Low Water Dentifrice Compositions

- Colgate-Palmolive Company

The present disclosure provides low water dentifrice compositions comprising an effective amount of a zinc ion source, a tin ion source, a polyphosphate and an acid. The acid lowers the pH of the composition to enable stabilization of the metal ions and extend shelf-life of the composition.

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Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present disclosure relates to low water dentifrice compositions comprising an effective amount of a zinc ion source, a tin ion source, polyphosphates and acid. The acid lowers the pH of the composition to enable stabilization of the metal ions and extend shelf-life of the composition.

BACKGROUND

Polyphosphates and ionic active ingredients have been used in dentifrices to promote oral health. Polyphosphates are known anti-tartar agents that help retard calculus formation. Metal ions such as stannous and zinc ions are known to be effective anti-microbial agents. These metal ions provide anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque benefits and may also improve breath and reduce tooth or gum sensitivity. Stannous fluoride has been used in dentistry since the 1950's as a fluoride source to prevent dental caries. Similarly, zinc citrate has been shown to have anti-plaque, anti-gingivitis and anti-tartar efficacy. In addition, zinc has also shown efficacy as an anti-malodor agent.

While such actives have previously been used in dentifrices, for several reasons, it has proven challenging to provide these actives together in a stable single phase composition. One such technical problem is to preserve the bioavailability of stannous ions and maximize the chemical stability of the stannous ion source. Many formulations suffer from the problem that the bioavailable levels of tin and/or zinc drop during aging (e.g., shelf storage). This drop can result in a bioavailable level of tin and/or zinc as much as 50% less than the formulation quantity. In addition, certain polyphosphates are unstable in high-water aqueous systems. Such polyphosphates in an aqueous system are susceptible to hydrolysis unless they are present at a high pH, which is not compatible with high stannous availability. Stannous fluoride tends to precipitate stannous ions in aqueous. environments, thereby reducing the efficacy and availability of the stannous ions in the oral care composition. Additionally, polyphosphates can react with ionic fluoride in oral compositions at ambient temperature to produce monofluorophosphate ions, altering the pH of the composition. This reaction compromises the efficacy of the oral composition and its ability to provide stable ionic fluoride and polyphosphate to the oral surfaces.

Other attempts to provide such efficacious dentifrice compositions have reduced the amount of water present in the composition. Reducing the amount of water would theoretically reduce or eliminate the stability issues associated with the fluoride, polyphosphate and other ionic actives. However, reducing the level of water, and optionally replacing some or all of the removed water with a humectant, creates problems in obtaining acceptable rheology and thickening properties in the composition. When water, which is a highly polar solvent, is removed, conventional thickening agents such as carboxymethylcellulose (“CMC”) tend to inadequately gel up. Attempts to reduce water content in dentifrice compositions have included the dentifrices described in, e.g., EP 0 638 307 B1; US. Pat. No. 4,647,451; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,670,137. Such known formulations have been shown to exhibit progressive thickening over time, which prolongs the time period to reach a theological steady state, or even prevents the dentifrice from reaching a rheological steady state. Ideally, dentifrice formulations need to reach a steady state for consumer acceptance within two weeks. If a formulation routinely increases in viscosity over time, dispensing of the formulation will become difficult, which will likely result in consumer dissatisfaction.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,696,045 discloses dentifrice compositions comprising a single low water phase comprising polyphosphate and ionic active ingredients. Although compositions comprising glass H polyphosphate, which has a long chain of about 21 phosphate groups, and sodium or stannous fluoride are disclosed, with the sodium fluoride being optionally combined with zinc citrate and the stannous fluoride being optionally combined with zinc lactate, there is no disclosure of how to combine stannous, fluoride and zinc salts in a low water composition in combination with short chain length polyphosphates in a low water single phase system.

Other attempts to provide dentifrice compositions having these actives in efficacious amounts involved the use of dual compartmented packaging wherein the reactive ingredients are physically separated until the time of brushing. (See, e.g., WO98/22079, “Dentifrice Compositions Containing Polyphosphate and Fluoride.”) However, such dual-compartmented packages are typically considerably more expensive than the conventional laminate tubes that have been used for many years to contain and dispense dentifrices. They also may be problematic in terms of ease of consumer use and uniform dispensing of approximately equal amounts of each composition during each consumer use. Therefore it remains desirable to provide single phase compositions that can be packaged in conventional laminate squeeze tubes.

BRIEF SUMMARY

There is a need in the art to provide dentifrice compositions that can effectively combine sources of stannous, fluoride, and zinc ions in combination with a polyphosphate in a low water or zero water single phase system that has efficacious delivery of water-unstable actives and/or actives that are reactive with respect to each other in a single phase. There is also a need in the art to provide low water single phase dentifrice compositions that have an improved rheological profile, and in particular, have a stable rheology that effectively reduces or eliminates progressive thickening of the composition over time which in turn provides a composition that can effectively be dispensed over the period of its shelf life.

In the present disclosure, the embodiments described herein provide a dentifrice composition comprising: an orally acceptable vehicle; a source of fluoride ions; a source of stannous ions; a source of zinc ions; and at least one polyphosphate salt; at least one acid; and wherein the dentifrice composition has a total water content of less than about 10% based on the weight of the composition. Preferably, the composition is a single phase composition.

As will be demonstrated herein, the preferred embodiments can provide a dentifrice that provides multiple therapeutic benefits by combining stannous ions and fluoride ions, e.g., as stannous fluoride, zinc ions, e.g. as zinc citrate, and polyphosphates, e.g., in the form of tetrasodium pyrophosphate/sodium tripolyphosphate. The use of particular acids, optionally as part of a buffer system, can stabilize the stannous ions in the presence of the zinc ions and polyphosphates, and leave the stannous ions active in the low water composition for effective anti-microbial action when used for cleaning the teeth.

The preferred embodiments of the present disclosure provide compositions that have a total water content of less than about 5% by weight, for example, 0% water (no added water).

The preferred embodiments of the present disclosure also may provide a low water or zero water dentifrice system that retains greater than 50% of bioavailable metal ions during storage, for example, greater than 60% or greater than 70%.

The preferred embodiments of the present disclosure also may provide a low water dentifrice system having a stable rheology that does not tend to progressively thicken over time, but instead thickens quickly, for example within a few days of manufacture, and reaches a stable viscosity.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS

All publications, patent applications, and issued patents mentioned herein are hereby incorporated in their entirety by reference. The citation of documents herein does not constitute an admission that those documents are prior art or have any relevance to the patentability of the invention disclosed herein. Any discussion of the content of documents cited in the Introduction is intended merely to provide a general summary of assertions made by the authors of the documents, and does not constitute an admission as to the accuracy of the content of such documents.

The description and specific examples, while indicating embodiments of the invention, are intended for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Moreover, recitation of multiple embodiments having stated features is not intended to exclude other embodiments having additional features, or other embodiments incorporating different combinations of the stated features. Specific examples are provided for illustrative purposes of how to make and use the compositions and methods of this invention and, unless explicitly stated otherwise, are not intended to be a representation that given embodiments of this invention have, or have not, been made or tested.

All percentages used herein are by weight of the total dentifrice composition, unless otherwise specified. The ratios used herein are weight ratios of the respective components, unless otherwise specified. All measurements are made at 25° C., unless otherwise specified.

As used throughout, ranges are used as a shorthand for describing each and every value that is within the range. Any value within the range can be selected as the terminus of the range.

Herein, “effective amount” means an amount of a compound or composition sufficient to significantly induce a positive benefit, preferably an oral health benefit, but low enough to avoid serious side effects, i.e., to provide a reasonable benefit to risk ratio, within the sound judgment of a skilled artisan.

A dentifrice composition is a product, which in the ordinary course of administration, is not intentionally swallowed for purposes of systemic administration of particular therapeutic agents, but is rather retained in the oral cavity for a time sufficient to contact substantially all of the tooth surfaces and/or oral tissues for purposes of oral activity. A dentifrice composition of the present invention may be in the form of a toothpaste or dentifrice. The term “dentifrice,” as used herein, means paste or gel formulations unless otherwise specified. The dentifrice composition may be in any desired form, such as deep striped, surface striped, multi-layered, having the gel surrounding the paste, or any combination thereof.

The phrase “aqueous carrier” as used herein means any safe and effective materials for use in the compositions of the present embodiments. Such materials include thickening agents, humectants, ionic active ingredients, buffering agents, anticalculus agents, abrasive polishing materials, peroxide sources, alkali metal bicarbonate salts, surfactants, titanium dioxide, coloring agents, flavor systems, sweetening agents, antimicrobial agents, herbal agents, desensitizing agents, stain reducing agents, and mixtures thereof.

The embodiments described herein relate to a dentifrice composition having a phase with a low water content and containing an orally acceptable vehicle, a source of fluoride ions, a source of stannous ions, a source of zinc ions, at least one polyphosphate salt, and at least one acid. The polyphosphate salt may be inorganic polyphosphate salts which have three or less phosphorous atoms, such as pyrophosphates and tripolyphosphates.

In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides a dentifrice composition (Composition 1) comprising: an orally acceptable vehicle; a source of stannous ions (e.g., at least one); a source of zinc ions (e.g., at least one); a source of fluoride ions (e.g., at least one); an acid (e.g., at least one); and a polyphosphate salt (e.g., at least one) selected from the group consisting of inorganic polyphosphate salts which have equal to or less than three phosphorous atoms; wherein the dentifrice composition has a total water content of less than about 10% based on the weight of the composition.

In further embodiments, the present disclosure provides the following compositions:

1.1 Composition 1, wherein the pH is from 3 to 8, e.g., from 4 to 7, or, e.g., from 5 to 6, or e.g., about 5.5.

1.2 Composition 1 or 1.1, wherein the acid is selected from the group consisting of an inorganic acid (e.g., phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, or hydrochloric acid) or an organic acid (e.g., acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid, gluconic acid, ascorbic acid, fumaric acid, formic acid, pyruvic acid, maleic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, or caproic acid) or an amino acid (e.g., aspartic acid or glutamic acid).

1.3 Composition 1.2, wherein the acid is phosphoric acid.

1.4 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.3, wherein the polyphosphate is selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal salt of a pyrophosphate, an alkali metal salt of a tripolyphosphate, and mixtures thereof.

1.5 Composition 1.4, wherein the polyphosphate is selected from the group consisting of tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium acid pyrophosphate, and mixtures thereof.

1.6 Composition 1.5, wherein the polyphosphate comprises a mixture of tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate.

1.7 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.6, wherein the polyphosphate comprises from 1% to 10% by weight of the composition, e.g., from 3% to 7%, or, e.g., from 1% to 4%, or, e.g., from 4% to 8%.

1.8 Composition 1.7, wherein the polyphosphate comprises from 3% to 7% by weight of the composition.

1.9 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.8, wherein the source of stannous ions is selected from the group consisting of stannous fluoride, stannous gluconate, stannous phosphate, stannous pyrophosphate, stannous acetate, stannous sulfate, or stannous chloride.

1.10 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.9, wherein the source of fluoride ions is selected from the group consisting of sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride, stannous fluoride, or sodium monofluorophosphate.

1.11 Composition 1.10, wherein the source of fluoride ions and the source of stannous ions comprises stannous fluoride.

1.12 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.11, wherein the source of zinc ions comprises a zinc salt of an organic acid, or a zinc salt of an inorganic acid, or a zinc base.

1.13 Composition 1.12, wherein the source of zinc ions comprises zinc oxide, zinc chloride, zinc citrate, zinc malate, zinc lactate, zinc gluconate, zinc fluoride, zinc phosphate, zinc acetate, zinc sulfate or zinc tartrate.

1.14 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.13, further comprising an aqueous buffer system for the source of stannous ions.

1.15 Composition 1.14, wherein the buffer system is adapted to chelate the stannous ions in the composition.

1.6 Composition 1.15, wherein the buffer system comprises at least one of an organic acid or an alkali metal salt thereof.

1.17 Composition 1.16, wherein the organic acid is citric acid.

1.18 Composition 1.17, wherein the buffer system comprises a mixture of citric acid and trisodium citrate.

1.19 Composition 1.18, wherein the buffer system comprises from 0.1 to 10 weight % of the composition, e.g., from 1% to 5%, or e.g., from 2% to 3%.

1.20 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.19, wherein the dentifrice composition comprises less than about 6% of water based on the weight of the composition, e.g., less than about 5% of water, or, e.g., less than about 4% of water, or, e.g., less than 3% of water, or, e.g., less than 2% of water, or e.g., less than 1% of water.

1.21 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.20, wherein the dentifrice composition comprises 0% water based on the weight of the composition.

1.22 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.21, further comprising at least one humectant selected from the group consisting of glycerin, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sorbitol, xylitol, other edible polyhydric alcohols, and mixtures thereof.

1.23 Composition 1.22, wherein the at least one humectant comprises from 0.1% to 70% by weight of the composition, e.g., from 1% to 60%, or, e.g., from 15% to 55%.

1.24 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.23, further comprising a desensitizing agent (e.g., a potassium salt or a strontium salt), such as potassium nitrate.

1.25 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.24, further comprising a thickening agent.

1.26 Composition 1.25, wherein the thickening agent comprises from 0.05 to 3% by weight of the composition, e.g., from 0.1 to 1.5% by weight of the composition.

1.27 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.26, wherein the viscosity remains between 100,000 and 300,000 centipoise at 25° C. for at least 30 days after formulation.

1.28 Composition 1.27, wherein the viscosity remains between 100,000 and 200,000 centipoise at 25° C. for at least 30 days after formulation.

1.29 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.28, wherein the composition is a single phase.

1.30 Composition 1 or 1.1-1.29, wherein the composition has a pH of from 5 to 9, e.g., from 6 to 8, or, e.g., from 7 to 8, or e.g., about 7.5 or about 7.75, as an aqueous suspension (e.g., a 5-20% w/w aqueous suspension, or, e.g., a 10-20% w/w aqueous suspension, or about a 10% w/w aqueous suspension).

The dentifrice composition may have a total water content of less than about 10% based on the weight of the composition. The dentifrice composition preferably has a total water content of less than about 5% based on the weight of the composition. In some embodiments, the dentifrice composition has a total water content of less than 4%, or less than 3%, or less than 2% or less than 1% of the composition. In some embodiments, the dentifrice composition is a zero-water composition, as defined herein, i.e., containing 0% water by weight of the composition.

The polyphosphate may be selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal salt (e.g., lithium, sodium or potassium) of a pyrophosphate or a tripolyphosphate, preferably the at least one polyphosphate is selected from the group consisting of tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium acid pyrophosphate, tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, potassium tripolyphosphate or potassium acid pyrophosphate. In some embodiments, the polyphosphate may comprise a mixture of tetraalkali pyrophosphate and alkali tripolyphosphate, for example, a mixture of tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate. The polyphosphate may comprise from 1 to 10 wt % of the composition, preferably from 3 to 7 wt % of the composition.

Preferably, the source of fluoride ions and the source of stannous ions comprise stannous fluoride. Preferably, the source of zinc ions comprises a zinc salt of an organic acid, preferably zinc citrate, zinc lactate, or zinc gluconate, and more preferably zinc citrate. The source of zinc ions may also comprise any zinc compound including, for example, zinc oxide, zinc tartrate, zinc gluconate, and the like.

The inventors have unexpectedly found that a low-water dentifrice composition, and particularly a 0% water dentifrice composition, comprising a tin source, a zinc source and a fluoride source, is protected against loss of bioavailable tin and/or zinc during storage by the inclusion of an effective amount of acid to lower the pH to the desirable range. The pH range of the dentifrice composition is preferably from pH 2 to pH 7, more preferably pH 3 to pH 6, e.g., pH 4 to pH 6, or, e.g., pH 5 to pH 6, for example, about pH 5.5. Preferably the acid is a strong inorganic acid (e.g., phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid). Upon dilution into water (e.g., a 10% aqueous solution or suspension), as would occur upon consumer usage of the dentifrice composition, the solubilization of the components results in a higher pH. For example, a 10% w/w aqueous suspension of the dentifrice composition is preferably from pH 5 to 9, e.g., from 6 to 8, or, e.g., from 7 to 8, or e.g., about 7.5 or about 7.75.

The vehicle may include a thickening agent comprising at least one of a cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone. The cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone may comprise a homopolymer of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone. The cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone may comprise from 0.05 to 15 wt % of the composition, preferably from 0.75 to 1.25 wt % of the composition.

In the dentifrice composition, the thickening agent may further comprise at least one of a cellulose and a synthetic block copolymer of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide.

In the dentifrice composition, the composition may further comprise at least one humectant selected from the group consisting of glycerin, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and mixtures thereof.

Optionally, the composition further comprises an aqueous buffer system for the source of stannous ions. The buffer system may be adapted to chelate the stannous ions in the composition. The buffer system may comprise at least one of a weak organic acid or an alkali metal salt thereof, the organic acid preferably being citric acid. The buffer system may comprise a mixture of citric acid and trisodium citrate. The buffer system may comprise from 0.1% to 10% by weight of the composition, e.g., 1 to 5 weight % of the composition. The buffer system may be present, by weight, in an amount that is greater than the amount, by weight, of the source of stannous ions. “Aqueous buffer system”, as used herein, refers to the acidic and/or basic components of a buffer system that would result in an aqueous buffer system when the composition is dissolved or suspended in water.

The use of the buffer system described herein is believed to reduce or eliminate precipitation of insoluble tin compounds. While not intending to be bound by any theory of operation, the inventors believe that an aqueous buffer system, e.g. a citrate butter system, which may be employed as a premix for the stannous salt to chelate the stannous ions, can reduce or eliminate the precipitation of insoluble tin compounds in the presence of zinc ions and polyphosphates in a low water dentifrice composition.

The preferred embodiments can provide a dentifrice that provides multiple therapeutic benefits by combining stannous ions and fluoride ions, e.g. as stannous fluoride, zinc ions, e.g. as zinc citrate, and polyphosphates, e.g. in the form of tetrasodium pyrophosphate/sodium tripolyphosphate. The use of a particular acid and/or pH, or a particular buffer system, can stabilize the stannous ions in the presence of the zinc ions and polyphosphates, and leave the stannous ions active in the single phase low water composition for effective anti-microbial action when used for cleaning the teeth.

While the specification concludes with claims particularly pointing out and distinctly claiming the invention, it is believed that the present invention will be better understood from the following description of preferred embodiments.

POLYPHOSPHATE SOURCE

The present embodiments may include a polyphosphate source. Polyphosphates are known to help retard calculus formation. However, it is also known that polyphosphates with an average chain length greater than 4 will also react with ionic fluoride in oral compositions at ambient temperature and produce monofluorophosphate ions, in addition to altering the pH of the composition. This reaction may compromise the efficacy of the oral composition and its ability to provide stable ionic fluoride and polyphosphate to the oral surfaces. It also is known that to have stable polyphosphate, the total water content and pH of the dentifrice composition should be controlled to reduce the hydrolysis of the polyphosphate.

A polyphosphate generally is understood to consist of two or more phosphate functional groups arranged primarily in a linear configuration, although some cyclic derivatives may be present. The preferred inorganic polyphosphate salts, which are preferably alkali metal salts, used in the dentifrice compositions of the present invention have no more than three phosphorous atoms, such as a pyrophosphate, for example tetrasodium pyrophosphate, or a polyphosphate, for example sodium tripolyphosphate. These polyphosphates may be used alone or in any combination thereof.

An effective amount of a polyphosphate source may be from 0.1% to 30%, preferably from 1% to 26%, more preferably from 4% to 20%, and most preferably from 5% to 13%, by weight of the total dentifrice composition. A typical range is from 1% to 10% by eight of the total dentifrice composition, more typically from 3% to 7% by weight of the total dentifrice composition.

AQUEOUS CARRIERS

In preparing the present compositions, it is desirable to add one or more aqueous carriers to the compositions. Such materials are well known in the art and are readily chosen by one skilled in the art based on the physical and aesthetic properties desired for the compositions being prepared. Aqueous carriers typically comprise from 40% to 99%, preferably from 70% to 98%, and more preferably from 90% to 95%, by weight of the dentifrice composition.

TOTAL WATER CONTENT

Water employed in the preparation of commercially suitable oral compositions should preferably be of low ion content and free of organic impurities. In the dentifrice composition, water will generally comprise less than about 10%, and preferably from 0% to 5%, by weight of the composition herein. In some embodiments, the composition will comprises from 0% to 4%, or 0% to 3%, or 0% to 2% or 0% to 1% of water by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, the composition will comprise 0% of water by weight of the composition.

As used herein, any particular weight percentage of water in the composition refers to “added water”, and this includes water that is added directly to the composition during manufacture, as well as water that is added as part of other ingredients during manufacture. For example, the addition of an 85% phosphoric acid ingredient to the composition necessarily means that 15% of the weight added is water. Common ingredients that may be added to oral care compositions as aqueous mixtures include polyols (such as glycerol and sorbitol), acids (e.g., 35 wt % hydrochloric acid, 85 wt % phosphoric acid, 98 wt % sulfuric acid), and polymers (such as carboxymethylcellulose or methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride copolymers), as well as any ingredients typically sold as solutions in water (for example, surfactants, coloring agents, flavoring agents, and the like). Added water also includes the water of hydration of inorganic salts, for example, the water contained in sodium citrate dihydrate, or zinc lactate dihydrate. Standard methods of water content analysis, such as the Karl Fischer method, typically are capable of measuring the water content of a composition derived from this “added water”.

Water content, total water, or added water, as used herein, does not include the water that may be reversibly or irreversibly carried by hygroscopic ingredients such as silica. Such compounds are also known as desiccants or deliquescents. Such compounds are capable of trapping (adsorbing or absorbing) from the atmosphere moisture in a way that is typically very difficult to remove (for example, requiring application of high heat and vacuum). Such water may be practically irreversibly bound to the ingredient. Such quantities of water are not typically capable of measurement using common moisture analysis methods, such as the Karl Fischer method. Other strongly hygroscopic compounds include calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, potassium phosphate, and the like. Thus, “0% water” or “zero water” compositions, as used herein, refer to “no water added” compositions, which may contain from 0% to 5% by weight of water trapped in hygroscopic, desiccant or deliquescent ingredients such as silica. Typically, however, such a composition will usually appear to be water-free or substantially water-free as measured using common water content analysis techniques, such as the Karl Fischer method.

In such low levels of water, polyphosphates and actives such as fluoride and stannous are not dissolved in the compositions herein. However, these ingredients may be dissolved in the present compositions in other low polar solvents. This allows the actives to remain stable in the compositions during storage. The fluoride ion and the stannous ion if present will be released from their salt forms or non-ionic solution forms when contacted with saliva and/or water at the time of brushing. Thus there is no need to physically separate the polyphosphate-containing portion of the composition from the ionic active-containing portion of the composition, for example by using a dual compartmented package. In addition, fluoride ion from a variety of sources may be used efficaciously in the present composition; there is no preference for the use of sodium monofluorophosphate as the fluoride ion source that is most compatible with the polyphosphate in the composition as previously described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,190,644, “Dentifrice Compositions Containing Polyphosphate and Sodium Monofluorophosphate.”

BINDER SYSTEM

In some embodiments, the dentifrice compositions of the present disclosure may incorporate a binder system incorporating a cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone in combination with a gum. The binder system may further incorporate at least one additional thickening agent selected from the group consisting of polysaccharides, carbomers, poloxamers, modified celluloses, and mixtures thereof, and at least one humectant. The thickening agent comprises from 0.05% to 3%, and preferably from 0.1% to 1.5%, by weight of the composition. These binder systems provide desirable consistency and gellation to the low water composition. It has previously been known that gelling materials that provide desirable rheology with water and humectant provide generally less satisfactory rheology when the water is not present to activate their gellation binding properties. This is believed to be especially true of glycerin humectant. The binder system may further comprise additional inorganic thickening agents.

THICKENING AGENT

Polysaccharides, including gums, which are suitable for use herein include carageenans, gellan gum, locust bean gum, xanthan gum, and mixtures thereof. Carageenan is a polysaccharide derived from seaweed and has been known for use as a binder or thickener in toothpastes, see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,187,293 B1 and 6,162,418. There are several types of carageenan that may be distinguished by their seaweed source and/or by their degree of and position of sulfation. Suitable for use in the present invention are kappa carageenans, modified kappa carageenans, iota carageenans, modified iota carageenans, and mixtures thereof. Carageenans suitable for use herein include those commercially available from the FMC Company under the series designation “Viscarin,” including but not limited to Viscarin TP 329, Viscarin TP 388, and Viscarin TP 389.

Gellan gum is another polysaccharide that is suitable for use herein. It is a polysaccharide aerobically fermented by pseudomonas elodea. It can also form an acceptable low water matrix when it is present at a level of from 0.1% to 3%, preferably from 0.4% to 1.8%.

Locust bean gum and xanthan gum are also suitable polysaccharides for use herein. Locust bean gum or xanthan gum as thickening agents can form a stable and acceptable dentifrice matrix when water level is lower than 10% in the composition.

Poloxamers are also suitable as thickening agents in the low water matrix herein. Poloxamer is a synthetic block copolymer of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. It is available in several types. Herein, poloxamer 407 is preferable. It can be partly dissolved in water. When the temperature is higher than 65° C., it can dissolve in glycerin. POLOXAMER 407® is available, for example, from the BASF CORPORATION, N.J., USA.

Carbomers are also suitable as thickening agents in a low water matrix, especially in a zero-water matrix.

Modified celluloses such as hydroxyethyl cellulose are also good thickening agents in low water matrix. Since the water level is limited in the present compositions, modified hydroxyethyl cellulose with a hydrophobic chain (C12-C20) are preferred to increase the solubility and hydration of this thickening agent in other low polar solvents, such as glycerin, propylene glycol and PEG.

The dentifrice composition may further comprise additional inorganic thickening agents such as colloidal magnesium aluminum silicate or finely divided silica to further improve texture. Additional inorganic thickening agents if present can be used in an amount from 0.1% to 15%, more preferably from 0.1% to 5%, by weight of the dentifrice composition.

HUMECTANT

The humectant serves to keep toothpaste compositions from hardening upon exposure to air and certain humectants can also impart desirable sweetness of flavor to toothpaste compositions. Suitable humectants for use in the invention include glycerin, sorbitol, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, xylitol, and other edible polyhydric alcohols. Preferred are glycerin, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, and mixtures thereof, especially mixtures thereof. The humectant generally comprises from 0.1% to 70%, preferably from 1% to 60%, and more preferably from 15% to 55%, by weight of the composition.

The humectant is believed to have a significant impact on the viscosity of the low water matrix. For example, when using polysaccharide as the thickening agent in the composition, the viscosity of the matrix will increase when the level of glycerin or polyethylene glycol increases. On the contrary, the viscosity of matrix will decrease when the level of propylene glycol increases in the composition.

IONIC ACTIVE INGREDIENT

The dentifrice compositions of the present disclosure comprise an effective amount of a fluoride ion source, a stannous ion source, and a zinc ion source.

Fluoride Ion Source

The fluoride ion source herein is a soluble fluoride source capable of providing free fluoride ions. Soluble fluoride ion sources include sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, indium fluoride, zinc fluoride, and sodium monofluorophosphate. Sodium fluoride and stannous fluoride are the preferred soluble fluoride ion sources. Norris et al., U.S. Pat. No. 2,946,725, issued Jul. 26, 1960, and Widder et al., U.S. Pat. No. 3,678,154 issued Jul. 18, 1972, disclose such fluoride ion sources as well as others.

The fluoride ion source in the present compositions preferably is present as a solid dispersion in the composition during storage, prior to actual brushing usage of the composition by a consumer. The level of water in the present compositions is too low to permit the fluoride source to dissolve in the composition during storage. Thus, there is no obvious interaction between the fluoride ion and the polyphosphate, or silica if present, during storage, providing a stable composition during storage. When the composition is contacted by saliva and/or water at the time of brushing, the fluoride source preferably will be dispersed and the active ion will be delivered to the oral cavity.

The present compositions may contain a soluble fluoride ion source capable of providing from 50 ppm to 3500 ppm, and preferably from 500 ppm to 3000 ppm of free fluoride ions. To deliver the desired amount of fluoride ions, fluoride ion source may be present in the total dentifrice composition at an amount of from 0.1% to 5%, preferably from 0.2% to 1%, and more preferably from 0.3 to 0.6%, by weight of the total dentifrice composition.

Metal Ion Source

The present disclosure comprises a source of stannous ions and zinc ions. The metal ion source can be a soluble or a sparingly soluble compound of stannous or zinc with inorganic or organic counter ions. Examples include the fluoride, chloride, chlorofluoride, acetate, hexafluorozirconate, sulfate, tartrate, gluconate, citrate, malate, glycinate, pyrophosphate, metaphosphate, oxalate, phosphate, carbonate salts and oxides of stannous and zinc.

Stannous and zinc ions have been found to help in the reduction of gingivitis, plaque, sensitivity, and improved breath benefits. The efficacy of these metal ions in the present compositions is not reduced by the polyphosphate.

Stannous and zinc ions are derived from the metal ion source(s) found in the dentifrice composition in an effective amount. An effective amount is defined as from at least 1000 ppm metal ion, preferably 2,000 ppm to 15,000 ppm. More preferably, metal ions are present in an amount from 3,000 ppm to 13,000 ppm and even more preferably from 4,000 ppm to 10,000 ppm. This is the total amount of metal ions (stannous and zinc and mixtures thereof) that is present in the compositions for delivery to the tooth surface.

The metal ion sources in the present compositions are preferably not fully ionized in the composition during storage, prior to actual brushing usage of the composition by a consumer. The level of water in the present compositions is too low to permit the metal ion source to dissolve in the composition during storage. But certain salts such as stannous chloride and stannous fluoride, can be solubilized in glycerin or propylene glycol. Both humectants can provide super stability protection for such stannous salts and also can provide a better taste profile than a water (aqueous) solution of stannous. When the composition is contacted by saliva and/or water at the time of brushing, the stannous ion source will be fully ionized and the active ion will be delivered to the oral cavity.

Dentifrices containing stannous salts, particularly stannous fluoride and stannous chloride, are described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,004,597 to Majeti et al. Other descriptions of stannous salt dentifrices are found in U.S. Pat. No. 5,578,293. The preferred stannous salts are stannous fluoride and stannous chloride dihydrate. Other suitable stannous salts include stannous acetate, stannous tartrate, stannous pyrophosphate and sodium stannous citrate. Examples of suitable zinc ion sources are zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc chloride, zinc citrate, zinc lactate, zinc gluconate, zinc malate, zinc tartrate, zinc carbonate, zinc phosphate, and other salts listed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,022,880.

The combined metal ion source(s) will be present in an amount of from 0.25% to 11%, by weight of the final composition. Preferably, the metal ion sources are present in an amount of from 0.4 to 7%, more preferably from 0.45% to 5%.

ACID

The compositions described here also contain an acid in order to result in a composition with desired pH. As used herein, acid refers to a Bronsted acid that is capable of donating protons and resulting in a solution or suspension with a lower pH than would be obtained in the absence of the acid. Suitable acids for this purpose include strong inorganic acids, such as phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid. The acid may also be a weak inorganic acid, such as acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid, gluconic acid, ascorbic acid, fumaric acid, formic acid, pyruvic acid, maleic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, or caproic acid. The acid may also be an amino acid, such as aspartic acid or glutamic acid. This added acid is in addition to any transiently formed acidic compounds derived from the reversible protonation of a conjugate base present in the composition (e.g., transiently present citric acid resulting from the presence of a citrate salt in a composition).

The inventors have surprisingly discovered that at low pH, a low-water or zero-water dentifrice composition can be preserved against loss of bioavailable metal ion by adjusting the composition to an acidic pH. The desired pH of the composition of the present disclosure is from pH 3 to pH 8, preferably from pH 4 to pH 7, e.g., pH 5 to pH 6, or, e.g., about pH 5.5.

BUFFERING AGENT

The compositions described herein also may contain one or more buffering agents. Buffering agents, as used herein, refer to agents that can be used to maintain the pH of the compositions in the desired range. Suitable buffering agents include, but are not limited to, alkali metal hydroxides, ammonium hydroxide, organic ammonium compounds, carbonates, sesquicarbonates, borates, silicates, phosphates, imidazole, and mixtures thereof. Specific buffering agents include monosodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium benzoate, benzoic acid, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, alkali metal carbonate salts, sodium carbonate, imidazole, pyrophosphate salts, citric acid, and sodium citrate. Buffering agents are used at a level of from 0.1% to 30%, preferably from 0.1% to 10%, and more preferably from 0.3% to 3%, by weight of the present composition.

ANTICALCULUS AGENTS

The compositions described herein also may employ, as anticalculus agents, polyphosphate materials known to be effective in reducing calcium phosphate mineral deposition related to calculus formation. Agents included are pyrophosphates, and tripolyphosphates. The compositions may also employ synthetic anionic polymers [including polyacrylates and copolymers of maleic anhydride or acid and methyl vinyl ether (e.g., GANTREZ®), as described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,627,977 to Gaffar et al.; as well as, e.g., polyamino propane sulfonic acid (AMPS)], zinc citrate trihydrate, diphosphonates (e.g., EHDP; AHP), polypeptides (such as polyaspartic and polyglutamic acids), and mixtures thereof.

ABRASIVE POLISHING MATERIALS

An abrasive polishing material may also be included in the toothpaste compositions. The abrasive polishing material contemplated for use in the compositions of the present invention can be any material that does not excessively abrade dentin. Typical abrasive polishing materials include silicas including gels and precipitates; aluminas; phosphates including orthophosphates, polymetaphosphates, and pyrophosphates; and mixtures thereof. Specific examples include dicalcium orthophosphate dihydrate, calcium pyrophosphate, tricalcium phosphate, calcium polymetaphosphate, insoluble sodium polymetaphosphate, hydrated alumina, beta calcium pyrophosphate, calcium carbonate, and resinous abrasive materials such as particulate condensation products of urea and formaldehyde, and others such as disclosed by Cooley et al in U.S. Pat. No. 3,070,510, issued Dec. 25, 1962. Mixtures of abrasives may also be, used. If the dentifrice composition or particular phase comprises a polyphosphate having an average chain length of 4 or more, calcium containing abrasives and alumina are not preferred abrasives. The most preferred abrasive is silica.

Silica dental abrasives of various types are preferred because of their unique benefits of exceptional dental cleaning and polishing performance without unduly abrading tooth enamel or dentine. The silica abrasive polishing materials herein, as well as other abrasives, generally have an average particle size ranging between 0.1 to 30 microns, and preferably from 5 to 15 microns. The abrasive can be precipitated silica or silica gels such as the silica xerogels described in Pader et al., U.S. Pat. No. 3,538,230, issued Mar. 2, 1970, and DiGiulio, U.S. Pat. No. 3,862,307, issued Jan. 21, 1975. Preferred are the silica xerogels marketed under the trade name “SYLOID®” by the W. R. Grace & Company, Davison Chemical Division. Also preferred are the precipitated silica materials such as those marketed by the J. M. Huber Corporation under the trade name, “ZEODENT®”, particularly the silica carrying the designation “Zeodent 119.” The types of silica dental abrasives useful in the toothpastes of the present invention are described in more detail in Wason, U.S. Pat. No. 4,340,583, issued Jul. 29, 1982. Silica abrasives are also described in Rice, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,589,160; 5,603,920; 5,651,958; 5,658,553; and 5,716,601. The abrasive in the toothpaste compositions described herein is generally present at a level of from 6% to 70% by weight of the composition. Preferably, toothpastes contain from 10% to 50% of abrasive, by weight of the dentifrice composition.

PEROXIDE SOURCE

The present disclosure may include a peroxide source in the composition. The peroxide source may be selected from the group consisting of hydrogen peroxide, calcium peroxide, urea peroxide, and mixtures thereof. The preferred peroxide source is calcium peroxide. The following amounts represent the amount of peroxide raw material, although the peroxide source may contain ingredients other than the peroxide raw material. The present composition may contain from 0.01% to 10%, preferably from 0.1% to 5%, more preferably from 0.2% to 3%, and most preferably from 0.3% to 0.8% of a peroxide source, by weight of the dentifrice composition.

ADDITIONAL AQUEOUS CARRIERS

The compositions also may comprise surfactants, also commonly referred to as sudsing agents. Suitable surfactants are those that are reasonably stable and foam throughout a wide pH range. The surfactant may be anionic, nonionic, amphoteric, zwitterionic, cationic, or mixtures thereof. Anionic surfactants useful herein include the water-soluble salts of alkyl sulfates having from 8 to 20 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical (e.g., sodium alkyl sulfate) and the water-soluble salts of sulfonated monoglycerides of fatty acids having from 8 to 20 carbon atoms. Sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium coconut monoglyceride sulfonates are examples of anionic surfactants of this type. Other suitable anionic surfactants are sarcosinates, such as sodium lauroyl sarcosinate, taurates, sodium lauryl sulfoacetate, sodium lauroyl isethionate, sodium laureth carboxylate, and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate. Mixtures of anionic surfactants can also be employed. Many suitable anionic surfactants are disclosed by Agricola et al., U.S. Pat. No. 3,959,458, issued May 25, 1976.

Nonionic surfactants that can be used in the compositions can broadly be defined as compounds produced by the condensation of alkylene oxide groups (hydrophilic in nature) with an organic hydrophobic compound which may be aliphatic or alkyl-aromatic in nature. Examples of suitable nonionic surfactants include poloxamers (sold under trade name PLURONIC®), polyoxyethylene, polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters (sold under trade name TWEENS®), Polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil, fatty alcohol ethoxylates, polyethylene oxide condensates of alkyl phenols, products derived from the condensation of ethylene oxide with the reaction product of propylene oxide and ethylene diamine, ethylene oxide condensates of aliphatic alcohols, long chain tertiary amine oxides, long chain tertiary phosphine oxides, long chain dialkyl sulfoxides, and mixtures of such materials. The amphoteric surfactants useful in the present invention can be broadly described as derivatives of aliphatic secondary and tertiary amines in which the aliphatic radical can be a straight chain or branched and wherein one of the aliphatic substituents contains from 8 to 18 carbon atoms and one contains an anionic water-solubilizing group, e.g., carboxylate, sulfonate, sulfate, phosphate, or phosphonate. Other suitable amphoteric surfactants are betaines, specifically cocamidopropyl betaine. Mixtures of amphoteric surfactants can also be employed. Many of these suitable nonionic and amphoteric surfactants are disclosed by Gieske et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,234. The present composition typically comprises one or more surfactants each at a level of from 0.25% to 12%, preferably from 0.5% to 8%, and most preferably from 1% to 6%, by weight of the composition.

Titanium dioxide may also be added to the present composition. Titanium dioxide is a white powder which adds opacity to the compositions. Titanium dioxide generally comprises from 0.25% to 5%, by weight of the composition.

Coloring agents may also be added to the present composition. The coloring agent may be in the form of an aqueous solution, preferably 1% coloring agent in a solution of water. Color solutions generally comprise from 0.01% to 5%, by weight of the composition.

A flavor system can also be added to the compositions. Suitable flavoring components include oil of wintergreen, oil of peppermint, oil of spearmint, clove bud oil, menthol, anethole methyl salicylate, eucalyptol, cassia, 1-menthyl acetate, sage, eugenol, parsley oil, oxanone, alpha-irisone, marjoram, lemon, orange, propenyl guaethol, cinnamon, vanillin, ethyl vanillin, heliotropine, 4-cis-heptenal, diacetyl, methyl-para-tert-butyl phenyl acetate, and mixtures thereof. Coolants may also be part of the flavor system. Preferred coolants in the present compositions are the paramenthan carboxyamide agents such as N-ethyl-p-menthan-3-carboxamide (known commercially as “WS-3”) and mixtures thereof. A flavor system is generally used in the compositions at levels of from 0.001% to 5%, by weight of the composition.

Sweetening agents can be added to the compositions. These include saccharin, dextrose, sucrose, lactose, xylitol, maltose, levulose, aspartame, sodium cyclamate, D-tryptophan, dihydrochalcones, acesulfame, and mixtures thereof. Sweetening agents are generally used in toothpastes at levels of from 0.005% to 5%, by weight of the composition.

The compositions of the present disclosure may also include other agents, such as antimicrobial agents. Included among such agents are water insoluble non-cationic antimicrobial agents such as halogenated diphenyl ethers, phenolic compounds including phenol and its homologs, mono and poly-alkyl and aromatic halophenols, resorcinol and its derivatives, bisphenolic compounds and halogenated salicylanilides, benzoic esters, and halogenated carbanilides, polyphenols, and herbals. The water soluble antimicrobials include quaternary ammonium salts and bis-biquanide salts, among others. Triclosan monophosphate is a preferred additional water soluble antimicrobial agent. The quaternary ammonium agents include those in which one or two of the substitutes on the quaternary nitrogen has a carbon chain length (typically alkyl group) from 8 to 20, typically from 10 to 18 carbon atoms while the remaining substitutes (typically alkyl or benzyl group) have a lower number of carbon atoms, such as from 1 to 7 carbon atoms, typically methyl or ethyl groups. Dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, tetradecylpyridinium chloride, domiphen bromide, N-tetradecyl-4-ethyl pyridinium chloride, dodecyl dimethyl (2-phenoxyethyl) ammonium bromide, benzyl dimethylstearyl ammonium chloride, cetyl pyridinium chloride, quaternized 5-amino-1,3-bis(2-ethyl-hexyl)-5-methyl hexa hydropyrimidine, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride and methyl benzethonium chloride are examplary of typical quaternary ammonium antibacterial agents. Other compounds are bis[4-(R-amino)-1-pyridinium] alkanes as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,206,215, issued Jun. 3, 1980, to Bailey.

An effective amount of a desensitizing agent may also be incorporated into the present compositions. The desensitizing agents include those selected from alkali, or alkaline earth metal, or aluminum salts with a chloride, nitrate, sulfate, or acetate anion. Preferred salts include potassium nitrate, potassium citrate, potassium chloride, strontium chloride, and mixtures thereof. Such desensitizing agents are disclosed in e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,718,885.

For compositions that contain stannous, a stain reducing agent such as Plasdone S-630 or aluminum hydrate may further be added to the composition. Plasdone is polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) that can be synthesized by polymerizing vinylpyrrolidone. Commercially, it has been produced as a series of products having mean molecular weights ranging from 10,000 to 700,000. Herein, the low molecular weights and middle molecular weights (from 10,000 to 100,000) are preferred. In order to remove stain effectively, the level of PVP is preferably from 0.5% to 10%, more preferably from 1.0% to 7.0%, and even more preferably from 1.5% to 5.0%.

The dentifrice compositions may be a paste, gel, or any configuration or combination thereof. A further embodiment of the present invention includes dual-phase or multi-phase compositions comprising the present low-water compositions as one phase and at least one other separate phase comprising additional dentifrice components to further enhance stability, performance and/or aesthetics of the dentifrice product. For example, a dual phase composition may comprise a first phase comprising the present low-water composition with polyphosphate and ionic active(s) and a separate second phase comprising additional active agents such as bleaching agents, preferably a peroxide source, or a tooth surface conditioning agent to provide improved cleaning, whitening, anti-staining and mouth feel benefits. Examples of tooth conditioning agents are polysiloxanes and modified polysiloxanes, including diorganopolysiloxanes such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); alkyl- and alkoxy-dimethicone copolyols such as C12 to C20 alkyl dimethicone copolyols; and aminoalkylsilicones. These siloxane polymers are described for example in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,759,523; 6,024,891; 6,123,950; 6,019,962; 6,139,823 all assigned to The Procter & Gamble Company.

The dispenser for the dentifrice compositions may be a tube, pump, or any other container suitable for dispensing toothpaste. In a dual phase oral composition, each oral composition will be contained in a physically separated compartment of a dispenser and dispensed side-by-side.

METHODS OF USE

In practicing the embodiments, the user need only apply the dentifrice composition herein, or an aqueous suspension thereof, to the tooth surfaces of a human or animal, in the areas desired, in order to obtain a desired effect, e.g., whitening, breath freshening, caries prevention, pain relief, gum health, tartar control, erosion control, etc. Use of dentifrices to control erosion of the tooth surface, or to prevent demineralization, are known and described in, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 6,685,920, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. The compositions also may be applied to other oral cavity surfaces, such as the gingival or mucosal tissues, although it is believed that the benefits are best achieved when the dentifrice compositions are applied to the teeth. The dentifrice composition may contact the tooth and/or oral cavity surface either directly, or indirectly, however, it is preferred that the dentifrice composition be directly applied. The dentifrice composition may be applied by any means, but is preferably applied with a brush or by rinsing with a dentifrice slurry.

The manufacture of the oral composition of the present invention may be accomplished by any of the various standard techniques for producing such compositions. To make a dentifrice, a vehicle may be prepared containing humectant, for example, one or more of glycerin, glycerol, sorbitol, and propylene glycol, thickener agents and antibacterial agent such as triclosan, and the vehicle and a mixture of anionic and amphoteric surfactants are added, followed by blending in of a polishing agent, as well as fluoride salts, with the pre-mix.

The following examples are further illustrative of the preferred embodiments, but it is understood that the invention is not limited thereto.

EXAMPLE 1

Dentifrice compositions are prepared having the formulations as indicated in Table 1. All compositions contain 0.45% by weight of stannous fluoride. Composition A is a zinc oxide 0% water composition. Composition B is a standard high water zinc oxide composition. Composition C is a zinc oxide 0% water composition. Composition D is a zinc oxide 0% water composition containing 0.2% by weight of phosphoric acid.

TABLE 1 Description A B C D Demineralized Water 15.28 Sorbitol, 70% Aq Soln 54.77 Sodium Saccharin 0.80 0.30 0.80 0.80 Trisodium Citrate Dihydrate Citric Acid-Anydrous Stannous Fluoride 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 Zinc Oxide 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Zinc L-lactate Dihydrate Tetrasodium 1.00 0.50 2.00 7.00 Pyrophosphate Sodium 3.00 3.00 3.00 Tripolyphosphate Sodium Acid 1.00 2.00 Pyrophosphate 99.0%-101.0% Glycerol 42.20 41.95 41.85 Propylene Glycol 10.80 10.80 10.80 Polyethylene Glycol 7.00 3.00 7.00 Polyvinyl pyrrolidone 4.50 4.25 4.25 Titanium Dioxide 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.00 Xanthan Gum Microcrystalline Cellulose/Sodium CMC NF Carboxymethylcelullose Sodium Silica-Abrasive 12.00 10.00 12.00 12.00 Silicon Dioxide 5.00 Silica- Thickener 3.50 Phosphoric Acid 0.20 Carboxymethyl 1.00 Cellulose High Cleaning Silica 12.00 12.00 12.00 Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 1.75 2.00 1.75 1.75 Powder COCAMIDOPROPYL 1.25 BETAINE Flavor 2.00 1.20 2.00 1.90 Total Components 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 pH 6.2 6.8 6.6 5.6 10% pH 8.8 7.7 9.1 7.7

The pH of the native composition is measured using a standard glass electrode pH meter by inserting the electrode into the composition. “10% pH” refers to the measurement of the pH of an aqueous suspension of the composition that is 10% w/w composition and 90% w/w deionized water.

EXAMPLE 2

The dentifrice compositions in accordance with Formula A through D are subjected to an accelerated aging study to determine the stability of the stannous ion, zinc ion and fluoride ion. The dentifrice compositions are subjected to a temperature of 40° C. for a period of 13 weeks. The final amounts of soluble tin, soluble zinc, and soluble fluoride, representing the available stannous ion, zinc ion and fluoride ion, respectively, are measured at the end of the test. Percent availability represents the percentage of soluble ion remaining at 13 weeks compared to the initial formulated amount. The results are shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2 Formula A B C D Formulated tin (wt %) 0.36 0.33 0.35 0.30 Final soluble tin (wt %) 0.10 0.00 0.12 0.25 % Available Tin 28% 0% 34% 83% Formulated zinc (wt %) 0.77 0.72 0.76 0.85 Final soluble zinc (wt %) 0.44 0.04 0.34 0.58 % Available Zinc 57% 6% 45% 68% Formulated fluoride (ppm) 1111 1101 1102 1105 Final soluble fluoride (ppm) 900 1024 871 995 % Available Fluoride 82% 93%  79% 90%

Table 2 shows that the composition of Formula D, containing no added water and with phosphoric acid to adjust the pH to 5.6, has improved availability of tin, zinc and fluoride, compared to the Formula A and C compositions which are both no added water compositions at pH 6.2-6.6. In contrast, the standard high-water composition B shows very poor metal ion availability.

EXAMPLE 3

The formulations of Formula C and D are subjected to a rheology test to monitor any changes in viscosity, such as resulting from progressive thickening, over time. In particular, the compositions are subjected to a measurement of Brookfield viscosity. The viscosities of the compositions are determined with a Brookfield Viscometer Model RVT (or RVTDV) at 25° C. with an attached Brookfield Helipath Stand utilizing an RV T-Bar Spindle Set (Spindle V74, run at 1 RPM). Viscosity profiles are recorded on a linear 1200 recorder (Brookfield Engineering Laboratories, Stoughton, Mass.). Viscosity is measured in centipoise (cP). Brookfield viscosity of the compositions are taken over a period of 28 days. Viscosities of between 100,000 and 300,000 centipoise are considered acceptable for low-water dentifrice compositions. For each composition, the viscosity initially rises to a peak at about 1-3 days, then falls somewhat over the following 3-5 days, before gradually increasing as the composition ages. For example, Compositions C and D (zero water), an acceptable viscosity is maintained over the entire period of the test. Composition C, for instance, shows a viscosity peaks at about 135,000 cP at 3 days, then drops to about 100,000 cP at 7 days, then slowly rises to 130,000 cP at 28 days. Composition D shows a similar profile, maintaining a range of about 100,000 to 160,000 cP for the 28 day test period. Such a product would be readily dispensable from a container over the expected shelf life of the dentifrice composition.

Claims

1. A dentifrice composition comprising:

an orally acceptable vehicle;
a source of stannous ions;
a source of zinc ions;
a source of fluoride ions;
an acid; and
a polyphosphate salt selected from the group consisting of inorganic polyphosphate salts which have equal to or less than three phosphorous atoms;
wherein the dentifrice composition has a total water content of less than about 10% based on the weight of the composition.

2. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition has a pH of from 5 to 9, e.g., from 6 to 8, or, e.g., from 7 to 8, or e.g., about 7.5 or about 7.75, as an aqueous suspension.

3. The composition of claim 1, wherein the acid is selected from the group consisting of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid, gluconic acid, ascorbic acid, fumaric acid, formic acid, pyruvic acid, maleic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, caproic acid or an amino acid.

4. The composition of claim 3, wherein the acid is phosphoric acid.

5. The composition of claim 1, wherein the polyphosphate is selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal salt of a pyrophosphate, an alkali metal salt of a tripolyphosphate, and mixtures thereof.

6. The composition of claim 5, wherein the polyphosphate is selected from the group consisting of tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium acid pyrophosphate and mixtures thereof.

7. The composition of claim 6, wherein the polyphosphate comprises a mixture of tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate.

8. The composition of claim 1, wherein the polyphosphate comprises from 1 to 10% by weight of the composition.

9. The composition of claim 1, wherein the source of fluoride ions and the source of stannous ions comprises stannous fluoride.

10. The composition of claim 1, wherein the source of zinc ions comprises a zinc salt of an organic acid, a zinc salt of an inorganic acid, or a zinc base.

11. The composition of claim 10, wherein the source of zinc ions comprises zinc oxide.

12. The composition of claim 1, further comprising an aqueous buffer system for the source of stannous ions.

13. The composition of claim 12, wherein the buffer system is adapted to chelate the stannous ions in the composition.

14. The composition of claim 13, wherein the buffer system comprises at least one of an organic acid or an alkali metal salt thereof.

15. The composition of claim 14, wherein the organic acid is citric acid.

16. The composition of claim 14, wherein the buffer system comprises a mixture of citric acid and trisodium citrate.

17. The composition of claim 1, wherein the dentifrice composition comprises less than about 6% of water based on the weight of the composition, e.g., less than about 5% of water, or, e.g., less than about 4% of water, or, e.g., less than 3% of water, or, e.g., less than 2% of water, or e.g., less than 1% of water.

18. The composition of claim 17, wherein the dentifrice composition comprises 0% water based on the weight of the composition.

19. The composition of claim 1, further comprising at least one humectant selected from the group consisting of glycerin, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and mixtures thereof.

20. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition is a single phase.

Patent History
Publication number: 20170348206
Type: Application
Filed: Dec 26, 2014
Publication Date: Dec 7, 2017
Applicant: Colgate-Palmolive Company (New York, NY)
Inventors: Kavita VEMISHETTI (Brooklyn, NY), Linh FRUGE (Hillsborough, NJ), Michael PRENCIPE (West Windsor, NJ)
Application Number: 15/538,285
Classifications
International Classification: A61K 8/27 (20060101); A61K 8/21 (20060101); A61K 8/24 (20060101); A61Q 11/00 (20060101);