiving port is activated. The connection between the active receiving port and the remainder of the tubing system can be accomplished by fixed wire or through a wireless signal. In another embodiment, all tubing leads directly to an individual sensor such that the tubing is not interconnected and where the presence of an oscillating air pressure is sensed and the sensor is activated.
In an alternate method, the system may be valved so that all tubing lines run through a multi-port rotational valve. This valve may be controlled so that only one pressure cuff may be activated at a time as the others are shut off. Orientation of this valve may be manually controlled, or automated by sensors that indicate which port is in use to select valve orientation.
Patients undergoing a variety of medical procedures have electrical current passed through the body for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, such as defibrillation of the heart, electrocautery for surgery, or radiofrequency ablation of tissue for heart rhythm problems. In most cases, a ground wire is attached to the patient. The wire is usually mounted to a broad conductive member and coupled to the patient using a conductive gel. In this invention, a conductive element is described that is integral to the procedure mat, such that no additional ground is required. The patent is coupled to the ground upon lying on sitting on the device.
Similarly, electrodes for an electrocardiogram or electroencephalogram are attached to the skin using a conductive gel and adhesive agent. Electrodes may be imbedded into a part of a procedure mattress, chair or head covering, whereby the coupling occurs without the need for external wires or cables. In an alternative embodiment, the electrical signal is sensed using capacitive leads that are integral to the mattress, chair or head-covering. The leads are connected to a monitoring device or display by mean of a cable that attaches to the mattress, through radiofrequency or other forms of wireless transmission, or where the monitoring device is a part of the mattress.
In another embodiment, the mattress is foldable. The foldable mattress will facilitate its use in emergency patient transport where the rescuer can rapidly transport the mattress to the patient's location, unfold it, and immediately obtain physiologic information from the patient and begin to apply therapy.
Therapeutic hypothermia has been used to improve the outcome of patients suffering cardiac arrest or circulatory collapse. By slowing metabolism and oxygen consumption, organ salvage and survival is enhanced. One problem is that cooling in the field has been difficult and cooling in the hospital is often delayed by the time it takes to apply the cooling equipment. In addition, cooling of the brain, an essential organ very vulnerable to hypoxia, is slowed by the skull, which is a heat sink. A head apparatus is provided with one or more thermistors to sense the cutaneous temperature of the skull. In addition, the body of the apparatus contains one or more cavities. The cavity(s) are connected to a pressurized gas reservoir and an exhaust canal. A pressured valve can be actuated, whereby the pressurized gas flows into the cavity(s) and due to the rapid pressure fall, the cavity is rapidly cooled.
In one embodiment, the thermistor(s) control the flow of gas to the cavity(s) individually or together by use of a feedback loop, whereby the gas is controlled to achieve a set temperature. This will prevent freezing of the scalp while achieving maximal cooling. In another embodiment, a thermistor sensing core temperature would also provide feedback to the regular valve(s) to reduce flow when a set level of core or brain temperature was achieved. Core temperature thermistors can be located in the rectum, blood vessels, ear canal (as a tympanic membrane sensor), and eyes (as a retinal temperature sensor, esophagus or other locations.
In another embodiment, the head covering would also cover the neck. The neck contains the blood vessels leading to and coming from the brain. Cooling the neck to aid in brain cooling.
In another embodiment, the gas flow chambers could be perfused with a chilled fluid, with similar controls by the thermistors feedback loop(s).
A guiderail is described that attaches directly to the patient mattress rather than its supporting structure. This guiderail allows for equipment to be fixed to the mobile mattress, so that when a patient is transferred from table to table, the mattress may be moved along with the associated equipment without the need for shifting leads or monitors. In one embodiment, the rail itself contains electrical power, pressurized gas, and data communication/control access that can be accessed through attachments to the rail. This allows the development of ancillary devices that need not have large batteries or connections to electricity through a long cable to a point outside the operating table area. Moreover, creating a common standard for electrical power (for example 24 volt direct current) would help standardize medical devices attached to patient care beds. The access to data communication cables would allow for control of remote devices or remote control of devices mounted to the rail.
It is anticipated that this rail attached to the mattress may have communication with the mattress either through a dedicated bridge or through the structural attachments to the mattress. The mattress body can contain electrical power source from a battery, generator or connection to a power source outside the mattress. Typically such connections are direct current. Power outlets located on or near the rail provide a place for the connection for a variety of medical devices, including a heart pump, resuscitation devices (such as a device that administers chest compression), a defibrillator and intravenous infusion pumps. In addition, computer processing units located in the rail provide the electronic means of signal processing for physiologic signals, control of medical devices within or attached to the mattress, and for routing of electronic or optical signals in the rail or mattress. An advantage of placing the processing units in the rail is that they are easily accessible, they can have control surfaces on the rail, and there can be an associated battery in close proximity in the rail.
Similarly, the mattress can have a supply of gas within the mattress body or a supply of gas from a source outside the mattress. The gas source is within the bed mattress, within or attached to the rail, or from an outside source that attaches to the rail by tube or other conduit. The outlet for the gas is also positioned on the rail. Examples of outlets are simple nipples for attachment of tubing and quick connect valving. Control of gas flow occurs either at the outflow site, the inflow site or within the rail using standard regulators and gas control valves. In one embodiment, the valving apparatus is controlled by a motor or magnets and can be actuated wirelessly or using a control cable to a remote switch within the rail.
Data communication for the cable attachment in the rail can be transmitted wirelessly to a control unit not on the rail through a transmitter in the rail or to the mattress (by wire attached to the mattress or wirelessly). In another embodiment, power and data cable could be directly attached to the rail from an outside source (such as hospital line current with or without a power supply and isolation source), or hospital computer network, or directly to a device not mounted onto the rail. Additionally, data transmission between devices mounted on the rail can be communicated though the rail communication system.
It is also anticipated that the rail would be used to help people or machines transfer patients from one supporting structure to another. In particular, the rail can be designed such that it mates with an automated patient transport device, where the mechanical attachment is matched to the transport device configuration. In addition, it is anticipated a wireless radio signal or signals, or other positioning apparatus (such as a magnetic field), or a radiofrequency identification device (RFID) located within the rail or attached mattress could facilitate localization of the mechanical attachment of the transport system to the mattress and the identification of the specific mattress. The geometry of the mattress rail may be such that it allows for quick connection and disconnection of monitors or other equipment.
In this invention, a system is described for providing radiation protection of the personnel in the room of a patient undergoing a radiographic examination. X-rays directed at and through patients for medical procedures (such as angiography, transcatheter therapy, and orthopedic operations) cause backscatter radiation as the x-rays are deflected by the patient's bones and tissue. This backscatter radiation is hazardous to personnel in the environment. Shielding systems have been developed for personnel, but they have significant drawbacks that have limited their use or effectiveness. Wearable body shields are heavy and only provide protection of the covered body parts. The arms, lower legs, head and neck are often exposed. Skull caps and glasses have limited effectiveness. Fixed shields mounted to x-ray table or the procedure room ceilings are bulky and inconvenient. Although the above described shielding systems such as wearables or fixed shields are commonly in use, there are only a few systems that address personnel exposure by efficient anatomic shielding of the patient's body. These include mats of various size that are positioned on some parts of the patient's body to reduce scatter radiation. However, these disposable mats offer limited scatter protection, frequently fall of the procedure table during table or patient movements and are impractical to use to cover large areas of patients anatomy.
Shielding has been limited somewhat by the need to move the x-ray tube and detector all around the patient in order for the physician to examine the body from different angles. Here, an x-ray shielding system is described that is comprised of an elastic member with radiation attenuating properties that is mounted to or on the table or procedure mat the patient is on, such that the system can easily be pushed aside by the x-ray system.
In one embodiment, the system in composed of a foam material, with or without a support layer to allow shape retention in its natural state but allow distortion with minimal force. The foam is loaded with radiation attenuating material, such as BaSO4 or boron species.
In one embodiment, the radiation protection shield is attached reversibly to the arm board of the patient table or mattress. In another embodiment it takes the form of a drape over the patient with a reflecting member that rises in a vertical manner. The combination of these two embodiments provides a radiation blocking box around the radiated area, such that the operator located inferior to the patient's shoulders would receive less radiation backscatter.
In another embodiment, a radiation attenuating shield is integrated into a roller mounted along one side of the mat or procedure table, rail or another object adjacent to the patient. A plurality of rollers is envisioned of multiple widths and radiation protecting characteristics to be used to cover various parts of the patient's body. In one embodiment, once the patient is positioned on the mat or procedure table, the radiation shields at the appropriately desired levels are pulled over the patient's body. The free edge of this roller sheet is expected to mate with the opposite side of the mat or table or rail or another object adjacent to the patient via a securing mechanism that could include magnetic contacts or hooks or another mechanism that would be easy to detach intentionally. These rollers could vary in width depending on the patient's anatomy, such that a wider band might cover the patient's limbs and abdomen and a narrower band might be used in other areas such as the neck. The rollers also could be oriented horizontally or in a vertical or oblique plane such that they could easily be pulled over the patient and also easily retracted at the end of the procedure or also during the procedure if a need arises to visualize areas covered by the roller. In another embodiment, the radiation shields have areas of differential radiation attenuation characteristics. Areas of minimal or low radiation attenuating properties over portion of the body expected to be required for visualization and adjacent areas on the shield that have high radiation attenuation properties for areas of the body that generally do not require visualization during the procedure. This ability to customize level of attenuation offers the advantage of achieving higher degree of scatter radiation protection than currently being used in clinical practice. In addition, the radiation shields could have openings located in certain areas to allow the operator access to areas of the patient's anatomy (such as the femoral artery for percutaneous vascular procedures). These openings when not required could be covered by radiation attenuating flaps or another similar mechanism that would allow easy repositioning to create openings in the radiation shields.
In another embodiment, the operator is at the head end of the patient performing a procedure which requires access to the heart from the neck. There are two vertical rollers and a horizontal roller that cover the right and left chest and upper abdomen while leaving the access area and area of the heart requiring visualization exposed. This detachable roller system also has the advantage of being brought into use outside the sterile field and applied to offer highly efficient radiation protection by customizing the areas of the patient's anatomy that would require to be seen by the operator while eliminating or drastically reducing the radiation from the patient's anatomy that does not require to be visualized.
In another embodiment, there is a hollowed outer member of roller sheet and a separate radiation attenuating mobile inner member that could be extended and retracted into the outer member based on the extent of radiation protection coverage required by the operator. In one embodiment shown here, the outer member of the roller is drawn across the patient's abdomen and pelvis, but the radiation attenuating inner member is only extended over the right half of the abdomen and pelvis as the operator is accessing the left sided femoral artery. Once the need for accessing the artery is completed, the operator can fully extend the inner member to provide complete radiation attenuation over the abdomen and pelvis for scatter protection. The inner member can be moved inside the outer member via various mechanisms. One such embodiment envisions the inner member to have magnetic properties such that it could easily be moved forward or backward in the outer member by application of an external magnetic force. Similarly, the inner member could also be extended via a motorized fashion. This system offers the advantage of being able to not break the sterile shield but at the same time offer customizable radiation protection by mobilizing the inner member.
In another embodiment that there could be a spring-loaded roller sheet that can drop down from the table to the floor and can be pulled back in as needed to get out of the way of the X-ray apparatus.
Cleaning of the radiation shields housed in the rollers is required to be able to reuse them and to prevent the potential spread of infectious agents from one patient to another. One embodiment envisions the application of UV C light housed in the opening of the rollers such that they would sterilize the radiation shield as it is rolled in or out of the housing before and or after each use. The UV C light would simultaneously be directed to the top and bottom surfaces of the shield while it is rolled into or out of the housing. Another embodiment envisions use of a sterilizing liquid in the roller housing.
Electrocardiogram leads are typically connected to a patient at specific locations on the body. In the most common ECG, a total of 10 leads are connected to the body, six of which are at specific locations on the chest, defined by anatomical landmarks (specifically, the sternum, ribs and clavicle). Typically, a disposable conductive patch is adhered reversibly to the patient's skin in each location desired for lead attachment. A conductive lead is then attached to the patch by a variety of mechanisms, including snaps and clasps. Attachment of wire leads to these location is clumsy and prone to error because the wires can be attached to the wrong leads. In addition, the labor of attaching multiple leads adds to cost.
Previous solutions described include integrating all the electrodes into one single larger strip or a pad like structure which is then attached to the patient's body as a single piece with integrated cable or lead connections to minimize connection errors and also ease placement. However these systems have not gained much acceptance as they are large and unwieldy or do not overcome the problems posed with poor adhesiveness of the patches to the patient's body or fully account of variations in patient's anatomy (such as the need for multiple sizes to accommodate for smaller or larger patients or needing to alter electrode placement to individualize for patient anatomy).
Described are methods for attaching leads using a disposable conductive patch placed on the skin of patients at the location desired to have an ECG lead and a roller similar to that described for radiation protection, where the inner surface of the roller contains a grid of electrically conductive material that is attached to an electrically conductive pathway to an ECG machine or to an electronic processing unit. In one embodiment, electrically conductive patches would adhered to a patient's skin at the points where an ECG lead is desired (typically, left and right arm, left and right leg, and six leads on the chest). A conductive gel with a surrounding adhesive material on the skin side is one type of conductive patch. The rolled lead array has a first end that is rolled on a spool and a second end that can be pulled to unroll the lead array from the spool. The rolled up lead array and enclosure are typically located to the patient's right or left and affixed to a fixed object, such as a table rail. The second end is unrolled across the chest or body. The second end is attached to a fixed object on the other side of the patient, typically the opposite table rail. The roller has areas of conductivity (such as a layer of electrically conductive metal or polymer) that are closely spaced. Each conductive areas (or cells) are connected in an isolated track that may be electrically shielded by a second or third layer of conductive material. The other end of the roller sheet could be secured to the opposite end of the table or could be envisioned to have some weight or spring force which allows it rest on the electrodes while providing the mild compressive force to secure them. Alternatively there could be a magnetic attachment mechanism between the electrodes and the cables.
In one embodiment, an opposite end of the tract is connected to an electrical processing unit. The electrical processing unit (EPU) detects if the cell of each lead is substantially in electrical contact with the body, which occurs when the cell is placed into contact with a chest patch that is conductive. Electrical contact of each cell is detected if the cell has a fluctuating voltage consistent with an ECG signal. Alternatively, the resistance between the lead and a ground lead connection to the patient can identify a cell that has electrically active contact. The electrical processing unit, then determines the identity of each lead by an algorithm using the cells position on the roller grid. For example, the right arm chest lead is always the lead most to the patient right upper side. Lead V1 is the next lead to the left at mid position on the grid, and so on. The identified leads are then routed to the appropriate lead connections on the ECG processing and/or display device.
It is anticipated that more than one cell could be in contact with a conductive pad. In that case, the EPU would group signals from adjacent pads that were in substantial electrical connectivity with the body. Alternatively, the cell with the greatest voltage fluctuation, lowest resistance to the ground, or other connection detection method could be selected as the primary or only lead cell used in the contiguous area.
The roller sheet can be spring loaded, similar to a window shade. The roller sheet is connected to the display system using standard connections or wirelessly. The system can be modified to include radiolucent electrodes and radiolucent integrated leads in the roller sheet for applications that require the use of the EKG monitoring in procedures requiring the use of x-rays. One example of radiolucent leads is a radiographically homogeneous grid, such as an aluminum foil or a fabric or loymer loaded or coated with conductive material.
It is also anticipated that the roller lead array could be combined with standard ECG leads wired to the patient.
In another embodiment the roller sheet has an integrated stretch or motion sensor that monitors respiratory rate and quality of the respiration or change in quality of the respirations based on the excursion of the patient's chest wall or via an acoustic sensor detecting air flow through the airways. Operator could be alerted when the patient might be breathing too slowly, rapidly, too shallow or having apneic spells.
Most modern x-ray units have what is referred to as automatic brightness control, where the x-ray dose (in terms of photon number and energy) is controlled by a feedback loop from the detector to the x-ray source, such that the dose is increased to provide a set level of x-ray intensity at the detector. The importance of this is that elements in the x-ray field that homogeneously absorb x-ray may not appear visible to the operators. Therefore, a radio-opaque electrical conductor that homogeneously covers the radiographic field would appear to be invisible to the operator. If that material was interposed between the x-ray source and the patient, the dose to the patient would be unaffected.
Conduction of electricity in a conducting agent occurs more on the periphery of the conductor than in the core (the so-called “skin effect”), especially when high frequency electrical signals are conducted. Therefore, maximizing the ratio of the conductor surface area to the total cross-sectional are could be advantageous. The invention described here incorporates the principles of homogeneous conductors within the x-ray radiographic field that have a very flat profile which results in low radio-opacity and a very high surface area to cross-sectional area ratio. Additionally described is a simple manufacturing method to make a set of shielded conductors with the described attributes. These conductors are used to conduct signals for medical monitoring. They are nearly invisible to x-ray imaging and carry high current load with wire bandwidth.
Thin aluminum strips increase the surface area/cross-sectional area ratio and the “skin” effect for conduction. Aluminum strips (typically less than 0.003 inches thickness) and of any width, but typically 2-10 mm, are mounted onto a radio-lucent insulating material. The material is applied to both sides of the strips. When shielding is required, a second layer of thin aluminum material (typically less that 0.003 inches thickness) is mounted onto each side of the insulated strip. The shields are connected to provide a 360 degree shield. Multiple conductor ribbons can be mounted in parallel to the insulating layers. The insulating layers can be joined between each conductor or left open, where insulation between conductors is obtained by lack of contact due to the fixation to the insulating material. Similarly, the shield can be connected on the sides of each conductor or only on the sides of the conductor ribbon array.
The conductor starts with a sheet of foil, typically less than 10 thousandths of an inch thick. The conductor may be aluminum because it has less radio-opacity, although any conductor would suffice (such as copper, iron alloys, gold, platinum, conductive polymers, and carbon-based conductors). The roll of foil is divided along its long axis into conducting tracts by cutting the foil with a knife, laser or other means. The tracks are separated slightly and mounted onto a non-conductive material, such a polypropylene. This could occur as a continuous automated process. Then, a non-conductive material is mounted to the opposite side of the conductor, isolating the tracts electrically from each other and from adjoining conductors. This could also occur as an automated process, and also nearly simultaneously to the cutting and first side application of the non-conductive material. Then, a foil of conducting material, ideally aluminum, is applied to both the top and the bottom of the enclosed conductor ribbon and joined at the edges to create an electrical shield. This action could also occur as an automated process at a similar time to the cutting, and application of the non-conductive materials. Finally, a layer of insulating material may be applied over the shield, as needed. That material could consist of polymer, fabric or any flexible insulating material and could occur as part of an automated process.
In an alternative manufacturing process, strips of thin foil precut to a desired dimension, could be joined to a non-conductive surface instead of cut foil. In addition, the shield material could be joined between conductor members to shield each conductor or set of conductors individually. In addition, a single sheet of foil could be placed around the insulated conductive ribbon and joined to create a shield.
In another embodiment, fine wires arranged along the same plane and positioned in contact with each other, or flat wire could be used as the conductors.
In another embodiment, the insulating material is a non-conductive paintable or spray-on material such as the array of flat conductors could be coated and then placed directly on the shield material.
In another embodiment, a pattern can be cut into the conductor foil such that the conductors turn corners for connections or to fit the contour of the housing into which it is placed. In a further embodiment, the width of the tracts could be varied based on the anticipated electrical signal to be carried by the conductor. In a further embodiment, more than one layer of divided foil conductors could be mounted on top of each other, preserving the relative homogeneity of the x-ray absorption.
In a further embodiment, connection between conductors within one foil or between foils would allow creation of electrical circuits where on conductive track is connected to another. The connection between conductors from one sheet to another can be accomplished though a foil conductor. One problem encountered when monitoring patients undergoing x-ray or MRI procedures is that the wires are visible to x-ray or the electromagnetic field can induce heating or current within the wire. Carbon nanotubes or variants have been developed to provide electrical connections in the environments. These conductors, however, and very expensive and provide poor shielding from electromagnetic fields. In addition, they tend to have poor conductivity, which is import when the conducted signal is of low power.
In yet another embodiment, the conductors may be printed in an array on a radiolucent insulative material, or both the radiolucent material and the conductors may be printed in a manner that lays down the insulative layers, conductive layers and shielding layers to prevent cross-talk and create a single wiring array construct.
One problem with reusable devices is contamination with biologically active agents, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. One method to reduce the burden of biologically active material is application of certain frequencies of photons, such as ultraviolet light. In this invention, a mattress is described where a light source inside the mattress is used to sterilize the mattress surface, by shining the light through a light transmitting cover.
In one embodiment, the light emitters are fiber optic strands woven into the cover. The strands have a removal of the cladding at areas where the mattress needs to be sterilized. In one embodiment, the cladding is removed preferentially on the side to provide lateral photon dispersion, but no allow photons to escape to the mattress foam, which might be damaging, or outside the mattress. In another embodiment, to limit the radial movement of the optical fibers and to improve durability, a bundle of two or more fibers are contained in a jacket and woven into or adhered to the mattress. In another embodiment, the jacket around the optical fibers allows differential photon passage, such that UV C light can be directed to the area that requires sterilization, but blocked to areas of the mattress that are sensitive to UV C or outside the mattress where it might damage bystanders.
UV C can be quite toxic to tissue and the present invention has an integral sensor to determine if a person or object is on the mattress. Such a sensor can be a weight or distortion detector, such as a piezoelectric detector, a light based detector that measures surface distortion, an infrared detector that detects body heat, or a surface laser light device that detects the presence of an object on the mattress surface. In another embodiment, a motion sensor is used to detect people in the room and to interrupt the photon emission. The motion detector is attached to the mattress in one embodiment. In another embodiment, the motion detector is remote from the mattress and communicates wirelessly or by conductors. The motion detector can employ any of a number of previously described methods, included sound or light reflection.
Another means to sterilize the surface of patient mattresses is the application of intense heat for a short period of time, similar to Pasteurization of dairy products. In this invention, the surface of the mattress is loaded with resistive heating wires located close to each other. With the application of current through the wires, the mattress surface heat rapidly. When on or more thermistors located within the mattress reach a pre-specified temperature, the current is reduced or interrupted. As an alternative, a combination of temperature and time could be used to signal that maximum effect had been achieved and effect a reduction or elimination of further heating.
In an alternative embodiment, the heating elements are attached to or layered under a heat conductive cover. This cover can be composed of a metal, such as aluminum or a polymer, glass, or fabric loaded with a heat conductor. The heat source would provide heat energy and the conductor facilitates a more even spread of the heat. This reduces the peak temperature and time needed to treat because the heterogeneity of heat distribution is reduced.
Alternatively, other heat sources can be used, such as a heated fluid or air, and exothermic chemical reactions.
Safety measures similar to those described for use with UV C sterilization may also be employed to prevent the activation of the heat mattress disinfection when a patient or operator is in contact with the mattress.
Determination of tissue oxygenation and blood flow has been described and performed using a variety of methods, included pulsed oximetry and laser Doppler methodology. Its application in a medical and non-medical environments has allowed for monitoring of patients in hospitals and clinics, and for monitoring of sleep apnea and exercise performance. Monitoring requires the user to attach a sensor to the skin. The sensors are usually handheld or fixed to the skin with adhesive.
In this embodiment, a sensor is mounted in a mattress or other device that people sit or lie on. The sensor sends and receives its signal through a transparent window in the device onto the subject body.
In a related device, the subject also wears a specialized clothing that also contains a window for transmission and reception of the signal, such that the signal can be transmitted through the mattress or other device and then through the wearable clothing.
Another embodiment is aimed at preventing pressure sores and ulcers related to prolonged compression of skin and muscle while laying down or sitting. Lack of blood flow leads tissue ischemia and eventually necrosis. This embodiment includes a mattress containing a multitude of sensors for oxygen concentration and/or tissue blood flow. The sensors are located below the surface of the device, but send and receive their signal through the surface of the device in contact with the patient. The output from these sensors is displayed visually on a monitor. In one embodiment, the display is a color or greyscale coded picture of the support structure, where the color or grey scale correspond to a range of values from the sensor. In further embodiment, a similar display shows a calculated value derived from multiple patient values. For example, the product of blood flow and oxygen saturation. In another example, a user or computer entered value such as the patient's hemoglobin concentration or body surface area, would be used in the calculated value that is displayed. In another example, the calculated value could result from a calculation of one or more user or computer entered values (such as height and weight), and one or more sensed valves.
Patient undergoing medical procedures or surgical operations usually lie on a mattress or sit in a chair. They are frequently deeply sedated or completely unconscious for the procedure. The head is often instrumented for placement of sensors (such as EEG leads, temperature probes, and pulse-oximeter leads), control of respiration using an endotracheal or endonasal tube, and various devices that cannulate the stomach or esophagus (such as endoscopy catheters, trans-esophageal ultrasound transducers or nasogastric tubes). In some cases the head is covered by a sterile drape, making access to the head and communication with the patient cumbersome. Moreover, the head is poorly supported, leading physicians to tape the head to the operating room table or mattress.
The invention described here is a molded head support that stabilizes the head and neck, while at the same time providing a platform for the mounting of sensors (such as EEG, temperature, pulse oximetry, ECG, video observation of the eyes and airways, exhaled CO2), attachment of probes and tubes (such as endotracheal tube, endoscopic devices, ultrasound devices, and tubing for medical gasses), and communication with the patient (speakers and microphone). The wires or fiberoptic connection to the sensors are passed through the head support. In one embodiment, cables to external devices are attached to the head support. In another embodiment, the head support contains a radio transmitter that transmits the sensor signal to the remote display device. In another embodiment, the head support is attached by a cable or optical fiber to the mattress, operating table, or rail attached to the operating table or mattress.
Therapeutic hypothermia has been used to improve the outcome of patients suffering cardiac arrest or circulatory collapse. By slowing metabolism and oxygen consumption, organ salvage and survival is enhanced. One problem is that cooling in the field has been difficult and cooling in the hospital is often delayed by the time it takes to apply the cooling equipment. In addition, cooling of the brain, an essential organ very vulnerable to hypoxia, is slowed by the skull, which is a heat sink. One embodiment includes a head apparatus with one or more thermistors to sense the cutaneous temperature of the skull. In addition, the body of the apparatus contains one or more cavities. The cavity(s) are connected to a pressurized gas reservoir and an exhaust canal. A pressured valve can be actuated, whereby the pressurized gas flows into the cavity(s) and due to the rapid pressure fall, the cavity is rapidly cooled.
In one embodiment, the thermistor(s) control the flow of gas to the cavity(s) individually or together by use of a feedback loop, whereby the gas is controlled to achieve a set temperature. This will prevent freezing of the scalp while achieving maximal cooling. In another embodiment, a thermistor sensing core temperature would also provide feedback to the regular valve(s) to reduce flow when a set level of core or brain temperature was achieved. Core temperature thermistors can be located in the rectum, blood vessels, ear canal (as a tympanic membrane sensor), and eyes (as a retinal temperature sensor, esophagus or other locations.
In another embodiment, the gas flow chambers could be perfused with a chilled fluid, with similar controls by the thermistors feedback loop(s).
These and other aspects, features and advantages of which embodiments of the invention are capable of will be apparent and elucidated from the following description of embodiments of the present invention, reference being made to the accompanying drawings, in which
Specific embodiments of the invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings. This invention may, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein; rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey the scope of the invention to those skilled in the art. The terminology used in the detailed description of the embodiments illustrated in the accompanying drawings is not intended to be limiting of the invention. In the drawings, like numbers refer to like elements.
Another embodiment of a clip mechanism is shown in
In yet another embodiment of a clip mechanism shown in
Alternately, as shown in
Although the invention has been described in terms of particular embodiments and applications, one of ordinary skill in the art, in light of this teaching, can generate additional embodiments and modifications without departing from the spirit of or exceeding the scope of the claimed invention. Accordingly, it is to be understood that the drawings and descriptions herein are proffered by way of example to facilitate comprehension of the invention and should not be construed to limit the scope thereof.
1. A mattress comprising:
- a soft comfort component that complies with a patient's body when the patient is lying on the mattress;
- a shell surrounding at least a lower surface of the comfort component and integral therewith, said shell being more rigid than the soft comfort component;
- wherein the shell includes extents that are connected to said comfort component such that contaminants do not accumulate between said shell and said comfort component
- a guiderail system attached to the shell, the guiderail system including a guiderail providing an attachment surface usable to attach accessories to said guiderail.
2. The mattress of claim 1 wherein said shell surrounds a lower surface and at least a portion of at least one side surface of said soft comfort component.
3. The mattress of claim 1 wherein said soft comfort component includes a chest portion of increased stiffness to facilitate chest support during application of resuscitative chest compressions.
4. The mattress of claim 1 wherein said guiderail system further includes electrical lines integrated into said guiderails.
5. The mattress of claim 1 wherein said guiderail system further includes data lines integrated into said guiderails.
6. The mattress of claim 1 wherein said guiderail system further includes gas lines integrated into said guiderails.
7. A mattress system for use in a hospital comprising:
- a mattress comprising: a soft comfort component that complies with a patient's body when the patient is lying on the mattress; a shell surrounding at least a lower surface of the comfort component and integral therewith, said shell being more rigid than the soft comfort component; wherein the shell includes extents that are connected to said comfort component such that contaminants do not accumulate between said shell and said comfort component a guiderail system attached to the shell, the guiderail system including a guiderail providing an attachment surface usable to attach accessories to said guiderail;
- a kit of components, said kit including at least one of the following components: arm rests; radiation shield; a table; a wrist holder; a clip for holding elongate components such as guidewires and catheters;
- wherein said at least one component in said kit includes a latch and release mechanism slidably attachable to said guiderail such that, once attached to said guiderail, said component may be slid along said attachment surface to a desired location.
8. The mattress system of claim 7 wherein said shell surrounds a lower surface and at least a portion of at least one side surface of said soft comfort component.
9. The mattress system of claim 7 wherein said soft comfort component includes a chest portion of increased stiffness to facilitate chest support during application of resuscitative chest compressions.
10. The mattress system of claim 7 wherein said guiderail system further includes electrical lines integrated into said guiderails.
11. The mattress system of claim 7 wherein said guiderail system further includes data lines integrated into said guiderails.
12. The mattress system of claim 7 wherein said guiderail system further includes gas lines integrated into said guiderails.
13. The mattress system of claim 7 wherein said radiation shield includes a lateral unit that extends vertically from said latch and release mechanism when said latch and release mechanism is attached to said guiderail.
14. The mattress system of claim 13 wherein said radiate shield further includes an upper unit and a lower unit attached to said upper unit, wherein at least one of said upper and lower units are attached to said lateral unit.
15. The mattress system of claim 14 wherein said upper unit pivots vertically about said lower unit.
16. The mattress system of claim 14 wherein said upper unit includes vertical separations, thereby forming a plurality of vertical segments that may be positioned independently of each other.
17. A radioabsorbant shield comprising:
- a lower unit including a cutout portion to conform to a patient lying under the shield;
- an upper unit attached to a top of the lower unit; and,
- a substantially vertical lateral unit attached to a side of at least one of the upper and lower units and including an attachment mechanism for attachment to a bed;
- wherein said upper unit rotates vertically relative to said lower unit.
18. The radioabsorbant shield of claim 17 wherein said upper unit includes vertical separations, thereby forming a plurality of vertical segments that may be positioned independently of each other.
19. The radioabsorbant shield of claim 17 wherein said upper unit is stiffer than said lower unit.
20. The radioabsorbant shield of claim 17 wherein said lateral unit comprises a cutout shaped to accommodate an arm of the patient.