Treatment of Addiction and Impulse-Control Disorders Using PDE7 Inhibitors

This disclosure is directed to treatment of addictions and primary impulse-control disorders using phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) inhibitors, alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents.

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Description

CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation of pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/290,868 filed Nov. 7, 2011, which claims the benefit of Application Nos. 61/411,431, filed Nov. 8, 2010, 61/411,437, filed Nov. 8, 2010, and 61/482,994, filed May 5, 2011, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

STATEMENT REGARDING SEQUENCE LISTING

The sequence listing associated with this application is provided in text format in lieu of a paper copy and is hereby incorporated by reference into the specification. The name of the text file containing the sequence listing is NE_1_0133_US2_SequenceListingasFiled; the file is 35 KB; was created on Jan. 15, 2018, and is being submitted via EFS-Web with the filing of the specification.

I. FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This disclosure is directed to prevention and treatment of substance and behavioral addictions using phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) inhibitors, alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents or addictive agents.

II. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines substance addiction as using a substance repeatedly, despite knowing and experiencing harmful effects. Substance addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease characterized by a loss of control over drug use, compulsive drug seeking and craving for a substance, use that persists despite negative consequences, and physical and/or psychological dependence on the substance. Substance addiction typically follows a course of tolerance, withdrawal, compulsive drug taking behavior, drug seeking behavior, practice of addictive behavior, and relapse. Substance abuse and addiction are public health issues with significant social and economic impact on both the addict and society by playing a major role in violent crime and the spread of infectious diseases.

Addictive substances include alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, cannabis (marijuana) and cannabis derivatives, opiates and other morphine-like opioid agonists such as heroin, phencyclidine and phencyclidine-like compounds, sedative hypnotics such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates and psychostimulants such as cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-related drugs such as dextroamphetamine and methylamphetamine.

Alcohol is one of the most commonly abused substances at a global level. Additionally, alcoholism leads to serious liver and cardiovascular disease and generates dependence resulting in severe mental disorders, social problems and adverse consequences including the division of families, tragic accidents and the reduction of work performance. According to the WHO, alcohol consumption is responsible for 20-30% of oesophageal and liver cancer, liver cirrhosis, homicides, epilepsy, and motor vehicle accidents worldwide. Globally, alcohol abuse leads to about 1.8 million deaths per year. Compulsive behavior towards the consumption of alcohol is a core symptom of the disorder. In recent years several approaches have been investigated to help alcoholic patients to not only control alcohol drinking but also alcohol cravings and relapse (Monti et al., J Stud Alcohol 54:235-45 (1993); Volpicelli et al., Arch Gen Psychiatry 49:876-880 (1992); and O'Brien Science 278: 66-70 (1997)).

Medications such as naltrexone, acamprosate, ondansetron, disulfiram, gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and topiramate tested for their potential therapeutic effect on alcohol abuse belong to several classes (Volpicelli et al. 1992; O'Brien et al. 1997). Few of these pharmacotherapeutics, such as naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram, have been proven to be of a certain utility and approved for the treatment of alcoholism. Among these medications, the non-selective opioid antagonist naltrexone is currently considered the pharmacological best option. However, despite some promising results none of these medications, including naltrexone, is of sufficient efficacy in alcoholism and prognosis remains poor.

Nicotine is one of the most widely used addictive drugs, and nicotine abuse is the most common form of substance abuse. The WHO estimates that there are 1.25 billion smokers worldwide, representing one third of the global population over the age of 15. The WHO further estimates that 5 million deaths occur each year as a direct result of tobacco use, making nicotine abuse the largest single preventable cause of death worldwide. In industrialized countries, 70-90% of lung cancer, 56-80% of chronic respiratory disease, and 22% of cardiovascular disease instances are attributed to nicotine addiction. Cigarette smoking is associated with 430,000 deaths per year in the US alone and is estimated to cost the nation 80 billion dollars yearly in health care costs. Tobacco use accounts for one third of all cancers, including cancer of the lung, mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, cervix, kidney, ureter, and bladder. The overall rates of death from cancer are twice as high among smokers as among nonsmokers. Smoking also causes lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema; exacerbates asthma symptoms; and increases the risk of heart disease, including stroke, heart attack, vascular disease, and aneurysm. An estimated 20% of the deaths from heart disease are attributable to smoking. Expectant women who smoke are at greater risk than nonsmokers for premature delivery, spontaneous abortion, and infants with decreased birth weight.

Nicotine use results in increased levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which activates the reward pathways to regulate feelings of pleasure and to mediate the desire to consume nicotine. Symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal include craving, irritability, anger, hostility, aggression, fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment, which lead the abuser to seek more nicotine. Environmental conditioning factors and exposure to psychological stress represent additional factors motivating nicotine use in smokers. Repeated nicotine use results in the development of tolerance, requiring higher doses of nicotine to produce the same initial stimulation.

Most therapies developed for nicotine addiction have shown only moderate success in preventing relapse, leading to a high failure rate in attempts to quit smoking. Treatments include the use of nicotine replacement products, anti-depressants, anti-hypersensitives, and behavioral therapy.

The National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that 72 million Americans, about one third of the population, have tried marijuana. Acute effects of marijuana use include memory and learning problems, distorted perception, difficulty problem solving, loss of coordination, and increased heart rate. Long term abuse can cause the same respiratory problems observed in tobacco smokers, such as daily cough, phlegm production, increased risk of lung infections, and an increased chance of developing cancer of the head, neck and lungs. Depression, anxiety, and job-related problems have been associated with marijuana use. Long term marijuana use can result in addiction with compulsive use that interferes with daily activities. Cravings and withdrawal symptoms, such as irritability, increased aggression, sleeplessness, and anxiety make it difficult for addicts to stop using marijuana. There are no pharmaceutical treatments available for treating marijuana addiction and relapse.

According to the WHO, an estimated 13 million people abuse opioids worldwide, including 9 million heroin addicts. More than 25% of opioid abusers die from suicide, homicide, or an infectious disease, such as HIV and hepatitis, within 10-20 years of becoming addicted. Tolerance and physical dependence can develop within two to three days. While abuse and addiction to opioid agents is a known phenomenon, what is new is the worsening of this problem in the recent years (Compton and Volkow, Drug Alcohol Depend 83 Suppl 1: S4-7 (2006A) and Compton and Volkow, Drug Alcohol Depend 81(2): 103-7 (2006B)). Epidemiological surveys of youth in the United States in 2003 indicated that opioid analgesics were among the most frequently abused illicit drugs among secondary students (12th graders), second only to marijuana (Delva et al., Am J Public Health 95(4): 696-702 (2005)). Furthermore, the past few years have seen a marked increase in the use of opioid medications in the United States and an even greater increase in problems associated with such use. This upsurge in use and problems is particularly concerning because it seems to represent an expanded pathway to opioid addiction (Siegal et al., Am Fam Physician 67: 942-945 (2003)).

According to recent epidemiological data, 4.7% (i.e., 11.0 million) United States household residents over the age of twelve abused an opioid medication in 2002 and 13.7% of these persons (i.e., 1.5 million) met the criteria of a DSM-IV opioid use disorder (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. (1994); Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Mortality Data from the Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2002, (2004)). As recently reviewed by Compton and Volkow, the annual incidence of opioid analgesic abuse increased from 628,000 initiates in 1990 to 2.4 million initiates in 2001 (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Overview of Findings from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, (2003); Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Emergency Department Trends From the Drug Abuse Warning Network, Final Estimates 1995-2002, (2003)). One of the reasons fostering the expansion of opioid addiction is the increased use of analgesic secondary to medical prescription. Short-term use of opioid medication is rarely associated with addiction. Conversely, protracted treatments with these agents have been associated with development of addiction in up to 18% of patients.

The goals for treatment of opiate addiction, as with other types of substance addictions, are to discontinue the use of the opioid while minimizing painful withdrawal symptoms and preventing relapse. Current treatments involve replacing the addictive drug with a substitution of an opioid receptor agonist or mixed agonist/antagonist. An alternative approach consists of the use of an opioid receptor antagonist to block the effect of the agonist. Antagonists provide no relief from pain or other withdrawal symptoms; rather, they can precipitate withdrawal, and their therapeutic use was associated with increased accidental opioid agonists overdosing and increased lethality. Use of agonists with a lower affinity for the receptors results in the least severe withdrawal symptoms, but it can lead to a dependence on the substitute opiate. Also, many substitution therapies take 3-6 months, allowing time for addicts to stop treatment midway.

Psychostimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamines, temporarily cause euphoria, increased alertness, and increased physical capacity in humans. These substances first increase dopamine transmission, but long term drug usage results in a reduction of dopamine activity, leading to dysregulation of the brain reward system and dysphoria. The WHO estimates 33 million people around the world abuse amphetamines.

Chronic cocaine abuse can result in hyperstimulation, tachycardia, hypertension, mydriasis, muscle twitching, sleeplessness, extreme nervousness, hallucinations, paranoia, aggressive behavior, and depression. Cocaine overdose may lead to tremors, convulsions, delirium, and death resulting from heart arrhythmias and cardiovascular failure. Desipramine, amantadine and bromocriptine have been shown to decrease cocaine withdrawal symptoms.

Amphetamine withdrawal symptoms include EEG changes, fatigue, and mental depression. Tolerance develops over time and may be associated with tachycardia, auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, anxiety reactions, paranoid psychosis, exhaustion, confusion, memory loss, and prolonged depression with suicidal tendencies. Current treatments for amphetamine addiction include phenothiazines, haloperidol, and chlorpromazine for hallucinations, but potential side effects of these drugs include postural hypotension and severe extrapyramidal motor disorders. Subjects who are addicted to pyschostimulants will sometimes go through psychological withdrawal as well as physiological withdrawal, making relapse potentially more likely.

In the past, treatment for substance addictions focused on behavioral therapy, but dependence on many of these highly addictive substances is hard to break. In particular, addictions to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin are considered chronic, relapsing disorders. Also, concurrent abuse of multiple substances, such as nicotine, heroin, cocaine and alcohol, is common.

The long-lasting, chronic nature of many addictions and high rates of recidivism present a considerable challenge for the treatment of drug and alcohol addiction, such that understanding of the neurobiological basis of relapse has emerged as a central issue in addiction research. Emotional and environmental factors (conditioning stimuli) were listed among the main causes of relapse. For example, it is known that specific stress conditions such as loss of work and economic difficulties, or stimuli predictive of the presence of alcohol previously associated with its use such as a bottle of the preferred wine and a bar-like environment, may strongly facilitate relapse in detoxified former alcoholics.

Two major theoretical positions exist to explain the persistence of addictive behavior and vulnerability to relapse associated with drug and alcohol addiction, homoeostatic hypotheses and conditioning hypotheses.

Homeostatic hypotheses relate relapse risk to neuroadaptive changes and disruption of neuroendocrine homeostasis that are thought to underlie anxiety, mood dysregulation and somatic symptoms that accompany acute withdrawal, and that can persist for considerable periods of time during what has been referred to as the “protracted withdrawal” phase. This view, therefore, implicates alleviation of discomfort and negative affect as a motivational basis for relapse.

Conditioning hypotheses are based on observations that relapse is often associated with exposure to drug-related environmental stimuli. This view holds that specific environmental stimuli that have become associated with the rewarding actions of a drug by means of classical conditioning can elicit subjective states that trigger resumption of drug use. The homeostatic and conditioning hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. In fact, homeostatic and conditioning factors are likely to exert additive effects in that exposure to drug-related environmental stimuli may augment vulnerability to relapse conveyed by homeostatic disturbances.

Clearly, there is a need in the art for new methods for treating and preventing addiction and the relapse use of addictive agents. The present invention meets these needs by providing methods and pharmaceutical combinations useful in treating and preventing addiction and recividism.

III. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a method of treating or preventing an addiction by determining that a subject has an addiction or is at risk of developing an addiction and then administering an inhibitor of a phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) effective to the subject for the treatment or prevention of the addiction.

In one aspect of the invention, the subject is addicted to an addictive agent. Examples of addictive agents include alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, a marijuana derivatives, opioid agonists, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and psychostimulants. In one embodiment, the addictive agent is alcohol. In another embodiment, the addictive agent is nicotine. In a further embodiment, the addictive agent is an opioid, e.g., morphine, methadone, fentanyl, sufentanil, codeine, oxycodeine, and heroin. In a further embodiment, the addictive agent is a psychostimulant, e.g., cocaine, amphetamine or an amphetamine derivative. In another embodiment, the addictive agent is cocaine.

In one aspect of the invention, the subject is addicted to an addictive or compulsive behavior or suffers from an impulse-control disorder. In another aspect of the invention, the subject suffers from a primary impulse-control disorder, i.e., an impulse-control disorder in which the disorder is a primary disorder rather than a disorder that is either iatrogenic (secondary to medical treatment) or that is secondary to another primary disease or disorder. Addictive or compulsive behaviors that are primary impulse-control disorders include the following: binge eating, pathological gambling, pathological use of electronic devices, pathological use of electronic video games, pathological use of electronic communication devices, pathological use of cellular telephones, addiction to pornography, sex addiction, compulsive spending, anorexia, bulimia, intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania, compulsive over-exercising, and compulsive overworking. In another embodiment, the addictive or compulsive behavior is binge eating. In another aspect of the invention, the addictive or compulsive disorder is an obsessive-compulsive disorder.

In one aspect of the invention, the PDE7 inhibitory agents for treatment of addiction are selected from the following disclosed herein: formula 1A, formula 1B, formula 29, formula 30, formula 31, formula 32, formula 33, formula 34, formula 35, formula 36, formula 37, formula 38, formula 39, formula 40, formula 41, formula 42, formula 43A, formula 43B, formula 44, formula 45, formula 46, formula 47, formula 48, formula 49, formula 50, formula 51, formula 52, formula 53, formula 54, formula 6A, formula 6B, formula 6C, formula 6D, formula 6E, formula 6F, formula 6G, formula 6H, formula 16A, compound 1, compound 2, compound 3, and compound 4.

In one aspect of the invention, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A and/or PDE7B activity of less than about 1 μM. In one embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A and/or PDE7B activity of less than about 100 nM. In another embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE1B activity of greater than 5 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In another embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE10 activity of greater than 5 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In a further embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE3 activity of greater than 10 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and/or the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In another embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE3 and PDE4 activity of greater than 10 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In a further embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE 4 and PDE 8 activity of greater than 10 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In another embodiment, the PDE7 agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE 4, PDE 8, PDE10, and PDE11 activity of greater than 10 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In a further embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent is a selective PDE7 inhibitor for which the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity is less than one tenth the IC50 that the agent has for inhibiting the activity of any other PDE enzyme from the PDE1-6 and PDE8-11 enzyme families. In another embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent is a highly selective PDE7 inhibitor for which the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity is less than one fiftieth the IC50 that the agent has for inhibiting the activity of any other PDE enzyme from the PDE1-6 and PDE8-11 enzyme families. In a further embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has a molecular weight of less than about 450 g/mole. In another embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent is able to cross the blood/brain barrier.

The present invention provides a method of treating or preventing an addiction by determining that a subject has an addiction or is at risk of developing an addiction and then administering a chemical compound that inhibits PDE7 activity. The chemical compound has the following characteristics: (i) an IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A and/or PDE7B activity of less than about 1 μM; and (ii) an IC50 for inhibiting PDE 3 greater than 10 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and/or the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity.

In one embodiment, the chemical compound has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A and/or PDE7B activity of less than about 100 nM. In another embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE1B activity of greater than 5 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In another embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE10 activity of greater than 5 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In another embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE4 activity of greater than 10 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In a further embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE8 activity of greater than 10 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In another embodiment, the PDE7 agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE 4, PDE 8, PDE10, and PDE11 activity of greater than 10 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In a further embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent is a selective PDE7 inhibitor for which the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity is less than one tenth the IC50 that the agent has for inhibiting the activity of any other PDE enzyme from the PDE1-6 and PDE8-11 enzyme families. In another embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent is a highly selective PDE7 inhibitor for which the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity is less than one fiftieth the IC50 that the agent has for inhibiting the activity of any other PDE enzyme from the PDE 1-6 and PDE8-11 enzyme families. In a further embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has a molecular weight of less than about 450 g/mole. In another embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent is able to cross the blood/brain barrier.

In one aspect of the invention, the subject is addicted to an addictive agent. Examples of addictive agents include alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, a marijuana derivatives, opioid agonists, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and psychostimulants. In one embodiment, the addictive agent is alcohol. In another embodiment, the addictive agent is nicotine. In a further embodiment, the addictive agent is an opioid, e.g., morphine, methadone, fentanyl, sufentanil and heroin. In a further embodiment, the addictive agent is a psychostimulant, e.g., cocaine, amphetamine or an amphetamine derivative. In another embodiment, the addictive agent is cocaine.

In one aspect of the invention, the subject is addicted to an addictive or compulsive behavior or suffers from an impulse-control disorder. In another aspect of the invention, the subject suffers from a primary impulse-control disorder, i.e., an impulse-control disorder in which the disorder is a primary disorder rather than a disorder that is either iatrogenic (secondary to medical treatment) or that is secondary to another primary disease or disorder. Addictive or compulsive behaviors that are primary impulse-control disorders include the following: binge eating, pathological gambling, pathological use of electronic devices, pathological use of electronic video games, pathological use of electronic communication devices, pathological use of cellular telephones, addiction to pornography, sex addiction, compulsive spending, anorexia, bulimia, intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania, compulsive over-exercising, and compulsive overworking. In another embodiment, the addictive or compulsive behavior is binge eating. In another aspect of the invention, the subject to be treated in accordance with the present invention has an obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The present invention also provides a method of treating or preventing an addiction, comprising providing to a subject having an addiction, an inhibitor of a phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) and an additional therapeutic agent, wherein each of the PDE7 inhibitor and the additional therapeutic agent contribute to the effective treatment or prevention of the addiction. Additional therapeutic agents include, e.g., opioid antagonists, mixed opioid partial agonist/antagonists, antidepressants, antiepileptics, antiemetics, corticotrophin-releasing factor-1 (CRF-1) receptor antagonists, selective serotonin-3 (5-HT3) antagonists, 5-HT2A/2C antagonists, and cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists.

Exemplary opioid antagonists include naltrexone and nalmefene. Exemplary antidepressants include fluoxetine, mirtazapine, and bupropion. Exemplary antiepileptics include topiramate, levetiracetam, and gabapentin. Antalarmin is an exemplary CRF-1 receptor antagonist. Ondensetrom is an exemplary selective serotonin-3 (5-HT3) antagonist. Exemplary cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists are rimonabant and tanarabant. Buprenorphine is an exemplary mixed opioid agonist/antagonist. Exemplary opioid agonists include morphine, methadone, fentanyl, sufentanil and heroin.

In one aspect, the subject is addicted to an addictive agent, e.g., alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, a marijuana derivative, an opioid agonist, a benzodiazepine, a barbiturate, and a psychostimulant. In one embodiment, the addictive agent is alcohol and the additional therapeutic agent is an opioid antagonist, such as naltrexone, or a mixed opioid antagonist/partial agonist, such as buprenorphine. In another embodiment, the subject is addicted to a psychostimulant such as cocaine, amphetamine, an amphetamine derivative, or methamphetamine and the additional therapeutic agent is an antidepressant, such as bupropion. In a further embodiment, the subject is addicted nicotine and the additional therapeutic agent is an antidepressant, such as bupropion.

In another aspect, the subject is addicted to an addictive or compulsive behavior, such as a primary impulse-control disorder, including, for example, pathological gambling, binge eating, pathological use of electronic devices, pathological use of electronic video games, pathological use of electronic communication devices, pathological use of cellular telephones, addiction to pornography, sex addiction, compulsive spending, anorexia, bulimia, intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania, compulsive over-exercising, and compulsive overworking. In one embodiment, the addictive or compulsive behavior is binge eating and the additional therapeutic agent is topiramate. In another aspect of the invention, the subject to be treated in accordance with the present invention has an obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The present invention provides a method of preventing relapse use of an addictive agent or practice of an addictive or compulsive behavior, by treating a subject who has undergone a period of abstinence from, or limited or reduced use of, the addictive agent or the addictive or compulsive behavior by administering a PDE7 inhibitor to the subject. The present invention also provides a method of preventing relapse of an addictive or compulsive behavior associated with a primary impulse-control disorder, by treating a subject who has undergone a period of remission from, or limited or reduced practice of, the addictive or compulsive behavior associated with the primary impulse-control disorder by administering a PDE7 inhibitor to the subject. The present invention also provides a method of preventing relapse of addictive or compulsive behavior associated with an obsessive-compulsive disorder, by treating a subject who has undergone a period of remission from, or limited or reduced practice of, the addictive or compulsive behavior associated with the obsessive-compulsive disorder by administering a PDE7 inhibitor to the subject. Additional therapeutic agents that contribute to the effect prevention of relapse can be administered with the PDE7 inhibitor. This treatment can be administered to subjects that have previously been treated with a different anti-addiction treatment that is no longer being used.

In one aspect, the relapse use of addictive agents such as alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, marijuana derivatives, opioid agonists, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and psychostimulants is prevented through the administration of PDE7 inhibitors. In a preferred embodiment, the relapse use of cocaine, amphetamine, or methamphetamine is prevented.

In another aspect, the relapse of an addictive or compulsive behavior, in particular addictive or compulsive behavior associated with a primary impulse-control disorders, is prevented through the administration of PDE7 inhibitors. In a preferred embodiment, the relapse of the following behaviors is prevented: binge eating, pathological gambling, pathological use of electronic devices, pathological use of electronic video games, pathological use of electronic communication devices, pathological use of cellular telephones, addiction to pornography, sex addiction, compulsive spending, anorexia, bulimia, intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania, compulsive over-exercising, and compulsive overworking. In one embodiment, the addictive or compulsive behavior is binge eating that has been induced by stress. In another embodiment, the subject is treated to prevent relapse of addictive or compulsive behavior associated with an obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The present invention provides a pharmaceutical composition that includes a PDE7 inhibitor and an additional therapeutic agent, where both the PDE7 inhibitor and the additional therapeutic agent contribute to the effective treatment or prevention of an addiction. Unit dosages of the pharmaceutical composition are also provided.

In one aspect of the invention, the subject is addicted to an addictive agent. Examples of addictive agents include alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, marijuana derivatives, opioid agonists, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cocaine and other psychostimulants. In one embodiment, the addictive agent is alcohol. In another embodiment, the addictive agent is nicotine. In a further embodiment, the addictive agent is an opioid, e.g., morphine, methadone, fentanyl, sufentanil and heroin. In a further embodiment, the addictive agent is a psychostimulant, e.g., cocaine, amphetamine or an amphetamine derivative. In a preferred embodiment, the addictive agent is cocaine.

In one aspect of the invention, the subject is addicted to an addictive or compulsive behavior or suffers from an impulse-control disorder. In another aspect of the invention, the subject suffers from a primary impulse-control disorder, i.e., an impulse-control disorder in which the disorder is a primary disorder rather than a disorder that is either iatrogenic (secondary to medical treatment) or that is secondary to another primary disease or disorder.

Addictive or compulsive behaviors that are primary impulse-control disorders include the following: binge eating, pathological gambling, pathological use of electronic devices, pathological use of electronic video games, pathological use of electronic communication devices, pathological use of cellular telephones, addiction to pornography, sex addiction, compulsive spending, anorexia, bulimia, intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania, compulsive over-exercising, and compulsive over-working. In a preferred embodiment, the addictive or compulsive behavior is binge eating. In another aspect of the invention, the subject to be treated in accordance with the present invention has an obsessive-compulsive disorder.

In one embodiment, the additional therapeutic agent of the pharmaceutical composition is an opioid antagonist, a mixed opioid partial agonist/antagonist, an antidepressant, an antiepileptic, an antiemetic, a corticotrophin-releasing factor-1 (CRF-1) receptor antagonist, a selective serotonin-3 (5-HT3) antagonist, a 5-HT2A/2C antagonist, or a cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor antagonist.

Exemplary opioid antagonists include naltrexone or nalmefene. Exemplary antidepressants include fluoxetine, mirtazapine, or bupropion. Exemplary antiepileptics include topiramate, levetiracetam, and gabapentin. Antalarmin is an exemplary CRF-1 receptor antagonist. Ondensetrom is an exemplary selective serotonin-3 (5-HT3) antagonist. Exemplary cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists are rimonabant and tanarabant. Buprenorphine is an exemplary mixed opioid agonist/antagonist.

In one aspect, the subject is addicted to an addictive agent, e.g., alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, a marijuana derivative, an opioid agonist, a benzodiazepine, a barbiturate, and a psychostimulant. In one embodiment, the addictive agent is alcohol and the additional therapeutic agent is an opioid antagonist, such as naltrexone, or a mixed opioid antagonist/partial agonist, such as buprenorphine. In another embodiment, the addictive agent is nicotine and the additional therapeutic agent is varenicline. In another embodiment, the subject is addicted to a psychostimulant such as cocaine, amphetamine, an amphetamine derivative, or methamphetamine and the additional therapeutic agent is an antidepressant, such as bupropion. In a further embodiment, the subject is addicted nicotine and the additional therapeutic agent is an antidepressant, such as bupropion. In another embodiment, the subject is addicted to more than one addictive agents and the additional therapeutic agent is an opioid antagonist, such as naltrexone, or a mixed opioid antagonist/partial agonist, such as buprenorphine.

The present invention provides a kit for the treatment or prevention of an addiction. The kit includes a first container containing a PDE7 inhibitor and a second container containing an additional therapeutic agent. Both the PDE7 inhibitor and the additional therapeutic agent contribute to the effective treatment or prevention of an addiction.

In one embodiment, the additional therapeutic agent of the pharmaceutical composition is an opioid antagonist, a mixed opioid partial agonist/antagonist, an antidepressant, an antiepileptic, an antiemetic, a corticotrophin-releasing factor-1 (CRF-1) receptor antagonist, a selective serotonin-3 (5-HT3) antagonist, a 5-HT2A/2C antagonist, or a cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor antagonist.

Exemplary opioid antagonists include naltrexone and nalmefene. Exemplary antidepressants include fluoxetine, mirtazapine, and bupropion. Exemplary antiepileptics include topiramate, levetiracetam, and gabapentin. Antalarmin is an exemplary CRF-1 receptor antagonist. Ondensetrom is an exemplary selective serotonin-3 (5-HT3) antagonist. Exemplary cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists are rimonabant and tanarabant. Buprenorphine is an exemplary mixed opioid agonist/antagonist.

In one aspect, the subject is addicted to an addictive agent, e.g., alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, a marijuana derivative, an opioid agonist, a benzodiazepine, a barbiturate, and a psychostimulant. In one embodiment, the addictive agent is alcohol and the additional therapeutic agent is an opioid antagonist, such as naltrexone, or a mixed opioid antagonist/partial agonist, such as buprenorphine. In another embodiment, the subject is addicted to a psychostimulant such as cocaine, amphetamine, an amphetamine derivative, or methamphetamine and the additional therapeutic agent is an antidepressant, such as bupropion. In a further embodiment, the subject is addicted nicotine and the additional therapeutic agent is an antidepressant, such as bupropion. In another embodiment, the subject is addicted to more than one addictive agents and the additional therapeutic agent is an opioid antagonist, such as naltrexone, or a mixed opioid antagonist/partial agonist, such as buprenorphine.

In another aspect of the invention, a subject at risk of addiction to an addictive substance is administered the addictive substance in combination with a PDE7 inhibitor. For example, a subject that will be administered an opioid agonist for the relief of acute or chronic pain is administered an opioid agonist in combination with a PDE7 inhibitor such that non-addictive or less addictive analgesia is provided. Examples of addictive agents that may be administered in combination with a PDE7 inhibitor, as either a fixed-dose combination or as a kit, include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and pain medications including alfentanil, allylprodine, alphaprodine, anileridine benzylmorphine, bezitramide, buprenorphine, butorphanol, clonitazene, codeine, cyclazocine, desomorphine, dextromoramide, dezocine, diampromide, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, dimenoxadol, dimepheptanol, dimethylthiambutene, dioxaphetyl butyrate, dipipanone, eptazocine, ethoheptazine, ethylmethylthiambutene, ethylmorphine, etonitazene fentanyl, heroin, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, hydroxypethidine, isomethadone, ketobemidone, levallorphan, levorphanol, levophenacylmorphan, lofenitanil, meperidine, meptazinol, metazocine, methadone, metopon, morphine, myrophine, nalbuphine, narceine, nicomorphine, norlevorphanol, normethadone, nalorphine, normorphine, norpipanone, opium, oxycodone, OXYCONTIN®, oxymorphone, papaveretum, pentazocine, phenadoxone, phenomorphan, phenazocine, phenoperidine, piminodine, piritramide, propheptazine, promedol, properidine, propiram, propoxyphene sufentanil, tramadol, tilidine, salts thereof, mixtures of any of the foregoing, and mixed g-agonists/antagonists.

In some embodiments, for any of the methods and compositions described herein, the following PDE7 inhibitors are used formula 1A, formula 1B, formula 29, formula 30, formula 31, formula 32, formula 33, formula 34, formula 35, formula 36, formula 37, formula 38, formula 39, formula 40, formula 41, formula 42, formula 43A, formula 43B, formula 44, formula 45, formula 46, formula 47, formula 48, formula 49, formula 50, formula 51, formula 52, formula 53, formula 54, formula 6A, formula 6B, formula 6C, formula 6D, formula 6E, formula 6F, formula 6G, formula 6H, formula 16A, compound 1, compound 2, compound 3, and compound 4.

IV. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The present invention will now be described in greater detail, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 demonstrates the effect of OMS182056, a PDE7 inhibitor, on cocaine self-administration by rats.

FIG. 2 demonstrates the effect of OMS181869, a PDE7 inhibitor, on cocaine self-administration by rats.

FIG. 3 demonstrates the effect of SKF82958, a dopamine D1 agonist, on cocaine self-administration by rats.

FIG. 4 demonstrates the effect of OMS182056, a PDE7 inhibitor, on cocaine priming-induced relapse by rats.

FIG. 5 demonstrates the effect of SKF82958, a dopamine D1 agonist, on cocaine priming-induced relapse by rats.

FIG. 6 demonstrates the effect of OMS182056, a PDE7 inhibitor, on non-reinforced lever-press response by rats.

FIG. 7 demonstrates the effect of SKF82958, a dopamine D1 agonist, on non-reinforced lever-press response by rats.

FIG. 8 demonstrates the effect of OMS182056, a PDE7 inhibitor, on lever-press response by rats on the first day of extinction following cocaine addiction.

FIG. 9 demonstrates the effect of OMS182056, a PDE7 inhibitor, on yohimbine-induced relapse by rats.

FIG. 10 demonstrates the effect of OMS182401, a PDE7 inhibitor, on yohimbine-induced relapse by rats.

FIG. 11 demonstrates the effect of OMS182056, a PDE7 inhibitor, on cue-induced relapse by rats.

FIGS. 12A-12D demonstrates the effect of OMS182401, a PDE7 inhibitor, on stress induce binge eating by rats. FIG. 12A shows the results for control animals, which were not stressed or subjected to dietary restriction. FIG. 12B shows the results for experimental animals that were not stressed and were subjected to dietary restriction.

FIG. 12C shows the results for experimental animals that were stressed and were not subjected to dietary restriction. FIG. 12D shows the results for experimental animals that were stressed and were subjected to dietary restriction.

FIG. 13 demonstrates the effect of OMS182401, a PDE7 inhibitor, on cue-induced relapse by rats.

FIG. 14 demonstrates the chronic effect of OMS182401, a PDE7 inhibitor, on cocaine self-administration in rats.

FIG. 15 demonstrates the effect of OMS182401, a PDE7 inhibitor, on nicotine self-administration in rats using a short access model.

FIG. 16 demonstrates the effect of OMS182401, a PDE7 inhibitor, on nicotine self-administration in rats using a long access model.

FIG. 17 demonstrates the effect of OMS182401, a PDE7 inhibitor, on the first day of extinction of nicotine self-administration.

FIG. 18 demonstrates the effect of OMS182401, a PDE7 inhibitor, on cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking behavior.

FIG. 19 demonstrates the effect of OMS182401, a PDE7 inhibitor, on yohimbine-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking behavior.

FIG. 20 demonstrates the effect of OMS182399, a PDE7 inhibitor, on nicotine self-administration in rats using a short access model.

V. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

The present invention is based upon the surprising discovery by the present inventors that selective inhibitors of the type 7 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE7) cause a striking decrease in relapse of addiction. Using rat models, the decreases were demonstrated in subjects addicted to addictive agents and in subjects that exhibited compulsive behaviors.

A. Methods of Treating and Preventing Addictions Using PDE7 Inhibitor(s)

Thus, the present invention includes methods of treating or preventing an addiction, comprising administering one or more PDE7 inhibitors to a subject having an addiction or at risk for developing an addiction. In various embodiments, the subject is addicted to an addictive agent or behavior, including, but not limited to, any of the addictive agents and behaviors described herein. The subject may be physically or physiologically dependent on the substance or behavior; the subject may be psychologically dependent; or the subject may be both physically and psychologically dependent. The subject may be addicted to one or more than one addictive agent or behavior.

As used herein, unless the context makes clear otherwise, “treat,” and similar word such as “treatment,” “treating” etc., is an approach for obtaining beneficial or desired results, including and preferably clinical results. Treatment can involve optionally either the reducing or amelioration of a disease or condition, (e.g., addiction or relapse use or behavior), or the delaying of the progression of the disease or condition (e.g., addiction, or relapse use or behavior).

As used herein, unless the context makes clear otherwise, “prevent,” and similar word such as “prevention,” “preventing” etc., is an approach for preventing the onset or recurrence of a disease or condition, (e.g., addiction, or relapse use or behavior) or preventing the occurrence or recurrence of the symptoms of a disease or condition, or optionally an approach for delaying the onset or recurrence of a disease or condition or delaying the occurrence or recurrence of the symptoms of a disease or condition.

As used herein the term “PDE7” is used generically to refer to all translation products coded by transcripts of either or both of these two genes: PDE7A and/or PDE7B.

As used herein, the term “PDE7 inhibitory agent” or “inhibitor of PDE7” refers to an agent, such as a chemical compound, a peptide, or a nucleic acid molecule, that directly or indirectly inhibits or blocks the phosphodiesterase activity of PDE7A, PDE7B, or PDE7A and PDE7B. In some cases, the agent may bind or interact directly with PDE7 protein. An agent that binds to PDE7 may act to inhibit or block the PDE7 activation by any suitable means, such as by inhibiting the binding of cAMP or substrate ligand with PDE7. In other cases, the PDE7 inhibitory agent may inhibit PDE7 activity indirectly, such as by decreasing expression of the PDE7 protein. In some cases, the PDE7 inhibitory agent may inhibit PDE7 activity by altering the cellular distribution of PDE7, for example, by interfering with the association between PDE7 and an intracellular anchoring protein.

As used herein, the term “mammalian subject” includes all mammals, including without limitation humans, non-human primates, dogs, cats, horses, sheep, goats, cows, rabbits, pigs, and rodents.

Generally, a subject is provided with an effective amount of a PDE7 inhibitor. As used herein, an “effective amount” or a “therapeutically effective amount” of a substance, e.g., a PDE7 inhibitor, is that amount sufficient to affect a desired biological or psychological effect, such as beneficial results, including clinical results. For example, in the context of treating addiction using the methods of the present invention, an effective amount of a PDE7 inhibitor is that amount sufficient to cause the subject to reduce or discontinue use of an addictive agent. In the case of an addictive behavior, an effective amount of a PDE7 inhibitor is that amount sufficient to cause the subject to reduce or discontinue the addictive behavior.

In one embodiment, a therapeutically effective dose is an amount of PDE7 inhibitory agent sufficient to inhibit PDE7 enzyme activity in a neuronal cell. In another embodiment of the methods of the invention, a therapeutically effective dose is an amount of PDE7 inhibitory agent sufficient to inhibit PDE7 enzyme activity in striatal neurons or nucleus acumbens. The determination of an effective dose of a PDE7 inhibitory agent sufficient to cross a cellular membrane and inhibit PDE7 enzyme activity within a cell may be determined using a cellular assay for PDE7 inhibition, such as described by Smith S. J. et al., Molecular Pharmacology 66(6): 1679-1689 (2004), hereby incorporated by reference. The determination of an effective dose of a PDE7 inhibitory agent sufficient to inhibit PDE7 enzyme activity in the striatum may be determined using an assay for measuring the effect of a PDE inhibitory agent on cAMP levels in the striatum, as described in Siuciak J. A. et al., Neuropharmacology 51: 386-396 (2006), hereby incorporated by reference.

According to certain embodiments of the present invention, a subject is provided with a PDE7 inhibitor alone, while in other embodiments, a subject is provided with a PDE7 inhibitor in combination with an additional therapeutic agent. It is understood that the effective amount of either or both of a PDE7 inhibitor and an additional therapeutic agent may be different when either is provided alone than when provided in combination. For example, when the PDE7 inhibitor and the additional therapeutic agent act synergistically, then a lower amount of the PDE7 inhibitor, a lower amount of the additional therapeutic agent, or lower amounts of both the PDE7 inhibitor or the additional therapeutic agent may be required to achieve the same therapeutic effect that would be provided by either the PDE7 inhibitor or the additional therapeutic agent alone. In other embodiments, the same amount of the PDE7 inhibitor and the additional therapeutic agent are used to provide an enhanced therapeutic effect relative to the therapeutic effect provided by either the PDE7 inhibitor or the additional therapeutic agent alone.

According to certain embodiments of the present invention, a subject is provided with a PDE7 inhibitor in combination with an addictive therapeutic agent, with the dosage of the addictive therapeutic agent being determined to achieve the desired therapeutic effect and the dosage of the PDE7 inhibitor being determined to eliminate or reduce the potential for addiction to the addictive therapeutic agent.

The subject may be any animal, including a mammal, and, particularly, a human.

In one aspect of the invention, the subject is first determined or diagnosed to have an addiction, or to be at risk of developing an addiction, by diagnostic testing, observation or analysis by a medical care provider. An effective amount of a PDE7 inhibitor, or an effective amount of a PDE7 inhibitor and one additional therapeutic agent, are then provided to the subject for treatment or prevention of the addiction. In another aspect of the invention, the subject is first determined or diagnosed to have an addiction, or to be at risk of developing an addiction, by diagnostic testing, observation or analysis by a medical care provider, but the subject has not been diagnosed or determined to have diabetes or other insulin disorder. An effective amount of a PDE7 inhibitor, or an effective amount of a PDE7 inhibitor and one additional therapeutic agent, are then provided to the subject for treatment or prevention of the addiction. The dosage of the PDE7 inhibitor, or the PDE7 inhibitor and the one additional therapeutic agent, may be specifically determined by the medical practitioner for treatment or prevention of the addiction rather than for any other disorder or disease.

In particular embodiments, the subject is suffering from or at risk for addiction to any physically addictive agent or addictive or compulsive behavior, including, e.g., any of those described below. In particular embodiments, the subject is addicted to alcohol, cocaine, nicotine, marijuana, an opiate or other opioid agonist or methamphetamine or other psychostimulant, or phencyclidine and phencyclidine derivatives. In another embodiment, the subject suffers from a primary impulse-control disorder. In still another embodiment, the subject suffers from obsessive-compulsive disorder. In still another embodiment, the subject has a history of repeated dieting and is at risk of binge eating.

In particular embodiments, a subject is considered at risk of addiction or relapse to use of an addictive agent or practice of an addictive behavior when the subject has previously been addicted to the same or a different addictive agent or addictive or compulsive behavior. In certain embodiment, the subject is considered at risk of addiction or relapse to use of an addictive agent or practice of an addictive behavior when the subject is psychologically addicted to an addictive agent or addictive or compulsive behavior, even if the subject is no longer physically addicted. In one embodiment, the addictive behavior is binge eating. Subjects at risk of binge eating typically have at least one of the following in their history: recurring food restrictions or yo-yo dieting, eating in response to environmental stress, preference for highly palatable and high caloric food, eating after reaching fullness, and eating to the point of discomfort. In another embodiment, the subject suffers from a primary impulse-control disorder.

In certain embodiments, the subject is addicted to or at risk of becoming addicted to a therapeutic agent provided to the patient to treat a disease or disorder, e.g., a pain medication. In a related embodiment, the subject may be at risk of abusing an addictive therapeutic agent, such as a pain medication. Abusing an addictive therapeutic agent, in certain embodiments, is understood to indicate using the agent for a reason different than or in addition to its prescribed use. In such a situation, a subject may be provided with both an addictive therapeutic agent and a PDE7 inhibitor, alone or in combination with an additional therapeutic agent. For example, a subject suffering from pain, or at risk of pain, may be provided with an opioid agonist and a PDE7 inhibitor, to both provide analgesia and prevent or treat addiction to the opioid agonist.

In various embodiments, the subject is provided with the PDE7 inhibitor at the same time that the subject is using an addictive agent, after the subject has discontinued use of an addictive agent, or before the subject begins using an addictive agent.

Addictive Agents

The term “addiction” is used to describe a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individual's health, mental state or social life. The term is often reserved for drug addictions, but it is applied to other compulsions, such as problem gambling, and binge eating. Factors that have been suggested as causes of addiction include genetic, biological/pharmacological and social factors.

The medical community now makes a careful theoretical distinction between physical or physiological dependence (characterized by symptoms of withdrawal) and psychological dependence (sometimes referred to simply as addiction). Addiction is now narrowly defined as “uncontrolled, compulsive use.” If there is no harm being suffered by, or damage done to, the patient or another party, then clinically it may be considered compulsive, but to the definition of some it is not categorized as “addiction”. In practice, the two kinds of addiction (physiological dependence and psychological dependence) are not always easy to distinguish. Addictions often have both physical and psychological components.

“Physical dependence” (or “drug dependence”) refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. Examples of addictive agents for which a user may develop a physical dependence include nicotine, opioids, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, alcohol, i.e., ethyl alcohol, GHB, and methaqualone.

Commonly abused stimulants such as cocaine or amphetamine class drugs are not believed to cause significant physical dependence. However, their potential for extreme psychological addiction can compel the user to consume amounts which become physically damaging, but life-threatening withdrawal effects have not been observed.

As used herein, “addictive agent(s)” includes any and all agents to which a subject can become addicted, either physically or psychologically, or both. As noted above, addiction includes addiction to chemical entities, such as drugs, e.g., ethyl alcohol, nicotine, or cocaine, as well as addiction to other behaviors, e.g., binge eating disorder, pathological gambling, pathological use of electronic devices, e.g., BlackBerry®, pathological use of electronic video games, pathological use of electronic communication devices, pathological use of cellular telephones, addiction to pornography, sex addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, compulsive spending, intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania, compulsive over-exercising, and compulsive overworking.

As used herein “binge eating disorder” or “binge eating” includes at least one of the following symptoms: eating large amounts of food, eating even when full, rapid eating, feeling that eating behavior is out of control, eating substantial amounts of food when not hungry, frequent dieting possibly without weight loss, eating alone, feeling depressed or disgusted about eating habits, eating in response to stress. Binge eating disorder is distinct from bulimia and binge purge syndromes.

Addictive agents include addictive recreational drugs, as well as addictive medications. Examples of addictive agents include, but are not limited to, alcohol, e.g., ethyl alcohol, gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), caffeine, nicotine, cannabis (marijuana) and cannabis derivatives, opiates and other morphine-like opioid agonists such as heroin, phencyclidine and phencyclidine-like compounds, sedative hypnotics such as benzodiazepines, methaqualone, mecloqualone, etaqualone and barbiturates and psychostimulants such as cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-related drugs such as dextroamphetamine and methylamphetamine. Other examples include LSD, psilocybin, ecstasy and other hallucinogens. Examples of addictive medications include, e.g., benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and pain medications including alfentanil, allylprodine, alphaprodine, anileridine benzylmorphine, bezitramide, buprenorphine, butorphanol, clonitazene, codeine, cyclazocine, desomorphine, dextromoramide, dezocine, diampromide, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, dimenoxadol, dimepheptanol, dimethylthiambutene, dioxaphetyl butyrate, dipipanone, eptazocine, ethoheptazine, ethylmethylthiambutene, ethylmorphine, etonitazene fentanyl, heroin, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, hydroxypethidine, isomethadone, ketobemidone, levallorphan, levorphanol, levophenacylmorphan, lofenitanil, meperidine, meptazinol, metazocine, methadone, metopon, morphine, myrophine, nalbuphine, narceine, nicomorphine, norlevorphanol, normethadone, nalorphine, normorphine, norpipanone, opium, oxycodone, OXYCONTIN®, oxymorphone, papaveretum, pentazocine, phenadoxone, phenomorphan, phenazocine, phenoperidine, piminodine, piritramide, propheptazine, promedol, properidine, propiram, propoxyphene sufentanil, tramadol, tilidine, salts thereof, mixtures of any of the foregoing, mixed g-agonists/antagonists, and the like.

In certain embodiments, a subject may be addicted to an opioid agonist. The terms “opioid agonist,” “opioid” and “opiate” are used interchangably herein and are used to designate a group of drugs that are, to varying degrees, opium- or morphine-like in their properties. Their main use is for pain relief. These agents work by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Opiates are also addictive agents. Opiates include alfentanil, allylprodine, alphaprodine, anileridine, apomorphine, benzylmorphine, beta-hydroxy 3-methylfentanyl, bezitramide, carfentanil, clonitazene, codeine, desomorphine, dextromoramide, diacetylmorphine (heroin), diampromide, dihydrocodeine, dihydroetorphine, dihydromorphine, dimenoxadol, dimepheptanol, dimethylthiambutene, dioxaphetylbutyrate, dipipanone, eptazocine, ethoheptazine, ethylmethylthiambutene, ethylmorphine, etonitazene, etorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, hydroxypethidine, isomethadone, ketobemidone, LMM, levorphanol, levophenacylmorphan, lofentanil, meperidine, metapon, metazocine, methadone, methadyl acetate, metopon, morphine, myrophine, narceine, nicomorphine, norlevorphanol, normethadone, normorphine, norpipanone, opium, oxycodone, oxymorphone, papaverine, phenadoxone, phenomorphan, phenoperidine, piminodine, piritramide, propheptazine, promedol, properidine, propoxyphene, remifentanil, sufentanil, thebaine, tildine, and tramadol.

Naturally occurring opiates include codeine, morphine, noscapine, papaverine, and thebaine. Semi-synthetic opioids include diacetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, levorphanol, metapon, nalorphine, naloxone, naltrexone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and tramadol. Synthetic opioids include ethoheptazine, fentanyl, levorphanol, meperidine, methadone, phenazocine, propoxyphene and sufentanil.

Three broad classifications of opiates are phenanthrenes, phenylheptylamines, and phenylpiperidines. Examples of phenanthrenes include codeine, etorpine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, oxycodone, and oxymorphone. Examples of phenylheptylamines include dimeheptanol, dimenoxadol, dipipanone, isomethadone, methadone, methadyl acetate, and propoxyphene. Examples of phenylpiperidines include alfentanyl, alphaprodine, beta-promedol, carfentanyl, fentanyl, lofentanil, meperidine, properidine, and sufentanil.

Specific psychostimulants include, by way of example, amphetamine, cocaine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine, pemoline, Ritalin, Adderall and methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

While a subject may be addicted to a single addictive agent or behavior, frequently subject is addicted to two or more addictive agents or behaviors. Addiction to two or more addictive agents or addictive behaviors is referred to as polyaddiction.

B. Methods of Treating and Preventing Addiction Using PDE7 Inhibitor(s) in Combination with Other Therapeutic Agents

PDE7 inhibitors may be effectively used in combination with one or more additional therapeutic agents to treat or prevent addiction, including addiction to one or more of the addictive agents described herein and compulsive or addictive behavior. Accordingly, the present invention includes methods of treating or preventing an addiction, comprising administering to a subject addicted to an addictive agent one or more PDE7 inhibitor(s) and one or more additional therapeutic agent(s), in which each of the PDE7 inhibitor(s) and the additional therapeutic agent(s) contribute to the effective treatment or prevention of the addiction. In one embodiment, a subject is provided with or administered one PDE7 inhibitor and one additional therapeutic agent. In another embodiment, a subject is addicted to two or more addictive agents.

The PDE7 inhibitor and the additional therapeutic agent may be administered at the same time (i.e., concurrently), or either may be administered before the other (i.e., sequentially). In general, both the PDE7 inhibitor and the additional therapeutic agent are present in the subject at the same time for a duration of time and at levels sufficient to provide a therapeutic benefit to the subject, i.e., in the treatment or preventing of an addiction or the prevention of a relapse use (or reinstatement) of an addictive agent or compulsive or addictive behavior. The PDE7 inhibitor and the additional therapeutic agent may be administered by the same or different routes of administration. Typically, the PDE7 inhibitor and the additional therapeutic agent are each provided to a subject according to a standard route of administration of a commercially available or other pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitor and the additional therapeutic agent are co-administered using a composition comprising both agents.

The additional therapeutic agent provided in combination with a PDE7 inhibitor may be any therapeutic agent that contributes to an aspect of the effective treatment or prevention of the addiction. For example, the additional therapeutic agent may be a drug used to treat an addiction or a drug used to alleviate side-effects associated with physiological withdrawal from an addictive agent. In addition, the additional therapeutic agent may be any drug that affects brain serotonin neurotransmission, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and tricyclic and tetracyclic serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) as described below, and serotonin agonists such as sumatriptan, ergonovine, dihydroergotamine and buspirone. In certain embodiments, the additional therapeutic agent is an opioid antagonist, including mixed opioid partial agonist/antagonists, an antidepressant, an antiepileptic, an antiemetic, a corticotrophin-releasing factor-1 (CRF-1) receptor antagonist, a selective serotonin-3 (5-HT3) antagonist, a 5-HT2A/2C antagonist such as mianserin, mirtazapine and ketanserin, or a cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, including but not limited to those therapeutic agents specifically described herein.

In one embodiment, the addictive agent is alcohol and the additional therapeutic agent is an opioid antagonist or a mixed opioid antagonist/partial agonist. In a particular embodiment, the opioid antagonist is naltrexone. In another embodiment, the mixed opioid partial agonist/antagonist is buprenorphine.

In one embodiment, the addictive agent is alcohol, and the additional therapeutic agent is topiramate or levetiracetam.

In one embodiment, the addictive agent is nicotine and the additional therapeutic agent is an antidepressant. In a particular embodiment, the antidepressant is bupropion.

In one embodiment, the addictive agent is cocaine, and the additional therapeutic agent is buprenorphine.

In one embodiment, the addictive agent is a psychostimulant and the additional therapeutic agent is an antidepressant. In a particular embodiment, the antidepressant is bupropion.

In one embodiment, the addictive behavior is binge eating and the additional therapeutic agent is an antidepressant or an antiepileptic. In one particular embodiment, the antidepressant is sibutramine. In another particular embodiment, the antidepressant is fluoxetine. In one particular embodiment, the antiepileptic is topiramate.

In one embodiment, the addictive agent is nicotine, and the additional therapeutic agent is an anti-epileptic. In a particular embodiment, the anti-epileptic is levetiracetam.

In another particular embodiment, the anti-epileptic agent is naltrexone.

In one embodiment, the subject is addicted to two or more addictive agents and the additional therapeutic agent is an opioid antagonist or a mixed opioid partial agonist/antagonist. In a particular embodiment, the mixed opioid partial agonist/antagonist is buprenorphine.

In one embodiment, the subject is addicted to both alcohol and nicotine, and the additional therapeutic agent is an anti-epileptic. In a particular embodiment, the anti-epileptic is naltrexone.

For treatment of alcohol addiction, combinations to be administered in accordance with the present invention include a PDE7 inhibitor and an opioid agonist or a mixed opioid antagonist/partial antagonist, a PDE7 inhibitor and an antidepressant, a PDE7 inhibitor and a CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, a PDE7 inhibitor and varenicline, a PDE7 inhibitor and acamprosate, and a PDE7 inhibitor and disulfiram.

For treatment of a psychostimulant addiction, combinations to be administered in accordance with the present invention include, e.g., a PDE7 inhibitor and an antidepressant or a PDE7 inhibitor and a partial opioid agonist/antagonist, e.g., buprenorphine.

For treatment of nicotine addiction, combinations to be administered in accordance with the present invention include, e.g., a PDE7 inhibitor and an antidepressant, a PDE7 inhibitor and nicotine (as a replacement, in an oral, transcutaneous or other conventional formulation), a PDE7 inhibitor and an opioid antagonist, a PDE7 inhibitor and a CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, and a PDE7 inhibitor and varenicline. In one embodiment, an addictive agent, such as nicotine, and a PDE7 inhibitor are administered together using a transdermal patch delivery system. In another aspect of the invention, a kit including multiple transdermal patches, including dosages of nicotine in diminishing levels and dosages of a PDE7 inhibitor in either constant or diminishing levels, are provided for sequential use by a subject addicted to nicotine to wean the subject from nicotine addiction.

For treatment of polysubstance addiction, combinations to be administered in accordance with the present invention include, e.g., a PDE7 inhibitor and an opioid agonist or a mixed opioid antagonist/partial antagonist.

For treatment of gambling addiction, combinations to be administered in accordance with the present invention include, e.g., a PDE7 inhibitor and an antidepressant or a PDE7 inhibitor and an agent affecting dopamine neurotransmission, e.g., a direct or indirect dopamine antagonist.

The effective amount of either or both of a PDE7 inhibitor and an additional therapeutic agent may be reduced when administered in combination than when either is provided alone. For example, when the PDE7 inhibitor and the additional therapeutic agent act additively or synergistically, then a lower amount of the PDE7 inhibitor, a lower amount of the additional therapeutic agent, or lower amounts of both the PDE7 inhibitor or the additional therapeutic agent may be required to achieve the same therapeutic effect that would be provided by either the PDE7 inhibitor or the additional therapeutic agent alone.

1. Opioid Antagonists

An opioid antagonist acts on one or more opioid receptors. At least three types of opioid receptors, mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors, have been reported, and opioid antagonists are generally classified by their effects on the opioid receptors. Opioid antagonists may antagonize central receptors, peripheral receptors or both. Naloxone and naltrexone are commonly used opioid antagonist drugs that are competitive in that they bind to the opioid receptors with higher affinity than agonists, but do not activate the receptors. This effectively blocks the receptor, preventing the body from responding to opiates and endorphins.

Many opioid antagonists are not pure antagonists but also produce some weak opioid partial agonist effects, and can produce analgesic effects when administered in high doses to opioid-naive individuals. Examples of such compounds include nalorphine, and levallorphan. However, the analgesic effects from these drugs are limited and tend to be accompanied by dysphoria, most likely due to action at the kappa opioid receptor.

Since they induce opioid withdrawal effects in people who are taking, or have previously used, opioid full agonists, these drugs are considered to be antagonists.

Naloxone is one example of an opioid antagonist that has no partial agonist effects. Instead, it is a weak inverse agonist at mu opioid receptors, and is used for treating opioid overdose.

Specific examples of opioid antagonists that may be used according to the invention include alvimopan, binaltorphimine, buprenorphine, cyclazocine, cyclorphan, cypridime, dinicotinate, beta-funaltrexamine, levallorphan, methylnaltrexone, nalbuphine, nalide, nalmefene, nalmexone, nalorphine, nalorphine dinicotinate, naloxone, naloxonazine, naltrendol, naltrexone, naltrindole, oxilorphan, and pentazocine.

2. Antidepressents

Antidepressents are drugs used to treat depression. The three neurotransmitters believed to be involved in depression are serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Certain types of antidepressants increase the levels of one or more of these neurotransmitters in the brain by blocking their reabsorption.

Several different classes of antidepressants have been identified, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic and tetracyclic serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs), norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), azaspirones, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and atypical antidepressants.

SSRIs include, e.g., cericlamine, citalopram, clomipramine, cyanodothiepin, dapoxetine, duloxetine, escitalopram, femoxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, ifoxetine, imipramine, indalpine, indeloxazine, litoxetine, lofepramine, mianserine, milnacipran, mirtazapine, nefazadone, nortriptyline, paroxetine, sertraline, sibutramine, tomoxetine, trazodone, venlafaxine, and zimeldine.

Amitriptyline, amoxapine, butriptyline, clomipramine, demexiptiline, desipramine, dibenzepin, dimetacrine, dothiepin, doxepin, imipramine, iprindole, lofepramine, maprotiline, melitracen, metapramine, mianserin, mirtazpine, nortriptyline, propizepine, protriptyline, quinupramine, setiptiline, tianeptine, and trimipramine are all tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants.

SNRIs include, e.g., amoxapine, atomoxetine, bicifadine, desipramine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, maprotiline, milnacipran, nefazodone, reboxetine, sibutramine, and venlafaxine.

Nisoxetine, nortriptyline, reboxetine, talsupram, and tomoxetine are all examples of NRIs.

NDRIs include, e.g., bupropion, hydroxybupropion, and tesofensine.

Azaspirones include, e.g., buspirone, gepirone, ipsapirone, tandospirone, and tiaspirone. Buspirone is an anxiolytic (partial agonist at 5-HT1 autoreceptors) that may be provided with an anti-depressant such as an SSRI.

Specific MAOIs include, e.g., amiflamine, brofaromine, clorgyline, alpha-ethyltryptamine, iproclozide, iproniazid, isocarboxazid, mebanazine, moclobemide, nialamide, pargyline, phenelzine, pheniprazine, pirlindole, safrazine, selegiline, toloxatone, and tranlcypromine.

Atypical antidepressants include, e.g., amesergide, amineptine, benactyzine, bupropion, clozapine, fezolamine, levoprotiline, lithium, medifoxamine, mianserin, minaprine, olanzapine, oxaflozane, oxitriptan, rolipram, teniloxazine, tofenacin, trazodone, tryptophan, and viloxazine.

3. Antiepileptics

The anticonvulsants, also called anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are a diverse group of drugs used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures and bipolar disorders. AEDs suppress the rapid and excessive firing of neurons that begins a seizure and/or prevents the spread of the seizure within the brain and offer protection against possible excitotoxic effects that may result in brain damage. Many anticonvulsants block sodium channels, calcium channels, AMPA receptors, or NMDA receptors.

Anti-epileptic agents include, but are not limited to, benzodiazepines, barbituates, valproates, GABA agents, iminostilibenes, hydantoins, NMDA antagonists, sodium channel blockers and succinamides.

Benzodiazepines include, e.g., alprazolam, chlordiazepoxide, cholrazepate, clobazam, clonazepam, diazepam, halazapam, lorazepam, oxazepam, and prazepam.

Barbiturates used as anti-epileptics include, e.g., amobarbital, mepobarbital, methylphenobarbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, and primidone.

Valproates used as anti-epileptics include, e.g., sodium valporate, valproic acid, valproate semisodium, and valpromide.

Anti-epileptic GABA agents include, e.g., gabapentin, losigamone, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, and vigabatrin.

Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are examples of iminostilbenes.

Hydantoins include, e.g., fosphenytoin sodium, mephenytoin, and phenytoin sodium.

NMDA antagonists such as harkoseramide are used as anti-epileptics.

Sodium channel blockers such as lamotrigine are also anti-epileptic agents.

Succinimides include, e.g., ethosuximide, methsuximide, and phensuximide.

Other anti-epileptic drugs include acetazolamide, briveracetam, CBD cannabis derivative, clomthiazole edisilate, divalproex sodium, felbamate, isovaleramide, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, methanesulphonamide, talampanel, tiagabine, topiramate, safinamide, seletracetam, soretolide, stiripentol, sultiam, valrocemide, and zonisamide.

4. Antiemetics

Antiemetics are drugs effective against vomiting and nausea. Antiemetics are typically used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics, general anaesthetics, and chemotherapy.

Classifications of antiemetics include, e.g., 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, histamine receptor antagonists, dopamine receptor antagonists, muscarinic receptor antagonists, acetyl choline receptor antagonists, cannabinoid receptor antagonists, limbic system inhibitors, NK-1 receptor antagonists, corticosteroids, tachykinin antagonists, GABA agonists, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines, anticholinergics, and substance P inhibitors.

5-HT3 receptor antagonists include, e.g., alosetron, azasetron, bemesetron, cilansetron, dolasetron, granisetron, indisetron, itasetron, ondansetron, palonosetron, propisetron, ramosetron, renzapride, tropisetron, and zatosetron.

Coritcosteroid antiemetics include dexamethasone and methylprednisolone.

Lymbic system inhibitors include alprazolam, lorazepam, and midazolam.

Dopamine receptor antagonists include diphenhydramine, dronabinol, haloperidol, metoclopramide, and prochlorperazine.

NK-1 receptor antagonists used as an antiemetic include aprepitant and morpholine, and an example of a GABA agonist is propofol.

Thiethylperazine is a type of histamine receptor antagonist.

Cannabinoid receptor antagonists or agonists used as antiemetics include dronabinol, nabilone, rimonabant, tanarabout, and tetrahydrocannabinol.

Examples of other antiemetics include acetylleucine, monoethanolamine, alizapride, benzquinamide, bietanautine, bromopride, buclizine, chlorpromazine, clebopride, cyclizine, dimenhydrinate, dipheniodol, domperidone, dranisetron, meclizine, methalltal, metopimazine, oxypendyl, pipamazine, piprinhydrinate, scopolamine, thioproperzaine, and trimethobenzamide.

5. Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists

The cannabinoid receptors are a class of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. Their ligands are known as cannabinoids. There are currently two known subtypes, CB1 which is expressed mainly in the brain, but also in the lungs, liver, and kidney, and CB2, which is mainly expressed in the immune system and in hematopoietic cells. It is also believed that there are novel cannabinoid receptors that is, non-CB1 and non-CB2, which are expressed in endothelial cells and in the CNS. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists may be selective for either the CB1 or CB2 receptor. The present invention contemplates the use of either or both CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists.

Addictive agents (e.g., alcohol, opiates, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and psychostimulants, including nicotine) elicit a variety of chronically relapsing disorders by interacting with endogenous neural pathways in the brain. In particular, they share the common property of activating mesolimbic dopamine brain reward systems, and virtually all abused drugs elevate dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptors are expressed in this brain reward circuit and modulate the dopamine-releasing effects of Delta(9)-THC and nicotine.

Rimonabant (SR141716), a CB1 receptor antagonist, blocks both the dopamine-releasing and the discriminative and rewarding effects of Delta(9)-THC in animals. Although CB1 receptor blockade is generally ineffective in reducing the self-administration of cocaine in rodents and primates, it reduces the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior produced by cocaine-associated conditioned stimuli and cocaine priming injections. Similarly, CB1 receptor blockade is effective in reducing nicotine-seeking behavior induced by re-exposure to nicotine-associated stimuli. In human clinical trials, rimonabant was shown to block the subjective effects of Delta(9)-THC in humans and prevents relapse to smoking in ex-smokers.

Other examples of cannabinoid receptor CB1 antagonists include SR141716A (rimonabant), rosanabant, taranabant and CP-945598.

C. Methods of Treating and Preventing Relapse

Relapse use, or reinstatement, refers to the process of returning to the use of alcohol or another addictive agent or the practice of an addictive behavior after a period of abstinence from, or limited or reduced use of, an addictive agent or practice of an addictive behavior. In certain situations, relapse use of an addictive agent refers to the return to use of an addictive agent by a subject who has undergone physical withdrawal from the addictive agent. Typically, the subject will have undergone physical withdrawal from the addictive agent during a period of non-use or limited or reduced use of the addictive agent. In one embodiment, relapse use occurs in a subject who has previously undergone a treatment regime with an effective amount of an anti-addiction agent to reduce or eliminate use of an addictive agent, but who is no longer using an effective amount of the anti-addiction agent. Anti-addictive agents include any and all agents used to treat or prevent addiction or withdrawal symptoms.

Alcoholism, like many other addictions, is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by high recidivism rates. Two major factors triggering relapse behavior are stress and environmental conditioning experiences (O'Brien et al. 1997; Monti et al. 1993; Shaham et al. 1995), which probably facilitate relapse to alcohol-seeking via distinct brain mechanisms. For example, activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system via an opioid-dependent mechanism (or via direct alterations in dopamine transmission in the basolateral nucleus of amygdala) seems to mediate the effect of drug-associated cues (Liu and Wiess 2002; Ciccocioppo et al. 2001), and, extrahypothalamic CRF within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and median raphe nucleus is likely to mediate stress-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior (Erb et al 1998; Shaham et al. 1995; Le et al. 2000).

Several lines of evidence suggest that molecular mechanisms underlying relapse to addiction are common to different classes of drugs of abuse. Drug craving and loss of control over drug taking behavior associated to relapse are under the direct influence of stress and environmental conditioning stimuli; the two major factors affecting resumption to drug use.

Chronic drug abuse produces neuroadaptive changes not only within systems implicated in the acute reinforcing effects of ethanol, but also within other motivational systems, notably brain stress-regulatory mechanisms. Stress has an established role in the initiation and maintenance of drug abuse, and is a major determinant of relapse in abstinent individuals. (Brown, et al., J Studies Alcohol 56:538 (1995); Marlatt, Relapse prevention: introduction and overview of the model, in Relapse Prevention: Maintenance Strategies in the Treatment of Addictive Behaviours, Guilford, London, (1985); McKay, et al., Drug Alcohol Dep., 38, 35, (1995); and Wallace, J Subst Abuse Treat, 6:95, (1989)). The significance of stress in drug-seeking behavior has also been amply documented in the animal literature. Physical, social, and emotional stress can facilitate acquisition or increase self-administration of cocaine, heroin, and ethanol in rodents and nonhuman primates. (Goeders and Guerin, Psychopharmacology, 114, 63, (1994); Haney, et al., Brain Res., 698, 46, (1995); Ramsey and Van Ree, Brain Res., 608, 216, (1993); Ahmed and Koob, Psychopharmacology, 132, 289, (1997); Shaham and Stewart, Psychopharmacology 119:334 (1995); Nash and Maickel, Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 12, 653, (1988); Mollenauer, et al., Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 46, 35, (1993); Blanchard, et al., Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 28, 437, (1987) and Higley, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88, 7261, (1991)). Stressful stimuli have also been shown to elicit reinstatement of cocaine, heroin, and ethanol-seeking behavior in drug-free animals following extinction and these findings provide experimental support for a role of stress in relapse. (Ahmed and Koob (1997); Shaham, Psychopharmacology, 111, 477, (1993); and Shaham and Stewart (1995)).

Traditionally, stress-related drug-seeking behavior has been thought to be mediated via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, growing evidence suggests that the non-neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) may play a significant independent role in the regulation of addictive behavior associated with stress. The CeA is rich in CRF immunoreactive cell bodies, terminals, and receptors, and this neuronal CRF system has been implicated in the mediation of behavioral and emotional responses to stressful stimuli. (Dunn and Berridge, Brain Res Brain Res Rev, 15, 71, (1990); and Koob et al., Semin Neurosci 6:221 (1994)). For example, immobilization stress elevates extracellular CRF levels in the CeA while intra-CeA injection of the CRF receptor antagonist, α-helical CRF9-41, reduces behavioral signs of anxiety produced by social and environmental stressors (Merali et al., J Neurosci., 18, 4758, (1998); Merlo Pich et al., J. Neurosci., 15, 5439, (1995); Heinrichs et al., Brain Res., 581, 190 (1992); Swiergiel et al., Brain Res, 623, 229 (1993)). Anxiety and stress-like symptoms are central to drug and alcohol withdrawal syndromes. Considering the evidence on a role of CRF neurons in the CeA in the regulation of emotional and anxiogenic effects of stress, it is likely that anxiogenic and stress-like consequences of withdrawal from drugs of abuse may be mediated by the CRF system in the CeA as well.

Changes in the regulation of the activity of the CRF system within the CeA may represent a critical neuroadaptive mechanism responsible for the development of dependence and compulsive drug-seeking behavior.

The data discussed above identify neuroadaptive changes in brain circuitries and perturbations in stress systems as an important element in compulsive drug-seeking behavior and dependence. Another important factor in the long-lasting addictive potential of drugs of abuse is the conditioning of their rewarding actions with specific environmental stimuli. Environmental cues repeatedly associated with the subjective effects of drugs of abuse including alcohol can evoke drug craving or elicit automatic behavioral responses (Miller and Gold 1994; Tiffany and Carter 1998) that ultimately may lead to relapse. (Childress et al., Conditioned craving and arousal in cocaine addiction: A preliminary report, in NIDA Research Monograph 81, (1988); Ehrman et al., Psychopharmacology, 107, 523, (1992); Monti et al., J Stud Alcohol 54:235-45 (1993); Pomerleau et al., Addict. Behav., 8, 1, (1983); Stormark et al., Addict. Behav., 20, 571, (1995); Miller and Gold Ann. Clin. Psychiatry, 6, 99, (1994); and Tiffany and Carter, J Psychopharmacol. 12, 23, (1998)). Learned responses to drug-related stimuli may, therefore, contribute critically to the high rates of relapse associated with cocaine and other drug addiction.

Data from operant response-reinstatement models developed to investigate drug-seeking behavior associated with exposure to drug-related environmental cues in rats indicate that discriminative stimuli predictive of cocaine, ethanol, or heroin availability reliably elicit strong recovery of extinguished drug-seeking behavior in the absence of further drug availability. (Weiss et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 4321, (2000); Katner et al., Neuropsychopharmacology, 20, 471, (1999); Katner and Weiss, Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 23:1751 (1999); and Gracy et al., Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 65, 489, (2000)). The response-reinstating effects of these stimuli show remarkable resistance to extinction with repeated exposure and, in the case of cocaine, can still be observed after several months of forced abstinence. Additionally, in the case of ethanol, drug-seeking behavior induced by ethanol-predictive discriminative stimuli was found to be enhanced in genetically alcohol-preferring P rats compared to Alcohol Nonpreferring (NP) and nonselected Wistar rats. (Weiss and Ciccocioppo, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 25, 1081, (1999)). This observation demonstrates that genetic predisposition toward heightened ethanol intake is reflected also by a greater susceptibility to the motivating effects of ethanol cues (i.e., enhanced drug-seeking under conditions where behavior is not directly reinforced by ethanol itself). Together, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that learned responses to drug-related stimuli are a significant factor in long-lasting vulnerability to relapse.

In humans, relapse risk involves multiple determinants that are likely to interact. For example, exposure to drug cues may augment vulnerability to relapse imparted by protracted withdrawal symptoms resulting from neuroadaptive changes in dependent individuals. Interactive effects exacerbating relapse risk may also exist between the motivating effects of stress and drug-related cues. Recent work addressing these issues has confirmed that additive interactions between the response-reinstating effects of ethanol-associated cues and stress can indeed be demonstrated, and that these effects are enhanced in rats with a history of ethanol dependence. (Liu and Weiss, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 26, 786 (2000)).

In experimental laboratories, reinstatement of drug seeking is obtained with administration of the α-2 adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine, which, increasing brain noradrenaline cell firing and release, acts as a pharmacological stressor. Footshock stress and yohimbine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviors both represent valid experimental models to investigate stress-induced alcohol relapse (Lee et al., Neuropsychopharmacology 29:686-93 (2004) and Le et al., Psychopharmacology 150:317-24 (2000)).

As shown in the accompanying Examples, PDE7 inhibitors significantly reduce stress-induced relapse use of an addictive agent (Example 1). These data indicate, therefore, that PDE7 inhibitors have anti-relapse properties.

Interestingly, various reports have shown that the nonselective opiate receptor antagonist naltrexone reduces the urge to drink elicited by presentation of alcohol cues in human alcoholics (Monti et al. 1993, supra) and decreases the efficacy of an alcohol cue to reinstate extinguished responding at a previously drug-paired lever in rats (Katner et al. 1999, supra). However, naltrexone does not reduce relapse behavior elicited by stress ((Le A. D. Psychopharmacology 1998).

In a related embodiment, the invention includes a method of treating or preventing relapse use of an addictive agent or practice of an addictive or compulsive behavior, comprising administering an effective amount of a PDE7 inhibitor to a subject who previously reduced or eliminated use of an addictive agent or practice of an addictive or compulsive behavior in response to exposure to an effective amount of another anti-addiction treatment, wherein the subject is no longer exposed to an effective amount of the anti-addiction treatment. The anti-addiction treatment may be an anti-addiction drug or may be a non-pharmacologic therapy such as counseling, psychotherapy or hypnosis therapy. The relapse use may be triggered by stress.

In certain embodiments, the subject is no longer exposed to an effective amount of an anti-addiction agent because the subject has become tolerant to the agent, such that the blood plasma concentration of the anti-addiction agent that was previously effective in treating the addiction is no longer effective. In other embodiments, the subject is no longer exposed to an effective amount of an anti-addiction agent because the subject is now exposed to a lower blood plasma concentration of the anti-addiction agent, and this lower blood plasma concentration is not effective.

In certain embodiments of the methods of the present invention, the subject has undergone a period of abstinence from, or limited or reduced use of, the addictive agent or practice of the addictive or compulsive behavior. This period of abstinence or limited or reduced use may be, e.g., at least 24 hours, at least 48 hours, at least 3 days, at least 5 days, at least one week, at least 2 weeks, at least 1 month, at least 2 months, at least 4 months, at least 6 months, at least 9 months, at least one year, at least 2 years, or at least 5 years.

In another embodiment, the present invention includes a method of treating or preventing relapse use of an addictive agent, comprising providing a PDE7 inhibitor and an opioid antagonist to a subject who has undergone physiological withdrawal from the addictive agent.

In a further embodiment, the present invention includes a method of treating or preventing relapse use of an addictive agent, comprising administering a PDE7 inhibitor and a CB1 antagonist, e.g., disulfiram, topiramate, levetiracetam, SSRIs, or ondansetron, to a subject who has undergone physiological withdrawal from the addictive agent.

In particular embodiments, the relapse use is triggered by stress, an environmental conditioning factor, or both.

While the methods of the present invention may be practiced in subjects addicted to a single addictive agent, they may also be used in subjects addicted to two or more addictive agents. Similarly, while these methods may be used to prevent relapse use of the addictive agent from which the subject has undergone withdrawal, they may also be adapted to prevent relapse use or the commencement of use of an addictive agent different than the one from which the subject has undergone physiological withdrawal.

D. Pharmaceutical Compositions, Routes of Administration, Unit Dosage Forms, Kits

The present invention has established the efficacy of using combinations of a PDE7 inhibitor, in combination with one or more additional therapeutic agents, such as opioid antagonists, antidepressents, antiepileptics, antiemetics, and CB1 receptor antagonists. Thus, the present invention further includes compositions comprising one or more PDE7 inhibitors and one or more additional therapeutic agents, such as opioid antagonists, mixed opioid antagonists/partial agonist, antidepressents, antiepileptics, antiemetics, CRF1 receptor antagonists and CB1 receptor antagonists.

In particular embodiments, the composition comprises one PDE7 inhibitor and one additional therapeutic agent. In certain embodiments, the additional therapeutic agent is an opioid antagonist or a mixed opioid antagonist/partial agonist. In one embodiment, the opioid antagonist is naltrexone. In another embodiment, the mixed opioid partial agonist/antagonist is buprenorphine. In certain embodiments, the additional therapeutic agent is an antidepressant. In a particular embodiment, the antidepressant is bupropion. In certain embodiments, the additional therapeutic agent is an antiepileptic, an antiemetic, or an opioid antagonist or a mixed opioid partial agonist/antagonist.

The compositions of the present invention may be administered to a subject as a pharmaceutical composition or formulation. In particular embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may be in any form which allows for the composition to be administered to a subject. For example, the composition may be in the form of a solid, liquid or gas (aerosol). Typical routes of administration include, without limitation, oral, topical, parenteral, sublingual, rectal, vaginal, and intranasal. The term parenteral as used herein includes subcutaneous injections, intravenous, intramuscular, epidural, intrastemal injection or infusion techniques.

Pharmaceutical compositions used according to the present invention comprise a PDE7 inhibitor, another therapeutic agent, and a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent, excipient, or carrier. “Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers” for therapeutic use are well known in the pharmaceutical art, and are described, for example, in Remingtons Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Co. (A. R. Gennaro edit. 1985). For example, sterile saline and phosphate buffered saline at physiological pH may be used. Preservatives, stabilizers, dyes and even flavoring agents may be provided in the pharmaceutical composition. For example, sodium benzoate, sorbic acid and esters of p hydroxybenzoic acid may be added as preservatives. Id. at 1449. In addition, antioxidants and suspending agents may be used. Id.

Pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are generally formulated so as to allow the active ingredients contained therein to be bioavailable upon administration of the composition to a subject. Compositions that will be administered to a subject may take the form of one or more dosage units, where for example, a tablet, capsule or cachet may be a single dosage unit, and a container comprising a combination of agents according to the present invention in aerosol form may hold a plurality of dosage units.

In particular embodiments, the composition comprising a PDE7 inhibitor and another therapeutic agent is administered in one or more doses of a tablet formulation, typically for oral administration. The tablet formulation may be, e.g., an immediate release formulation, a controlled-release formulation, or an extended-release formulation. In one embodiment, a tablet formulation comprises an effective amount of a composition comprising a PDE7 inhibitor and another therapeutic agent. In particular embodiments, a tablet comprises about 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 100, 150, 200, 250, or 300 mg of a PDE7 inhibitor, and about 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 100, 150, 200, 250, or 300 mg of another therapeutic agent.

The present invention further includes unit-dosage forms of pharmaceutical compositions comprising a PDE7 inhibitor and another therapeutic agent. Each unit-dosage form comprises a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition of the present invention, when used in the recommended amount. For example, a unit-dosage form may include a therapeutically effective amount in a single tablet, or a unit-dosage form may include a therapeutically effective amount in two or more tablets, such that the prescribed amount comprises a therapeutically effective amount.

In particular embodiments, a PDE7 inhibitor is provided to a subject in an amount in the range of 0.1-1000 mg/day, 1-1000 mg/day, 10-100 mg/day, or 25-50 mg/day. In one embodiment, pioglitazone is provided to a patient at about 30 mg/day.

Certain combinations of PDE7 inhibitors and other therapeutic agents may not be readily adaptable to coformulation. For example, one of the agents may be more amenable to intravenous administration, while another of the agents may be more amenable to oral administration. Or, the serum half-life of the two agents may be such that one must be administered more frequently than the other. Accordingly, the present invention contemplates kits comprising one or more unit dosage forms of a PDE7 inhibitor and one or more unit dosage forms of another therapeutic agent, such that the two unit dosage forms may be provided to a subject in a therapeutically effective manner.

In one embodiment, the present invention includes a kit comprising unit-dosage forms of a PDE7 inhibitor and unit-dosage forms of nicotine. In one embodiment, the unit dosage forms of nicotine comprise a plurality of different unit-dosage forms of nicotine, wherein the different dosage forms of nicotine represent decreasing amount that may be taken one after the other over a period of time, so as to overcome addiction and effectuate withdrawal from the nicotine. The unit-dosage forms of nicotine may be present, e.g., in the form of a transdermal patch, gum, or a lozenge.

E. PDE7 Proteins and Inhibitory Agents

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 7 (PDE7) is identified as a unique family based on its primary amino acid sequence and distinct enzymatic activity. The PDE genes identified as PDE7 (PDE7A and PDE7B), code for cAMP-specific PDEs. The biochemical and pharmacological characterization of PDE7 shows a high-affinity cAMP-specific PDE (Km=0.2 μM) that is not affected by cGMP nor by selective inhibitors of other PDEs. The PDE7 enzyme selectively decomposes cAMP and is characterized as an enzyme that is not inhibited by rolipram, a selective inhibitor of PDE4, which is a distinct, cAMP-specific PDE family. Two sub-types have been identified within the PDE7 family, PDE7A (Michael, T., et al., J Biol. Chem. 268(17):12925-12932, 1993; Han, P., et al., J Biol. Chem. 272(26):16152-16157, 1997) and PDE7B (U.S. Pat. No. 6,146,876; Gardner, C., et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 272(1):186-192, 2000; and Saski, T., et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 271(3):575-583, 2000). The two gene products exhibit 70% identity in their C-terminal catalytic domains (Hetman J. M., et al., PNAS 97(1):472-476 (2000).

PDE7A has three splice variants (PDE7A1, PDE7A2 and PDE7A3); these variants are generated via alternative splicing at both the N- and C-termini (Bloom, T. J., and J. A. Beavo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 93:14188-14192, 1996). The nucleotide sequence of PDE7A, transcript variant 1, is accessible in public databases by the accession number NM_002603. Human PDE7A1 protein (SEQ ID NO: 2, encoded by SEQ ID NO:1) has 456 amino acids and migrates at an apparent molecular weight of 53-55 kDa on reduced SDS-PAGE.

The nucleotide sequence of PDE7A, transcript variant 2, is accessible in public databases by the accession number NM_002604. Human PDE7A2 protein (SEQ ID NO:4, encoded by SEQ ID NO:3) has 424 amino acids.

The PDE7A protein has a region of about 270 amino acids at the carboxy terminal end that displays significant similarity (˜23% homology) to the analogous regions of other cAMP-hydrolyzing PDEs. This region serves as the catalytic domain. The amino-terminal region of this protein is divergent from that of other PDEs and presumably mediates the distinctive and regulatory properties unique to this enzyme family.

The protein sequence of human PDE7B is accessible in public databases by the accession number NM_018945, provided as SEQ ID NO:6, encoded by SEQ ID NO:5. Three splice variants of PDE7B have been reported: PDE7B1, PDE7B2 and PDE7B3. PDE7B is published in WO 01/62904, U.S. Pat. No. 6,146,876.

Both PDE7B2 and PDE7B3 possess unique N-terminal sequences. Human PDE7B gene products have an apparent molecular weight of 53-55 kDa on reduced SDS-PAGE (Sasaki, T., Kotera, J., Omori, K., Biochemical J. 361:211-220, 2002). As in PDE7A, the PDE7B has a significantly conserved region of about 270 amino acids common to all PDEs at the carboxy terminal, which serves as the catalytic domain. Similar to the PDE7A protein, the amino-terminal region of PDE7B protein is divergent and presumably accounts for the distinctive and regulatory properties unique to the individual PDE families. The PDE7B protein shows homology to other cAMP-dependent PDEs (23%) within the catalytic domain. The PDE7B polypeptide is 61% homologous to PDE7A, according to WO 2004/044196.

PDE7 is also uniquely localized in mammalian subjects relative to other PDE families. PDE7A expression has been detected in the majority of tissues analyzed, including the brain, heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, spleen and uterus (Bloom, et al., PNAS 93:14188, 1996). Within the brain, PDE7A is widely distributed in both neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations (Miro, et al., Synapse 40:201, 2001). PDE7A's wide expression in the brain, including the basal ganglia and substantia nigra, provides a theoretical basis for a role for PDE7A in brain functions.

In the practice of the methods of the invention, representative PDE7 inhibitory agents that inhibit the phosphodiesterase activity of PDE7 include: molecules that bind to PDE7 and inhibit the enzyme activity of PDE7 (such as small molecule inhibitors or blocking peptides that bind to PDE7 and reduce enzymatic activity), and molecules that decrease the expression of PDE7 at the transcriptional and/or translational level (such as PDE7 antisense nucleic acid molecules, PDE7 specific RNAi molecules and PDE7 ribozymes), thereby preventing PDE7 from cleaving cAMP. The PDE7 inhibitory agents can be used alone as a primary therapy or in combination with other therapeutics (such as dopamine receptor agonists) as an adjuvant therapy to enhance the therapeutic benefits, as discussed supra.

The inhibition of PDE7 is characterized by at least one of the following changes that occur as a result of administration of a PDE7 inhibitory agent in accordance with the methods of the invention: the inhibition of PDE7-dependent enzymatic cleavage of the 3′-phosphodiester bond in cAMP to form 5′-adenosine monophosphate (5′-AMP), a reduction in the gene or protein expression level of PDE7, measured, for example, by gene expression analysis (e.g., RT-PCR analysis) or protein analysis (e.g., Western blot).

In some embodiments, a PDE7 inhibitory agent is a molecule or composition that inhibits the expression of PDE7A, PDE7B, or both PDE7A and PDE7B, such as an antisense or small inhibitory nucleotide (e.g., siRNA) that specifically hybridizes with the cellular mRNA and/or genomic DNA corresponding to the gene(s) of the target PDE7 so as to inhibit their transcription and/or translation, or a ribozyme that specifically cleaves the mRNA of a target PDE7.

Potency of PDE7 Inhibitory Agents

In one embodiment, a PDE7 inhibitory agent useful in the methods of the invention is a compound that is sufficiently potent to inhibit the enzymatic activity of PDE7 (PDE7A, PDE7B, or PDE7A and PDE7B) at an IC50<1 μM, preferably less than or about 0.1 μM. In one embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent is sufficiently potent to inhibit the enzymatic activity of PDE7 (PDE7A, PDE7B, or PDE7A and PDE7B) at an IC50 of from about 0.1 to about 500 nM. In one embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitory agent is potent to inhibit the enzymatic activity of PDE7 (PDE7A, PDE7B, or PDE7A and PDE7B) at an IC50 of from about 1 to about 100 nM.

Representative methods for determining the IC50 for a PDE7 (PDE7A or PDE7B) inhibitory agent are well known in the art, such as the Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA) disclosed in Bardelle et al., Anal Biochem 15:275(2):148-55 (1999).

PDE7A or PDE7B Selective Inhibitory Agents

In one embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitor useful in the method of the invention is a PDE7A inhibitory agent. In one embodiment, the PDE7A inhibitory agent is potent to inhibit the enzymatic activity of PDE7A at an IC50 of from about 0.1 to about 500 nM. In one embodiment, the PDE7A inhibitor has an IC50 of from about 1 to about 100 nM. A suitable assay for determining the IC50 for a PDE7A inhibitor uses recombinant human PDE7A2 enzymes expressed in a baculoviral system. This assay method is a modification of the SPA assay reported by Bardelle et al. supra.

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent exhibits isozyme-selective activity against PDE7A. A PDE7A selective inhibitory agent reduces PDE7A activity at least two-fold more than PDE7B activity, more preferably at least 10-fold, at least 20-fold, at least 50-fold, or at least 100-fold. In some embodiments, the PDE7A inhibitory agent is an inhibitory agent that is at least 10-fold (such as at least 20-fold, or at least 50-fold or at least 100-fold) more selective for inhibiting PDE 7A activity than for the enzyme activity of any other PDE (PDE1-6, 7B, and 8-11).

In one embodiment, the PDE7B inhibitor has an IC50 of from about 0.1 to about 500 nM. In one embodiment, the PDE7B inhibitory agent is sufficiently potent to inhibit the enzymatic activity of PDE7B at an IC50 of from about 0.1 to about 500 nM. In one embodiment, the PDE7B inhibitor has an IC50 of from about 1 to about 100 nM. Methods for determining the IC50 for a PDE7B inhibitor are well known in the art, such as the assays disclosed in Bardelle et al., supra.

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitor exhibits isozyme-selective activity against PDE7B. A PDE7B selective inhibitory agent reduces PDE7B activity at least two-fold more than PDE7A activity, more preferably at least 10-fold, at least 20-fold, at least 50-fold, or at least 100-fold. In some embodiments, the PDE7B inhibitory agent is an inhibitory agent that is at least 10-fold (such as at least 20-fold, or at least 50-fold or at least 100-fold) more selective for inhibiting PDE7B activity than for the enzyme activity of any other PDE (PDE1-6, 7A, and 8-11).

PDE7 Selectivity as Compared to Other PDEs

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE1B activity of greater than 5 times (such as at least 10-fold, at least 20-fold, or at least 50-fold or at least 100-fold) the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. Stated differently, the PDE7 inhibitor is more potent (by 5 times, 10 times, 20 times, 50 times or 100 times) at inhibiting the activity of PDE7A or PDE7B (whichever PDE7A or PDE7B isozyme upon which the PDE7 inhibitor has the most effect), than it is at inhibiting the activity of PDE1B. For purposes of the present specification, by way of example, this property may be still more simply stated as the PDE7 inhibitor is more potent (by 5 times, 10 times, 20 times, 50 times or 100 times) at inhibiting the activity of PDE7 than it is at inhibiting the activity of PDE1B.

Dual inhibition of both PDE7 and PDE1B may confer additional benefit in the treatment of movement disorders based on a report that deletion of the gene for PDE1B in mice stimulated the metabolism of dopamine and sensitized the animals to the effects of dopaminergic agonists (Siuciak, et al., Neuropharmacology 53(1): 113-23 (2007)).

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE10 activity of greater than 5 times (such as at least 10-fold, or at least 20-fold, or at least 50-fold or at least 100-fold) the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. Dual inhibition of both PDE7 and PDE10 may confer additional benefit in the treatment of movement disorders based on a report that selective inhibitors of PDE10 cause an increase in cAMP levels in the striatum (Siuciak J. A. et al., Neuropharmacology 51(2):386-96 (2006)).

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE3 activity of greater than 10 times (such as at least 20-fold, at least 50-fold or at least 100-fold) the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. This is because the administration of selective inhibitors of PDE3 to patients in heart failure was shown to increase their rate of mortality (Packer M. et al., N Engl J Med. 325(21):1468-75 (1991)).

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE4 activity of greater than 10 times (such as at least 20-fold, at least 50-fold or at least 100-fold) the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. This is because deletion of one of the PDE4 genes in mice has been shown to lead to cardiac myopathy (Lehnart S. E. et al., Cell 123(1):25-35 (2005)).

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has a half maximally effective dose (“ED50”) in an in vivo assay of PDE4 inhibition (for example, sedation or inhibition of TNF alpha levels after endotoxin treatment) of greater than 10 times (such as at least 20-fold, at least 50-fold or at least 100-fold) the lesser of the ED50 in an in vivo assay of PDE7A and PDE7B inhibition (for example, prevention of relapse to cocaine or other psychostimulant addiction). In accordance with such embodiments, it has been determined that some compounds having dual PDE4/PDE7 inhibitory activity possess greater selectivity against PDE7 than PDE4 in vivo, as compared to the PDE4/PDE7 selectivity of the compound as determined in an in vitro assay.

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE3 activity and PDE4 activity of greater than 10 times (such as at least 20-fold, at least 50-fold or at least 100-fold) the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity.

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE8 activity of greater than 10 times (such as at least 20-fold, at least 50-fold or at least 100-fold) the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity.

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE4 activity and PDE8 activity of greater than 10 times (such as at least 20-fold, at least 50-fold or at least 100-fold) the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In accordance with this embodiment, it is known that the PDE families that specifically/preferentially hydrolyze cAMP include PDE4, PDE7, and PDE8.

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting the activity of PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE4, and PDE8, PDE10, and PDE11 of greater than 10 times the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity. In accordance with this embodiment, it is known that the PDE families that specifically/preferentially hydrolyze cAMP include PDE4, PDE7, and PDE8 and the PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE10, and PDE11 families show substantial activity against both cAMP and cGMP.

In some embodiments, the PDE inhibitory agent is a selective PDE7 inhibitor for which the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity is less than one-tenth (such as one-twentieth, one-fiftieth, or one-hundredth) the IC50 that the agent has for inhibiting any other PDE enzyme from the PDE1-6 and PDE8-11 enzyme families.

A selective PDE7 inhibitor can be identified, for example, by comparing the ability of an agent to inhibit PDE7 (PDE7A, PDE7B or PDE7A and PDE7B) enzyme activity to its ability to inhibit PDE enzymes from the other PDE families. For example, an agent may be assayed for its ability to inhibit PDE7 activity as well as PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE4, PDE5, PDE6, PDE8, PDE9, PDE10, and PDE11. The ratio of the IC50 inhibition for each of the PDE(1-6 and 8-11) isozymes to the IC50 inhibition of PDE7 (i.e., the more sensitive of PDE7A or PDE7B) may be determined by a standard in vitro, in vivo, or ex vivo assay, such as those described herein.

In some embodiments, a PDE7 inhibitor is selective for PDE7 and substantially inactive against other PDEs (e.g., PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE4, and PDE8, PDE10, and PDE11) due to targeting of the PDE7 inhibitor to one or more target tissues, such as the brain and/or skeletal muscle. As described herein, PDE7 is uniquely localized in mammalian subjects relative to other PDE families. Within the brain, PDE7A is widely distributed in both neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations, including the basal ganglia and substantia nigra (Miro et al., Synapse 40:201, 2001). PDE7B is expressed in the brain in the striatum (Reyes-Irisarri et al., Neuroscience 132:1173, 2005).

Types of PDE7 Inhibitory Agents

The PDE7 inhibitory agent can be any type of agent including, but not limited to, a chemical compound, a protein or polypeptide, a peptidomimetic, a nucleic acid molecule, or ribozyme. In some embodiments, PDE7 inhibitory agents are small molecule inhibitors including natural and synthetic substances that have a low molecular weight (i.e., less than about 450 g/mole), such as, for example, peptides, peptidomimetics and nonpeptide inhibitors such as chemical compounds.

Chemical Compounds:

The PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include agents that are administered by a conventional route (e.g., oral, intramuscular, subcutaneous, transdermal, transbucal, intravenous, etc.) into the bloodstream and are ultimately transported through the vascular system across the blood brain barrier to inhibit PDE7 in the brain. Accordingly, for these methods of administration, the PDE7 inhibitors have the ability to cross the blood brain barrier. Those PDE inhibitors described below that have the ability to cross the blood brain barrier (e.g., those having a molecular weight less than about 450 g/mole and that are sufficiently lipophilic) are useful in the methods of the invention when the inhibitors are administered by a route that ultimately transports the inhibitors to the brain in the bloodstream.

The following is a description of exemplary PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention.

In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in EP 1 454 897, WO 2003/053975, and US 20050148604, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

A represents N or CR4,

B represents a hydrogen atom or a halogen atom,

R1 represents optionally substituted C3-7 cycloalkyl or tert-butyl,

R2 represents hydrogen, methyl, or ethyl,

R3 represents a hydrogen, nitro, cyano or halogen atom, NR5R6, C(═X)R7, SO2NR5R6, OR8, NR8CONR5R6, NR8SO2R9, NR8CO2R9, a heteroaryl group, optionally substituted C1-3 alkyl, optionally substituted C1-6 alkenyl, or optionally substituted saturated or unsaturated heterocycloalkyl,

R4 represents hydrogen, or C1-3 alkoxy substituted, if desired, by one or more fluorine atoms,

R5 and R6 are the same or different, and represent a hydrogen atom, optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl, optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl, or optionally substituted acyl or, together with the nitrogen atom which they are bound to, form azetidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, morpholino, thiomorpholino, piperazinyl, or homopiperazinyl, each of these groups being optionally substituted by optionally substituted C1-4 alkyl, OH, C1-3 alkoxy, CO2H, NR5R6, an oxo group, NR9COR7, or C(═O)R7,

R7 represents optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl, OH, ORs, or NR5R6,

R8 represents hydrogen, an optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl group, or optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl,

R9 represents an optionally substituted C1-6 alkyl group, and

X represents O, S, or NH.

In regard to the above compounds, “optionally substituted” refers to optionally substituted linear, branched or cyclic alkyl group such as methyl, ethyl, propyl or cyclohexyl; a hydroxyl group; a cyano group; an alkoxy group such as methoxy or ethoxy; an optionally substituted amino group such as amino, methylamino or dimethylamino; an optionally substituted acyl group such as acetyl or propionyl; a carboxyl group; an optionally substituted aryl group such as phenyl or naphthyl; an optionally substituted heteroaryl group such as pyridinyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl or pyrazyl; an optionally substituted saturated or unsaturated heterocycloalkyl group such as piperazinyl or morphonyl; an optionally substituted carbamoyl group; an optionally substituted amido group; a halogen atom such as chlorine, fluorine or bromine; a nitro group; an optionally substituted sulfone group; an optionally substituted sulfonylamido group; an oxo group; a urea group; and an optionally substituted linear, branched or cyclic alkenyl group such as ethenyl, propenyl or cyclohexenyl.

Examples of the heteroaryl group as R3 include a 5- to 7-membered monocyclic heteroaryl group having 2 to 8 carbon atoms and containing 1 to 4 hetero atoms consisting of oxygen atoms, nitrogen atoms or sulfur atoms, and a polycyclic heteroaryl group comprising two or more such identical or different monocyclic compounds fused together, examples of the monocyclic and polycyclic heteroaryl groups being pyrrole, furyl, thienyl, imidazolyl, thiazolyl, pyridyl, pyrazyl, indolyl, quinolyl, isoquinolyl, and tetrazolyl.

In one embodiment, a PDE7 inhibitor useful in the invention has the formula:

In others embodiments, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

In another embodiment, a PDE7 inhibitor useful in the methods of the invention has the formula:

In other embodiments, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The preparation of the above compounds is described in EP 1 454 897, WO 2003/053975, and US 20050148604.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in US 2002/0198198, WO 2002/076953, WO 2002/074754, WO 2006/092691, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 14 (2004) 4623-4626, and Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 14 (2004) 4627-4631, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

(a) X1, X2, X3, and X4 are the same or different and are selected from:

N, provided that not more than two of the groups X1, X2, X3, and X4 simultaneously represent a nitrogen atom, or,

C—R1, in which R1 is selected from:

    • Q1, or
    • lower alkyl, lower alkenyl, or lower alkynyl, these groups being unsubstituted or substituted with one or several groups Q2;
    • the group X5—R5 in which,
      • X5 is selected from:
      • a single bond,
      • lower alkylene, lower alkenylene, or lower alkynylene; optionally interrupted with 1 or 2 heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, the carbon atoms of these groups being unsubstituted or substituted with one or several groups, identical or different, selected from SR6, OR6, NR6R7, ═O, ═S, or ═NR6 in which R6 and R7 are the same or different and are selected from hydrogen or lower alkyl, and,
      • R5 is selected from aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl optionally interrupted with C(═O) or with 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, cycloalkenyl optionally interrupted with C(═O) or with 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2 or N, or a bicyclic group, these groups being unsubstituted or substituted with one or several groups selected from Q3, heteroaryl, or lower alkyl optionally substituted with Q3;
      • in which Q1, Q2, and Q3 are the same or different and are selected from:
      • hydrogen, halogen, CN, NO2, SO3H, P(═O)(OH)2, OR2, OC(═O)R2, C(═O)OR2, SR2, S(═O)R2, NR3R4, Q-R2, Q-NR3R4, NR2-Q-NR3R4, or NR3-Q-R2 in which Q is selected from C(═NR), C(═O), C(═S), or SO2, R is selected from hydrogen, or lower alkyl, and R2, R3, and R4 are the same or different and are selected from:
      • hydrogen, lower alkyl optionally interrupted with C(═O), (CH2)n-aryl, (CH2)n-heteroaryl, (CH2)n-cycloalkyl optionally interrupted with C(═O) or with 1 or 2 heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, in which n is an integer selected from 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4;
      • these groups being unsubstituted or substituted with one or several groups selected from lower alkyl, halogen, CN, CH3, SO3H, SO2CH3, CF3, C(═O)NHSO2CH3, OR6, COOR6, C(═O)R6, NR6R7, C(═O)NR6R7, or SO2NR6R7, in which R6 and R7 are the same or different and are selected from hydrogen or lower alkyl optionally substituted with one or two groups selected from OR, COOR or NRR8 in which R and R8 are hydrogen or lower alkyl, and,
      • R6 and R7, and/or, R3 and R4, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are linked, can form a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring, which may contain one or two heteroatoms selected from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, and which may be substituted with,
      • a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring, which may contain one or two heteroatoms selected from O, S, or N, and which may be substituted with a lower alkyl, or,
      • a lower alkyl optionally substituted with OR′, NR′R″, C(═O)NR′R″ or COOR′ in which R′ and R″ are the same or different and are selected from H, lower alkyl optionally substituted with OR or COOR in which R is hydrogen or lower alkyl, and R′ and R″ together with the nitrogen atom to which they are linked, can form a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring, which may contain one or two heteroatoms selected from O, S, or N; or,

(b) X is O, S, or NR9, in which R9 is selected from hydrogen, CN, OH, NH2, lower alkyl, lower alkenyl, or lower alkynyl, these groups being unsubstituted or substituted with cycloalkyl optionally interrupted with 1 or 2 heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, cycloalkenyl optionally interrupted with 1 or 2 heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, aryl, heteroaryl, OR10, or NR10R11 in which R10 and R11 are the same or different and are selected from hydrogen or lower alkyl;

(c) Y is selected from O, S, or N—R12, in which R12 is selected from hydrogen, CN, OH, NH2, lower alkyl, lower alkenyl, or lower alkynyl, these groups being unsubstituted or substituted with cycloalkyl optionally interrupted with 1 or 2 heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, cycloalkenyl optionally interrupted with 1 or 2 heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, aryl, heteroaryl, OR10, or NR10R11 in which R10 and R11 are the same or different and are selected from hydrogen or lower alkyl;

    • (d) Z is chosen from CH—NO2, O, S, or NR13 in which R13 is selected from hydrogen, CN, OH, NH2, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl optionally interrupted with one or several heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, cycloalkenyl optionally interrupted with one or several heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, C(═O)R14, C(═O)NR14R15, OR14, or, lower alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with one or several groups which are the same or different and which are selected OR14 or NR14R15;
    • R14 and R15 being independently selected from hydrogen or lower alkyl, or, R14 and R15, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are linked, can form a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring which may contain one or two heteroatoms chosen from O, S, or N, and which may be substituted with a lower alkyl;

(e) Z1 is chosen from H, CH3, or NR16R17 in which R16 and R17 are the same or different and are selected from hydrogen, CN, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl optionally interrupted with one or several heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, cycloalkenyl optionally interrupted with one or several heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, C(═O)R14, C(═O)NR14R15, OR14, or, lower alkyl unsubstituted or substituted with one or several groups selected from OR14 or NR14R15,

    • R14 and R15 being chosen from hydrogen or lower alkyl, and, R14 and R15, and/or, R16 and R17, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are linked, can form a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring which may contain one or two heteroatoms chosen from O, S, or N, and which may be substituted with a lower alkyl;
    • (f) A is a cycle selected from:

in which

A1, A2, A3, A4, As, and A6 are the same or different and are selected from O, S, C, C(═O), SO, SO2, or NR18 in which R18 is selected from hydrogen, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl optionally interrupted with one or several heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, cycloalkenyl optionally interrupted with one or several heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, lower alkyl unsubstituted or substituted with aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl optionally interrupted with one or several heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, cycloalkenyl optionally interrupted with one or several heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, CN, NR19R20, C(═O)NR19R20, OR19, C(═O)R19 or C(═O)OR19 in which R19 and R20 are identical or different and are selected from hydrogen or lower alkyl;

represents the carbon atom which is shared between the cycle A and the backbone cycle containing X and/or Y;

each carbon atom of the cycle A is unsubstituted or substituted with 1 or 2 groups, identical or different, selected from lower alkyl optionally substituted with OR21, NR21R22, COOR21, or CONR21R22, lower haloalkyl, CN, F, ═O, SO2NR19R20, OR19, SR19, C(═O)OR19, C(═O)NR19R20, or NR19R20 in which R19 and R20 are identical or different and are selected from hydrogen or lower alkyl optionally substituted with OR21, NR21R22, COOR21, or CONR21R22, in which R21 and R22 are identical or different and are selected from hydrogen or lower alkyl, and, R19 and R20, and/or, R21 and R22, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are linked, can form a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring;

two atoms of the cycle A, which are not adjacent, may be linked by a 2, 3 or 4 carbon atom chain which may be interrupted with 1 heteroatom chosen from O, S or N; provided that not more than two of the groups A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, and A6 simultaneously represent a heteroatom; and

their tautomeric forms, their racemic forms, their isomers, and their pharmaceutically acceptable derivatives.

In regard to the above compounds, halogen includes fluoro, chloro, bromo, and iodo. Preferred halogens are F and Cl. Lower alkyl includes straight and branched carbon chains having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms. Examples of such alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and tert-butyl. Lower alkenyl includes straight and branched hydrocarbon radicals having from 2 to 6 carbon atoms and at least one double bond. Examples of such alkenyl groups are ethenyl, 3-buten-1-yl, 2-ethenylbutyl, and 3-hexen-1-yl. Lower alkynyl includes straight and branched hydrocarbon radicals having from 2 to 6 carbon atoms and at least one triple bond. Examples of such alkynyl groups are ethynyl, 3-butyn-1-yl, propynyl, 2-butyn-1-yl, and 3-pentyn-1-yl. Lower haloalkyl includes a lower alkyl as defined above, substituted with one or several halogens. An example of haloalkyl is trifluoromethyl. Aryl is understood to refer to an aromatic carbocycle containing between 6 and 10 carbon atoms. An example of an aryl group is phenyl. Heteroaryl includes aromatic cycles which have from 5 to 10 ring atoms, from 1 to 4 of which are independently selected from the group consisting of O, S, and N. Representative heteroaryl groups have 1, 2, 3 or 4 heteroatoms in a 5- or 6-membered aromatic ring. Examples of such groups are tetrazole, pyridyl, and thienyl. Representative cycloalkyl contain from 3 to 8 carbon atoms. Examples of such groups are cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl and cyclooctyl. The term “interrupted” means that in a backbone chain, a carbon atom is replaced by an heteroatom or a group as defined herein. For example, in “cycloalkyl or cycloalkenyl optionally interrupted with C(══O) or with 1 heteroatom chosen from O, S, S(══O), SO2 or N”, the term “interrupted” means that C(══O) or a heteroatom can replace a carbon atom of the ring. Example of such groups are morpholine or piperazine. Cycloalkenyl includes 3- to 10-membered cycloalkyl containing at least one double bond. Heterocyclic rings include heteroaryl as defined above and cycloalkyl or cycloalkenyl, as defined above, interrupted with 1, 2 or 3 heteroatoms chosen from O, S, S(══O), SO2, or N. Bicyclic substituents refer to two cycles, which are the same or different and which are chosen from aryl, heterocyclic ring, cycloalkyl or cycloalkenyl, fused together to form said bicyclic substituents. An example of a bicyclic substituent is indolyl.

In one embodiment, a PDE7 inhibitor useful in the methods of the invention has the formula:

In other embodiments, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The preparation of the above compounds is described in US 2002/0198198, WO 2002/076953, WO 2002/074754, WO 2006/092691, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 14 (2004) 4623-4626, and Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 14 (2004) 4627-4631.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in EP 1 193 261, WO 2002/28847, US 20030045557, U.S. Pat. No. 7,122,565, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 14 (2004) 4607-4613, and Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 14 (2004) 4615-4621, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

Y is S or O;

R1 is C1-C10 alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C2-C10 alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocycle, aryl, or a polycyclic group; each optionally substituted with one or several groups X1—R4, identical or different, in which X1 is a single bond, lower alkylene, C2-C6 alkenylene, cycloalkylene, arylene, or divalent heterocycle, and R4 is:

    • (1) H, ═O, NO2, CN, halogen, lower haloalkyl, lower alkyl, carboxylic acid bioisostere;
    • (2) COOR5, C(═O)R5, C(═S)R5, SO2R5, SOR5, SO3R5, SR5, OR5;
    • (3) C(═O)NR7R8, C(═S)NR7R8, C(═CH—NO2)NR7R8, C(═N—CN)NR7R8, C(═N—SO2NH2)NR7R8, C(═NR7)NHR8, C(═NR7)R8, C(═NR9)NHR8, C(═NR9)R8, SO2NR7R8, or NR7R8, wherein R7 and R8 are the same or different and are selected from OH, R5, R6, C(═O)NR5R6, C(═O)R5, SO2R5, C(═NR9)NHR10, C(═NR9)R10, C(═CH—NO2)NR9R10, C(═N—SO2NH2)NR9R10, C(═N—CN)NR9R10, or C(═S)NR9R10;

R2 is lower alkyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, C2-C10 alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocycle, aryl; each optionally substituted with one or several groups which are the same or different and which are selected from:

    • (1) H, carboxylic acid bioisostere, lower haloalkyl, halogen,
    • (2) COOR5, OR5, SO2R5,
    • (3) SO2NR11R12, C(═O)NR11R12, NR11R12, wherein R11 and R12 are the same or different and are selected from OH, R5, R6, C(═O)NR5R6, C(═O)R5, SO2R5, C(═S)NR9R10, C(═CH—NO2)NR9R10, C(═N—CN)NR9R10, C(═N—SO2NH2)NR9R10, C(═NR9)NHR10, or C(═NR9)R10;

R3 is X2—R′3, wherein X2 is a single bond or, a group selected from C1-C4 alkylene, C2-C6 alkenylene, C2-C6 alkynylene, each optionally substituted with one or several groups which are the same or different and which are selected from:

    • (1) H, C1-C3 alkyl, C3-C4 cycloalkyl, aryl, heterocycle, ═O, CN,
    • (2) OR5, ═NR5; or
    • (3) NR13R14, wherein R13 and R14 are the same or different and are selected from R5, R6, C(═O)NR5R6, C(═O)R5, SO2R5, C(═S)NR9R10, C(═CH—NO2)NR9R10, C(═NR9)NHR10, or C(═NR9)R10;

R′3 is cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, aryl, heterocycle, or a polycyclic group; each optionally substituted with one or several groups X3—R17 wherein X3 is a single bond, lower alkylene, C2-C6 alkenylene, C2-C6 alkynylene, cycloalkylene, arylene, divalent heterocycle or a divalent polycyclic group, and, R17 is:

    • (1) H, ═O, NO2, CN, lower haloalkyl, halogen, carboxylic acid bioisostere, cycloalkyl,
    • (2) COOR5, C(═O)R5, C(═S)R5, SO02R5, SOR5, SO3R5, SR5, OR5;
    • (3) C(═O)NR15R16, C(═S)NR15R16, C(═N—CN)NR15R16, C(═N—SO2NH2)NR15R16, C(═CH—NO2)NR15R16, SO2NR15R16, C(═NR15)NHR16, C(═NR15)R16, C(═NR9)NHR16, C(═NR9)R16, or NR15R16 wherein R15 and R16 are the same or different and are selected from OH, R5, R6, C(═O)NR5R6, C(═O)R5, SO2R5, C(═S)NR9R10, C(═CH—NO2)NR9R10, C(═N—CN)NR9R10, C(═N—SO2NH2)NR9R10, C(═NR9)NHR10 or C(═NR9)R10,
    • (4) heterocycle optionally substituted with one or several groups R5;

wherein R5 and R6 are the same or different and are selected from H, lower alkyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, X4-cycloalkyl, X4-cycloalkenyl, X4-aryl, X4-heterocycle or X4-polycyclic group, wherein X4 is a single bond, lower alkylene, or C2-C6 alkenylene; each optionally substituted with one or several groups that are the same or different and selected from halogen, ═O, COOR20, CN, OR20, O-lower alkyl optionally substituted with OR20, C(═O)-lower alkyl, lower haloalkyl,

in which X5 is a single bond or lower alkylene and R18, R19, and R20, are the same or different and are selected from H or lower alkyl;

X6-heterocycle, X6-aryl, X6-cycloalkyl, X6-cycloalkenyl, or X6-polycyclic group, wherein X6 is a single bond or lower alkylene, these groups being optionally substituted with one or several groups, identical or different, selected from halogens, COOR21, OR21, or (CH2)nNR21R22 in which n is 0, 1, or 2 and R21 and R22 are the same or different and are selected from H or lower alkyl;

R9 is selected from H, CN, OH, lower alkyl, O-lower alkyl, aryl, heterocycle, SO2NH2, or

in which X5 is a single bond or lower alkylene and R18 and R19 are the same or different and are selected from H or lower alkyl;

R10 is selected from hydrogen, lower alkyl, cyclopropyl, or heterocycle;

or their pharmaceutically acceptable derivatives.

In regard to the above compounds, aryl refers to an unsaturated carbocycle, exclusively comprising carbon atoms in the cyclic structure, the number of which is between 5 and 10, including phenyl, naphthyl, or tetrahydronaphthyl. Heterocycle refers to a nonsaturated or saturated monocycle containing between 1 and 7 carbon atoms in the cyclic structure and at least one heteroatom in the cyclic structure, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur, preferably from 1 to 4 heteroatoms, identical or different, selected from nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen atoms. Suitable heterocycles include morpholinyl, piperazinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, pyrimidinyl, 2- and 3-furanyl, 2- and 3-thienyl, 2-pyridyl, 2- and 3-pyranyl, hydroxypyridyl, pyrazolyl, isoxazolyl, tetrazole, imidazole, triazole, and the like. Polycyclic groups include at least two cycles, identical or different, selected from aryl, heterocycle, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl groups fused together to form said polycyclic group such as 2- and 3-benzothienyl, 2- and 3-benzofuranyl, 2-indolyl, 2- and 3-quinolinyl, acridinyl, quinazolinyl, indolyl benzo[1,3]dioxolyl, and 9-thioxantanyl. Bicyclic groups refer to two cycles, which are the same or different and which are chosen from aryl, heterocycle, cycloalkyl or cycloalkenyl, fused together to form said bicyclic groups. Halogen refers to fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine. Lower alkyl refers to an alkyl is linear or branched and contains 1 to 6 carbon atoms. Examples of lower alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, isobutyl, n-butyl, pentyl, hexyl and the like. Alkenyl refers to a linear or branched unsaturated carbon atom chain, comprising one or several double bonds, preferably one or two double bonds. Alkynyl refers to a linear or branched unsaturated carbon atom chain, comprising one or several triple bonds, preferably one or two triple bonds. Lower haloalkyl refers to a lower alkyl substituted with one or several halogens; preferred lower haloalkyl groups include perhaloalkyl groups such as CF3. Cycloalkyl refers to saturated monocarbocyle containing from 3 to 10 carbon atoms; including cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and cycloheptyl. Cycloalkenyl refers to unsaturated monocarbocyle containing from 3 to 10 carbon atoms. Examples of suitable cycloalkenyl are 3-cyclohexene, and 3-cycloheptene. Carboxylic acid bioisostere has the classical meaning; common carboxylic acid bioisostere are tetrazole-5-yl, C(═O)N(H)OH, isoxazol-3-yl, hydroxythiadiazolyl, sulfonamido, sulfonylcarboxamido, phosphonic acid, phosphonamido, phosphinic acid, sulfonic acids, acyl sulfonamido, mercaptoazole, acyl cyanamides.

In one embodiment, a PDE7 inhibitor useful in the methods of the invention has the formula:

In other embodiments, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The preparation of the above compounds is described in EP 1 193 261, WO 02/28847, US 20030045557, U.S. Pat. No. 7,122,565, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 14 (2004) 4607-4613, and Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 14 (2004) 4615-4621.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in WO 2004/111054, US 20060128728, and US 20070270419, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 is a substituted or unsubstituted C3-8 cycloalkyl group or tert-butyl group;

R2 is a hydrogen atom or C1-3 alkyl group;

R3 is a group: NR5R6, C(═O)R7, or S(O)0-2R8;

R4 is a hydrogen atom or C1-3 alkoxyl group which is unsubstituted or substituted by one or more fluorine atom(s);

R5 and R6 are, same or different from each other, a hydrogen atom, substituted or unsubstituted C1-6 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted acyl group, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group, and substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl ring formed with a nitrogen atom which is binding R5 and R6;

R7 is a group: OR9 or NR5R6;

R8 is a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, a group: NR5R6, substituted or unsubstituted C1-6 alkyl group, or substituted or unsubstituted aryl group;

R9 is a hydrogen atom or substituted or unsubstituted C1-6 alkyl group;

or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates thereof.

In regard to the above compounds, the term “C1-C3 alkyl group” includes a straight or branched-chained alkyl group having 1 to 3 carbon atoms. The term “C3-C8 cycloalkyl group” includes a cycloalkyl group having 3 to 8 carbon atoms such as cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl and cyclooctyl. The term “heterocycloalkyl group” is 3 to 7 membered heterocyclic group containing the same or different 1 to 4 hetero atom(s) such as oxygen, nitrogen or sulfur atom(s), and examples may include pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, homopiperazinyl, tetrahydrofuryl, tetrahydrophyranyl, morpholinyl and azetidinyl. The term “C1-C3 alkoxy group” means alkoxy group having 1 to 3 carbon atoms. The term “acyl group” means acyl group having 1 to 8 carbon atoms. The term “aryl group” is phenyl, naphthyl, biphenyl group, having 6 to 12 carbon atoms, and the term “heteroaryl group” is 5 to 7 membered monocyclic or polycyclic group thereof containing 2 to 8 carbon atoms and the same or different 1 to 4 hetero atom(s) such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur atom(s). The examples include pyrrole, furyl, thienyl, imidazolyl, thiazolyl, pyrazinyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyrazolyl pyridazinyl and pyrimidinyl. Examples of suitable substituent of “substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl group” include hydroxyl group and halogen atom, and examples of suitable substituent of “substituted or unsubstituted acyl group” include halogen atom and nitro group. Further, examples of suitable substituent of “substituted or unsubstituted aryl group” include C1-C3 alkyl, halogen atom, amino group, acyl group, amide group, hydroxyl group, acylamino group, carboxyl group and sulfonyl group. Examples of suitable substituent of “substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl group” is C1-C3 alkyl, hydroxyl group and oxo group, and examples of suitable substituent of “substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group” may include carboxy group, acyl group, alkoxy group, amino group, alkylamino group, acylamino group, hydroxyl group, oxo group, ethylenedioxy group, methyl group, ethyl group and hydroxyethyl group.

In other embodiments, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The preparation of the above compounds is described in WO 2004/111054, US 20060128728, and US 20070270419.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,903,109, US 20040082578, WO 2003/088963, and US 20060154949, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

(a) R1 is selected from the group consisting of:

(i) COR5, wherein R5 is selected from H, optionally substituted C1-8 straight or branched chain alkyl, optionally substituted aryl and optionally substituted arylalkyl; wherein the substituents on the alkyl, aryl and arylalkyl group are selected from C1-8 lkoxy, phenylacetyloxy, hydroxy, halogen, p-tosyloxy, mesyloxy, amino, cyano, carboalkoxy, or NR20R21 wherein R20 and R21 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-8 straight or branched chain alkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, benzyl, or aryl;

    • (ii) COOR6, wherein R6 is selected from H, optionally substituted C1-8 straight or branched chain alkyl, optionally substituted aryl and optionally substituted arylalkyl; wherein the substituents on the alkyl, aryl and arylalkyl group are selected from C1-8 alkoxy, phenylacetyloxy, hydroxy, halogen, p-tosyloxy, mesyloxy, amino, cyano, carboalkoxy, or NR20R21 wherein R20 and R21 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-8 straight or branched chain alkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, benzyl, or aryl;
    • (iii) cyano;
    • (iv) a lactone or lactam formed with R4;
    • (v) CONR7R wherein R7 and R8 are independently selected from H, C1-8 straight or branched chain alkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, trifluoromethyl, hydroxy, alkoxy, acyl, alkylcarbonyl, carboxyl, arylalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and heterocyclyl; wherein the alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkoxy, acyl, alkylcarbonyl, carboxyl, arylalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and heterocyclyl groups may be substituted with carboxyl, alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heterocyclyl, substituted heterocyclyl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, hydroxamic acid, sulfonamide, sulfonyl, hydroxy, thiol, alkoxy, or arylalkyl;

or R7 and R8 taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a heterocyclyl or heteroaryl group;

    • (vi) a carboxylic ester or carboxylic acid bioisostere including optionally substituted heteroaryl groups;

(b) R2 is selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted C3-7 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, wherein the heterocyclyl is 1,3-dioxolane or furan, or R2 is;

(c) R3 is from one to four groups independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (i) hydrogen, halo, C1-8 straight or branched chain alkyl, arylalkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, C1-8 alkoxy, cyano, C1-4 carboalkoxy, trifluoromethyl, C1-8 alkylsulfonyl, halogen, nitro, hydroxy, trifluoromethoxy, C1-8 carboxylate, aryl, heteroaryl, and heterocyclyl;
    • (ii) NR10R11 wherein R10 and R11 are independently selected from H, C1-8 straight or branched chain alkyl, arylalkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, carboxyalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl, or R10 and R11 taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a heterocyclyl or heteroaryl group;
    • (iii) NR12COR13 wherein R12 is selected from hydrogen or alkyl and R13 is selected from hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, C1-3 alkoxyl, carboxyalkyl, R30R31N(CH2)p, R30R31NCO(CH2)p, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl, or R12 and R13 taken together with the carbonyl group form a carbonyl containing heterocyclyl group, wherein R30 and R31 are independently selected from H, OH, alkyl, and alkoxy, and p is an integer from 1-6, wherein the alkyl group may be substituted with carboxyl, alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heterocyclyl, substituted heterocyclyl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, hydroxamic acid, sulfonamide, sulfonyl, hydroxy, thiol, alkoxy, or arylalkyl;

(d) R4 is selected from the group consisting of (i) hydrogen, (ii) C1-3 straight or branched chain alkyl, (iii) benzyl, and (iv) NR13R14, wherein R13 and R14 are independently selected from hydrogen and C1-6 alkyl; wherein the C1-3 alkyl and benzyl groups are optionally substituted with one or more groups selected from C3-7 cycloalkyl, C1-8 alkoxy, cyano, C1-4 carboalkoxy, trifluoromethyl, C1-8 alkylsulfonyl, halogen, nitro, hydroxy, trifluoromethoxy, C1-8 carboxylate, amino, NR13R14, aryl, and heteroaryl; and

(e) X is selected from S and O;

and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts, esters and pro-drug forms thereof.

In an alternative embodiment, R1, R3, and R4 are as above and R2 is NR15R16, where R15 and R16 are independently selected from hydrogen, C1-8 straight or branched chain alkyl, arylalkyl, C3-7 cycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and heterocyclyl, or R15 and R16 taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a heterocyclyl or heteroaryl group.

In regard to the above compounds, “alkyl” refers to straight, cyclic and branched-chain alkyl. The alkyl group may be optionally substituted with one or more groups such as halogen, OH, CN, mercapto, nitro, amino, C1-C8-alkyl, C1-C8-alkoxyl, C1-C8-alkylthio, C1-C8-alkyl-amino, di(C1-C8-alkyl)amino, (mono-, di-, tri-, and per-) halo-alkyl, formyl, carboxy, alkoxycarbonyl, C1-C8-alkyl-CO—O—, C1-C8-alkyl-CO—NH—, carboxamide, hydroxamic acid, sulfonamide, sulfonyl, thiol, aryl, aryl(c1-c8)alkyl, heterocyclyl, and heteroaryl. The term “bioisostere” is defined as “groups or molecules which have chemical and physical properties producing broadly similar biological properties.” (Burger's Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, M. E. Wolff, ed. Fifth Edition, Vol. 1, 1995, Pg. 785). The term “acyl” as used herein, whether used alone or as part of a substituent group, means an organic radical having 2 to 6 carbon atoms (branched or straight chain) derived from an organic acid by removal of the hydroxyl group. “Aryl” or “Ar,” whether used alone or as part of a substituent group, is a carbocyclic aromatic radical including, but not limited to, phenyl, 1- or 2-naphthyl and the like. The carbocyclic aromatic radical may be substituted by independent replacement of 1 to 5 of the hydrogen atoms thereon with halogen, OH, CN, mercapto, nitro, amino, C1-C8-alkyl, C1-C8-alkoxyl, C1-C8-alkylthio, C1-C8-alkyl-amino, di(C1-C8-alkyl)amino, (mono-, di-, tri-, and per-) halo-alkyl, formyl, carboxy, alkoxycarbonyl, C1-C8-alkyl-CO—O—, C1-C8-alkyl-CO—NH—, or carboxamide. Illustrative aryl radicals include, for example, phenyl, naphthyl, biphenyl, fluorophenyl, difluorophenyl, benzyl, benzoyloxyphenyl, carboethoxyphenyl, acetylphenyl, ethoxyphenyl, phenoxyphenyl, hydroxyphenyl, carboxyphenyl, trifluoromethylphenyl, methoxyethylphenyl, acetamidophenyl, tolyl, xylyl, dimethylcarbamylphenyl and the like. The term “heteroaryl” refers to a cyclic, fully unsaturated radical having from five to ten ring atoms of which one ring atom is selected from S, O, and N; 0-2 ring atoms are additional heteroatoms independently selected from S, O, and N; and the remaining ring atoms are carbon. The radical may be joined to the rest of the molecule via any of the ring atoms. The terms “heterocycle,” “heterocyclic,” and “heterocycle” refer to an optionally substituted, fully or partially saturated cyclic group which is, for example, a 4- to 7-membered monocyclic, 7- to 11-membered bicyclic, or 10- to 15-membered tricyclic ring system, which has at least one heteroatom in at least one carbon atom containing ring. Each ring of the heterocyclic group containing a heteroatom may have 1, 2, or 3 heteroatoms selected from nitrogen atoms, oxygen atoms, and sulfur atoms, where the nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms may also optionally be oxidized. The nitrogen atoms may optionally be quaternized. The heterocyclic group may be attached at any heteroatom or carbon atom.

In other embodiments, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The preparation of the above compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,903,109, US 20040082578, WO 2003/088963, and US 20060154949.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,958,328, WO 2002/085894, and US 20030212089, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. These PDE7 inhibitors have the same formula as those described above (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 6,903,109), except that R1 is not a carboxylic ester or carboxylic acid bioisostere. The preparation of these compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,958,328, US 20030212089, and WO 2002/085894

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in WO 2006/004040 and EP 1 775 298, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 is substituted or unsubstituted C3-8 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, or substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group (e.g., cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, or tetrahydropyranyl);

R2 is a hydrogen atom or substituted or unsubstituted C1-3 alkyl group (e.g., methyl);

R3 is a hydrogen atom, substituted or unsubstituted C1-3 alkyl group, or a halogen atom; and

R4 is substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, or a group CONR5R6, or CO2R7,

wherein R5 and R6 are, same or different from each other, a hydrogen atom; C1-6 alkyl group which may be substituted by a halogen atom, substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a group NR7COR8, COR8, NR9R10; substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group; substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group; substituted or unsubstituted aryl group; substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group; or substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group in which the ring is formed together with the nitrogen atom binding R5 and R6;

wherein R7 is a hydrogen atom or substituted or unsubstituted C1-3 alkyl group;

wherein R8 is substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group, or a group OH, OR7, or NR9R10;

wherein R9 and R10 are, same or different from each other, a hydrogen atom; substituted or unsubstituted C1-3 alkyl group, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group; substituted or unsubstituted acyl; a group SO2R7, or substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group in which the ring is formed together with the nitrogen atom binding R5 and R6;

or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates thereof.

In regard to the above compounds, the term “cycloalkyl group” means cycloalkyl group having 3 to 8 carbon atoms. The term “heterocycloalkyl group” may be 3 to 7 membered monocyclic or polycyclic heterocyclic group containing the same or different 1 to 4 hetero atom(s) such as oxygen, nitrogen or sulfur atom(s), and examples may include piperidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperazinyl, tetrahydrofuryl, tetrahydropyranyl, morpholinyl, azetidinyl, imidazolidinyl, oxazolidinyl, hexahydropyrrolidinyl, octahydroindolidinyl, octahydroquinolidinyl, octahydroindolyl, and oxo-derivatives thereof. The term “aryl group” may be aromatic hydrocarbon group, which consists of mono-benzene ring, or binding or condensed benzene ring, such as phenyl, naphthyl, biphenyl and the like; and dicyclic or tricyclic group, which consists of benzene ring condensed with cycloalkyl or heterocyclic ring, such as 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, 2,3-dihydroindene, indoline, coumarone and the like. The term “heteroaryl group” may be 5 to 7 membered monocyclic heteroaryl group or polycyclic heteroaryl group, and having 2 to 8 carbon atoms with 1 to 4 hetero atom(s) such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur atom(s), in which the polycyclic heteroaryl group has condensed ring system by the same or different monocyclic heteroaryl or benzene ring each other; or polycyclic group which is consisted of heteroaryl group condensed with cycloalkyl or heterocycloalkyl ring. Examples of suitable substituent of the present invention may include straight, branched-chained or cyclic C1-C8 alkyl group, which may be substituted by one or more methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, t-butyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, methoxymethyl, hydroxymethyl, trifluoromethyl, C1-C3 alkoxy group, halogen atom, and hydroxyl group; hydroxyl group; cyano group; substituted or unsubstituted alkoxy group such as methoxy, ethoxy group; amino group which may be substituted by C1-C6 alkyl group or acyl group such as amino, methylamino, ethylamino, dimethylamino, acylamino and the like; carboxylic group; substituted or unsubstituted ester group; phosphate group; sulfonic group; substituted or unsubstituted aryl group; substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group; saturated or unsaturated heterocycloalkyl group which may be substituted; substituted or unsubstituted carbamoyl group; substituted or unsubstituted amide group; substituted or unsubstituted thioamide group; halogen atom; nitro group; substituted or unsubstituted sulfone group; substituted or unsubstituted sulfonylamide group; oxo group; substituted or unsubstituted urea group; straight, branched-chained or cyclic alkenyl group such as ethenyl, propenyl, cyclohexenyl and the like.

In other embodiments, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The preparation of the above compounds is described in EP 1 775 298 and WO 2006/004040.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in WO 2004/111053 and US 20060128707, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

A is N or CR4;

B is N or CH;

R1 is substituted or unsubstituted C3-8 cycloalkyl group or tert-butyl group;

R2 is a hydrogen atom or C1-6 alkyl group;

R3 is a hydrogen atom; nitro group; cyano group; a halogen atom; heteroaryl group; substituted or unsubstituted C1-6 alkyl group; substituted or unsubstituted C2-6 alkenyl group; saturated or unsaturated heterocycloalkyl group which is substituted or unsubstituted; a group: NR5R6, C(O)R7, SO2R7, OR8, NR8COR7, NR8SO2R7;

R4 is a hydrogen atom or C1-3 alkoxy group which is unsubstituted or substituted by one or more fluorine atom(s);

R5 and R6 are, same or different from each other, a hydrogen atom; substituted or unsubstituted C1-6 alkyl group; substituted or unsubstituted acyl group; or substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group;

R7 is a hydrogen atom; substituted or unsubstituted C1-6 alkyl group; substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group; OH; OR8 or NR5R6;

R8 is a hydrogen atom, substituted or unsubstituted C1-6 alkyl group; or substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group;

or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates thereof.

In regard to the above compounds, the term “C1-C6 alkyl group” refers to a straight or branched-chained alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, and the term “C2-C6 alkenyl group” refers to a straight or branched-chained alkenyl group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms. The term “cycloalkyl group” refers to a cycloalkyl group having 3 to 8 carbon atoms such as cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, and cyclooctyl. The term “heterocycloalkyl group” is 3 to 7 membered heterocyclic group containing the same or different 1 to 4 hetero atom(s) such as oxygen, nitrogen or sulfur atom(s), and examples may include piperidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperazinyl, tetrahydrofuryl, tetrahydropyranyl, morpholinyl, azetidinyl, and homopiperazinyl. The term “heteroaryl group” is 5 to 7 membered monocyclic or polycyclic group thereof containing 2 to 8 carbon atoms and the same or different 1 to 4 hetero atom(s) such as oxygen, nitrogen or sulfur atom(s). The examples include pyrrole, furyl, thienyl, imidazolyl, thiazolyl, pyrazinyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, and pyrimidinyl. The “halogen atom” includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine. Examples of the suitable substituent of “substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl group”, “substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl group”, “substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group”, “substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl group” and “substituted or unsubstituted acyl group” include a straight or branched-chained, or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, tert-butyl, substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group such as cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and cycloheptyl; hydroxyl group; cyano group; alkoxy group such as methoxy and ethoxy; substituted or unsubstituted amino group such as amino, methylamino, ethylamino, and dimethylamino; substituted or unsubstituted acyl group such as acetyl, and propionyl; substituted or unsubstituted aryl group; substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group; saturated or unsaturated heterocycloalkyl group which is substituted or unsubstituted; substituted or unsubstituted carbamoyl group; substituted or unsubstituted amide group; halogen atom; nitro group; substituted or unsubstituted sulfone group; oxo group; urea group; a straight or branched-chained, or cyclic alkenyl group which is substituted or unsubstituted such as ethenyl, propenyl, and cyclohexenyl.

In other embodiments, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The preparation of the above compounds is described in US 20060128707 and WO 2004/111053.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,617,357, US 20020156064, and Molecular Pharmacology, 66:1679-1689, 2004, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 is NRaRb where Ra and Rb are independently H or C1-6 alkyl, or represents a 5 to 7 member ring comprised of carbon or carbon and one or more additional heteroatoms selected from O, N, or S;

R2 is H, C1-8 alkyl, C1-3 alkyl-Ar, C1-3 alkyl-C3-6 cycloalkyl, C2-8 alkenyl, C2-4 alkenyl-Ar, or C2-4 alkenyl-C3-6 cycloalkyl, wherein Ar is substituted or unsubstituted phenyl;

R3 is NO2, halo, CN, C(O)OR7, COR1, or NRaRb where Ra and Rb are independently H or C1-6 alkyl;

R4 is H, OC1-6 alkyl, halo, C(O)NRaRb, C(O)OR7, C1-8 alkyl, OCHF2, CH2OR8, OC1-3 alkyl-Ar, or CH2NHC(O)CH3;

R5 is H, halo, or alkyl;

R6 is C1-8 alkyl, OC1-4 alkyl, or halo;

R7 is hydrogen or an ester or amide-forming group;

R8 is hydrogen or C1-6 alkyl;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

In one embodiment, a PDE7 inhibitor useful in the methods of the invention has the formula:

The preparation of the above compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,617,357, US 20020156064, and Molecular Pharmacology, 66:1679-1689, 2004.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,852,720, EP 1 348 433, and WO 2003/082277, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 is a group selected from cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl and heteroaryl, those groups being optionally substituted by one or more groups, identical or different, selected independently of each other from halogen, trifluoromethyl, nitro, cyano, oxo, NR4R5, CO2R4, CONR4R5, OR4, S(O)nR4, S(O)nNR4R5, tetrazolyl and (C1-C6) alkyl which is optionally substituted by 1 to 3 groups, identical or different, selected independently of each other from OR4, NR4 R5, and CO2 R4; wherein n is an integer from 0 to 2 inclusive, R4 and R5 are identical or different and independently of each other are a hydrogen atom or a group of formula X1—Ra, wherein X1 is a single bond or a (C1-C6) alkylene group, and Ra is a group selected from (C1-C6) alkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl,

R2 is a group selected from (C1-C6) alkyl, (C2-C6) alkenyl, (C2-C6) alkynyl, aryl, and cycloalkyl,

R3 is a group selected from cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl and heteroaryl, these groups being optionally substituted by one or more groups, identical or different, selected independently of each other from halogen, nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, oxo, (C1-C6) alkyl, OR6, NR6R7, COR6, CO2R6, CONHOH, CONR6R7, S(O)mR6, S(O)mNR6R7, NR6COR7, NR6SO2R7, N(SO2R7)2, NR6CONR7R8, C(═NCN)NR6R7, NR8C(═NCN)NR6R7, and tetrazolyl optionally substituted with a (C1-C4) alkyl, wherein m is an integer from 0 to 2 inclusive, R6 and R7 are identical or different and independently of each other are a hydrogen atom or a group of formula X2Rb, wherein X2 is a single bond or a (C1-C6) alkylene group, Rb is a group selected from (C1-C6) alkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl and heteroaryl, these groups being optionally substituted by 1 to 3 groups, identical or different, selected independently of each other from hydroxy, (C1-C6) alkoxy, (C1-C6) alkyl, amino, mono(C1-C6) alkylamino, di(C1-C6) alkylamino (each alkyl amino being identical or different, independently of each other), carboxy, (C1-C6) alkoxycarbonyl, and benzyl, and R8 represents a hydrogen atom or a (C1-C6) alkyl group;

a racemic form thereof, an isomer thereof, an N-oxide thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable acid or base salt thereof.

The preparation of the above compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,852,720, EP 1 348 433, and WO 2003/082277.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,753,340, US 20030191167, EP 1 348 701, and WO 2003/082839, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1a is a group selected from hydrogen, (C1-C6) alkyl and aryl(C1-C6) alkyl,

R1b is a group selected from cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl and heteroaryl, those groups being optionally substituted by one or more groups, identical or different, selected independently of each other from halogen, trifluoromethyl, nitro, cyano, oxo, NR4R5, CO2R4, CONR4R5, OR4, S(O)nR4, S(O)nNR4R5, tetrazolyl, and (C1-C6) alkyl which is optionally substituted by 1 to 3 groups, identical or different, selected independently of each other from OR4, NR4 R5, and CO2R4, wherein n is an integer from 0 to 2 inclusive, R4 and R5 are identical or different and independently of each other are a hydrogen atom or a group of formula X1—Ra, wherein X1 is a single bond or a (C1-C6) alkylene group, and Ra is a group selected from (C1-C6) alkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl and heteroaryl,

R2 is a group selected from (C1-C6) alkyl, (C2-C6) alkenyl, (C2-C6) alkynyl, aryl and cycloalkyl,

R3 is a group selected from cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl and heteroaryl, these groups being optionally substituted by one or more groups, identical or different, selected independently of each other from halogen, nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, oxo, (C1-C6) alkyl, OR6, NR6R7, COR6, CO2R6, CONHOH, CONR6R7, S(O)mR6, S(O)mNR6R7, NR6COR7, NR6SO2R7, N(SO2R7)2, NR6CONR7R8, C(═N—CN)NR6R7, NR8C(═N—CN)NR6R7, and tetrazolyl optionally substituted with a (C1-C4) alkyl, wherein m is an integer from 0 to 2 inclusive, R6 and R7 are identical or different and independently of each other are a hydrogen atom or a group of formula X2—Rb, wherein X2 is a single bond or a (C1-C6) alkylene group, Rb is a group selected from (C1-C6) alkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl and heteroaryl, these groups being optionally substituted by 1 to 3 groups, identical or different, selected independently of each other from hydroxy, (C1-C6) alkoxy, (C1-C6) alkyl, amino, mono(C1-C6) alkylamino, di(C1-C6) alkylamino (each alkyl amino being identical or different, independently of each other), carboxy, (C1-C6) alkoxycarbonyl, and benzyl, and R8 is a hydrogen atom or a (C1-C6) alkyl group, or a racemic form thereof, an isomer thereof, an N-oxide thereof or a pharmaceutically acceptable acid or base salt thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,753,340, US 20030191167, EP 1 348 701, and WO 2003/082839.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,849,638, US 20030119829, and WO 2002/088138, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 and R2 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl of 3-7 carbon atoms, fully saturated heterocycle of 2-6 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from NH, S and O, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, that may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1, 2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S and O, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S and O, and R4-R5, or R1 and R2 combine to form, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, a 5-7 membered saturated ring which may contain 1-2 additional heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of NH, NR8, S and O, or combine to form, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, a 5-7 membered unsaturated ring that may contain 1-2 additional heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, S and O,

wherein said saturated or unsaturated ring may be substituted with 1-2 substituents selected from the group consisting of OH, alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl of 3-7 carbon atoms, fully saturated heterocycle of 2-6 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from NH, S, and O, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-2 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, and R9-R10; or

R1 and R2 combine to form, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, an 8-10 membered bicyclic saturated ring;

R3 is selected from the group consisting of NH, S, S(═O)2, and O;

R4 is selected from alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, C(═C), S(═O)2, and C(═O)O;

R5 is selected from hydrogen, OH, alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atom, alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-8 carbon atoms, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms and heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms and heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, cycloalkyl of 3-7 carbon atoms, fully saturated heterocycle of 2-6 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from NH, S and O, and NR6R7,

R6 and R7 are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, and alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, or R6 and R7 combine together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached to form a 5-7 membered, unsaturated ring which may contain 1-2 additional heteroatoms selected from N, S and O or to form a 5-7 membered, saturated ring which may contain 1-2 additional heteroatoms selected from NH, S, and O;

R8 is selected from alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, R11-R12, cycloalkyl of 3-7 carbon atoms, fully saturated heterocycle of 2-6 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from NH, S, and O, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O;

R9 is selected from alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, and alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms,

R10 is selected from OH, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, and heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O;

R11 is selected from alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, and alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms; and

R12 is selected from cycloalkyl of 3-7 carbon atoms, fully saturated heterocycle of 2-6 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from NH, S, and O, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, and heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S and O, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S and O;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,849,638, US 20030119829, and WO 2002/088138.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in US 2005222138 and WO 2003/064389, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 and R2 are each independently, (1) hydrogen atom, or (2) C1-8 alkyl, or

R1 and R2 may be taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form Cyc1,

wherein R1 and R2 do not represent hydrogen atom at the same time;

Z is (1) CR3R4, (2) O, (3) S, or (4) a bond;

R3 and R4 are each independently, (1) hydrogen atom, (2) C1-8 alkyl, (3) C1-8 alkoxy, or (4) hydroxy, or

R3 and R4 may be taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form Cyc1 or C(O);

R5 and R6 are each independently, (1) hydrogen atom, or (2) C1-8 alkyl, or

R5 and R6 may be taken together with the carbon atom to which they are attached to form Cyc1;

Cyc1, which is represented by R1 and R2, R3 and R4, R5 and R6 is, each independently, (1) C3-10 cycloalkyl, or (2) 3-10 membered monocyclic hetero-ring comprising 1-2 of heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur, and Cyc1 may be substituted with R10;

R10 is (1) C1-8 alkyl, (2) C1-8 alkoxy, (3) hydroxy, (4) COOR11, (5) oxo, (6)SO2R12, or (7) COR13;

R11 is hydrogen atom, or C1-8 alkyl;

R12 and R13 are (1) C1-8 alkyl, or (2) phenyl which may be substituted with C1-8 alkyl;

R7 and R8 are each independently, (1) hydrogen atom, (2) C1-8 alkyl, (3) C1-8 alkoxy, (4) hydroxy, (5) cyano, (6) halogen atom, (7) COOR14, (8) CONR15R16, (9) Cyc2, (10) C2-8 alkenyl, (11) C2-8 alkynyl, (12) NR51R52, (13) nitro, (14) formyl, (15) C2-8 acyl, (16) C1-8 alkyl substituted with hydroxy, C1-8 alkoxy, Cyc2, NR51R52, or NR53—Cyc2, (17) NR54COR55, (18) NR56SO2R57, (19) SO2NR58R59, (20) C2-8 alkenyl substituted with COOR14, (21) CH═N—OH, (22) C1-8 alkylene-NR60—(C1-8 alkylene)-R61, (23) C1-8 alkylthio, (24) C1-8 alkyl substituted with 1-3 of halogen atom, (25) C1-8 alkoxy substituted with 1-3 of halogen atom, (26) C1-8 alkoxy substituted with Cyc2, (27) 0-Cyc2, (28) OSO2R65, or (29) CH═N—OR137;

R14 is hydrogen atom, or C1-8 alkyl;

R15 and R16 are each independently hydrogen atom or C1-8 alkyl;

R51 and R52, R58 and R59 are each independently, hydrogen atom, or C1-8 alkyl;

R53, R54, R56, and R60 are each independently, hydrogen atom, or C1-8 alkyl;

R55 is hydrogen atom, C1-8 alkyl, or C1-8 alkoxy; R57 is C1-8 alkyl;

R61 is NR62R63 or hydroxy;

R62 and R63 are each independently, hydrogen atom, or C1-8 alkyl;

R65 is C1-8 alkyl;

R137 is C1-8 alkyl;

(hereinafter it is abbreviated as ring) is Cyc2 wherein the group which attaches to carbonyl is carbon;

R7, R8, and Cyc2 represented by ring are each independently, (1) C3-15 mono-, bi- or tri-cyclic (fused or spiro)carboring, or (2) 3-15 membered mono-, bi- or tri-cyclic (fused or spiro)heteroring comprising 1-4 of heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur;

Cyc2 may be substituted with 1-5 of R17 or R17′;

R17 is (1) C1-8 alkyl, (2) C2-8 alkenyl, (3) C2-8 alkynyl, (4) C1-8 alkoxy, (5) C1-8 alkylthio, (6) hydroxy, (7) halogen atom, (8) nitro, (9) oxo, (10) carboxy, (11) formyl, (12) cyano, (13) NR18R19, (14) phenyl, phenoxy or phenylthio, which may be substituted with 1-5 of R20, (15) C1-8 alkyl, C2-8 alkenyl, C1-8 alkoxy or C1-8 alkylthio, which may be substituted with 1-5 of R21 (16) OCOR22, (17) CONR23R24, (18) SO2NR25R26 (19) COOR27, (20) COCOOR28, (21) COR29, (22) COCOR30, (23) NR31COR32, (24) SO2R33, (25) NR34SO2R3-5, or (26) SOR64;

R18 and R19, R31 and R34 are each independently, hydrogen atom, or C1-8 alkyl;

R20 and R21 are C1-8 alkyl, C1-8 alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen atom, nitro, or COOR36;

R22 and R64 are each independently C1-8 alkyl; R23, R24, R25 and R26 are each independently hydrogen atom, C1-8 alkyl, or phenyl;

R27, R28, R29, R30, R32, R33 and R35 are (1) C1-8 alkyl, (2) C2-8 alkenyl, (3) C1-8 alkyl substituted with 1-5 of R37, (4) diphenylmethyl, (5) triphenylmethyl, (6) Cyc3, (7) C1-8 alkyl or C2-8 alkenyl substituted with Cyc3, (8) C1-8 alkyl substituted with O-Cyc3, S-Cyc3 or SO2—Cyc3;

R36 is hydrogen atom, or C1-8 alkyl;

R37 is C1-8 alkoxy, C1-8 alkylthio, benzyloxy, halogen atom, nitro or COOR38;

R38 is hydrogen atom, C1-8 alkyl or C2-8 alkenyl;

Cyc3 is (1) C3-15 mono-, bi- or tri-cyclic (fused or spiro)carboring, or (2) 3-15 membered mono-, bi- or tri-cyclic (fused or spiro)heteroring comprising 1-4 of heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur;

Cyc3 may be substituted with 1-5 of R39;

R39 is (1) C1-8 alkyl, (2) C2-8 alkenyl, (3) C2-8 alkynyl, (4) C1-8 alkoxy, (5) C1-8 alkylthio, (6) hydroxy, (7) halogen atom, (8) nitro, (9) oxo, (10) cyano, (11) benzyl, (12) benzyloxy, (13) C1-8 alkyl, C1-8 alkoxy or C1-8 alkylthio substituted with 1-5 of R40, (14) phenyl, phenoxy, phenylthio, phenylsulfonyl or benzoyl which may be substituted with 1-5 of R41, (15) OCOR42, (16) SO2R43, (17) NR44COR45, (18) SO2NR46R47, (19) COOR48, or (20) NR49R50;

R40 is halogen atom;

R41 is C1-8 alkyl, C1-8 alkoxy, halogen atom, or nitro;

R42, R43 and R45 are C1-8 alkyl;

R44 and R48 are hydrogen atom or C1-8 alkyl;

R46 and R47, R49 and R50 are each independently, hydrogen atom or C1-8 alkyl;

R17 is (1) SH, (2) NR66CHO, (3) Cyc5, (4) C1-8 alkyl, C2-8 alkenyl or C2-8 alkynyl substituted with Cyc5, (5) CO—(NH-amino acid residue-CO)n—OH, (6) NR67CONR68R69, (7) CONR70NR71R72, (8) CONR73OR74, (9) CONR75COR76, (10) C(S)NR77R78, (11) CONR79C(S)COOR80, (12) NR81COCOOR82, (13) NR83COOR84, (14) CONR85C(S)R86, (15) OCOR87, (16) SOR88, (17) CONR89R90, (18) SO2NR91R92, (19) COOR93, (20) COCOOR94, (21) COR95, (22) COCOR96, (23) NR97COR98, (24) SO2R99, (25) NR100SO2R101, or (26) NR102R103;

n is an integer of 1 or 2;

R66, R73, R75, R77, R79, R81, R83, R85, R97, R100 and R102 are hydrogen atom, or C1-8 alkyl;

R67 and R68, R70 and R71 are each independently, hydrogen atom, or C1-8 alkyl;

R89 and R91 are (1) hydrogen atom, (2) C1-8 alkyl, (3) phenyl, or (4) C1-8 alkyl substituted with cyano or C1-8 alkoxy; R103 is Cyc6;

R69, R72, R74, R76, R78, R80, R82, R84, R86, R87, R88, R90 and R92 are (1) hydrogen atom, (2) C1-8 alkyl, (3) C2-8 alkenyl, (4) C2-8 alkynyl, (5) C1-8 alkyl substituted with 1-5 of R104, (6) diphenylmethyl, (7) triphenylmethyl, (8) Cyc6, (9) C1-8 alkyl or C2-8 alkenyl substituted with Cyc6, or (10) C1-8 alkyl substituted with O-Cyc6, S-Cyc6 or SO2—Cyc6;

R104 is (1) C1-8 alkoxy, (2) C1-8 alkylthio, (3)benzyloxy, (4) halogen atom, (5) nitro, (6) COOR105, (7) cyano, (8) NR106R107, (9) N108COR109, (10) hydroxy, (11) SH, (12) SO3H, (13) S(O)OH, (14) OSO3H, (15) C2-8 alkenyloxy, (16) C2-8 alkynyloxy, (17) COR110, (18) SO2R111, or (19) C1-8 alkoxy or C1-8 alkylthio substituted with hydroxy;

R105 is hydrogen atom, C1-8 alkyl, or C2-8 alkenyl;

R106 and R107 are each independently, hydrogen atom, or C1-8 alkyl;

R108 is hydrogen atom, or C1-8 alkyl;

R109 and R111 are C1-8 alkyl;

R110 is C1-8 alkyl, or halogen atom;

R93, R94, R95, R96, R98, R99 and R101 are (1) C2-8 alkynyl, (2) C1-8 alkyl substituted with R128 which may be substituted with 1-4 of R29, (3) Cyc8, (4) C1-8 alkyl or C2-8 alkenyl substituted with Cyc8, or (5) C1-8 alkyl substituted with O-Cyc8, S-Cyc8 or SO2—Cyc8; R128 is (1) cyano, (2) NR106R107, (3) NR108COR109, (4) hydroxy, (5) SH, (6) SO3H, (7) S(O)OH, (8) OSO3H, (9) C2-8 alkenyloxy, (10) C2-8 alkynyloxy, (11) COR110, (12) SO2R111, or (13) C1-8 alkoxy or C1-8 alkylthio substituted with hydroxy;

R129 has the same meaning as R104;

Cyc5 and Cyc6 may be substituted with 1-5 of R112;

R112 is (1) C1-8 alkyl, (2) C2-8 alkenyl, (3) C2-8 alkynyl, (4) C1-8 alkoxy, (5) C1-8 alkylthio, (6) hydroxy, (7) halogen atom, (8) nitro, (9) oxo, (10) cyano, (11) benzyl, (12) benzyloxy, (13) C1-8 alkyl, C1-8 alkoxy or C1-8 alkylthio substituted with 1-5 of R113, (14) phenyl, phenoxy, phenylthio or benzoyl, which may be substituted with 1-5 of R114, (15) COR115, (16) SO2R116, (17) NR117COR118, (18) SO2NR119R120, (19) COOR121, (20) NR122R123, (21) COR124, (22) CONR125R126, (23) SH, (24) C1-8 alkyl substituted with hydroxy or NR127-benzoyl, or (25) Cyc7;

R113 is halogen atom;

R114 is C1-8 alkyl, C1-8 alkoxy, halogen atom, or nitro;

R115, R116 and R118 are C1-8 alkyl;

R117, R121, R124 and R127 are hydrogen atom, or C1-8 alkyl;

R119 and R120, R122 and R123, R125 and R126 are each independently, hydrogen atom or C1-8 alkyl;

Cyc7 may be substituted with 1-5 group selected from (1) C1-8 alkyl, (2) C1-8 alkoxy, (3) halogen atom, or (4) nitro;

Cyc8 may be substituted with R130, and it further may be substituted with 1-4 of R131;

R130 is (1) COR124, (2) CONR125R126, (3) SH, (4) C1-8 alkyl substituted with hydroxy or NR127-benzoyl, or (5) Cyc7;

R131 has the same meaning as R112;

Cyc5, Cyc6, Cyc7 and Cyc8 are (1) C3-15 mono-, bi- or tri-cyclic (fused or spiro)carboring, or (2) 3-15 membered mono-, bi- or tri-cyclic (fused or spiro)heteroring comprising 1-4 of heteroatom selected from 1-4 of oxygen, nitrogen or sulfur;

wherein when R17, is Cyc5, Cyc5 is not phenyl which may be substituted with 1-5 selected from C1-8 alkyl, C1-8 alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen atom, nitro, COOH, or COO(C1-8 alkyl);

wherein Cyc7 is not phenyl;

Cyc4 is (1) C57 monocyclic carboring, or (2) 5-7 membered monocyclic heteroring comprising 1-2 of heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur; (abbreviated as dashed line a hereafter) and (abbreviated as dashed line b hereafter) are (1) a bond, or (2) a double bond;

R9 (1) absent or (2) is hydrogen atom;

wherein

(1) when dashed line a is a bond, dashed line b is a double bond, and R9 is absent,

(2) when dashed line a is a double bond, dashed line b is a bond, and R9 is hydrogen atom and R6 is absent, and

(3) 2-(3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-(2H)-isoquinolin-1-ylidene)-1-phenylethan-1-one is excluded, or a pharmacologically acceptable salt thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in US 2005222138 and WO 2003/064389.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in WO 2003/057149, expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

(1) X is selected from halogen and NR1R2,

(2) Y is selected from NR3, S, and O, with the proviso that Y is not S when X is C1,

(3) R1 and R2 are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl of 3-7 carbon atoms, polycycloalkyl of 5-9 carbon atoms, heterocycloalkyl of 2-6 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from NH, S, and O, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S and O, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, and R4R5, or R1 and R2 combine to form, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, a 5-7 membered monocyclic saturated ring, which optionally contains 1-2 additional heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of NH, NR6, S, and O, or combine to form, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, a 6-10 membered fused polycyclic saturated ring, which optionally contains 1-2 additional heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of NH, NR6, S, and O, or combine to form, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, a 5-7 membered unsaturated ring, which optionally contains 1-2 additional heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, S, and O, wherein said monocyclic saturated ring, polycyclic saturated ring or unsaturated ring may be substituted with 1-2 substituents selected from the group consisting of OH, alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl of 3-7 carbon atoms, heterocycloalkyl of 2-6 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from NH, S, and O, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-2 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, and R7R8,

(4) R3 is selected from hydrogen, alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl of 3-7 carbon atoms, and heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atom sup to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O,

(5) R4 is selected from alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, C(═O), S(═O)2, and C(═O)O,

(6) R5 is selected from hydrogen, OH, alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-8 carbon atoms, thioxy of 1-8 carbon atoms, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, cycloalkyl of 3-7 carbon atoms, heterocycloalkyl of 2-6 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from NH, S, and O, and NR9R10,

(7) R6 and R7 are independently selected from alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, and alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms,

(8) R8 is selected from OH, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, haloalkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, and heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, which may be substituted with alkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkynyl of 2-6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1-6 carbon atoms, halogen, haloalkyl of 1-6 carbon atoms and a number of halogen atoms up to the perhalo level, aryl of 6-12 carbon atoms or heteroaryl of 4-11 carbon atoms and 1-2 heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O;

(9) R9 and R10 are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, and alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, or R9 and R10 combine together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached to form a 5-7 membered, unsaturated ring which may contain 1-2 additional heteroatoms selected from N, S, and O, or to form a 5-7 membered, saturated ring which may contain 1-2 additional heteroatoms selected from NH, NR11, S, and O;

(10) R1 is selected from alkyl of 1-8 carbon atoms, alkenyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, and alkynyl of 2-8 carbon atoms, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in WO 2003/057149.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in US 20030092721, U.S. Pat. No. 7,022,849, WO 2002/102315, and US 2006116516, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows: R1 is H or alkyl;

R2 is (a) heteroaryl or heterocyclo, either of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3; or (b) aryl fused to a heteroaryl or heterocyclo ring wherein the combined ring system may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3;

L is (a) OR4, C(O)R4, C(O)OR4, SR4, NR3R4, C(O)NR3R4, NR3SO2R4b, halogen, nitro, or haloalkyl; or (b) alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclo, or cycloalkyl any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1a, T2a and/or T3a;

Y1, Y2 and Y3 are independently (a) hydrogen, halo, or —OR4a; or (b) alkyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl, any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1b, T2b and/or T3b;

R3 and R4 are independently H, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, (aryl) alkyl, heteroaryl, (heteroaryl) alkyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl) alkyl, heterocyclo, or (heterocyclo) alkyl, any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1a, T2a and/or T3a; or

R3 and R4 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached may combine to form a 4- to 8-membered heterocyclo ring optionally substituted with one to three groups T1a, T2a and/or T3a;

R4a is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, (aryl) alkyl, (heteroaryl) alkyl, heterocyclo, (heterocyclo) alkyl, cycloalkyl, or (cycloalkyl) alkyl, any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1b, T2b and/or T3b;

R4b is alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, (aryl) alkyl, heteroaryl, (heteroaryl) alkyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl) alkyl, heterocyclo, or (heterocyclo) alkyl, any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1a, T2a and/or T3a;

Z is N or CH;

T1-1b, T2-2b, and T3-3b are each independently;

(1) hydrogen or T6, where T6 is (i) alkyl, (hydroxy)alkyl, (alkoxy)alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, cycloalkenyl, (cycloalkenyl)alkyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl, heterocyclo, (heterocyclo)alkyl, heteroaryl, or (heteroaryl)alkyl; (ii) a group (i) which is itself substituted by one or more of the same or different groups (i); or (iii) a group (i) or (ii) which is independently substituted by one or more of the following groups (2) to (13) of the definition of T1-1b, T2-2b and T3-3b;

(2) —OH or —OT6;

(3) —SH or —ST6;

(4) —C(O)tH, —C(O)tT6, or —O—C(O)T6, where t is 1 or 2;

(5) —SO3H, —S(O)tT6, or S(O)tN(T9)T6;

(6) halo;

(7) cyano;

(8) nitro;

(9) -T4-NT7T8;

(10) -T4-N(T9)-T5-NT7T8;

(11) -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6;

(12) -T4-N(T10)-T5-H; and

(13) oxo;

T4 and T5 are each independently a single bond, T11S(O)tT12-, T11C(O)T12-, T11C(S)T12, T110T12, T11ST12, T11OC(O)T12, T11C(O)OT12, T11C(═NT9a)T12, or T11C(O)C(O)T12;

T7, T8, T9, T9a and T10 are:

(1) each independently hydrogen or a group provided in the definition of T6, or

(2) T7 and T8 may together be alkylene or alkenylene, completing a 3- to 8-membered saturated or unsaturated ring together with the atoms to which they are attached, which ring is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more groups listed in the description of T1-1b, T2-2b and T3-3b, or

(3) T7 or T8, together with T9, may be alkylene or alkenylene completing a 3- to 8-membered saturated or unsaturated ring together with the nitrogen atoms to which they are attached, which ring is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more groups listed in the description of T1-1b, T2-2b and T3-3b, or

(4) T7 and T8 or T9 and T10 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached may combine to form a group N=CT13T14 where T13 and T14 are each independently H or a group provided in the definition of T6; and T11 and T12 are each independently a single bond, alkylene, alkenylene, or alkynylene.

The preparation of these compounds is described in US 20030092721, U.S. Pat. No. 7,022,849, WO 2002/102315, and US 2006116516.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,838,559, U.S. 20030100571, and WO 2002/102314, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 is H or alkyl;

R2 is (a) heteroaryl, or heterocyclo, either of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3; (b) aryl substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3 provided that at least one of T1, T2, T3 is other than H; or (c) aryl fused to a heteroaryl or heterocyclo ring wherein the combined ring system may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3;

Y is alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heterocyclo, heteroaryl, (aryl)alkyl or (heteroaryl) alkyl any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1a, T2a, T3a;

J is (a) hydrogen, halo, or OR4, or (b) alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclo, or, cycloalkyl any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1b, T2b, T3b;

Z is (a) OR4, SR4, NR3R4, NR3SO2R4a halogen, nitro, haloalkyl; or (b) alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclo, or cycloalkyl any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1c, T2c, T3c;

R3 is H, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl, heteroaryl, (heteroaryl)alkyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, heterocyclo or (heterocyclo)alkyl any of which may be optionally independently substituted where valance allows with one to three groups T1c, T2c, T3c;

R4 is alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl, heteroaryl, (heteroaryl)alkyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, heterocyclo or (heterocyclo)alkyl any of which may be optionally independently substituted where valance allows with one to three groups T1d, T2d, or T3d; or

R3 and R4 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached may combine to form a 4 to 8 membered heterocyclo ring optionally substituted with one to three groups T1c, T2c, or T3c;

R4a is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, (aryl)alkyl, (heteroaryl)alkyl, heterocyclo, (heterocyclo)alkyl, cycloalkyl or (cycloalkyl)alkyl any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1d, T2d or T3d; T1, T1a, T1b, T1c, T1d, T2, T2a, T2b, T2c, T2d, T3, T3a, T3b, T3c, and T3d (hereinafter abbreviated as T1-1d, T2-2d, and T3-3d) are independently

(1) hydrogen or T6, where T6 is

    • (a) alkyl, (hydroxy) alkyl, (alkoxy) alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl) alkyl, cycloalkenyl, (cycloalkenyl) alkyl, aryl, (aryl) alkyl, heterocyclo, (heterocyclo) alkyl, heteroaryl, or (heteroaryl) alkyl;
    • (b) a group (a) which is itself substituted by one or more of the same or different groups (a); or
    • (c) a group (a) or (b) which is independently substituted by one or more (preferably 1 to 3) of the following groups (2) to (13) of the definition of T1-1d, T2-2d and T3-3d,

(2) OH or OT6,

(3) SH or ST6,

(4) C(O)t H, C(O)t T6, or OC(O)T6, where t is 1 or 2;

(5) SO3 H, S(O)t T6, or S(O)t N(T9)T6,

(6) halo,

(7) cyano,

(8) nitro,

(9) T4NT7 T8,

(10) T4N(T9)-T5NT7 T8,

(11) T4N(T10)-T5-T6,

(12) T4N(T10)-T5H,

(13) oxo,

T4 and T5 are each independently a single bond, T11-S(O)t-T12, T11-C(O)-T12, T11-C(S)-T12, T11-O-T12, -T11S-T12, -T11OC(O)-T12, -T11-C(O)O-T12, -T11C(═NT9a)-T12, or T11-C(O)—C(O)-T12; T7, T8, T9, T9a and T10 are

(1) each independently hydrogen or a group provided in the definition of T6, or

(2) T7 and T8 may together be alkylene or alkenylene, completing a 3- to 8-membered saturated or unsaturated ring together with the atoms to which they are attached, which ring is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more groups listed in the description of T1-1d, T2-2d and T3-3d, or

(3) T7 or T8, together with T9, may be alkylene or alkenylene completing a 3- to 8-membered saturated or unsaturated ring together with the nitrogen atoms to which they are attached, which ring is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more groups listed in the description of T1-1d, T2-2d and T3-3d, or

(4) T7 and T8 or T9 and T10 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached may combine to form a group N=CT13 T14 where

T13 and T14 are each independently H or a group provided in the definition of T6; and

T11 and T12 are each independently a single bond, alkylene, alkenylene, or alkynylene.

The preparation of these compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,838,559, U.S. 20030100571, and WO 2002/102314.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 7,087,614, U.S. 20030162802, and WO 2002/102313, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are described below.

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1a is hydrogen or alkyl; R2a is

W is S; X1 is alkoxy; and X2 is alkyl;

Z* is halogen, haloalkyl, oxazolyl, NR3aR4a, C(O)—N(H)-alkylene-COOH, or phenyl which is unsubstituted or substituted with heteroaryl, COtH, or COtT6;

R3a is hydrogen or alkyl;

R4a is alkyl, alkoxy, unsubstituted or substituted (heteroaryl) alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted heterocyclo, unsubstituted or substituted (heterocyclo) alkyl, or (aryl) alkyl wherein the aryl group is substituted with one or two groups T1 and/or T2 and/or further substituted with a group T3; or R3a and R4a together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached combine to form an unsubstituted or substituted heterocyclo ring;

R5a is an unsubstituted or substituted (heteroaryl) alkyl, or (aryl) alkyl wherein the aryl group is substituted with one or two groups T1 and/or T2 and/or further substituted with a group T3; or R5a and R6a together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached combine to form an unsubstituted or substituted heterocyclo ring; R6a is hydrogen or alkyl; J* is hydrogen or alkyl; T1 and T2 are independently alkoxy, alkoxycarbonyl, heteroaryl, SO3H, or SO2R8a where R8a is alkyl, amino, alkylamino or dialkylamino; or T1 and T2 together with the aryl ring to which they are attached combine to form a bicyclic ring; T3 is H, alkyl, halo, haloalkyl, or cyano; t is 1 or 2; and T6 is alkyl, haloalkyl, cycloalkyl, alkoxy, or heteroaryl.

The preparation of these compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,087,614, U.S. 20030162802, and WO 2002/102313.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in US 20030104974, WO 2002/088080, and WO 2002/088079, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 is H or alkyl; R2 is optionally substituted heteroaryl, or 4-substituted aryl; R3 is hydrogen or alkyl; R4 is alkyl, optionally substituted (aryl)alkyl, optionally substituted (heteroaryl)alkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclo, or optionally substituted (heterocyclo)alkyl; or R3 and R4 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached may combine to form an optionally substituted heterocyclo ring; R5 is alkyl, optionally substituted (aryl)alkyl, or optionally substituted (heteroaryl)alkyl; and R6 is hydrogen or alkyl.

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

wherein R1a is H or alkyl; R2a is optionally substituted heteroaryl; Z is halogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, haloalkyl, or NR3aR4a; R3a is hydrogen or alkyl; R4a is alkyl, optionally substituted (heteroaryl) alkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclo, optionally substituted (heterocyclo) alkyl, or (aryl) alkyl wherein the aryl group is substituted with one or two groups T1 and T2 and optionally further substituted with a group T3; or R3a and R4a together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached may combine to form an optionally substituted heterocyclo ring; R5a is (aryl) alkyl wherein the aryl group is substituted with one or two groups T1 and T2 and optionally further substituted with a group T3; R6a is hydrogen or alkyl; R7a is hydrogen or alkyl; T1 and T2 are independently alkoxy, alkoxycarbonyl, heteroaryl or SO2R8a where R8a is alkyl, amino, alkylamino or dialkylamino; or T1 and T2 together with the atoms to which they are attached may combine to form a ring (e.g., benzodioxole); T3 is H, alkyl, halo, haloalkyl or cyano.

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

wherein R1b is H or alkyl; R2b is optionally substituted heteroaryl; R3b is H or alkyl; R4b is optionally substituted (aryl)alkyl; R5b is H, alkyl, or C(O)(CH2)vOYR6b, where Y is a bond or C(O), R6b is hydrogen or alkyl, and v is an integer from 0 to 2; J1 and J2 are independently optionally substituted C1-13 alkylene, provided that J1 and J2 are not both greater than C2 alkylene; X4 and X5 are optional substituents bonded to any available carbon atom in one or both of J1 and J2, independently selected from hydrogen, OR7, NR8R9, alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heterocycloalkyl, or heteroaryl; R7 is hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, C(O)alkyl, C(O)substituted alkyl, C(O)cycloalkyl, C(O) substituted cycloalkyl, C(O)aryl, C(O)substituted aryl, C(O)O-alkyl, C(O)O-substituted alkyl, C(O)heterocycloalkyl, C(O)heteroaryl, aryl, substituted aryl, heterocycloalkyl and heteroaryl; and R8 and R9 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, C(O) alkyl, C(O) substituted alkyl, C(O) cycloalkyl, C(O)substituted cycloalkyl, C(O)aryl, C(O)substituted aryl, C(O)O alkyl, C(O)O substituted alkyl, C(O) heterocycloalkyl, C(O) heteroaryl, S(O)2alkyl, S(O)2 substituted alkyl, S(O)2 cycloalkyl, S(O)2 substituted cycloalkyl, S(O)2aryl, S(O)2 substituted aryl, S(O)2 heterocycloalkyl, S(O)2 heteroaryl, aryl, substituted aryl, heterocycloalkyl, and heteroaryl, or R8 and R9 taken together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached complete an optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl or heteroaryl ring.

In a further related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

wherein R1c is H or alkyl; R2c is optionally substituted heteroaryl; R3c is H or alkyl; R4c is optionally substituted (aryl)alkyl; and X4 and X5 are optional substituents bonded to any available carbon atom in one or both of J1 and J2, independently selected from hydrogen, OR7, NR8R9, alkyl, substituted alkyl, alkenyl, substituted alkenyl, alkynyl, substituted alkynyl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heterocycloalkyl, or heteroaryl.

The preparation of these compounds is described in US 20030104974, WO 2002/088080, and WO 2002/088079.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in US 20030092908 and WO 2002/087513, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 is hydrogen or alkyl;

R2 is (a) heteroaryl, or heterocyclo, either of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3; (b) aryl substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3 provided that at least one of T1, T2, T3 is other than H; or (c) aryl fused to a heteroaryl or heterocyclo ring wherein the combined ring system may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3;

Z is NR3R4, NR3SO2R4a, OR4, SR4, haloalkyl, or halogen;

R3 and R4 are independently H, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl, heteroaryl, (heteroaryl)alkyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, heterocyclo or (heterocyclo)alkyl any of which may be optionally independently substituted where valance allows with one to three groups T1a, T2a, or T3a; or

R3 and R4 may be taken together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached to form a heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring optionally independently substituted where valance allows with one to three groups T1a, T2a, or T3a;

R4a is alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl, heteroaryl, (heteroaryl)alkyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, heterocyclo or (heterocyclo)alkyl any of which may be optionally independently substituted where valance allows with one to three groups T1a, T2a, or T3a;

R3b and R4b are independently H, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl, heteroaryl, (heteroaryl)alkyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, heterocyclo or (heterocyclo)alkyl;

R5 is

(1) hydrogen, or cyano;

(2) alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl, heterocyclo, (heterocyclo)alkyl, heteroaryl or (heteroaryl)alkyl, any of which may be optionally independently substituted where valance allows with one to three groups T1b, T2b, or T3b; or

(3) C(O)R6, C(O)OR6, C(O)—C(O)OR, or SO2R6a;

R6 is H, alkyl, alkenyl, NR3bR4b, heterocyclo, (heterocyclo)alkyl, (hydroxy)alkyl, (alkoxy)alkyl, (aryloxy)alkyl, (NR3bR4b)alkyl, heteroaryl, aryl or (aryl)alkyl, any of which may be optionally independently substituted where valance allows with one to three groups T1b, T2b, or T3b;

R6a is alkyl, alkenyl, NR3bR4b, heterocyclo, (heterocyclo)alkyl, (hydroxy)alkyl, (alkoxy)alkyl, (aryloxy)alkyl, (NR3bR4b)alkyl, heteroaryl, aryl or (aryl)alkyl, any of which may be optionally independently substituted where valance allows with one to three groups T1b, T2b, or T3b;

J1 and J2 are independently optionally substituted C1-3 alkylene, provided that J1 and J2 are not both greater than C2 alkylene; and

T1-1b, T2-2b, and T3-3b are each independently

(1) hydrogen or T6, where T6 is (i) alkyl, (hydroxy)alkyl, (alkoxy)alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, cycloalkenyl, (cycloalkenyl)alkyl, aryl, (aryl) alkyl, heterocyclo, (heterocyclo)alkyl, heteroaryl, or (heteroaryl)alkyl; (ii) a group (i) which is itself substituted by one or more of the same or different groups (i); or (iii) a group (i) or (ii) which is independently substituted by one or more (preferably 1 to 3) of the following groups (2) to (13) of the definition of T1-1b, T2-2b, and T3-3b,

(2) OH or OT6,

(3) SH or ST6,

(4) C(O)tH, C(O)tT6, or OC(O)T6, where t is 1 or 2,

(5) SO3H, S(O)tT6, or S(O)tN(T9)T6,

(6) halo,

(7) cyano,

(8) nitro,

(9) T4-NT7T8,

(10) T4-N(T9)-T5-NT7T8,

(11) T4-N(T10)-T5-T6,

(12) T4-N(T10)-T5H,

(13) oxo,

T4 and T5 are each independently (1) a single bond, (2) T11-S(O)t-T12, (3) T11-C(O)-T12, (4) T11-C(S)-T12, (5) -T11-O-T12, (6) T11-S-T12, (7) T11-O—C(O)-T12, (8) T11-C(O)—O-T12, (9) T11-C(═NT9a)-T12, or (10) T11-C(O)—C(O)-T12,

T7, T8, T9, T9a and T10,

(1) are each independently hydrogen or a group provided in the definition of T6, or

(2) T7 and T8 may together be alkylene or alkenylene, completing a 3- to 8-membered saturated or unsaturated ring together with the atoms to which they are attached, which ring is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more groups listed in the description of T1-1b, T2-2b, and T3-3b, or

(3) T7 or T8, together with T9, may be alkylene or alkenylene completing a 3- to 8-membered saturated or unsaturated ring together with the nitrogen atoms to which they are attached, which ring is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more groups listed in the description of T1-1b, T2-2b, and T3-3b, or

(4) T7 and T8 or T9 and T10 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached may combine to form a group N=CT13T14 where T13 and T14 are each independently H or a group provided in the definition of T6; and T11 and T12 are each independently a single bond, alkylene, alkenylene, or alkynylene.

The preparation of these compounds is described in US 20030092908 and WO 2002/087513.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in US 20040127707 and WO 2002/085906, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 is 1-2C-alkoxy or 1-2C-alkoxy which is completely or predominantly substituted by fluorine,

R2 is fluorine, bromine, or chlorine,

R3 and R4 are both hydrogen or together form an additional bond,

R5 is R6, CmH2m—R7, CnH2n—C(O)R8, CH(R9)2, CpH2p—Y-Aryl1, R12 or R26, wherein

R6 1-8C-alkyl, 3-10C-cycloalkyl, 3-7C-cycloalkylmethyl, 3-7C-alkenyl, 3-7C-alkinyl, phenyl-3-4C-alkenyl, 7-10C-polycycloalkyl, naphthyl, pyridyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidyl, quinazolinyl, quinoxalinyl, cinnolinyl, isoquinolinyl, quinolinyl, indanyl, indazolyl, benzoxazolyl, benzothiazolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, N-methylpiperidyl, tetrahydropyranyl, 6-methyl-3-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl, 1,3,4-trimethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-6-yl, 3-thiophen-2-yl[1,2,4]thiadiazol-5-yl, 1,1-dioxide-tetrahydrothiophen-3-y-1, 1-oxo-1,3-dihydro-isobenzofuran-5-yl, 4-(4-yl-but-1-oxy)benzoic acid, or an unsubstituted or by R61 and/or R62 substituted phenyl radical, wherein

R61 is hydroxyl, 1-4C-alkyl, 1-4C-alkoxy, nitro, cyano, halogen, carboxyl, hydroxycarbonyl-1-4C-alkyl, 1-4C-alkoxycarbonyl, hydroxy-1-4C-alkyl, amino, mono- or di-1-4C-alkylamino, 1-4C-alkylcarbonylamino, aminocarbonyl, mono- or di-1-4C-alkylaminocarbon-yl, aminosulfonyl, mono- or di-1-4C-alkylaminosulfonyl, 4-methylphenylsulfonamido, imidazolyl; tetrazol-5-yl, 2-(1-4C-alkyl)tetrazol-5-yl or 2-benzyltetrazol-5-yl and

R62 is 1-4C-alkyl, 1-4C-alkoxy, nitro, or halogen,

R7 is hydroxyl, halogen, cyano, nitro, nitroxy(O—NO2), carboxyl, carboxyphenyloxy, phenoxy, 1-4C-alkoxy, 3-7C-cycloalkoxy, 3-7C-cycloalkylmethoxy, 1-4C-alkylcarbonyl, 1-4C-alkylcarbonyloxy, 1-4C-alkylcarbonylamino, 1-4C-alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, mono- or di-1-4C-alkylaminocarbonyl, amino, mono- or di-1-4C-alkylamino, or an unsubstituted or by R71 and/or R72 substituted piperidyl, piperazinyl, pyrrolidinyl or morpholinyl radical, wherein

R71 is hydroxyl, 1-4C-alkyl, hydroxy-1-4C-alkyl or 1-4C-alkoxycarbonyl, and

R72 is 1-4C-alkyl, carboxyl, aminocarbonyl or 1-4C-alkoxycarbonyl,

R8 is an unsubstituted or by R81 and/or R82 substituted phenyl, naphthyl, phenanthrenyl or anthracenyl radical, wherein

R81 is hydroxyl, halogen, cyano, 1-4C-alkyl, 1-4C-alkoxy, carboxyl, aminocarbonyl, mono- or di-1-4C-alkylaminocarbonyl, 1-4C-alkylcarbonyloxy, 1-4C-alkoxycarbonyl, amino, mono- or di-1-4C-alkylamino, 1-4C-alkylcarbonylamino, or 1-4C-alkoxy which is completely or predominantly substituted by fluorine, and

R82 is hydroxyl, halogen, 1-4C-alkyl, 1-4C-alkoxy or 1-4C-alkoxy which is completely or predominantly substituted by fluorine,

R9 is CqH2q-phenyl,

Y is a bond or O (oxygen),

Aryl1 is an unsubstituted phenyl, naphthyl, pyridyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, quinazolinyl, quinoxalinyl, cinnolinyl, isoquinolyl, quinolyl, coumarinyl, benzimidazolyl, benzoxazolyl, benzothiazolyl, benzotriazolyl, N-benzosuccinimidyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, furyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, a 2-(1-4C-alkyl)-thiazol-4-yl radical, or a phenyl radical substituted by R10 and/or R11, wherein

R10 is hydroxyl, halogen, nitro, cyano, 1-4C-alkyl, trifluoromethyl, 1-4C-alkoxy, carboxyl, hydroxycarbonyl-1-4C-alkyl, 1-4C-alkylcarbonyloxy, 1-4C-alkoxycarbonyl, amino, mono- or di-1-4C-alkylamino, 1-4C-alkylcarbonylamino, aminocarbonyl, mono- or di-1-4C-alkylamino-carbonyl, imidazolyl or tetrazolyl, and R11 is hydroxyl, halogen, nitro, 1-4C-alkyl or 1-4C-alkoxy,

m is an integer from 1 to 8, n is an integer from 1 to 4, p is an integer from 1 to 6,

q is an integer from 0 to 2,

R12 is a radical of formula (a)N

wherein R13 is S(O)2—R14, S(O)2—(CH2)r—R15, (CH2)s—S(O)2R16, C(O)R17, C(O)—(CH2)r—R18, (CH2)s—C(O)—R19, Hetaryl1, Aryl2 or Aryl3-1-4C-alkyl, R14 is 1-4C-alkyl, 5-dimethylaminonaphthalin-1-yl, N(R20)R21, phenyl or phenyl substituted by R22 and/or R23, R15 is N(R20)R21, R16 is N(R20)R21,

R17 is 1-4C-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-1-4C-alkyl, phenyl, pyridyl, 4-ethyl-piperazin-2,3-dion-1-yl, 2-oxo-imidazolidin-1-yl or N(R20)R21, R18 is N(R20)R21, R19 is N(R20)R21, phenyl, phenyl substituted by R22 and/or R23 and/or R24, R20 and R21 are independent from each other hydrogen, 1-7C-alkyl, 3-7C-cycloalkyl, 3-7C-cycloalkylmethyl or phenyl, or R20 and R21 together and with inclusion of the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded, form a 4-morpholinyl-ring, 1-pyrrolidinyl-ring, 1-piperidinyl-ring, 1-hexahydroazepino-ring or a 1-piperazinyl-ring of formula (b)

wherein R25 is pyrid-4-yl, pyrid4-ylmethyl, 1-4C-alkyl-dimethylamino, dimethylaminocarbonylmethyl, N-methyl-piperidin-4-yl, 4-morpholino-ethyl or tetrahydrofuran-2-ylmethyl-, R22 is halogen, nitro, cyano, carboxyl, 1-4C-alkyl, trifluoromethyl, 1-4C-alkoxy, 1-4C-alkoxycarbonyl, amino, mono- or di-1 4C-alkylamino, aminocarbonyl 1-4C-alkylcarbonylamino or mono- or di-1-4C-alkyiaminocarbon-yl, R23 is halogen, amino, nitro, 1-4C-alkyl or 1-4C-alkoxy, R24 is halogen,

Hetaryl1 is pyrimidin-2-yl, thieno-[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl, 1-methyl-1H-pyrazolo-[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl or furanyl, Aryl2 is pyridyl, phenyl or phenyl substituted by R22 and/or R23, Aryl3 is pyridyl, phenyl, phenyl substituted by R22 and/or R23, 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl or 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-4-yl)phenyl,

r is an integer from 1 to 4, s is an integer from 1 to 4,

R26 is a radical of formula (c)

wherein R27 is C(O)R28, (CH2)t—C(O)R29, (CH2)uR30, Aryl4, Hetaryl2, phenylprop-1-en-3-yl or 1-methylpiperidin-4-yl, R28 hydrogen, 1-4C-alkyl, OR31, furanyl, indolyl, phenyl, pyridyl, phenyl substituted by R34 and/or R35 or pyridyl substituted by R36 and/or R37, R29 is N(R32)R33, R30 is N(R32)R33, tetrahydrofuranyl or pyridinyl, R31 is 1-4C-alkyl, R32 is hydrogen, 1-4C-alkyl, 3-7C-cycloalkyl or 3-7C-cycloalkylmethyl, R33 is hydrogen, 1-4C-alkyl, 3-7C-cycloalkyl or 3-7C-cycloalkylmethyl, or

R32 and R33 together and with inclusion of the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded, form a 4-morpholinyl-, 1-pyrrolidinyl-, 1-piperidinyl- or 1-hexahydroazepinyl-ring,

Aryl4 is phenyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, phenyl substituted by R34 and/or R35, pyridyl substituted by R36 and/or R37, R34 is halogen, nitro, 1-4C-alkyl, trifluoromethyl or 1-4C-alkoxy, R35 is halogen or 1-4C-alkyl, R36 is halogen, nitro, 1-4C-alkyl, trifluoromethyl or 1-4C-alkoxy, R37 is halogen or 1-4C-alkyl,

Hetaryl2 is indol-4-yl, 2-methyl-quinolin-4-yl, 5-chloro-6-oxo-1-phenyl-1,6-dihydro-pyridazin-4-y-1, 3-phenyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl or 3-o-tolyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl,

t is an integer from 1 to 4, u is an integer from 1 to 4, v is an integer from 1 to 2, X is —C(O)— or —S(O)2—, and the salts of these compounds.

The preparation of these compounds is described in US 20040127707 and WO 2002/085906.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,818,651, US 20040044212, and WO 2002/040450, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

either R1 denotes hydrogen, and R2 denotes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, cyano, trifluoromethyl or phenoxy, or R1 denotes hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, trifluoromethyl or cyano, and R2 denotes hydrogen, R′ and R″ both denote hydrogen or together represent a bond, and Ar represents a phenyl radical of the formulae IIa, IIb, or IIc

wherein R3 denotes hydrogen, hydroxyl, nitro, amino, carboxyl, aminocarbonyl, 1-4C-alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, 1-4C-alkoxycarbonyl or mono- or di-1-4C-alkylaminocarbonyl,

R4 represents 1-4C-alkyl, naphthalenyl, 5-dimethylaminonaphthalen-1-yl, phenylethen-2-yl, 3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl, 5-chloro-3-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl, 6-chloro-imidazo[2,1b]-thiazol-5-yl, or represents a phenyl or thiophene radical which is unsubstituted or is substituted by one or more identical or different radicals selected from the group halogen, cyano, 1-4C-alkyl, trifluoromethyl, 1-4C-alkoxy which is substituted entirely or mainly by fluorine, 1-4C-alkoxy, 1-4C-alkylcarbonylamino, 1-4C-alkoxycarbonyl, phenylsulfonyl or isoxazolyl, or

a hydrate, solvate, salt, hydrate of a salt, or solvate of a salt thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,818,651, US 20040044212, and WO 2002/040450.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in WO 2002/040449, expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

either R1 denotes hydrogen and R2 denotes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, cyano, trifluoromethyl or phenoxy, or

R1 denotes hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, trifluoromethyl or cyano and R2 denotes hydrogen,

R′ and R″ both denote hydrogen or together represent a bond,

R3 denotes hydrogen, hydroxyl, nitro, amino, carboxyl, aminocarbonyl, 1-4C-alkoxy, trifluoromethoxy, 1-4C-alkoxycarbonyl or mono- or di-1-4C-alkylaminocarbonyl and R4 denotes C(O)—X—R5, N(H)—C(O)—R6 or N(H)—C(O)—N(H)—R2, wherein

X denotes 0 or N(H),

R5 denotes hydrogen, 1-4C-alkyl, 3-7C-cycloalkylmethyl, 6,6-dimethylbicyclo[3,3,I]hept-2-yl, 3-7C-alkynyl, 1-4C-alkylcarbonyl-1-4C-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-1-4C-alkyl, furan-2-ylmethyl, 2-pyridin-2-yleth-1-yl, 2-pyridin-3-ylmethyl, N-methylpiperidin-3-yl, 1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl, morpholin-4-yl-eth-2-yl, morpholin-4-yl-eth-1-yl, 2-benzo[1,3]dioxol-4-yl-eth-1-yl, chroman-4-yl, 1-methoxycarbonyl-2-indol-3-yl-eth-1-yl, 1,3-bis-methoxycarbonylprop-1-yl, 1-methoxycarbonyl-3-methylsulfanyl-eth-1-yl, 1-methoxycarbonyl-2-thiazol-2-yl-eth-1-yl, or 4-methylthiazol-5-yl-eth-2-yl, or represents a benzyl-, phenyl-eth-1-yl or 1-methoxycarbonyl-2-phenyl-eth-2-yl radical which is unsubstituted or substituted by one or more radicals selected from the group halogen, trifluoromethyl and phenyl,

R6 denotes 2,4-dichlorophenoxymethyl, 2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-eth-1-yl, 1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl, Ar1 or Ar2-CH═CH—,

where Ar1 represents 3-chlorophenyl, 4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl, 3-phenoxyphenyl, indol5-yl, 2-methylpyridin-5-yl, quinolin-6-yl or 2-benzothiazol-6-yl, Ar2 represents furan-2-yl, furan-3-yl, thiophen-2-yl, indol-3-yl, 3-trifluoromethylphenyl, 3-methoxyphenyl or pyridin-3-yl,

R7 represents 1-4C-alkyl, 3-7C-alkenyl, 3-7C-cycloalkyl, 1-ethoxycarbonyl-2-phenyl-eth-1-yl, thiophen-2-yleth-1-yl or a phenyl radical which is unsubstituted or substituted by one or more radicals selected from the group halogen, cyano, 1-4C-alkyl, trifluoromethyl, 1-4C-alkylthio, 1-4C-alkoxy, 1-4C-alkoxy which is entirely or predominantly substituted by fluorine, 1-4C-alkylcarbonyl and phenoxy, or

a salt thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in WO 2002/040449.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in WO 2001/098274, expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment. PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

W, X, Y and Z, which may be the same or different, each represents a nitrogen atom or a C(R5) group [wherein R5 is a hydrogen or halogen atom or an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, haloalkoxy, hydroxy, —NO2 or —CN group] provided that two or more of W, X, Y, and Z are C(R5) groups;

R1, R2 and R3, which may be the same or different, each is an atom or group -L1(Alk1)rL2(R6)s wherein L1 and L2, which may be the same or different, is each a covalent bond or a linker atom or group, r is zero or the integer 1, Alk1 is an aliphatic or heteroaliphatic chain, s is an integer 1, 2 or 3 and R6 is a hydrogen or halogen atom or a group selected from alkyl, —OR7 [where R7 is a hydrogen atom or an optionally substituted alkyl group], —SR7, NR7R8[where R8 is as just defined for R7 and may be the same or different], —NO2, CN, CO2R7, SO3H, S(O)R7, SO2R7, OCO2R7, CONR7R8, OCONR7R8, CSNR7R8, OCR7, OCOR7, N(R7)COR8, N(R7)CSR8, S(O)NR7R8, SO2NR7R8, N(R7)SO2R8, N(R7)CON(R8)(R9) [where R9 is a hydrogen atom or an optionally substituted alkyl group], N(R7)CSN(R8)(R9), N(R7)SO2N(R8)(R9), C(R7)═NO(R8), cycloaliphatic, heterocycloaliphatic, aryl or heteroaryl group]; provided that one or more of R1, R2, or R3 is a substituent other than a hydrogen atom;

R4 represents an optionally substituted phenyl, 1- or 2-naphthyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridazinyl, or pyrazinyl group; and

the salts, solvates, hydrates and N-oxides thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in WO 2001/098274.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in WO 2001/074786, expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 represents an aryl or heteroaryl group;

A, B, P, and E, which may be the same or different, each represents a nitrogen atom or a C(R2) group [wherein R2 is a hydrogen or halogen atom or an alkyl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, haloalkoxy, hydroxy, —NO2 or —CN group] provided that two or more of A, B, D, and E are C(R2) groups; X represents an oxygen or sulphur atom or a N(R3) group wherein R3 is a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group;

Q, R, S, and T, which may be the same or different each represents a nitrogen atom or a group C(R4) [wherein R4 is an atom or group -L1(Alk1)rL2(R5)s wherein L1 and L2, which may be the same or different, is each a covalent bond or a linker atom or group, r is zero or the integer 1, Alkyl is an aliphatic or heteroaliphatic chain, s is an integer 1, 2 or 3 and R5 is a hydrogen or halogen atom or a group selected from alkyl, OR6 [where R6 is a hydrogen atom or an optionally substituted alkyl group], SR6, NR6R7 [where R7 is as just defined for R6 and may be the same or different], NO2, CN, CO2R6, SO3H, S(O)R6, SO2R6, OCO2R6, CONR6R7, OCONR6R7, CSNR7R7, OCR6, OCOR6, N(R6)COR7, N(R6)CSR7, S(O)NR6R7, SO2NR6R7, N(R6)SO2R7; N(R6)CON(R7)(R8) [where R8 is a hydrogen atom or an optionally substituted alkyl group], N(R6)CSN(R7)(R8), N(R6)SO2N(R7)(R8), C(R6)═NO(R7) cycloaliphatic, heterocycloaliphatic, aryl or heteroaryl group] provided that two or more of Q, R, S, and T are C(R4) groups; and the salts, solvates, hydrates and N-oxides thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in WO 2001/074786.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in WO 2000/068230, expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

X—Y—Z represents NR4—C═N or N═C—NR4;

R1 represents H, alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, arylalkyl, heteroarylalkyl or heterocycloalkyl;

R2 represents OR8, NR8R9, SR13, alkyl or CF3;

R3 represents halogen, alkyl, CF3 or OR8;

R4, which can be attached to either X or Z, is a residue selected from

wherein attachment is through any position on the saturated ring, provided the attachment is not at a position adjacent to V, and the saturated ring may be substituted at any position with one or more R6;

A, B, D, and are the same or different and each represents ClnR5, N or N—O;

V represents O, S, NR7 or C(L1mR14)(L2nR14);

Q and W are the same or different and each represents CLnR5 or N;

T represents O, S or NR7;

L1 and L2 are the same or different and each represents C(R15)2;

m and n are the same or different and each represents 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5;

the R5s are the same or different and each represents H, halogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, OR8, NR8R9, CO2R10, CONR11R12, CONHOH, SO2NR11R12, SON11R12, COR13, SO2R13, SOR13, SR13, CF3, NO2 or CN;

R6 represents H, alkyl, cycloalkyl, OR8, NR8R9, CO2R10, CONR11R12, SO2NR11R12, SON11R12, COR13, SO2R13, SOR13, SR13, CF3, CN or ═O;

R7 represents H or alkyl;

R8 represents H, alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, heterocyclo or heterocycloalkyl;

R9 represents R8 or alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, alkylsulphonyl, cycloalkylcarbonyl, cycloalkoxycarbonyl, cycloalkylsulphonyl, cycloalkylalkylcarbonyl, cycloalkylalkoxycarbonyl, cycloalkylalkylsulphonyl, arylcarbonyl, arylsulphonyl, heteroarylcarbonyl, heteroarylsulphonyl, heterocyclocarbonyl, heterocyclosulphonyl, arylalkylcarbonyl, arylalkoxycarbonyl, arylalkylsulphonyl, heteroarylalkylcarbonyl, heteroarylalkoxycarbonyl, heteroarylsulphonyl, heterocycloalkylcarbonyl, heterocycloalkoxycarbonyl or heterocycloalkylsulphonyl; or

NR8R9 represents a heterocyclic ring such as morpholine;

R10 represents H, alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, arylalkyl, heteroarylalkyl or heterocycloalkyl;

R11 and R12 are the same or different and are each R8, or NR11R12 represents a heterocyclic ring such as morpholine;

R13 represents alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, heterocyclo or heterocycloalkyl;

the R14s are the same or different and are each selected from H alkyl, cycloalkyl, OR8, NR8R9, CO2R10, CONR11R12, CONHOH, SO2NR11R12, SON11R12, COR13, SO2R13, SOR13, SR13, CF3, NO2 and CN, provided that when both m and n represent 0, if one R14 is OR8, NR8R9 or SR13, the other is not OR8, NR8R9 or SR13; and

R15 represents H, alkyl or F; or

a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in WO 2000/068230, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in US 20040106631, EP 1 400 244, and WO 2004/026818, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

m is 1, 2 or 3; R1 is methyl, chloro, bromo or fluoro; R2 is -Q1-Q2-Q3-Q4 or (C1-C6) alkyl, said (C1-C6) alkyl is substituted with one to three OR4, COOR4, NR4R5, NRC(═O)R4, C(═O)NR4R5 or SO2NR4R5;

R4 is (C1-C6) alkyl substituted with one to three F, CN, S(═O)R6, SO3H, SO2R6, SR7, C(═O)—NH—SO2—CH3, C(═O)R7, NR′C(═O)R7, NR′SO2R6, C(═O)NR7R8, O—C(═O)NR7R8 or SO2NR7R8;

R5 is H or (C1-C6) alkyl optionally substituted with one to three F, CN, S(═O)R6, SO3H, SO2R6, SR7, C(═O)—NH—SO2—CH3, C(═O)R7, NR′C(═O)R7, NR′SO2R6, C(═O)NR7R8, O—C(═O)NR7R8 or SO2NR7R8; or said (C1-C6) alkyl is

(1) substituted with one to three OC(═O)R4a, SR4a, S(═O)R3, C(═NR9)R4a, C(═NR9)—NR4aR5a, NR—C(═NR9)—NR4aR5a, NRCOOR4a, NR—C(═O)NR4aR5a, NR—SO2—NR4aR5a, NR—C(═NR9)—R4a or NR—SO2—R3; and

(2) optionally substituted with one or two OR4a, COOR4a, C(═O)—R4a, NR4aR5a, NRC(═O)R4a, C(═O)NR4R5a or SO2NR4aR5a;

R9 is H, CN, OH, OCH3, SO2CH3, SO2NH2 or (C1-C6) alkyl; and R3 is (C1-C6) alkyl optionally substituted with one to three F, CN, S(═O)R6, SO3H, SO2R6, C(═O)—NH—SO2—CH3, OR7, SR7, COOR7, C(═O)R7, O—C(═O)NR7R8, NR7R8, NR′C(═O)R7, NR′SO2R6, C(═O)NR7R8 or SO2NR7R8;

R4a and R5a are the same or different and are H or (C1-C6) alkyl optionally substituted with one to three F, CN, S(═O)R6, SO3H, SO2R6, C(═O)—NH—SO2—CH3, OR7, SR7, COOR7, C(═O)R7, O—C(═O)NR7R8, NR7R8, NR′C(═O)R7, NR′SO2R6, C(═O)NR7R8 or SO2NR7R8;

Q1 is a single bond or (C1-C6) alkylene; Q2 is a saturated 4- to 6-membered heterocyclyl comprising one or two O or N; Q3 is (C1-C6) alkylene; Q4 is a 4 to 8-membered, aromatic or non aromatic, heterocyclyl comprising 1 to 4 O, S, S(═O), SO2, or N, said heterocyclyl being optionally substituted with one to three OR, NRR′, —CN or (C1-C6) alkyl;

R is H or (C1-C6) alkyl;

R6 is (C1-C6) alkyl optionally substituted with one or two OR′;

R7 and R8 are the same or different and are H or (C1-C6) alkyl optionally substituted with one or two OR′;

R9 is H, CN, OH, OCH3, SO2CH3, SO2NH2 or (C1-C6) alkyl;

R′ is H or (C1-C6) alkyl; and R″ is H or (C1-C6) alkyl;

provided that (1) the atom of Q2 bound to Q1 is a carbon atom; and (2) the atom of Q4 bound to Q3 is a carbon atom;

or a racemic form, isomer, pharmaceutically acceptable derivative thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in US 20040106631, EP 1 400 244, and WO 2004/026818.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,936,609 and US 20040249148, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 represents (C6-C10)-aryl, which is optionally identically or differently substituted by radicals selected from the group consisting of halogen, formyl, carbamoyl, cyano, hydroxyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, (C1-C6)-alkyl or (C1-C6)-alkoxy, and optionally by a radical of the formula SO2NR5R6, wherein R5 and R6 independently of one another denote hydrogen or (C1-C6)-alkyl, or NR5R6 denotes 4- to 8-membered heterocyclyl, bonded via a nitrogen atom, optionally identically or differently substituted by radicals selected from the group consisting of oxo, halogen, (C1-C6)-alkyl and (C1-C6)-acyl,

R2 represents a saturated or partially unsaturated hydrocarbon radical having 1 to 10 carbon atoms,

R3 represents methyl or ethyl,

A represents O, S, or NR7, wherein R7 denotes hydrogen or (C1-C6)-alkyl optionally substituted by (C1-C3)-alkoxy,

E represents a bond or (C1-C3)-alkanediyl,

R4 represents (C6-C10)-aryl or 5- to 10-membered heteroaryl, where aryl and heteroaryl are optionally identically or differently substituted by radicals selected from the group consisting of halogen, formyl, carboxyl, carbamoyl, —SO3H, aminosulphonyl, cyano, hydroxyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, nitro, (C1-C6)-alkyl, (C1-C6)-alkoxy, 1,3-dioxa-propane-1,3-diyl, (C1-C6)-alkylthio, (C1-C6)-alkylsulphinyl and (C1-C6)-alkyl-sulphonyl, —NR8R9 end optionally methyl-substituted, 5- to 6-membered heteroaryl or phenyl,

wherein R8 and R9 independently of one another denote hydrogen, (C1-C6)-alkyl or (C1-C6)-acyl, or salt thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,936,609 and US 20040249148.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in WO 2006/092692, expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

wherein n is an integer of from 1 to 4, and where there are stereocenters, each center may be independently R or S.

The preparation of these compounds is described in WO 2006/092692.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in US 2006229306 and WO 2004/065391, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 and R2 either

(1) independently represent:

    • (a) a hydrogen atom;
    • (b) a group selected from alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl groups, wherein each alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl group is independently optionally substituted by one or more substituents selected from halogen atoms, hydroxy, alkoxy, aryloxy, alkylthio, hydroxycarbonyl, alcoxycarbonyl, mono- and di-alkylaminoacyl, oxo, amino, and mono- and di-alkylamino groups; or
    • (c) a group of formula (CH2)n—R6, wherein n is an integer from 0 to 4 and R6 represents a cycloalkyl or cycloalkenyl group;

(2) R1 and R2 form, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, a 3- to 8-membered ring comprising from 1 to 4 heteroatoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur, which ring is saturated or unsaturated and optionally substituted by one or more substituents selected from halogen atoms, alkyl, hydroxy, alkoxy, acyl, hydroxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, alkylenedioxy, amino, mono- and di-alkylamino, mono- and di-alkylaminoacyl, nitro, cyano and trifluoromethyl groups;

R3 is a group of formula (CH2)n-G, wherein n is an integer from 0 to 4 and G represents a monocyclic or bicyclic aryl or heteroaryl group comprising from zero to four heteroatoms which group is optionally substituted by one or more substituents selected from:

(1) halogen atoms;

(2) alkyl and alkylene groups, wherein each alkyl and alkylene group is independently optionally substituted by one or more substituents selected from halogen atoms; and

(3) phenyl, hydroxy, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxy, alkylenedioxy, aryloxy, alkylthio, amino, mono- and di-alkylamino, acylamino, nitro, acyl, hydroxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, cyano, difluoromethoxy and trifluoromethoxy groups;

R4 represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl or an aryl group.

The preparation of these compounds is described in US 2006229306 and WO 2004/065391.

Other compounds useful in the methods of the invention include imidazopyridine derivatives (WO 2001/34601), dihydropurine derivatives (WO 2000/68203), pyrrole derivatives (WO 2001/32618), benzothiopyranoimidazolone derivatives (DE 19950647), heterocyclic compounds (WO 2002/87519), guanine derivatives (Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 11:1081-1083, 2001), and benzothienothiadiazine derivatives (Eur. J. Med. Chem. 36:333, 2001). The disclosure of each published patent application and journal article listed above is expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in WO 2008/130619, expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

X is SO, or SO2,

R1 is H, or alkyl,

R2 is alkyl, or halogen.

In specific embodiments, R1 is Me. In other specific embodiments R1 is F. In certain embodiments R2 is t-Bu. In specific embodiments, R1 is methyl. In more specific embodiments, the compounds are selected from:

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

wherein

R1 is alkyl,

R2 is aryl or heteroaryl,

R3 is alkyl, aryl, cycloakyl, or alkylaryl.

In specific embodiments, R1 is methyl. In certain embodiments R2 is furanyl or thiophenyl. In other specific embodiments, R2 is substituted phenyl or benzyl. In preferred embodiments, R3 is iso-butyl. In more specific embodiments, the compounds are selected from:

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

wherein

R1 is nitrile, or alkylcarboxylate,

R2 is alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl.

In specific embodiments, R1 is nitrile or methylcarboxylate. In certain embodiments, R2 is a five membered heteroaryl. In more specific embodiments, R2 is furanyl, or thienyl. In other embodiments, R2 is a six membered aryl. In more specific embodiments, R2 is substituted phenyl.

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

wherein

R1 is alkyl, alkenyl, or alkylcarboxylic acid,

R2 is halogen.

In certain embodiments R1 is butyl. In other embodiments R1 is terminal alkenyl.

In more specific embodiments R1 is allyl, or vinyl. In other embodiments, R1 is C1-4alkyl. In specific embodiments R1 is methylcarboxylic acid. In certain embodiments R2 is Cl, or Br. In more specific embodiments, the compounds are selected from:

In other related embodiments, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

wherein

R1 is CO, or alkylalcohol, R2 is alkyl, R3 is alkoxy, and the C4 and C9 stereocenters are independently (R) or (S).

In certain embodiments R1 is carbonyl, or 2-methylpropan-1-ol. In specific embodiments R2 is methyl. In certain embodiments, R3 is methoxy. In more specific embodiments the compounds are selected from:

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

wherein

R1 is hydrogen, hydroxyl, carbonyl, or alkylalcohol,

R2 and R3 are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkylcarboxylate, or carboxylic acid,

R4 is hydrogen, or alkyl,

R5 is hydrogen, alkyl, hydroxyl, or acetate,

R6 is hydrogen, or alkoxy, and the C4 and C9 stereocenters are independently (R) or (S).

In certain embodiments R1 is 2-methylpropan-1-ol. In specific embodiments R2 is methyl. In certain embodiments, R2 is methylcarboxylate. In specific embodiments R2 and R3 are both methyl. In other embodiments, R2 is methyl, and R3 is methylcarboxylate. In specific embodiments R4 is iso-propyl. In specific embodiments, R5 is methyl. In certain embodiments, R6 is methoxy. In more specific embodiments the compounds are selected from:

In regards to the above compounds, the terms “alkyl”, “alkenyl” and the prefix “alk-” are inclusive of both straight chain and branched chain groups and of cyclic groups, i.e. cycloalkyl and cycloalkenyl. Unless otherwise specified, these groups contain from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, with alkenyl groups containing from 2 to 20 carbon atoms. Preferred groups have a total of up to 10 carbon atoms. Cyclic groups can be monocyclic or polycyclic and preferably have from 3 to 10 ring carbon atoms. Exemplary cyclic groups include cyclopropyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cyclopropylmethyl, adamantly, norbornane, and norbornee. This is also true of groups that include the prefix “alkyl-”, such as alkylcarboxylic acid, alkyl alcohol, alkylcarboxylate, alkylaryl, and the like. Examples of suitable alkylcarboxylic acid groups are methylcarboxylic acid, ethylcarboxylic acid, and the like. Examples of suitable alkylalcohols are methylalcohol, ethylalcohol, isopropylalcohol, 2-methylpropan-1-ol, and the like. Examples of suitable alkylcarboxylates are methylcarboxylate, ethylcarboxylate, and the like. Examples of suitable alkyl aryl groups are benzyl, phenylpropyl, and the like.

The term “aryl” as used herein includes carbocyclic aromatic rings or ring systems. Examples of aryl groups include phenyl, naphthyl, biphenyl, fluorenyl and indenyl. The term “heteroaryl” includes aromatic rings or ring systems that contain at least one ring hetero atom (e.g., O, S, N). Suitable heteroaryl groups include furyl, thienyl, pyridyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, indolyl, isoindolyl, thiazolyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, benzofuranyl, benzothiophenyl, carbazolyl, benzoxazolyl, pyrimidinyl, benzimidazolyl, quinoxalinyl, benzothiazolyl, naphthyridinyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, purinyl, quinazolinyl, and so on.

The aryl, and heteroaryl groups can be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more substituents independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, methylenedioxy, ethylenedioxy, alkylthio, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, haloalkylthio, halogen, nitro, hydroxy, mercapto, cyano, carboxy, formyl, aryl, aryloxy, arylthio, arylalkoxy, arylalkylthio, heteroaryl, heteroaryloxy, heteroarylalkoxy, heteroarylalkylthio, amino, alkylamino, dialkylamino, heterocyclyl, heterocycloalkyl, alkylcarbonyl, alkenylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, haloalkylcarbonyl, haloalkoxycarbonyl, alkylthiocarbonyl, arylcarbonyl, heteroarylcarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, heteroaryloxycarbonyl, arylthiocarbonyl, heteroarylthiocarbonyl, alkanoyloxy, alkanoylthio, alkanoylamino, arylcarbonyloxy, arylcarbonylthio, alkylaminosulfonyl, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, heteroarylsulfonyl, aryldiazinyl, alkylsulfonylamino, arylsulfonylamino, arylalkylsulfonylamino, alkylcarbonylamino, alkenylcarbonylamino, arylcarbonylamino, arylalkylcarbonylamino, arylcarbonylaminoalkyl, heteroarylcarbonylatnino, heteroarylalky carbonylamino, alkylsulfonylamino, alkenylsulfonylamino, arylsulfonylamino, arylalkylsulfonylamino, heteroarylsulfonylamino, heteroarylalkylsulfonylamino, alkylaminocarbonylamino, alkenylaminocarbonylamino, arylaminocarbonylamino, arylalkylaminocarbonylamino, heteroarylaminocarbonylamino, heteroarylalkylaminocarbonylamino and, in the case of heterocyclyl, oxo. If other groups are described as being “substituted” or “optionally substituted,” then those groups can also be substituted by one or more of the above enumerated substituents.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in WO 2008/142550, expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

m is 0, 1 or 2, n is 0, 1, 2 or 3,

X is O, S or N—CN,

R1 is halogen or CN,

A is a single bond, CH2, O or S,

B is a single bond, CH2 or OCH2, each R2 is independently halogen, (C1-6)alkyl (optionally substituted by 1 to 3 fluorine atoms), OH, (C1-6)alkylthio or CN,

R3 is selected from the following groups (i) to (x):

R is H or (C1-6)alkyl (optionally substituted by 1 to 3 fluorine atoms), R′ is (C1-6)alkyl (optionally substituted by 1 to 3 fluorine atoms), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, polymorph or prodrug thereof.

In regard to the above compounds, the term “alkyl” denotes a monovalent, straight or branched, saturated hydrocarbon chain containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms Examples of alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, n-pentyl, 2-methylbutyl, 3-methylbutyl, neopentyl, n-hexyl, 2-methylpentyl, 3-methylpentyl, 4-methylpentyl, 2-ethylbutyl and 2,2-dimethylbutyl. Preferred alkyl groups are particularly methyl and ethyl, especially methyl.

Where stated, alkyl groups may be substituted by 1 to 3 fluorine atoms. The substitution may be at any position on the alkyl chain. Preferably, such fluorinated alkyl groups have 1 to 4 carbon atoms, more preferably 1 or 2 carbon atoms. Mono-, di- and trifluoromethyl groups (especially trifluoromethyl), and mono-, di- and trifluoroethyl groups (especially 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) are especially preferred.

The term “alkoxy” denotes “alkyl-O—”, wherein “alkyl” is as defined above, either in its broadest aspect or a preferred aspect. Preferred alkoxy groups are groups, particularly methoxy and ethoxy. The term “alkylthio” denotes “alkyl-S—”, wherein “alkyl” is as defined above, either in its broadest aspect or a preferred aspect. Preferred alkylthio groups are (C1-4)alkylthio groups, particularly methylthio and ethylthio. The term “halogen” denotes fluoro, chloro, bromo or iodo. Preferred halogen groups are fluoro and chloro.

Preferably, m is 0 or 1, more preferably 1.

Preferably, n is 0 or 1, more preferably 0.

Preferably, X is O or N—CN, more preferably O.

Preferably, R1 is F or Cl, more preferably C1.

Preferably, A is a single bond or O, more preferably O.

When the group B is OCH2, the oxygen atom is bonded to the benzene ring and the methylene group to the group R3.

Preferably, B is a single bond.

Preferably, R2 is F or Cl, more preferably F.

Preferably, R3 is a group (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) or (vi), more preferably a group (i) or (ii), and especially a group (ii).

In one embodiment, the group —B—R3 is present at the 2-position of the phenyl ring (the position of the group A being the 1-position). In other embodiments, the group —B—R3 is present at the 3-position In further embodiments, the group —B—R3 is present at the 4-position.

PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include those in which each variable in the above formula is selected from the suitable and/or preferred groups for each variable. Even more preferred PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include those where each variable in the above formula is selected from the more preferred or most preferred groups for each variable.

In a related embodiment, the following PDE7 inhibitors are useful in the methods of the invention:

  • 5-[(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)]-2-fluorobenzoic acid,
  • 3-(8′-chloro-2-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-ylbenzoic acid,
  • 5-[(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-4′-yl)]-2-fluorobenzoic acid,
  • 8-chloro-5′-[4-fluoro-3-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • [3-(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)phenoxy]acetic acid,
  • 2-{(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)oxy}-3-fluorobenzoic acid,
  • 2-{(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-oxy}-3-fluorobenzoic acid,
  • 3-chloro-2-{(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)oxy}benzoic acid,
  • 3-chloro-2-{(8′-fluoro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)oxy}benzoic acid,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[2-fluoro-6-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[4-fluoro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[6-fluoro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[4-fluoro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[6-fluoro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[6-chloro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[2-fluoro-6-(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[2-fluoro-6-(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 2-[(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)oxy]-3-fluoro-N-(methylsulfonyl)benzamide,
  • N-{2-[(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)oxy]-3-fluorophenyl}-1,1,1-trifluoromethanesulfonamide,
  • {2-[(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)oxy]-3-fluorophenyl}acetic acid,
  • {2-[(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)oxy]phenoxy}acetic acid,
  • {4-[(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro [cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazoline-5′-yl)oxy]phenoxy}acetic acid,
  • methyl 2-[(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)oxy]-3-fluorobenzoate,

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates and prodrugs thereof.

In another related embodiment, the following PDE7 inhibitors are useful in the methods of the invention:

  • 8′-chloro-5′-[2-fluoro-6-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spirocyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[4-fluoro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[6-fluoro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[4-fluoro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[6-fluoro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[6-chloro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates and prodrugs thereof.

The following compounds are most preferred:

  • 8′-chloro-5′-[2-fluoro-6-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[4-fluoro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[6-fluoro-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,
  • 8′-chloro-5′-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenoxy]-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-2′(3′H)-one,

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates and prodrugs thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in WO 2008/142550.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 7,498,334, US 2005/0059686 and WO 2003/055882, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

X is phenyl or Het, each of which is unsubstituted or monosubstituted or polysubstituted by R1 and/or R2, R1 and R2 are each, independently of one another, A, OH, OA, SA, SOA, SO2A, SO2NH2, SO2NHA, SO2AA′, CN, NO2, NH2, NHA, NAA′, NHCOA, NHCOOA, COOH, COOA, CONH2, CONHA, CONAA′ or Hal, R′ and R2 together are alternatively —OCH2O— or —OCH2CH2O—, R3 is A, OH, OA, SA, SOA, SO2A, SO2NH2, SO2NHA, SO2AA′, CN, NO2, NH2, NHA, NHB, NAA′, NHCOA, NHCOOA, NHCOB, NHCOOB, COOH, COOA, COOB, CONH2, CONHA, CONHB, CONAA′ or Hal, R4 is branched or unbranched alkyl or alkenyl having up to 10 carbon atoms, which may be substituted by from 1 to 5 F and/or Cl atoms and/or in which one or more CH2 groups may be replaced by O, S, SO, SO2, NH, NA, NHCO, NACO, NHCOO or NACOO, or cycloalkyl or cycloalkenyl having from 3 to 7 carbon atoms, in which one or two CH2 groups may be replaced by O, S, SO, SO2, SO2NH, SO2NA, NH, NHA, NHCONH, NACONH, NACONA, NHCO, NACO, NHCOO or NACOO, R5 is OH, OA, SA, SOA, SO2A, SO2NH2, SO2NHA, SO2AA′, CN, NO2, NH2, NHA, NAA′, NHCOA, NHCOOA, COOH, COOA, CONH2, CONHA, CONAA′ or Hal, R6 is H, OH, OA, SA, SOA, SO2A, SO2NH2, SO2NHA, SO2AA′, CN, NO2, NH2, NHA, NAA′, NHCOA, NHCOOA, COOH, COOA, CONH2, CONHA, CONAA′ or Hal, A and A′ are each, independently of one another, branched or unbranched alkyl or alkenyl having up to 10 carbon atoms, which may be substituted by from 1 to 5 F and/or Cl atoms and/or in which one or more CH2 groups may be replaced by O, S, SO, SO2, NH, NR7, NHCO, NR7CO, NHCOO or NR7COO. A and A′ together are alternatively alkylene having from 3 to 7 carbon atoms, in which one or two CH2 groups may be replaced by CHR7, CHR7R8, O, S, SO, SO2, NH, NR7, NHCO, NR7CO, NHCOO or NR7COO. B is phenyl or Het, each of which is unsubstituted or monosubstituted or polysubstituted by R1 and/or R2, Het is an aromatic 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring having 1-3 N, O and/or S atoms which is unsubstituted or monosubstituted, disubstituted or trisubstituted by A″, Hal or CF3, R7 and R8 are each, independently of one another, branched or unbranched alkyl or alkenyl having up to 5 carbon atoms, which may be substituted by from 1 to 5 F and/or Cl atoms and/or in which one or more CH2 groups may be replaced by O, S, SO, SO2 or NH, A″ is alkyl having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms, and Hal is F, C1, Br or I, and pharmaceutically usable derivatives, solvates and stereoisomers thereof, including mixtures thereof in all ratios.

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include compounds of the above formula in which R5 is OH may also be in the form of their tautomers of the formula:

In regard to the above compounds, PDE7 inhibitors useful in methods of the invention include the optically active forms (stereo-isomers), the enantiomers, the racemates, the diastereomers and the hydrates and solvates of these compounds. The term solvates of the compounds is taken to mean adductions of inert solvent molecules onto the compounds which form owing to their mutual attractive force. Solvates are, for example, monohydrates, dihydrates or alcoholates.

In regards to the above compounds, the term pharmaceutically usable derivatives is taken to mean, for example, the salts of the above compounds and so-called prodrug compounds. The term prodrug derivatives is taken to mean, for example, the above compounds which have been modified, for example, with alkyl or acyl groups, sugars or oligopeptides and which are rapidly cleaved in the organism and thus release the active compounds. These also include biodegradable polymer derivatives of the above compounds, as described, for example, in Int. J. Pharm. 115, 61-67 (1995).

In regard to the above compounds, the meanings of all radicals which occur more than once are in each case independent of one another.

A and A′ are preferably alkyl, furthermore preferably alkyl which is substituted by from 1 to 5 fluorine and/or chlorine atoms, furthermore preferably alkenyl.

In the above formulae, alkyl is preferably unbranched and has 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 carbon atoms, preferably 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 carbon atoms, and is preferably methyl, ethyl, trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl or propyl, furthermore preferably isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl or tert-butyl, but also n-pentyl, neopentyl, isopentyl or n-hexyl. Particular preference is given to methyl, ethyl, trifluoromethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, n-pentyl, n-hexyl or n-decyl.

A″ is preferably alkyl having 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 carbon atoms, for example methyl, ethyl or propyl, furthermore preferably isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl or tert-butyl, but also n-pentyl, neopentyl, isopentyl or n-hexyl. Particular preference is given to methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl or butyl.

Cycloalkyl preferably has 3-7 carbon atoms and is preferably cyclopropyl or cyclobutyl, furthermore preferably cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl, furthermore also cycloheptyl; particular preference is given to cyclopentyl.

Alkenyl is preferably vinyl, allyl, 2- or 3-butenyl, isobutenyl or sec-butenyl; preference is furthermore given to 4-pentenyl, isopentenyl or 5-hexenyl.

Alkylene is preferably unbranched and is preferably methylene or ethylene, furthermore preferably propylene or butylene.

Hal is preferably F, Cl or Br, furthermore also I.

The radicals R1 and R2 may be identical or different and are preferably in the 2- or 4-position of the phenyl ring. They are, for example, independently of one another, A or Hal, or together are methylenedioxy.

However, they are preferably each methyl, ethyl, propyl, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, isopropoxy, benzyloxy, but also fluoro-, difluoro- or trifluoro-methoxy, or 1-fluoro-, 2-fluoro-, 1,2-difluoro-, 2,2-difluoro-, 1,2,2-trifluoro- or 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy, furthermore fluorine or chlorine.

R1 is particularly preferably fluorine, chlorine, methyl, ethyl or propyl.

R2 is particularly preferably fluorine, chlorine, methyl, ethyl or propyl.

X is preferably a phenyl radical which is monosubstituted by R1 or is unsubstituted Het.

X is particularly preferably 2-chlorophenyl, 2-fluorophenyl, 4-methyl-phenyl, 3-chlorophenyl or 4-chlorophenyl.

Het is preferably, for example, unsubstituted 2- or 3-furyl, 2- or 3-thienyl, 1-, 2- or 3-pyrrolyl, 1-, 2-, 4- or 5-imidazolyl, 2-, 3- or 4-pyridyl, 2-, 4-, 5- or 6-pyrimidinyl, furthermore preferably 1,2,3-triazol-1-, -4- or -5-yl, 1,2,4-triazol-1-, -3- or -5-yl, 1,2,3-oxadiazol-4- or -5-yl, 1,2,4-oxadiazol-3- or -5-yl, 1,3,4-thiadiazol-2- or -5-yl, 1,2,4-thiadiazol-3- or -5-yl, or 1,2,3-thia-diazol-4- or -5-yl.

R3 is preferably, for example, COOA″ or COOH.

R4 is preferably, for example, unbranched or branched alkyl having 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 carbon atoms, which may be substituted by 1-5 F or Cl atoms, preferably methyl, ethyl, trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl or propyl, furthermore preferably isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl or tert-butyl, but also n-pentyl, neopentyl, isopentyl or n-hexyl. Particular preference is given to methyl, ethyl, trifluoromethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, n-pentyl, n-hexyl or n-decyl.

R5 is preferably Cl or OH.

R6 is preferably H.

In regard to the above compounds, at least one of the said radicals has one of the preferred meanings indicated above.

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the following compounds, wherein X is a phenyl radical which is monosubstituted by R1, or is unsubstituted Het; R1 is A or Hal; R3 is COOA″ or COOH; R4 is unbranched or branched alkyl having 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 carbon atoms, which may be substituted by 1-5 F or Cl atoms; R5 is Cl or OH; and R6 is H;

In other related embodiments, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the following compounds, wherein X is a phenyl radical which is monosubstituted by R1, or is unsubstituted Het, R1 is A or Hal, R3 is COOA″ or COOH, R4 is unbranched or branched alkyl having 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 carbon atoms, which may be substituted by 1-5 F or Cl atoms, R5 is Cl or OH, R6 is H, Het is furyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, pyridyl or pyrimidinyl, A and A″ are each, independently of one another, unbranched or branched alkyl having 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 carbon atoms, which may be substituted by 1-5 F or Cl atoms, Hal is F, Cl or Br, and pharmaceutically usable derivatives, solvates and stereoisomers thereof, including mixtures thereof in all ratios.

The preparation of the above compounds and also the starting materials for their preparation are described in the literature (for example in the standard works, such as Houben-Weyl, Methoden der organischen Chemie [Methods of Organic Chemistry], Georg-Thieme-Verlag, Stuttgart), to be precise under reaction conditions which are known and suitable for the said reactions. Use can also be made here of variants which are known per se, but are not mentioned here in greater detail.

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include:

ethyl 5-isopropyl-4-oxo-7-p-tolyl-4,7-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidine-6-carboxylate, ethyl 5-methyl-4-oxo-7-(3-chlorophenyl)-4,7-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate, ethyl 5-methyl-4-oxo-7-(2-chlorophenyl)-4,7-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate, ethyl 5-methyl-4-oxo-7-(2-fluorophenyl)-4,7-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate, ethyl 5-propyl-4-oxo-7-(2-chlorophenyl)-4,7-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate, ethyl 5-methyl-4-oxo-7-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,7-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate, ethyl 5-methyl-4-oxo-7-p-tolyl-4,7-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidine-6-carboxylate, methyl 5-methyl-4-oxo-7-(2-chlorophenyl)-4,7-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate, methyl 5-methyl-4-oxo-7-phenyl-4,7-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidine-6-carboxylate, methyl 5-methyl-4-oxo-7-(2-thienyl)-4,7-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidine-6-carboxylate, and pharmaceutically usable derivatives, solvates and stereoisomers thereof, including mixtures thereof in all ratios.

The preparation of the above compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,498,334 and WO 2003/055882.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,884,800 and WO 01/36425, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 and R2, independently of one another, each denote A1, OA1, SA1 or Hal, A1 denotes H, A, alkenyl, cycloalkyl or alkylenecycloalkyl, A denotes alkyl having 1-10 carbon atoms, Hal denotes F, Cl, Br or I, and x denotes O, S, SO or SO2, and their physiologically acceptable salts and/or solvates.

In regards to the above compounds, A denotes alkyl having 1-10 carbon atoms and has 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 carbon atoms and preferably denotes methyl, ethyl or propyl, furthermore preferably isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl or tert-butyl, but also n-pentyl, neopentyl, isopentyl or hexyl. In these radicals, 1-7H atoms may also be replaced by F and/or Cl. A therefore also denotes, for example, trifluoromethyl or pentafluoroethyl. Cycloalkyl has 3-9 carbon atoms and preferably denotes, for example, cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl. Alkenyl has 2-10 carbon atoms, is linear or branched and preferably denotes vinyl, propenyl or butenyl. Alkylenecycloalkyl has 4-10 carbon atoms and denotes, for example, methylenecyclopentyl, ethylenecyclopentyl, methylenecyclohexyl or ethylenecyclohexyl. R1 and R2 preferably denote, in each case independently of one another, H, fluorine, chlorine, methyl, ethyl, propyl, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, methylthio, cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl.

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the following compounds, wherein

X is S;

X is S, R1 is H;

X is S, R1 is F or Cl;

X is S, R2 is H;

X is S, R2 is F or Cl;

X is S, R1 is H, R2 is F or Cl;

X is S, R1 is F or Cl, R2 is H;

X is S; A1 is H or A, A is alkyl having 1, 2, 3 or 4 carbon atoms;

X is S, R1 and R2, independently of one another, each denote A1 or Hal, A1 is H or A, A is alkyl having 1, 2, 3 or 4 carbon atoms, Hal is F or Cl;

and their physiologically acceptable salts and solvates.

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the following compounds:

10-Chloro-3-imidazol-1-yl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine, 4-chloro-3-imidazol-1-yl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine, 10-methoxy-3-imidazol-1-yl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine, 10-propoxy-3-imidazol-1-yl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine, 10-methylthio-3-imidazol-1-yl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine, 10-fluoro-3-imidazol-1-yl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine, 4,10-dichloro-3-imidazol-1-yl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine, 10-trifluoromethyl-3-imidazol-1-yl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine, 4-cyclopentoxy-3-imidazol-1-yl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine, 10-chloro-3-imidazol-1-yl-2,3-dihydro-1H-7-oxa-1 b-azabenzo[de]-anthracene, and 10-chloro-3-imidazol-1-yl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine 7,7-dioxide.

The preparation of these compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,884,800 and WO 01/36425.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,531,498 and WO 01/32175, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents of the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1, R2, R3, R4 are each, independently of one another, Ha1, OA1, SA1, A, H, COOA1, CN or CONA1A2,

R5 is COOA1, CN or CONA1A2,

A1, A2 are each, independently of one another, H, A, alkenyl, cycloalkyl or alkylenecycloalkyl,

A is alkyl having 1 to 10 C atoms,

Hal is F, Cl, Br or I,

and their physiologically acceptable salts and/or solvates.

In regard to the above compounds, A is alkyl having 1-10 C atoms and has 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 C atoms and is preferably methyl, ethyl or propyl, also preferably isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl or tert-butyl, but is also n-pentyl, neopentyl, isopentyl or hexyl. It is also possible for 1-7H atoms in the radicals to be replaced by F and/or Cl. A is therefore also, for example, trifluoromethyl or pentafluoroethyl.

Cycloalkyl has 3-9 C atoms and is preferably, for example, cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl. Alkenyl has 2-10 C atoms, is linear or branched and is preferably vinyl, propenyl or butenyl.

Alkylenecycloalkyl has 4-10 C atoms and is, for example methylenecyclopentyl, ethylenecyclopentyl, methylenecyclohexyl or ethylenecyclohexyl.

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the compounds wherein

R1 is H;

R1 and R2 are H;

R1 is H and R2 is F or Cl;

R1, R2 are each, independently of one another, H or Hal;

R1, R2 are each, independently of one another, H or Hal, A1, A2 are each, independently of one another, H or A;

A1, A2 are each, independently of one another, H or A;

R1, R2 are each, independently of one another, H or Hal, A1, A2 are each, independently of one another, H or A, A is alkyl having 1, 2, 3 or 4 C atoms, Hal is F or Cl.

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the compounds:

  • 5-[2-(2-Fluoro-4-hydroxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(2,4-Difluorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(3-Methylthiophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(2,4-Dimethoxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2-chlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-(2-Amino-2-phenylvinyl)-4-methylaminocarbonyl-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-(2-Phenylaminovinyl)-4-methoxycarbonyl-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Carboxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Carboxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-methoxycarbonyl-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(5-Chloro-2-hydroxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(3,4-Dimethylphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2-chlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Chlorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2-chlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-(2-Phenylaminovinyl)-4-cyano-3-(2-chlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Methoxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2-chlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Carboxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2-chlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(2-Fluoro-4-hydroxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2-chlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • S -[2-(4-Fluorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2-chlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(3,5-Dichlorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2-chlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • S -[2-(3-Chlorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2-chlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • S -(2-Phenylaminovinyl)-4-cyano-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • S -[2-(4-Chlorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • S -(2-Phenylaminovinyl)-4-methoxycarbonyl-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Chlorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-methoxycarbonyl-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • S -[2-(4-Carboxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-methoxycarbonyl-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • S -[2-(2,4-Difluorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(2,4-Dichlorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • S -[2-(4-Carboxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • S -[2-(3,5-Dichlorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Methoxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(2,4-Dimethoxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(2-Phenylphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Methylphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-(2-Phenylaminovinyl)-4-cyano-3-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Carboxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Chlorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(3-Methoxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Chlorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-methoxycarbonyl-3-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-(2-Phenylaminovinyl)-4-methoxycarbonyl-3-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(2,4-Dichlorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-methoxycarbonyl-3-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-(2-Phenylaminovinyl)-4-cyano-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(3-Trifluoromethoxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Methoxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(4-Methoxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-methoxycarbonyl-3-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenyl)isoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(3-Methylthiophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(2,4-Difluorophenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-phenylisoxazole,
  • 5-[2-(2-Fluoro-4-hydroxyphenylamino)vinyl]-4-cyano-3-phenylisoxazole.

The preparation of these compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,531,498 and WO 01/32175.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 7,491,742 and WO 2001/29049, each expressly incorporated by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents of the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 is H, A, benzyl, indan-5-yl, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-5-yl, dibenzothien-2-yl, or phenyl which is unsubstituted or mono-, di- or trisubstituted by Hal, A, A-CO—NH, benzyloxy, alkoxy, COOH or COOA, R2 is H or A, X is O or S, Hal is F, Cl, Br or I, A is alkyl with 1 to 6 C atoms, and the physiologically acceptable salts and/or solvates thereof.

In regard to the above compounds, A is alkyl with 1-6 C atoms and has 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 C atoms and is preferably methyl, ethyl or propyl, also preferably isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl or tert-butyl, but also n-pentyl, neopentyl, isopentyl or hexyl. A is also cycloalkyl such as, for example, cyclohexyl. Alkoxy is preferably methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy or butoxy. Hal is preferably F or C1. A-CO—NH is preferably acetamido.

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from the following compounds:

1-Phenyl-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Benzyl-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Cyclohexyl-[1]benzopyrano [3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Cyclopentyl-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Butyl-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Isopropyl-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Propyl-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Ethyl-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Methyl-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, [1]Benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 2-Methyl-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Phenyl-[1]benzothiopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Benzyl-[1]benzothiopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Cyclohexyl-[1]benzothiopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Cyclopentyl-[1]benzothiopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Butyl-[1]benzothiopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Isopropyl-[1]benzothiopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Propyl-[1]benzothiopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Ethyl-[1]benzothiopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-Methyl-[1]benzothiopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, [1]Benzothiopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 2-Methyl-[1]benzothiopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(2-Chlorophenyl-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(4-Methyl-phenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(4-Fluorophenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(2,4-Dimethyl-phenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(2,5-Dichlorophenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(4-Acetamido-phenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(2-Fluorophenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(3-Fluorophenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(2-Benzyloxy-phenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(2,6-Dimethyl-phenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(Indan-5-yl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(2-Methoxy-phenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(2,3-Dimethyl-phenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-(1H)-4-one, 1-(2,3-Dichlorophenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(3-Chloro-4-methyl-phenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(2,5-Dimethyl-phenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalen-5-yl)-[1]benzopyrano-[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1-H)-one, 1-(Dibenzothien-2-yl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(3-Methoxy-phenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, 1-(4-Carboxy-2-methyl-phenyl)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-d]imidazol-4-(1H)-one, and their physiologically acceptable salts and/or sovates thereof.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,737,436 and WO 01/32618, expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 and R2, independently of one another, each denote H, A, OA, SA or Hal,

R3 denotes H or A,

R4 denotes A or NH2,

R5 denotes H, NH2, NHA or NA2,

A denotes alkyl having 1 to 10 carbon atoms, alkenyl, cycloalkyl or alkylenecycloalkyl,

Hal denotes F, Cl, Br or I,

and their physiologically acceptable salts and/or solvates.

In regard to the above compounds, A denotes alkyl having 1-10 carbon atoms and has 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 carbon atoms and preferably denotes methyl, ethyl or propyl, furthermore preferably isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl or tert-butyl, but also n-pentyl, neopentyl, isopentyl or hexyl. In these radicals, 1-7H atoms may also be replaced by F and/or Cl. A therefore also denotes, for example, trifluoromethyl or pentafluoroethyl.

A also denotes cycloalkyl having 3-8 carbon atoms and preferably denotes, for example, cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl.

A also denotes alkenyl. Alkenyl has 2-10 carbon atoms, is linear or branched and denotes, for example, vinyl, propenyl or butenyl. A furthermore denotes alkylenecycloalkyl. Alkylenecycloalkyl has 4-10 carbon atoms and preferably denotes, for example, methylenecyclopentyl, ethylenecyclopentyl, methylenecyclohexyl or ethylenecyclohexyl.

R1 and R2 preferably each denote, independently of one another, H, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, isopropoxy, butoxy, S-methyl, S-ethyl, F or Cl.

R3 preferably denotes H, methyl or ethyl.

R4 preferably denotes methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl or NH2.

R5 preferably denotes H, amino, methylamino, ethylamino, dimethylamino or diethylamino.

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include compounds of the above formula wherein R1 and R2 are not both H and wherein when one of R1 or R2 is H, the other cannot be CH3, OCH3 or C1.

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include compounds wherein

R1, R2, R3 and R5 are H and R4 is methyl;

R1 is 4-C1, R2 is H, R3 is ethyl, R4 is amino and R5 is H;

R1 and R2 are H, R3 is ethyl, R4 is methyl and R5 is amino;

R1 and R2 are H, R3 is ethyl, R4 is amino and R5 is H;

R1 and R2 are H, R3 is ethyl, R4 is H and R5 is amino;

R1 is 3-C1, R2 is 4-O-methyl, R3 is ethyl, R4 is amino and R5 is H;

R1 is 3-C1, R2 is 4-O-methyl, R3 is ethyl, R4 is methyl and R5 is amino;

R1 is 4-OCF3, R2 is H, R3 is ethyl, R4 is amino and R5 is H;

R1 is 3-Cl, R2 is 4-O-methyl, R3 is ethyl, R4 is amino and R5 is H;

R1 is 3-Cl, R2 is 4-O-methyl, R3 is ethyl, R4 is methyl and R5 is amino;

R1 is 4-OCF3, R2 is H, R3 is ethyl, and R4 is amino and R5 is H.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,613,778 and WO 01/34601, expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 denotes CONR4R5,

R2 denotes H or A,

R4 and R5, independently of one another, each denote H or A1,

R3 denotes Hal,

Hal denotes F, Cl, Br or I,

A denotes alkyl having 1-4 carbon atoms,

A1 denotes alkyl having 1-10 carbon atoms,

X denotes alkylene having 1-4 carbon atoms, in which an ethylene group may also be replaced by a double or triple bond,

and their physiologically acceptable salts and/or solvates.

In regard to the above compounds, A denotes alkyl having 1-4 carbon atoms and has 1, 2, 3 or 4 carbon atoms and preferably denotes methyl, ethyl or propyl, furthermore preferably isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl or tert-butyl. 1-7H atoms in the radicals may also be replaced by F and/or Cl. A therefore also denotes, for example, trifluoromethyl or pentafluoroethyl.

A1 denotes alkyl having 1-10 carbon atoms and has 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 carbon atoms and preferably denotes methyl, ethyl or propyl, furthermore preferably isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl or tert-butyl, but also n-pentyl, neopentyl, isopentyl or hexyl. 1-7H atoms in the radicals may also be replaced by F and/or Cl. A1 therefore also denotes, for example, trifluoromethyl or pentafluoroethyl.

X denotes alkylene having 1-4 carbon atoms, preferably methylene, ethylene, propylene or butylene, in which one ethylene group may also be replaced by a double or triple bond. X therefore also denotes, for example, —CH2-CH═CH—H2- or —C≡—C—.

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the following compounds:

  • 2-(3-Butyl-7-chloro-3H-imidazo [4,5-c]pyridin-4-ylsulfanyl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide

  • 2-(3-butyl-7-chloro-3H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-ylsulfanyl)acetamide,
  • 2-(3-butyl-7-chloro-3H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-ylsulfanyl)propionamide,
  • 2-(3-butyl-7-chloro-3H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-ylsulfanyl)butyramide,
  • 2-(3-butyl-7-chloro-3H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-ylsulfanyl)-N-hexylacetamide,
  • 2-(3-butyl-7-chloro-3H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-ylsulfanyl)-N-octylacetamide,
  • 4-(3-butyl-7-chloro-3H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-ylsulfanyl)-but-2-enoic acid dimethylamide.

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the following compounds, wherein

R3 is Cl;

R3 is Cl, and X is alkylene having 1-4 carbon atoms;

R3 is Cl, X is alkylene having 1, 2, 3 or 4 carbon atoms, and A1 is alkyl having 1, 2, 3 or 4 carbon atoms.

The preparation of these compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,613,778 and WO 01/34601.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in WO 2008/113881 and ES P 200700762, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

A is fused carbocyclo or heterocyclo of 5, 6 or 7 members and may be saturated or unsaturated; the dashed lines represent, independently, a single or double bond; X and Y are chosen independently from the group consisting of alkyl, hydrogen, ═O, ═S, —N (alkyl), —N(aryl), aryl, O-alkyl, O-aryl, alkyl-S and —S-aryl; and R1 and R2 are chosen independently from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, haloalkyl, aryl, cycloalkyl, (Z)n-aryl, heteroaryl, —OR3; —C(O)OR3, —(Z)n—C(O)OR3 and —S(O), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, derivative, prodrug, solvate or stereoisomer of the same.

Exception: when A is unsubstituted benzene, X=O, Y=S, when A is unsubstituted benzene, X=O, Y=O, when A is unsubstituted benzene, X=O, Y=S-Me, when A is unsubstituted thiophene, X=O, Y=S, and when A is unsubstituted benzothiophene, X=O, Y=S.

In related embodiments, the above compounds constitute a useful pharmaceutical composition that includes a therapeutically effective amount of the above compounds, or mixtures of the same, a salt, derivative, prodrug, solvate or pharmaceutically acceptable stereoisomer of the same along with a carrier, adjuvant or pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle, for IV administration to patient.

In other related embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the present invention include the following compound: 4-oxo-2-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline, and derivatives thereof selected from the following group:

6-Bromo-2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline, 6-Bromo-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4-oxo-2-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline, 6-Bromo-(2,3,4-trifluorophenyl)-4-oxo-2-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline, 6-Bromo-(2-bromophenyl)-4-oxo-2-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline, 3-(2,6-Difluorophenyl)-8-methyl-4-oxo-2-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline, 3-(2,3,4-Trifluorophenyl)-8-methyl-4-oxo-2-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline, and 3-(2-Bromophenyl)-8-methyl-4-oxo-2-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline.

In a further related embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the present invention include the following compound: 2-methylthio-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline and derivatives thereof selected from the following group:

6-Bromo-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-2-methylthio-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline, 6-Bromo-(2,3,4-trifluorophenyl)-2-methylthio-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline, 6-Bromo-(2-bromophenyl)-2-methylthio-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline, 3-Phenyl-8-methyl-2-methylthio-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline, 3-(2,6-Difluorophenyl)-8-methyl-2-methylthio-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline, 3-(2,3,4-Trifluorophenyl)-8-methyl-2-methylthio-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline, and 3-(2-Bromophenyl)-8-methyl-2-methylthio-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline.

In another related embodiment, the PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the present invention include the following compound: 2,4-dithioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline, and derivatives thereof selected from the following group:

3-Phenyl-2,4-dithioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline, 3-(2,6-Difluorophenyl)-2,4-dithioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline, and 3-(2,3,4-Trifluorophenyl)-2,4-dithioxo-1, 2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline.

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the present invention include the following compound: (2-methylthio-4-thioxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline) and derivatives thereof selected from the following group:

3-Phenyl-2-methylthio-4-thioxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline, 3-(2,6-Difluorophenyl)-2-methylthio-4-thioxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline, 3-(2,3,4-Trifluorophenyl)-2-methylthio-4-thioxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline, and 3-(2-Bromophenyl)-2-methylthio-4-thioxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline.

The preparation of the above compounds is described in WO 2008/113881.

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are described in ES P 200700762, expressly incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 7,214,676, and U.S. 2007/0049558, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the following compounds:

Spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 6′-Methoxyspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, Spiro[cycloheptane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 7′-Methoxyspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 6′-Phenylspiro[cycloheptane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Methoxyspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chlorospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 7′-chlorospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 5′-chlorospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-methylspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 6′-chlorospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-bromospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-fluorospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 6′-methylspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 5′,8′-dichlorospiro [cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 6′,7′-dichlorospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 5′,6′-dichlorospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 6′-phenylspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-iodospiro [cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Bromospiro[cyclobutane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Bromospiro [cycloheptane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Bromo-4-methylspiro [cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Bromospiro[bicyclo[3,2,1]octane-2-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 6′,8′-dichlorospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-iodospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-methoxyspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-phenylspiro[cycloheptane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-phenylspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-methylspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-(3-pyridyl)spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-(4-pyridyl)spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 6′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-8′-chlorospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 6′-(3-carboxyphenyl)-8′-chlorospiro(cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)-quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-(1H-indol-5yl)spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-(2-pyridyl)spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-(3-dimethylamino-prop-1-ynyl)spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)-quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-(3-methylamino-prop-1-ynyl)spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl]spiro [cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[4-(3-N-dimethylamino-propylcarboxamide)phenyl]-spiro-[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[4-(2-N-dimethylamino-ethylcarboxamide)phenyl]-spiro-[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[3-(3-N-dimethylamino-propylcarboxamide)phenyl]-spiro-[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[3-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)-phenyl]spiro-[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[3-(2-N-dimethylamino-ethylcarboxamide)phenyl]spiro-[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chlorospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-thione, 8′-Chloro-2′-cyanoiminospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazoline, 8′-chloro-6′-[4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl]spiro[-cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[4-(4-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethyl)-piperazine-1-carbonyl)-phenyl]spiro[-cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[4-(4-(2-morpholin-4-yl-2-oxo-ethyl)-piperazine-1-carbonyl)-phenyl]spiro[-cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[4-(4-(2-hydroxy-ethoxy)-ethyl)-piperazine-1-carbonyl)-phenyl]spiro[-cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, Spiro[cyclohexane-1-9′-(8′,9′-dihydro)-pyrazolo[4′,3′-f]quinazolin]-7′(6′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-methoxyspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 5′,8′-difluorospiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-methylspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-6′-(morpholin-4-yl)methylspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-hydroxyspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-hydroxy-6′-iodo-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-6′-iodo-5′-methoxy-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-6′-cyano-5′-methoxy-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-[2-(4-morpholino)ethoxy]spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-[2-dimethylaminoethoxy]spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-(2-aminoethoxy)-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-[2-(methylamino)ethoxy]-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-[2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy]spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-[3-dimethylaminopropoxy]spiro [cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-ethoxycarbonylmethoxyspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 5′-carboxymethoxy-8′-chloro-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 5′-carboxypropoxy-8′-chloro-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-5′-(3-sulphopropoxy)-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-[2-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy)-ethoxy]-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-(2-hydroxy-ethoxy)-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-(5-ethoxycarbonyl-furan-2-ylmethoxy)-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-(5-carboxy-furan-2-ylmethoxy)-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-cyanomethoxyspiro [cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylmethoxy)-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-(5-hydroxy-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-ylmethoxy)-spiro [cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-6′-iodo-5′-[2-dimethylamino-ethoxy]spiro [cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 6′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-8′-chloro-5′-methoxyspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 6′-(3-carboxyphenyl)-8′-chloro-5′-methoxyspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[2-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl]spiro [cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[2-methyl-4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl]spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[4-(piperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl]spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[4-carbamoyl-phenyl]spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-6′-[4-((1-methyl-piperidin-4-yl)-piperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl]spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-chloro-5′-methoxy-6-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl]spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Trifluoromethylspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-6′-cyanomethylspiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-(3-dimethylamino-2-hydroxy-propoxy)-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-(3-methylamino-2-hydroxy-propoxy)-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-[2-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl-amino)-ethoxy]-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-[2-(carboxymethyl-amino)-ethoxy]-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one hydrochloride,8′-Chloro-5′-(2-methanesulfonylamino-2-oxo-ethoxy)-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one, 8′-Chloro-5′-(2-[(5-methyl-isoxazol-3-ylmethyl)-amino]ethoxy)-spiro[cyclohexane-1-4′-(3′,4′-dihydro)quinazolin]-2′(1′H)-one.

Preparation of these compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,087,614, U.S. 2007/0049558 and WO 2002/074754.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors and dual PDE4/7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 7,087,614, US 2003/0162802 and WO 2002/102313, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include enantiomers, diastereomers, tautomers, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, prodrugs, and solvates of the compounds of the above formula.

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

R1 is H or alkyl;

R2 is (a) heteroaryl, or heterocyclo, either of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3; (b) aryl substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3 provided that at least one of T1, T2, T3 is other than H; or (c) aryl fused to a heteroaryl or heterocyclo ring wherein the combined ring system may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3;

Z is (a) —OR4, —C(O)R4, —C(O)OR4, —SR4, —NR3R4, —C(O)NR3R4, —NR3SO2R4c, halogen, nitro, haloalkyl; or (b) alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclo, or cycloalkyl any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1a, T2a T3a;

J is (a) hydrogen, halo, —OR4a, or (b) alkyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1b, T2b or T3b;

L is (a) hydrogen, —OR4b, —C(O)R4b, —C(O)OR4b, —SR4b, —NR5R6, —C(O)NR5R6, —NR5SO2R4d, halogen, haloalkyl, nitro, or (b) alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclo, or cycloalkyl any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1c, T2c or T3c;

R3 and R4 are independently H, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl, heteroaryl, (heteroaryl)alkyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, heterocylo or (heterocyclo)alkyl any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1a, T2a or T3a;

or R3 and R4 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached may combine to form a 4 to 8 membered heterocyclo ring optionally substituted with one to three groups T1a, T2a or T3a;

R4a is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, (aryl)alkyl, (heteroaryl)alkyl, heterocylo, (heterocyclo)alkyl, cycloalkyl or (cycloalkyl)alkyl any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1b, T2b or T3b;

R4b is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, (aryl)alkyl, (heteroaryl)alkyl, heterocylo, (heterocyclo)alkyl, cycloalkyl or (cycloalkyl)alkyl any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups Tlc, T2c or T3c;

R4c and R4d are independently alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl, heteroaryl, (heteroaryl)alkyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, heterocylo or (heterocyclo)alkyl any of which may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1a, T2a or T3a;

R5 and R6 are independently H, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl, heteroaryl, (heteroaryl)alkyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, heterocylo or (heterocyclo)alkyl any of which may be optionally independently substituted where valance allows with one to three groups T1c, T2c or T3c;

or R5 and R6 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached may combine to form a 4 to 8-membered heterocyclo ring optionally substituted with one to three groups T1c, T2c or T3c;

T1-1c T2-2c, and T3-3c are each independently (1) hydrogen or T6, where T6 is (i) alkyl, (hydroxy)alkyl, (alkoxy)alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, (cycloalkyl)alkyl, cycloalkenyl, (cycloalkenyl)alkyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl, heterocyclo, (heterocyclo)alkyl, heteroaryl, or (heteroaryl)alkyl; (ii) a group (i) which is itself substituted by one or more of the same or different groups (i); or (iii) a group (i) or (ii) which is independently substituted by one or more (preferably 1 to 3) of the following groups (2) to (13) of the definition of T1-1c, T2-2c and T3-3c (2) —OH or —OT6, (3) —SH or —ST6, (4) —C(O)tH, —C(O)tT6, or —O—C(O)T6, where t is 1 or 2; (5) —SO3H, —S(O)T6, or S(O)tN(T9)T6, (6) halo, (7) cyano, (8) nitro, (9) -T4-NT7T8, (10) -T4-N(T9)-T5-NT7T8, (11) -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, (12) -T4-N(T10)-T5-H, (13) oxo,

T4 and T5 are each independently (1) a single bond, (2) -T11-S(O)t-T12-, (3) -T11-C(O)-T12-, (4) -T11-C(S)-T12-, (5) -T11-O-T12-, (6) -T11-S-T12-, (7) -T11-O—C(O)-T12-, (8) -T11-C(O)—O-T12-, (9) -T11-C(═NT9a)-T12-, or (10) -T11-C(O)—C(O)-T12,

T7, T8, T9, T9a and T10 (1) are each independently hydrogen or a group provided in the definition of T6, or (2) T7 and T8 may together be alkylene or alkenylene, completing a 3- to 8-membered saturated or unsaturated ring together with the atoms to which they are attached, which ring is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more groups listed in the description of T1-1c, T2-2c and T3-3c, or (3) T7 or T8, together with T9, may be alkylene or alkenylene completing a 3- to 8-membered saturated or unsaturated ring together with the nitrogen atoms to which they are attached, which ring is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more groups listed in the description of T1-1c, T2-2c and T3-3c, or (4) T7 and T8 or T9 and T10 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached may combine to form a group-N═CT13T14 where T13 and T14 are each independently H or a group provided in the definition of T6;

and T11 and T12 are each independently (1) a single bond, (2) alkylene, (3) alkenylene, or (4) alkynylene.

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the present invention include the above compounds, wherein:

Z is (a) halogen, alkoxy, haloalkyl, —NR3R4, —C(O)OR4, —C(O)NR3R4; (b) aryl or heteroaryl either of which may be optionally substituted with one or more T1a, T2a, T3a (especially cyano, optionally substituted alkyl, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —SOtT6, —COtH, —COtT6, -T4NT7T8, or -T4N(T10)-T5-T6); (c) optionally substituted alkyl (especially substituted with one or more —OH, —COtH, —COtT6, -T4-NT7T8, -T4-N(T10)-T5-H, or -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6);

J is (a) H, or (b) alkyl or alkenyl either of which may be optionally substituted (especially with one or more —OH, —OT6, —COtH, or —COtT6);

L is (a) H; (b) halogen, alkoxy, haloalkyl, —NR5R6, —C(O)OR4b, —C(O)NR5R6; (c) aryl or heteroaryl either of which may be optionally substituted with one or more T1c, T2c, T3c (especially cyano, optionally substituted alkyl, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —SOtT6, —COtH, —COtT6, -T4NT7T8, or -T4N(T10)-T5-T6); or (d) optionally substituted alkyl (especially substituted with one or more —OH, —COtH, —COtT6, -T4-NT7T8, -T4-N(T10)-T5-H, or; -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6);

R1 is H or alkyl;

R2 is (a) heteroaryl (more preferably thiazolyl or oxazolyl) optionally substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3, preferably including H, alkyl, haloalkyl, halo, heteroaryl, cyano, C(O)tT6, OT6, -T4NT7T8; (b) aryl substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3 (preferably including heteroaryl (preferably, imidazolyl, oxazolyl, or thiazolyl any of which may be further optionally substituted), cyano, C(O)tT6, S(O)tN(T9)T6, halo alkyl, and haloalkyl); or (c) aryl fused to a heterocyclo ring (e.g., 2, 3-dihydro-1H-indole bound through the aryl ring, quinolyl bound through the aryl ring (especially quinol-6-yl), quinazolinyl bound through the aryl ring (especially quinazolin-7-yl), cinnolinyl bound through the aryl ring (especially cinnolin-6-yl), isoqinolinyl bound through the aryl ring (especially isoquinol-6-yl), and phthalazinyl bound through the aryl ring (especially phthalazin-6-yl)) wherein the combined ring system may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3 (especially halo, OH, OT6, alkyl, —COtH, —COtT6, or —C(O)NT7T8);

R3 is H or optionally substituted alkyl (especially substituted with one or more —OH, or —OT6);

R4 is (a) hydrogen; (b) (aryl)alkyl where the aryl group is optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1a, T2a, T3a (especially optionally substituted alkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —COtH, —COtT6, —SO3H, —SOtT6, —SOtN(T9)(T6), -T4NT7T8, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, heterocyclo, or heteroaryl); (c) (heteroaryl)alkyl where the heteroaryl group is optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1a, T2a, T3a (especially optionally substituted alkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —COtH, —COtT6, —SO3H, —SOtT6, —SOtN(T9)(T6), -T4NT7T8, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, heterocyclo, or heteroaryl); (d) (heterocyclo)alkyl where the heterocyclo group is optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1a, T2a, T3a (especially optionally substituted alkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, oxo, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —COtH, —COtT6, —SO3H, —SOtT6, —SOtN(T9)(T6), -T4NT7T8, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, heterocyclo, or heteroaryl); (e) alkyl optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1a, T2a, T3a (especially —OH, —OT6, —COtH, —COtT6, -T4NTT8 or -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6); (f) heterocyclo optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1a, T2a, T3a (especially optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted aralkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclo, cyano, —OH, —OT6, —COtH, —COtT6, oxo, hydroxy(alkyl), (alkoxy)alkyl, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, or -T4-NT2T8);

or R3 and R4 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached combine to form a 4 to 8-membered heterocyclo ring (especially pyrrolidinyl, piperadinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, diazapanyl or 1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl) optionally substituted with one to three groups T1a, T2a, T3a (especially optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted aralkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclo, cyano, —OH, —OT6, —COtH, —COtT6, oxo, hydroxy(alkyl), (alkoxy)alkyl, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, or -T4-NT7T8); R5 is hydrogen or alkyl;

R6 is (a) hydrogen; (b) (aryl)alkyl where the aryl group is optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1c, T2c, T3c (especially optionally substituted alkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —COtH, —COtT6, —SO3H, —SOtT6, —SOtN(T9)(T6), -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, heterocyclo, or heteroaryl); (c) (heteroaryl)alkyl where the heteroaryl group is optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1c, T2c, T3c (especially optionally substituted alkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —COtH, —COtT6, —SO3H, —SOtT6, —SOtN(T9)(T6), -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, heterocyclo, or heteroaryl); (d) (heterocyclo)alkyl where the heterocyclo group is optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1c, T2c, T3c (especially optionally substituted alkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, oxo, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —COtH, —COtT6, —SO3H, —SOtT6, —SOtN(T9)(T6), -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, heterocyclo, or heteroaryl); (e) alkyl optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1c, T2c, T3c (especially —OH, —OT6, —COtH, —COtT6, -T4NT7T8 or -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6); (f) heterocyclo optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1c, T2c, T3c (especially optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted aralkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclo, cyano, —OH, —OT6, —COtH, —COtT6, oxo, hydroxy(alkyl), (alkoxy)alkyl, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, or -T4-NT7T8);

or R5 and R6 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached combine to form a 4 to 8-membered heterocyclo ring (especially pyrrolidinyl, piperadinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, diazapanyl or 1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl) optionally substituted with one to three groups T1c, T2c, T3c (especially optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted aralkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclo, cyano, —OH, —OT6, —COtH, —COtT6, oxo, hydroxy(alkyl), (alkoxy)alkyl, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, or -T4-NT7T8).

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the present invention include the above compounds, wherein:

Z is (a) halogen, alkoxy, haloalkyl, —NR3R4, —C(O)OR4, —C(O)NR3R4; (b) aryl or heteroaryl either of which may be optionally substituted with one or more T1a, T2a, T3a selected from cyano, optionally substituted alkyl, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —SOtT6, —COtH, —COtT6, -T4NT7T8, or -T4N(T10)-T5-T6, where T4 is a bond or —C(O)—; T5 is —C(O)—, or —C(O)O—; T6 is alkyl or haloalkyl; T7 and T8 are independently H; alkyl optionally substituted with cycloalkyl, heteroaryl, hydroxy or -NT7T8 cycloalkyl; or aryl optionally substituted with halogen; or T7 and T8 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached combine to form a heterocyclo ring optionally substituted with (hydroxy)alkyl, COtH or COtT6, T10 is hydrogen; (c) alkyl optionally substituted with one or more —OH, —COtH, —COtT6, -T4-NT7T8, -T4-N(T10)-T5-H, or -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6 where T4 is —C(O)—; T5 is -alkylene-O—; T6 is alkyl; T7 and T8 are independently H, alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl (optionally substituted as described in the definition of R4), or heterocyclo (optionally substituted as described in the definition of R3 and R4 combining to form a heterocyclo ring); and T10 is H;

J is (a) H, or (b) alkyl or alkenyl either of which may be optionally substituted with one or more —OH, —OT6, —COtH, or -COtT6, where T6 is alkyl;

L is (a) H; (b) halogen, alkoxy, haloalkyl, —NR5R6, —C(O)OR4b, —C(O)NR5R6; (c) aryl or heteroaryl either of which may be optionally substituted with one or more T1c, T2c, T3c selected from cyano, optionally substituted alkyl (especially substituted with COtH or COtT6), (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —SOtT6, —COtH, —COtT6, -T4NT7T8, or -T4N(T10)-T5-T6, where T4 is a bond or —C(O)—; T5 is —C(O)—, or —C(O)O—; T6 is alkyl or haloalkyl; T7 and T8 are independently H; alkyl optionally substituted with cycloalkyl, heteroaryl, hydroxy or -NT7T8; cycloalkyl; or aryl optionally substituted with halogen; or T7 and T8 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached combine to form a heterocyclo ring optionally substituted with (hydroxy)alkyl, COtH or COtT6; T10 is hydrogen; (d) alkyl optionally substituted with one or more —OH, —COtH, —COtT6, -T4-NT7T8, -T4-N(T10)-T5-H, or -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6 where T4 is —C(O)—; T5 is -alkylene-O—; T6 is alkyl; T7 and T8 are independently H, alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, (aryl)alkyl (optionally substituted as described in the definition of R4), or heterocyclo (optionally substituted as described in the definition of R3 and R4 combining to form a heterocyclo ring); and T10 is H;

R1 is H or alkyl;

R2 is (a) heteroaryl (more preferably thiazolyl or oxazolyl) optionally substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3, preferably including H, alkyl, haloalkyl, halo, heteroaryl, cyano, C(O)tT6, OT6, -T4NT7T8; (b) aryl substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3 (preferably including heteroaryl (preferably, imidazolyl, oxazolyl, or thiazolyl any of which may be further optionally substituted), cyano, C(O)tT6, S(O)tN(T9)T6, halo alkyl, and haloalkyl); or (c) aryl fused to a heterocyclo ring (e.g., 2, 3-dihydro-1H-indole bound through the aryl ring) wherein the combined ring system may be optionally substituted with one to three groups T1, T2, T3 (especially halo, —OH, —OT6, alkyl, —COtH, —COtT6, or —C(O)NT7T8);

R3 is H or optionally substituted alkyl (especially substituted with one or more —OH, or —OT6);

R4 is (a) hydrogen; (b) (aryl)alkyl where the aryl group is optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1a, T2a, T3a selected from optionally substituted alkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —COtH, —COtT6, —SO3H, —SOtT6, —SOtN(T9)(T6), -T4NT7T8, -T4N(T10)-T5-T6, heterocyclo, or heteroaryl) where T4 is a bond, —SO2—, or —C(O)—; T5 is —SO2—, or -alkylene-O—; T6 is alkyl, or cycloalkyl; T7 and T8 are independently H or alkyl; and T9 and T10 are hydrogen; (c) (heteroaryl)alkyl where the heteroaryl group is optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1a, T2a, T3a selected from optionally substituted alkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, oxo, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —COtH, —COtT6, —SO3H, —SOtT6, —SOtN(T9)(T6), -T4NT7T8, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, heterocyclo, or heteroaryl) where T4 is a bond, —SO2−, or —C(O)—; T5 is —SO2−, or -alkylene-O—; T6 is alkyl, or cycloalkyl; T7 and T8 are independently H or alkyl; and T9 and T10 are hydrogen; (d) (heterocyclo)alkyl where the heterocyclo group is optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1a, T2a, T3a selected from optionally substituted alkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —COtH, —COtT6, —SO3H, —SOtT6, -T4NT7T8, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, heterocyclo, or heteroaryl) where T4 is a bond, —SO2−, or —C(O)—; T5 is —SO2−, or -alkylene-O—; T6 is alkyl, or cycloalkyl; T7 and T8 are independently H or alkyl; and T9 and T10 are hydrogen; (e) alkyl optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1a, T2a T3a selected from —OH, —OT6, —COtH, —COtT6, -T4NT7T8 or -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6) where T4 is a bond; T5 is −C(O)—; T6 is alkyl; T7 and T8 are independently H or alkyl; and T10 is hydrogen; heterocyclo optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1a, T2a, T3a selected from optionally substituted alkyl (especially substituted with -T4NT7T8), optionally substituted aryl (especially substituted with halogen or haloalkyl), cyano, —OH, —OT6, —COtH, —COtT6, oxo, hydroxy(alkyl), (alkoxy)alkyl, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, or -T4-NT7T8) where T4 is a bond or —C(O)—; T5 is —C(O)—, —SO2−, or -alkylene-C(O)O—; T6 is alkyl, alkoxy, or heteroaryl; T7 and T8 are independently H, alkyl, or cycloalkyl; or T7 and T8 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached combine to form an optionally substituted heterocyclo ring;

or R3 and R4 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached combine to form a heterocyclo ring selected from pyrrolidinyl, piperadinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, diazapanyl or 1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl), any of which are optionally independently substituted with one to three groups T1a, T2a, T3a selected from optionally substituted alkyl (especially substituted with -T4NT7T8), optionally substituted aryl (especially substituted with halogen or haloalkyl), cyano, —OH, —OT6, —COtH, —COtT6, oxo, hydroxy(alkyl), (alkoxy)alkyl, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, or -T4-NT7T8) where T4 is a bond or —C(O)—; T5 is —C(O)—, —SO2−, or -alkylene-C(O)O—; T6 is alkyl, alkoxy, or heteroaryl; T7 and T8 are independently H, alkyl, or cycloalkyl; or T7 and T8 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached combine to form an optionally substituted heterocyclo ring;

R5 is hydrogen or alkyl;

R6 is (a) hydrogen; (b) (aryl)alkyl where the aryl group is optionally independently substituted with one or more groups Tlc, T2c, T3c selected from optionally substituted alkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —COtH, —COtT6, —SO3H, —SOtT6, —SOtN(T9)(T6), -TNT7T8, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, heterocyclo, or heteroaryl) where T4 is a bond, —SO2-, or —C(O)—; T5 is —SO2-, or -alkylene-O—; T6 is alkyl, or cycloalkyl; T7 and T8 are independently H or alkyl; and T9 and T10 are hydrogen; (c) (heteroaryl)alkyl where the heteroaryl group is optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1c, T2c, T3c selected from optionally substituted alkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, oxo, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —COtH, —COtT6, —SO3H, —SOtT6, —SOtN(T9)(T6), -T4NT7T8, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, heterocyclo, or heteroaryl) where T4 is a bond, —SO2-, or —C(O)—; T5 is —SO2−, or -alkylene-O—; T6 is alkyl, or cycloalkyl; T7 and T8 are independently H or alkyl; and T9 and T10 are hydrogen; (d) (heterocyclo)alkyl where the heterocyclo group is optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1c, T2c, T3c selected from optionally substituted alkyl, halo, cyano, nitro, (hydroxy)alkyl, —OH, —OT6, —ST6, —COtH, —COtT6, —SO3H, —SOtT6, -T4NT7T8, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, heterocyclo, or heteroaryl) where T4 is a bond, —SO2−, or —C(O)—; T5 is —SO2−, or -alkylene-O—; T6 is alkyl, or cycloalkyl; T7 and T8 are independently H or alkyl; and T9 and T10 are hydrogen; (e) alkyl optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1c, T2c, T3c selected from —OH, —OT6, —OCtH, —COtT6, -T4NT7T8 or -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6) where T4 is a bond; T5 is −C(O)—; T6 is alkyl; T7 and T8 are independently H or alkyl; and T10 is hydrogen; heterocyclo optionally independently substituted with one or more groups T1c, T2c, T3c selected from optionally substituted alkyl (especially substituted with -T4NT7T8), optionally substituted aryl (especially substituted with halogen or haloalkyl), cyano, —OH, —OT6, —COtH, —COtT6, oxo, hydroxy(alkyl), (alkoxy)alkyl, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, or -T4-NT7T8, where T4 is a bond or —C(O)—; T5 is —C(O)—, —SO2−, or -alkylene-C(O)O—; T6 is alkyl, alkoxy, or heteroaryl; T7 and T8 are independently H, alkyl, or cycloalkyl; or T7 and T8 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached combine to form an optionally substituted heterocyclo ring;

or R5 and R6 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached combine to form a heterocyclo ring selected from pyrrolidinyl, piperadinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, diazapanyl or 1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl), any of which are optionally independently substituted with one to three groups T1a, T2a, T3a selected from optionally substituted alkyl (especially substituted with -T4NT7T8), optionally substituted aryl (especially substituted with halogen or haloalkyl), cyano, —OH, —OT6, —COtH, -COtT6, oxo, hydroxy(alkyl), (alkoxy)alkyl, -T4-N(T10)-T5-T6, or -T4-NT7T8 where T4 is a bond or —C(O)—; 5 is —C(O)—, —SO2−, or -alkylene-C(O)O—; T6 is alkyl, alkoxy, or heteroaryl; T7 and T8 are independently H, alkyl, or cycloalkyl; or T7 and T8 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached combine to form a an optionally substituted heterocyclo ring.

In a further related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the present invention include the following compounds:

2-[[4-[[[4-(Aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methy]amino]-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester trifluoroacetate salt; 2-[[4-[[[4-(Aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(4-Methoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(3-Methoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(2-Methoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-(1-piperazinyl)-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(2-Ethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(3,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[[4-(Methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(3-Bromophenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl)amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[methyl(3-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-(1-piperazinyl)-6-[[[4-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-4-yl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[[3-(Cyclopentyloxy)-4-methoxyphenyl]methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[(phenylmethyl)amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(4-Hydroxy-1-piperidinyl)-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[[2-(1-methylethoxy)ethyl]amino]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethyl]amino]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-[[3-(4-morpholinyl)propyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[(2-Methoxy-1-methylethyl)amino]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-[[(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[2-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-pyrrolidinyl]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[methyl(3-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[2-(Diethylamino)ethyl]methylamino]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-[[3-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)propyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-[[[(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[2-[(Acetylamino)ethyl]amino]-6-[[[(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(4-Ethyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(4-Acetyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]amino]-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(3-Hydroxy-1-pyrrolidinyl)-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[(4-Hydroxybutyl)amino]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)amino]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[(4-Amino-1-piperidinyl)-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(4-Dimethylamino-1-piperidinyl)-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[[4-(Aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-(methylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4,6-Bis-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(3-Hydroxymethyl-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-6-morpholin-4-yl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Amino-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4,6-Bis-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-oxo-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-methyl-4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-dimethylmethyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-hydroxymethyl-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-dimethylmethyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(3-hydroxymethyl-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-dimethylmethyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-hydroxymethyl-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[4-(4-hydroxy-piperazin-1-yl)-6-morpholin-4-yl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[(4-[[[4-(Methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-chloro-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[[4-(Aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-chloro-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Dimethylamino)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[1-piperizinyl]-6-methyl-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(4-Amino-1-piperidinyl)-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-methyl-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-methyl-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(3-oxo-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperizinyl]-6-methyl-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[1-morpholinyl]-6-methyl-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-Oxo-1-piperizinyl]-6-[[(1,1-dioxido-3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-2-(3H)-yl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-Oxo-1-piperizinyl]-6-[[(4-(ethylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-Oxo-1-piperizinyl]-6-[[(4-(hydroxysulfonyl)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-methyl-3-oxo-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4(Dimethylamino)-piperizin-1-yl)-6-(4-((1-pyrrolidinyl)carbonylmethyl)piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(4-Amino-1-piperidinyl)-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[4-[tetrazol-5-yl]-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-6-[N-methyl-N-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(4-(hydroxysulfonyl)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(4-Cyanophenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; trifluoroacetate (1:1); 2-[[4-[[[4-(Aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-(4-morpholinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-[(1-oxa-3,8-diazaspiro[4.5]decan-2,4,dion-8-yl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl)-piperazin-1-yl)-6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(4-Hydroxy-1-piperidinyl)-6-[methyl(3-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylpiperidin-1-yl]-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(3,4-Dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-2(1H)-isoquinolinyl)-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester, trifluoroacetate 1:1); 2-[[4-[4-[(Methoxyacetyl)amino]-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-[4-(dimethylamino)-1-piperidinyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Hydroxyethyl)piperidin-1-yl]-6-[4-(dimethylamino)-1-piperidinyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Dimethylamino)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[methyl(3-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Hydroxy)piperidin-1-yl]-6-[4-(methoxycarbonyl)-1-piperidinyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Hydroxy)piperidin-1-yl]-6-[4-(methyl)-4-(hydroxy)-1-piperidinyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(3-oxopiperazin-1-yl)-6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(4-Cyanophenyl)methyl]amino]-6-[4-dimethylamino)-1-piperidinyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[[(3-nitrophenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester, trifluoroacetate (1:1); 2-[[4-(4-Hydroxy-1-piperidinyl)-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(Dimethylamino)-piperazin-1-yl)-6-(4-methyl piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(Dimethylamino)-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(3-(aminocarbonyl)-1-piperazinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-piperazin-1-yl)-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[N-methyl-N-(3-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methy-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Methylpiperazin-1-yl]-6-[[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[piperazin-1-yl]-6-[[(4-carboxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-Hydroxymethylpiperidin-1-yl]-6-[[N-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-N-(methyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-carboxypiperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[Piperazin-1-yl]-6-[[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(4-Formyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-(hydroxy)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[4-dimethylamino-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[Piperazin-1-yl]-6-[[N-methyl-N-(5-tetrazolylmethyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Morpholinyl]-6-[4-[tetrazol-5-yl]-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(1,1-dioxido-3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-2-(3H)-yl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-(1-methyl-1-hydroxyethyl)piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[N-methyl-N-(3-pyridinylmethyl)]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxymethyl-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(4-(ethylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-[4-[tetrazol-5-yl]-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-tertButyloxycarbonylamino-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[N-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]]-N-(methyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(4-Cyanophenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester, trifluoroacetate (1:1); 2-[[4-[4-[[(2-Ethoxy-2-oxoethyl)amino]carbonyl]-1-piperazinyl]-6-[methyl(3-pyridinylmethy)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester, trifluoroacetate (1:1); 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(3-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-1-piperidinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[4-morpholinyl]-6-[[(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[(Tetrahydro-2-furanyl)methyl]amino]-6-[[N-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]]-N-(methyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Morpholinyl]-6-[[(4-(hydroxysulfonyl)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[Bis-4,6-(4-Cyano-1-piperidinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Cyclopentylaminocarbonyl)-1-piperazinyl]-6-[N-methyl-N-(3-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(2-Methoxyethyl)-piperazin-1-yl)-6-(4-methyl-1-piperzinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(3-carboxypiperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Methylpiperazin-1-yl]-6-[3-(acetylamino)-1-pyrrolidinyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[N-methyl-N-(3-pyridinylmethyl)]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[2-Methyl-3-oxol-piperizinyl]-6-[4-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperazinyl]-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-(4-dimethylamino-1-piperidinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[1-piperazinyl]-6-[[N-methyl-N-(2-furylmethyl)]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(4-Methoxycarbonylphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(4-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester, trifluoroacetate (1:1); 2-[[4-[3-Oxo-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[(4-(methylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-Oxo-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[(4-(propylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[Bis-4,6-(4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[4-dimethylamino-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)propyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-Oxo-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[(4-(iso-propylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(3-hydroxymethyl-1-piperidinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[4-hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[[4-(Ethylaminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-methoxy-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, methyl ester, trifluoroacetate (1:1); 2-[[4-[4-Morpholinyl]-6-[(1-oxa-3, 8-diazaspiro[4.5]decan-2,4, dion-8-yl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(4-(ethylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[tertButyloxycarbonyl-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-ethoxycarbonyl-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[N-methyl-N-(5-tetrazolylmethyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-Oxo-1-piperizinyl]-6-[[(4-(cyclopropylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxymethyl-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(4-(methylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Dimethylamino-1-piperazinyl)-6-(4-tertbutyloxycarbonylamino-1-piperidinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-methoxymethyl-1-piperidinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-hydroxyethyl-1-piperidinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-(hydroxy)-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-morpholinyl]-6-[4-[1-methyl-1-hydroxyethyl]-1-piperidinyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(3-Oxo-1-piperizinyl]-6-[[3-pyridyl]oxy]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Methyl-1-piperazinyl]-6-[(1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Morpholinyl]-6-[[(4-(methylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-Oxo-1-piperazinyl]-6-[(1-oxa-3,8-diazospiro[4.5]decan-2,4, dion-8-yl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(4-(carboxy)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-(hydroxy)-4-(4-bromophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Morpholinyl]-6-[[(4-ethylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Formyl-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[(3-(5-(1H)tetrazolyl)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Hydroxymethyl)-1-Piperidinyl]-6-[[N-methyl-N-(5-tetrazolylmethyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Methyl-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[(2,5-dimethyl)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)propyl]amino]-6-[N-methyl-N-(3-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[(1-Morpholinyl)]-6-[[N-methyl-N-(5-tetrazolylmethyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-6-[4-[methylsulfonylamino]-1-piperidinyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(2,5-dimethyl)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-(4-morpholinyl)-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-(3-hydroxy-1-piperidinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-[methyl(3-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-Oxo-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[(2-(5-(1H)tetrazolyl)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[(2-Furanylmethyl)amino]-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester, trifluoroacetate (1:1); 2-[[4-[[(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(4-morpholinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[methyl(3-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-6-[[(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[(4-hydroxy-1-piperidinyl)]-6-[[N-methyl-N-(5-tetrazolylmethyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-6-[(4-(hydroxy)-4-(phenylmethyl)piperidin-1-yl)]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Dimethylamino-1-piperazinyl)-6-[[2-(1-morpholinyl)ethyl]amino]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(3-pyridinylmethyl)]oxy]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(4-(methylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(4-(propylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(3,4-Dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2(1H)-isoquinolinyl)-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Formyl-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[N-methyl-N-(5-tetrazolylmethyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(4-Carboxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-[4-(hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(4-Carboxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester, monohydrochloride; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-[[(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(4-Carboxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-[3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[[4-[[(2-Methoxyethyl)amino]carbonyl]phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester, trifluoroacetate (1:1); 2-[4,6-Bis-(1-morpholinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[N-methyl-N-(5-tetrazolylmethyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[-methyl(3-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-6-[4-morpholinyl]-2-pyridinylmethyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[[4-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-Chloro-6-[(1-oxa-3,8-diazaspiro[4.5]decan-2,4,dion-8-yl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-(Hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Hydroxymethyl)-1-Piperidinyl]-6-[[N-methyl-N-(5-tetrazolylmethyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Hydroxymethyl)-1-pyrrolidinyl]-6-[[N-methyl-N-(5-tetrazolylmethyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[4-[methyl(phenylmethyl)amino]-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(Dimethylamino)-6-[[[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(3-(5-(1H)tetrazolyl)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-hydroxymethyl-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(4-(propylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-hydroxymethyl-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(4-(cyclopropylsulfonylamino)phenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[3-(Hydroxymethyl)-1-piperidinyl]-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-tetrahydropyranyl]oxy-6-[[N-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]]-N-(methyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Methyl-1-piperazinyl]-6-[(4-methoxyphenyl)oxy]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-6-[[[4-(aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-Isopropyl-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[4-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-6-methyl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[4-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-6-hydroxymethyl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-benzylamino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-benzylamino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[4-[(tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-benzylamino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[4-morpholin-4-yl-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-benzylamino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(3-Carbamoyl-piperidin-1-yl)-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-benzylamino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino])-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxymethylpiperidin-1-yl)-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-benzylamino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(2-Hydroxymethyl-1-pyrrolidinyl)-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-benzylamino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(3-N,N-Diethylcarbamoyl-1-piperidinyl)-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-benzylamino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(3-Hydroxy-1-pyrrolidinyl)-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-benzylamino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[[2-[4-morpholin-4-yl]ethyl]amino-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-benzylamino]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 4-Methyl-2-[[[4-hydroxyl]butyl]amino-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-benzylamino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Formyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-benzylamino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(4-Chlorophenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(4-Aminosylfonylphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-Morpholino-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(1,4-Dioxa-8-aza-spiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)-6-(5-oxazoly)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-4-phenyl-piperidinyl]-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(4-Methylsulfonylphenyl)methyl]amino]-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-piperidinyl]-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Ethoxycarbonyl-piperidinyl]-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-Piperidinyl-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[N-Methylpiperazinyl-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[N-(2-Furylcarbonyl)piperazinyl-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[N-Acetyl-[1,4-diazepyl]-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[N-Methyl-N—(N-methyl-4-piperidinyl)-amino]-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[N-Methyl-[1,4]-diazepyl]-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-N,N-Dimethoxyethylamino-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[(1′,4)-Bipiperidinyl]-6-(5-oxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[(4-(4-Hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-6-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-phenyl]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-6-pyridin-3-yl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Methanesulfonyl-benzylamino)-6-pyridin-3-yl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-6-pyrimidin-4-yl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Cyano-phenyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Acetyl-phenyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxymethyl-phenyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxy-phenyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Methanesulfonyl-benzylamino)-6-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Methanesulfinylphenyl)-6-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-(Amino)phenyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Carboxymethyl-phenyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-(Trifluoromethylcarbonylamino)phenyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-(Ethoxycarbonylmethyl)phenyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(3-(cyano)phenyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-(Methoxycarbonyl)phenyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(2-(Methoxy)-5-pyridinyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-tertButyloxycarbonyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(1,4-Dioxaspiro[4.5]dec-7-en-8-yl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Methyl-1-piperazin-yl)-6-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Morpholinyl)-6-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Morpholinyl)-6-(3-pyridinyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(Piperidin-4-yl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-piperidinyl]-6-(3,5-dimethyl-4-isoxazolyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazole-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-tert-Butoxycarbonylamino-phenyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Cyano-phenyl)-6-(4-methanesulfonyl-benzylamino)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Methanesulfonylphenyl)-6-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Methanesulfanylphenyl)-6-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Carboxy-phenyl)-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Carboxy-phenyl)-6-(3-oxo-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Carboxy-phenyl)-6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Carboxy-phenyl)-6-morpholin-4-yl-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Carboxy-phenyl)-6-(4-methyl-[1,4]diazepan-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Carboxy-phenyl)-6-(3-R-hydrox-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Carboxy-phenyl)-6-(3-hydroxymethyl-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Acetyl-[1,4]diazepan-1-yl)-6-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Carboxy-phenyl)-6-[N-methyl-N-(1-N-methyl-piperidin-4-yl)-amino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Carboxy-phenyl)-6-piperazin-1-yI-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Carboxy-phenyl)-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[5-Allyl[4-(aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-chloro-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[[4-(Aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-5-methyl-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester, trifluoroacetate (1:3); 2-[[4-[[[4-(Aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-5-methyl-6-(4-morpholinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[5-Allyl[4-(aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-(4-methylpiperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[5-[2-[2-Methylprop-3-en]]-4-[4-(aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-(4-methylpiperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[[(3,4,5-(Trimethoxy)phenyl]methyl]amino]-5-methyl-6-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester, trifluoroacetate; 2-[[4-[[5-[2,3-propandiol][4-(aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-(4-methylpiperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[[3,4,5-(Trimethoxy)phenyl]methyl]amino]-5-methyl-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester, trifluoroacetate; 2-[[4-[[5-[2-[2-Methylprop-3-en]]-4-[4-(aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-6-chloro-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[[4-(Aminosulfonyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-5-methyl-6-(4-tertbutyloxycarbonyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[N-[[3,4,5-(Trimethoxy)phenyl]methyl]-N-methylamino]-5-methyl-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[4,6-Bis-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-5-methylpyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4,6-Bis-(3-oxo-piperazin-1-yl)-5-[ethoxycarbonylmethyl]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4,6-Bis-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-5-methoxypyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[N-[[3,4,5-(Trimethoxy)phenyl]methyl]-N-methylamino]-5-methoxy-6-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[3-pyridyl]methyloxy]-5-(2-propenyl-6-(4-morpholinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[(4-Ethoxycarbonylmethyl-6-morpholin-4-yl-pyrimidin-2-yl)-amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[(4-Ethoxycarbonylmethyl-6-[3-oxo-1-piperazinyl]-pyrimidin-2-yl)-amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[(4-Carboxymethyl-6-morpholin-4-yl-pyrimidin-2-yl)-amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid; 2-[4-Morpholin-4-yl-6-[(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenylcarbamoyl)-methyl]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[2-oxo-2-(3-oxo-piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl]-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-6-[(4-sulfamoyl-benzylcarbamoyl)-methyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-[2-(1,4-Dioxa-8-aza-spiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl]-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[(4-Chloro-phenyl)-methyl-carbamoyl]-methyl]-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[2-(4-Hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl]-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[2-(4-Ethoxycarbonyl-piperidin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl]-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(2-oxo-2-piperidin-1-yl-ethyl)-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[2-[4-(Furan-2-carbonyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-2-oxo-ethyl]-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[(Cyclohexyl-methyl-carbamoyl)-methyl]-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[2-(4-Acetyl-[1,4]diazepan-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl]-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[Methyl-(1-methyl-piperidin-4-yl)-carbamoyl]-methyl]-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[2-(4-methyl-[1,4]diazepan-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl]-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[[Bis-(2-methoxy-ethyl)-carbamoyl]-methyl]-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(2-[1,4′]Bipiperidinyl-1′-yl-2-oxo-ethyl)-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[2-(4-Hydroxy-4-phenyl-piperidin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl]-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-Ethoxycarbonyl-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-Carboxyl-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(Carboxymethyl-carbamoyl)-6-(4-sulfamoyl-benzylamino)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-methylsulfanyl-benzyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-(4-Hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-methanesulfinyl-benzyl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-(4-Hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-6-(4-methanesulfonyl-benzyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-6-[N-methyl-N-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-trifluoromethyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Methylpiperazin-1-yl]-6-(N-methyl-N-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-cyanothiazole; 2-[[4-[4-Methylpiperazin-1-yl]-6-methyl-6-[[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, 2-methoxyethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-Hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl]-6-[N-methyl[[N-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl][-N-methyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, butyl ester; 2-[[4-[1-morpholinyl]-6-[[2-[1-morpholinyl]ethyl]amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, butyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[N-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]]-N-(methyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-isopropyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester; 2-[[4-[4-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-6-[[N-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]]-N-(methyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid, methyl amide; 2-[4-[4-(2-Diisopropylamino-ethylcarbamoyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-[4-(3-Dimethylamino-propylcarbamoyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-[4-(Cyclohexylmethylcarbamoyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-[4-(Pyridin-4-ylmethylcarbamoyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-[4-(Isobutylcarbomoyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-[4-(N-Cyclohexyl-N-methylcarbamoyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-[4-(N-Cyclopropylmethyl-N-propylcarbamoyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-[4-(4-Ethoxycarbonylpyperidine-1-carbamoyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-[4-(3-Hydroxymethyl-piperidine-1-carbonyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-[4-(N-2-Hydroxyethyl-N-ethylcarbamoyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-[4-(Thiomorpholine-1-carbonyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; 2-[4-[4-(Morpholine-1-carbonyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; and 2-[4-[4-(4-Chloro-phenylcarbamoyl)-phenyl]-6-(4-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-4-methyl-5-thiazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester; or a stereoisomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or a hydrate thereof.

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the present invention include the following compounds:

or a stereoisomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or a hydrate thereof.

The preparation of these compounds is described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,087,614, U.S. 20030162802, and WO 2002/102313.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in US 2007/0129388 and WO 2007/063391, each expressly incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

m is 0, 1 or 2; X is O, S or N—CN; R is F, Cl or CN; A is a C3-6 cycloalkylene group optionally substituted with a C1-4 alkyl group; and B is a single bond or a C1-2 alkylene group; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, polymorph or prodrug thereof.

In regard to the above compounds, the term “alkylene” denotes a divalent saturated hydrocarbon chain having 1 or 2 carbon atoms. Examples of alkylene groups include methylene, ethylene and methylmethylene, of which methylene is preferred.

The term “cycloalkylene” denotes a divalent saturated carbocyclic ring having 3 to 6 carbon atoms. Examples of cycloalkylene groups include cyclopropylene (e.g., 1,1-cyclopropylene and cis- and trans-1,2-cyclopropylene), cyclobutylene (e.g., 1,1-cyclobutylene, cis and trans-1,2-cyclobutylene, and cis and trans-1,3-cyclobutylene), cyclopentylene (e.g., 1,1-cyclopentylene, cis and trans-1,2-cyclopentylene, and cis- and trans-1,3-cyclopentylene) and cyclohexylene (e.g., 1,1-cyclohexylene, cis- and trans-1,2-cyclohexylene, cis- and trans-1,3-cyclohexylene) and cis- and trans-1,4-cyclohexylene).

Preferred examples include cyclobutylene and cyclohexylene, more preferably cyclobutylene, even more preferably 1,3-cyclobutylene, and most preferably trans-1,3-cyclobutylene.

The term “alkyl” denotes a monovalent, straight or branched, saturated hydrocarbon chain containing 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Examples of alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl and tert-butyl. Preferred examples include methyl and ethyl, especially methyl.

The cycloalkylene group is optionally substituted with a C1-4 alkyl group. Preferably, the alkyl substituent, if present, is a methyl or ethyl group, more preferably a methyl group. The alkyl substituent, if present, may be present at any position on the ring, but is preferably present at the 1-position (i.e., the same position as the carboxylic acid group).

Preferably, m is 1 or 2, more preferably 1.

Preferably, X is O or N—CN, more preferably O.

Preferably, R is F or Cl, more preferably Cl.

Preferably, A is a cyclobutylene or cyclohexylene group optionally substituted with a methyl group. More preferably, A is a cyclobutylene group. Even more preferably, A is a 1,3-cyclobutylene group, especially a trans-1,3-cyclobutylene group.

Preferably, B is a single bond or a methylene group. More preferably, B is a single bond.

In another embodiment, a PDE7 inhibitor useful in the methods of the invention is selected from the following compounds:

cis-3-[(8′-Chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazo-lin]-5′-yl)oxy]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid; trans-3-[(8′-Chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quina-zolin]-5′-yl)oxy]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid; 3-[(8′-fluoro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)oxymethyl]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid; trans-3-[(8′-cyano-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinaz-olin]-5′-yl)oxy]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid; 1-[(8′-fluoro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)oxymethyl]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid; trans-3-[(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cycloheptyl-1,4′-quina-zolin]-5′-yl)oxy]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid; and trans-3-[(8′-chloro-2′-oxo-2′,3′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclopentyl-1,4′-quinazolin]-5′-yl)oxy]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, polymorph or prodrug thereof.

The preparation of the above compounds is described in US 2007/0129388 and WO 2007/063391.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the compound ASB16165 (1-Cyclohexyl-N-[6-(4-hydroxy-1-piperidinyl)-3-pyridinyl]-3-methyl-1H-thieno[2,3-c]pyrazole-5-carboxamide monohydrate) described in Kadoshima-Yamaoka, K. et al., “ASB16165, a novel inhibitor for phosphodiesterase 7A (PDE7A), suppresses IL-12-induced IFN-g production by mouse activated T lymphocytes,” Immunology Letters 122:193-197, 2009, expressly incorporated by reference herein. In one embodiment, a PDE7 inhibitor useful in the methods of the invention has the formula:

Methods for preparing the above compound are described in WO 2006/004040.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the compound YM-393059 ((+)-N-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)-4-[2-(4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)-5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-indol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide difumarate) described in Yamamoto, S. et al., “The effects of a novel phosphodiesterase 7A and -4 dual inhibitor, YM-393059, on T-cell-related cytokine production in vitro and in vivo.” European Journal of Pharmacology 541:106-114, 2006, expressly incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in Martinez et al., “Benzyl derivatives of 2,1,3-benzo- and benzothieno 3,2-aathiadiazine 2,2-dioxides: first phosphodiesterase 7 inhibitors,” J Med. Chem. 43:683-689, 2000, which is expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the following compounds:

1-[(4-Methoxyphenyl)carbonylmethyl]benzothieno-[3,2-a]-1,2,6-thiadiazin-493H)-one 2,2-dioxide; and 1-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-methyl]-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2 dioxide.

The preparation of the above compounds is described in J. Med. Chem. 43:683-689, 2000.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in Castro, A. et al., “CODES, a novel procedure for ligand-based virtual screening: PDE7 inhibitors as an application example,”. J. Med. Chem. 43:1349-1359, 2008, which is expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the following compounds:

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

X=O or S,

R=H, Ph, 4-OMePh, 2,6-diFPh, 2,3,4-triFPh, 2-BrPh, Bn, Naphthyl, or Me.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the following compounds:

5.2.4. 3-(2,3,4-Trifluorophenyl)-2-thioxo-(1H)-quinazolin-4-one;

5.3.2. 3-Phenyl-2-thioxo-(1H)-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one;

5.3.3. 3-(2,6-Difluorophenyl)-2-thioxo-(1H)-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one; and

5.4.2. 3-(2,6-Difluorophenyl-2-thioxo-(1H)-benzo[4,5]-thieno[3,2-d]-pyrimidin-4-one.

The preparation of the above compounds is described in J. Med. Chem. 43:1349-1359, 2008.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include BMS-586353, as described in Yang, G. et al., “Phosphodiesterase 7A-deficient mice have functional T cells,” J. Immunol 171:6414-6420, 2003, which is expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in Pitts, W. J. et al., “Identification of purine inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7),” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 14:2955-2958, 2004, and Kempson, J. et al., “Fused pyrimidine based inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7): synthesis and initial structure-activity relationships,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15:1829-1833, 2005, each expressly incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

The substituents for the above compounds are defined as follows:

wherein the ethyl group may be attached to the 7 or 9 position.

In a related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formulas:

In another related embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention have the formula:

where X=CH2, CH2CH2 or OCH2;

Ar is

and NRR′ is

In another embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention are selected from those compounds generally or specifically disclosed in Kang, N. S. et al., “Docking and 3-D QSAR studies of dual PDE4-PDE7 inhibitors,” Molecular Simulation 33:1109-1117, 2007, expressly incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. In one embodiment, PDE7 inhibitors useful in the methods of the invention include the following compounds:

Methods for preparing the above compounds are described in Molecular Simulation 33:1109-1117, 2007.

Polypeptide or Peptide Inhibitors

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent comprises isolated PDE7 polypeptide or peptide inhibitors, including isolated natural peptide inhibitors and synthetic peptide inhibitors that inhibit PDE7 activity. As used herein, the term “isolated PDE7 polypeptide or peptide inhibitors” refers to polypeptides or peptides that inhibit PDE7 dependent cleavage of cAMP by binding to PDE7, competing with PDE7 for binding to a substrate, and/or directly interacting with PDE7 to inhibit PDE7-dependent cleavage of cAMP, that are substantially pure and are essentially free of other substances with which they may be found in nature to an extent practical and appropriate for their intended use.

Peptide inhibitors have been used successfully in vivo to interfere with protein-protein interactions and catalytic sites. For example, peptide inhibitors to adhesion molecules structurally related to LFA-1 have recently been approved for clinical use in coagulopathies (Ohman, E. M., et al., European Heart J. 16:50-55, 1995). Short linear peptides (<30 amino acids) have been described that prevent or interfere with integrin-dependent adhesion (Murayama, O., et al., J. Biochem. 120:445-51, 1996). Longer peptides, ranging in length from 25 to 200 amino acid residues, have also been used successfully to block integrin-dependent adhesion (Zhang, L., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 271(47):29953-57, 1996). In general, longer peptide inhibitors have higher affinities and/or slower off-rates than short peptides and may therefore be more potent inhibitors. Cyclic peptide inhibitors have also been shown to be effective inhibitors of integrins in vivo for the treatment of human inflammatory disease (Jackson, D. Y., et al., J. Med. Chem. 40:3359-68, 1997). One method of producing cyclic peptides involves the synthesis of peptides in which the terminal amino acids of the peptide are cysteines, thereby allowing the peptide to exist in a cyclic form by disulfide bonding between the terminal amino acids, which has been shown to improve affinity and half-life in vivo for the treatment of hematopoietic neoplasms (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 6,649,592 to Larson).

Synthetic PDE7 Peptide Inhibitors

PDE7 inhibitory peptides useful in the methods of the invention are exemplified by amino acid sequences that mimic the target regions important for PDE7 enzyme activity, such as the catalytic domain of PDE7. PDE7A and PDE7B have an identity of 70% in the catalytic domain. (Hetman, J. M., et al., PNAS 97(1):472-476, 2000.) The catalytic domain of PDE7A1 is from amino acid residue 185 to 456 of SEQ ID NO:2. The catalytic domain of PDE7A2 is from amino acid residue 211 to 424 of SEQ ID NO:4. The catalytic domain of PDEB is from amino acid residue 172 to 420 of SEQ ID NO:6. The inhibitory peptides useful in the practice of the methods of the invention range in size from about 5 amino acids to about 250 amino acids. One may also use molecular modeling and rational molecular design to generate and screen for peptides that mimic the molecular structure of the PDE7 catalytic regions and inhibit the enzyme activity of PDE7. The molecular structures used for modeling include the CDR regions of anti-PDE7 monoclonal antibodies. Methods for identifying peptides that bind to a particular target are well known in the art. For example, molecular imprinting may be used for the de novo construction of macromolecular structures such as peptides that bind to a particular molecule. See, for example, Shea, K. J., “Molecular Imprinting of Synthetic Network Polymers: The De Novo Synthesis of Macromolecular Binding and Catalytic Sties,” TRIP 2(5), 1994.

As an illustrative example, one method of preparing mimics of PDE7 binding peptides is as follows. Functional monomers of a binding region of an anti-PDE7 antibody that exhibits PDE7 inhibition (the template) are polymerized. The template is then removed, followed by polymerization of a second class of monomers in the void left by the template, to provide a new molecule that exhibits one or more desired properties that are similar to the template. In addition to preparing peptides in this manner, other PDE7 binding molecules that are PDE7 inhibitory agents, such as polysaccharides, nucleosides, drugs, nucleoproteins, lipoproteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, steroids, lipids, and other biologically active materials, can also be prepared. This method is useful for designing a wide variety of biological mimics that are more stable than their natural counterparts because they are typically prepared by free radical polymerization of functional monomers, resulting in a compound with a nonbiodegradable backbone.

The PDE7 inhibitory peptides can be prepared using techniques well known in the art, such as the solid-phase synthetic technique initially described by Merrifield in J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 85:2149-2154, 1963. Automated synthesis may be achieved, for example, using Applied Biosystems 431A Peptide Synthesizer (Foster City, Calif.) in accordance with the instructions provided by the manufacturer. Other techniques may be found, for example, in Bodanszky, M., et al., Peptide Synthesis, second edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1976, as well as in other reference works known to those skilled in the art. The peptides can also be prepared using standard genetic engineering techniques known to those skilled in the art.

A candidate PDE7 inhibitory peptide may be tested for the ability to function as a PDE7 inhibitory agent in one of several assays, including, for example, a PDE7 phosphodiesterase assay.

Expression Inhibitors of PDE7

In some embodiments of the methods of the invention, the PDE7 inhibitory agent is a PDE7 expression inhibitor capable of inhibiting PDE7-dependent cAMP cleavage (PDE7A, PDE7B, or both). In the practice of this embodiment of the invention, representative PDE7 expression inhibitors include PDE7 antisense nucleic acid molecules (such as antisense mRNA, antisense DNA, or antisense oligonucleotides), PDE7 ribozymes, and PDE7 RNAi molecules.

Anti-sense RNA and DNA molecules act to directly block the translation of PDE7 mRNA by hybridizing to PDE7 mRNA and preventing translation of PDE7 protein. An antisense nucleic acid molecule may be constructed in a number of different ways provided that it is capable of interfering with the expression of PDE7. For example, an antisense nucleic acid molecule can be constructed by inverting the coding region (or a portion thereof) of PDE7A1 cDNA (SEQ ID NO: 1), PDE7A2 cDNA (SEQ ID NO:3) or PDE7B cDNA (SEQ ID NO:5) relative to its normal orientation for transcription to allow for the transcription of its complement. Methods for designing and administering antisense oligonucleotides are well known in the art and are described, e.g., in Mautino et al., Hum Gene Ther 13:1027-37, 2002; and Pachori et al., Hypertension 39:969-75, 2002, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference.

The antisense nucleic acid molecule is usually substantially identical to at least a portion of the target gene or genes. The nucleic acid, however, need not be perfectly identical to inhibit expression. Generally, higher homology can be used to compensate for the use of a shorter antisense nucleic acid molecule. The minimal percent identity is typically greater than about 65%, but a higher percent identity may exert a more effective repression of expression of the endogenous sequence. Substantially greater percent identity of more than about 80% typically is preferred, though about 95% to absolute identity is typically most preferred.

The antisense nucleic acid molecule need not have the same intron or exon pattern as the target gene, and non-coding segments of the target gene may be equally effective in achieving antisense suppression of target gene expression as coding segments. A DNA sequence of at least about 8 or so nucleotides may be used as the antisense nucleic acid molecule, although a longer sequence is preferable. In the present invention, a representative example of a useful inhibitory agent of PDE7 is an antisense PDE7 nucleic acid molecule that is at least ninety percent identical to the complement of a portion of the PDE7A1 cDNA consisting of the nucleic acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1. Another representative example of a useful inhibitory agent of PDE7 is an antisense PDE7 nucleic acid molecule which is at least ninety percent identical to the complement of a portion of the PDE7A2 cDNA consisting of the nucleic acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:3. Another representative example of a useful inhibitory agent of PDE7 is an antisense PDE7 nucleic acid molecule which is at least ninety percent identical to the complement of a portion of the PDE7B cDNA consisting of the nucleic acid sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:5.

The targeting of antisense oligonucleotides to bind PDE7 mRNA is another mechanism that may be used to reduce the level of PDE7 protein synthesis. For example, the synthesis of polygalacturonase and the muscarine type 2 acetylcholine receptor is inhibited by antisense oligonucleotides directed to their respective mRNA sequences (U.S. Pat. No. 5,739,119 to Cheng, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,759,829 to Shewmaker). Furthermore, examples of antisense inhibition have been demonstrated with the nuclear protein cyclin, the multiple drug resistance gene (MDG1), ICAM-1, E-selectin, STK-1, striatal GABAA receptor and human EGF (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,801,154 to Baracchini; U.S. Pat. No. 5,789,573 to Baker; U.S. Pat. No. 5,718,709 to Considine; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,610,288 to Reubenstein).

A system has been described that allows one of ordinary skill to determine which oligonucleotides are useful in the invention, which involves probing for suitable sites in the target mRNA using Rnase H cleavage as an indicator for accessibility of sequences within the transcripts. Scherr, M., et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 26:5079-5085, 1998; Lloyd, et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 29:3665-3673, 2001. A mixture of antisense oligonucleotides that are complementary to certain regions of the PDE7 transcript is added to cell extracts expressing PDE7 and hybridized in order to create an RNAseH vulnerable site. This method can be combined with computer-assisted sequence selection that can predict optimal sequence selection for antisense compositions based upon their relative ability to form dimers, hairpins, or other secondary structures that would reduce or prohibit specific binding to the target mRNA in a host cell. These secondary structure analysis and target site selection considerations may be performed using the OLIGO primer analysis software (Rychlik, I., 1997) and the BLASTN 2.0.5 algorithm software (Altschul, S. F., et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 25:3389-3402, 1997). The antisense compounds directed towards the target sequence preferably comprise from about 8 to about 50 nucleotides in length. Antisense oligonucleotides comprising from about 9 to about 35 or so nucleotides are particularly preferred. The inventors contemplate all oligonucleotide compositions in the range of 9 to 35 nucleotides (i.e., those of 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, or 35 or so bases in length) are highly preferred for the practice of antisense oligonucleotide-based methods of the invention. Highly preferred target regions of the PDE7 mRNA are those that are at or near the AUG translation initiation codon, and those sequences that are substantially complementary to 5′ regions of the mRNA, e.g., between the 0 and +10 regions of the PDE7 gene nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5).

The term “oligonucleotide” as used herein refers to an oligomer or polymer of ribonucleic acid (RNA) or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or mimetics thereof. This term also covers those oligonucleobases composed of naturally occurring nucleotides, sugars and covalent internucleoside (backbone) linkages as well as oligonucleotides having non-naturally occurring modifications. These modifications allow one to introduce certain desirable properties that are not offered through naturally occurring oligonucleotides, such as reduced toxic properties, increased stability against nuclease degradation and enhanced cellular uptake. In illustrative embodiments, the antisense compounds of the invention differ from native DNA by the modification of the phosphodiester backbone to extend the life of the antisense oligonucleotide in which the phosphate substituents are replaced by phosphorothioates. Likewise, one or both ends of the oligonucleotide may be substituted by one or more acridine derivatives that intercalate between adjacent basepairs within a strand of nucleic acid.

Another alternative to antisense is the use of “RNA interference” (RNAi). Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) can provoke gene silencing in mammals in vivo. The natural function of RNAi and co-suppression appears to be protection of the genome against invasion by mobile genetic elements such as retrotransposons and viruses that produce aberrant RNA or dsRNA in the host cell when they become active (see, e.g., Jensen, J., et al., Nat. Genet. 21:209-12, 1999). The double-stranded RNA molecule may be prepared by synthesizing two RNA strands capable of forming a double-stranded RNA molecule, each having a length from about 19 to 25 (e.g., 19-23 nucleotides). For example, a dsRNA molecule useful in the methods of the invention may comprise the RNA corresponding to a portion of at least one of SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5 and its complement. Preferably, at least one strand of RNA has a 3′ overhang from 1-5 nucleotides. The synthesized RNA strands are combined under conditions that form a double-stranded molecule. The RNA sequence may comprise at least an 8 nucleotide portion of SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO:3 or SEQ ID NO:5 with a total length of 25 nucleotides or less. The design of siRNA sequences for a given target is within the ordinary skill of one in the art. Commercial services are available that design siRNA sequence and guarantee at least 70% knockdown of expression (Qiagen, Valencia, Calif.). Exemplary PDE7 shRNAs and siRNAs are commercially available from Sigma-Aldrich Company (product # SHDNA_-NM_002603; SASI_Hs01_00183420 to SASI_Hs01_00010490).

The dsRNA may be administered as a pharmaceutical composition and carried out by known methods, wherein a nucleic acid is introduced into a desired target cell. Commonly used gene transfer methods include calcium phosphate, DEAE-dextran, electroporation, microinjection and viral methods. Such methods are taught in Ausubel et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993. Therapeutic nucleic acid molecules may be modified to cross the blood-brain barrier. For example, it has been demonstrated that a phosphorothiolate antisense oligonucleotide directed towards the Abeta midregion of amyloid precursor protein (APP) given by i.c.v. administration can reverse the learning and memory deficits in an Alzheimer mouse model. Banks W. A. et al., Journal of Pharm. and Exp. Therapeutics, 297(3):1113-1121, 2001.

Ribozymes:

In some embodiments, a PDE7 inhibitory agent is a ribozyme that specifically cleaves the mRNA of a target PDE7, such as PDE7A, PDE7B or both. Ribozymes that target PDE7 may be utilized as PDE7 inhibitory agents to decrease the amount and/or biological activity of PDE7. Ribozymes are catalytic RNA molecules that can cleave nucleic acid molecules having a sequence that is completely or partially homologous to the sequence of the ribozyme. It is possible to design ribozyme transgenes that encode RNA ribozymes that specifically pair with a target RNA and cleave the phosphodiester backbone at a specific location, thereby functionally inactivating the target RNA. In carrying out this cleavage, the ribozyme is not itself altered, and is thus capable of recycling and cleaving other molecules. The inclusion of ribozyme sequences within antisense RNAs confers RNA-cleaving activity upon them, thereby increasing the activity of the antisense constructs.

Ribozymes useful in the practice of the invention typically comprise a hybridizing region of at least about nine nucleotides, which is complementary in nucleotide sequence to at least part of the target PDE7 mRNA, and a catalytic region that is adapted to cleave the target PDE7 mRNA (see generally, European patent No. 0 321 201; WO 88/04300; Haseloff, J., et al., Nature 334:585-591, 1988; Fedor, M. J., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:1668-1672, 1990; Cech, T. R., et al., Ann. Rev. Biochem. 55:599-629, 1986).

Ribozymes can either be targeted directly to cells in the form of RNA oligonucleotides incorporating ribozyme sequences, or introduced into the cell as an expression vector encoding the desired ribozymal RNA. Ribozymes may be used and applied in much the same way as described for antisense polynucleotides.

Anti-sense RNA and DNA, ribozymes and RNAi molecules useful in the methods of the invention may be prepared by any method known in the art for the synthesis of DNA and RNA molecules. These include techniques for chemically synthesizing oligodeoxyribonucleotides and oligoribonucleotides well known in the art, such as for example solid phase phosphoramidite chemical synthesis. Alternatively, RNA molecules may be generated by in vitro and in vivo transcription of DNA sequences encoding the antisense RNA molecule. Such DNA sequences may be incorporated into a wide variety of vectors that incorporate suitable RNA polymerase promoters such as the T7 or SP6 polymerase promoters. Alternatively, antisense cDNA constructs that synthesize antisense RNA constitutively or inducibly, depending on the promoter used, can be introduced stably into cell lines.

Various well known modifications of the DNA molecules may be introduced as a means of increasing stability and half-life. Useful modifications include, but are not limited to, the addition of flanking sequences of ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides to the 5′ and/or 3′ ends of the molecule or the use of phosphorothioate or 2′ O-methyl rather than phosphodiesterase linkages within the oligodeoxyribonucleotide backbone.

IV. SCREENING METHODS FOR PDE7 INHIBITORS USEFUL TO TREAT ADDICTION

In another aspect, methods are provided for identifying an agent that inhibits PDE7 activity useful for treating an addiction in a mammalian subject in need thereof. The methods of this aspect of the invention comprise: (a) determining the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7 activity for each of a plurality of agents; (b) selecting agents from the plurality of agents having an IC50 for inhibition of PDE7 activity of less than about 1 μM; (c) determining the IC50 for inhibiting PDE4 activity of the agents having an IC50 for inhibiting PDE7 activity of less than about 1 μM; (d) identifying agents useful for treating an addiction by selecting compounds having an IC50 for inhibiting PDE4 activity greater than 10 times the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7; and (e) evaluating the activity of the identified compounds in model system of addiction, wherein an agent that has an IC50 for PDE7 inhibition of less than about 1 μM, and an IC50 for inhibiting PDE4 activity greater than 10 times the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7, and is determined to be effective to treat an addiction in an animal model is indicative of a PDE7 inhibitory agent useful for treating an addiction in a mammalian subject.

Representative agents that may be used in the practice of the methods of this aspect of the invention include molecules that bind to PDE7 and inhibit the enzyme activity of PDE7 (such as small molecule inhibitors or blocking peptides that bind to PDE7 and reduce enzymatic activity), and molecules that decrease the expression of PDE7 at the transcriptional and/or translational level (such as PDE7 antisense nucleic acid molecules, PDE7 specific RNAi molecules and PDE7 ribozymes), thereby preventing PDE7 from cleaving cAMP.

V. GENERAL COMPOSITION DESCRIPTION AND DEFINITIONS

In one aspect, the invention provides a method of treating an addiction comprising administering to a patient in need thereof an amount of a PDE7 inhibitory agent effective to inhibit the enzymatic activity of PDE7, wherein such inhibition of PDE7 enzymatic activity is the principal therapeutic mode of action of the PDE7 inhibitor in the treatment of the addiction. Addictions include addictions to addictive agents or to addictive behaviors. Addictive agents include without limitation psychostimulants, alcohol, opioids, and nicotine. A preferred psychostimulant for treatment of addiction using PDE7 inhibitors is cocaine or methamphetamine. A preferred addictive behavior for treatment using PDE7 inhibitors is binge eating.

For each of the PDE7 inhibitory chemical compounds useful in the method of the present invention, all possible stereoisomers and geometric isomers are included. The compounds include not only racemic compounds, but also the optically active isomers. When a PDE7 inhibitory agent is desired as a single enantiomer, it can be obtained either by resolution of the final product or by stereospecific synthesis from either isomerically pure starting material or use of a chiral auxiliary reagent, for example, see Ma, Z., et al., Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 8(6):883-888, 1997. Resolution of the final product, an intermediate, or a starting material can be achieved by any suitable method known in the art. Additionally, in situations where tautomers of the compounds are possible, the present invention is intended to include all tautomeric forms of the compounds.

The PDE7 inhibitory agents that contain acidic moieties can form pharmaceutically acceptable salts with suitable cations. Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable cations include alkali metal (e.g., sodium or potassium) and alkaline earth metal (e.g., calcium or magnesium) cations. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the PDE7 inhibitory agents, which contain a basic center, are acid addition salts formed with pharmaceutically acceptable acids. Examples include the hydrochloride, hydro bromide, sulfate or bisulfate, phosphate or hydrogen phosphate, acetate, benzoate, succinate, fumarate, maleate, lactate, citrate, tartarate, gluconate, methanefulgonate, bezenesulphonate, and p-toluenesulphonate salts. In light of the foregoing, any reference to compounds useful in the method of the invention appearing herein is intended to include PDE7 inhibitory agents, as well as pharmaceutically acceptable salts and solvates thereof.

The compounds of the present invention can be therapeutically administered as the neat chemical, but it is preferable to administer the PDE7 inhibitory agents as a pharmaceutical composition or formulation. Accordingly, the present invention further provides for pharmaceutical compositions or formulations comprising a PDE7 inhibitory agent, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers and, optionally, other therapeutic and/or prophylactic ingredients. Suitable carriers are compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and not deleterious to the recipient thereof. Compounds of the present invention may also be carried in a delivery system to provide for sustained release or enhanced uptake or activity of the compound, such as a liposomal or hydrogel system for injection, a microparticle, nanopartical, or micelle system for oral or parenteral delivery, or a staged capsule system for oral delivery.

Blood-Brain Barrier:

In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent is administered so as to either pass through or bypass the blood-brain barrier. Preferably the inhibitory agent, compound or composition administered in the method of treatment can cross through the blood-brain barrier in sufficient quantities and at a sufficient rate so as to allow the treatment of the movement disorder. Methods for allowing agents to pass through the blood-brain barrier are known in the art, and include minimizing the size of the agent, providing hydrophobic factors which facilitate passage, and conjugation to a carrier molecule that has substantial permeability across the blood-brain barrier.

In some embodiments, an effective amount of a PDE7 inhibitory agent is an amount that achieves a concentration within brain tissue at or above the IC50 for activity of a given PDE7 inhibitory agent. In some embodiments, the PDE7 inhibitory agent is administered in a manner and dosage that gives a peak concentration of about 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 or more times the IC50 concentration for inhibiting the greater of PDE7A or PDE7B.

EXAMPLES

Example 1: PDE7 Inhibition Reduces Relapse to Cocaine Addiction and Reduces Chronic Cocaine Self-Administration

The ability of PDE7 inhibition to reduce cocaine use was demonstrated in a rat model of cocaine addiction. Cocaine hydrochloride (obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Md.) was dissolved in sterile physiological saline at a concentration of 0.25 mg/0.1 ml. Drug or vehicle solution was infused at a volume of 0.1 ml over 4 s. Two PDE7 inhibitors in accordance with Formulas 1A (OMS182056) and 1B (OMS181869) herein above, were tested for effects on cocaine self-administration. PDE7 inhibitors were given orally (OS) via gavage procedure 12 hours and 1 hour before the beginning of cocaine self-administration.

Male Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 200 g at the time of arrival in the lab were used. The rats were housed in groups of three in a humidity- and temperature-controlled (22o C) vivarium on a 12 h: 12 h reverse light/dark cycle (on, 17:00; off, 05:00) with ad libitum access to food and water. One week after arrival, rats were subjected to surgery, and a silastic catheter was implanted into the right jugular vein.

Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine in 2-h daily sessions on a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement, in which each response resulted in delivery of 0.25 mg/0.1 ml of fluid cocaine solution. Cocaine self-administration training continued until a stable baseline of responding was reached (less than 10% variation for 3 consecutive days calculated for each single rat). At this point, drug testing began.

Rats were treated with PDE7 inhibitors (0.0, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) given OS 12 hours and 1 hour before the beginning of the self-administration session. The number of responses to the active and inactive levers was recorded. A 3-day interval was allowed between drug testing. During these intervals, cocaine self-administration was continued to re-establish baseline lever responses.

Results are shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. Treatment with either OMS182056 or OMS181869 did not significantly reduce cocaine self-administration.

PDE7 inhibitors raise cellular levels of cAMP by reducing degradation of cAMP through phosphodiesterase activity. Cellular cAMP levels also increase through activation of Gs-selective G protein-coupled receptors, e.g., the dopamine D1 receptor. In order to test the effect of raising cAMP levels through activation of the D1 receptor, the D1 receptor agonist SKF82958 was administered to rats, as described above, to determine its effect on cocaine self-administration. SKF82958 was administered at 1.0 mg/kg. Results are shown in FIG. 3. In the first hour after treatment, a significant reduction in self-administration was observed at both doses. Two hours after treatment, the trend of self-administration reduction was non-significant. However, the animals also exhibited significantly abnormal behavior and were extremely aggressive, suggesting that their ability to press the lever was compromised by administration of SK82958 with cocaine. The exhibited behavior was similar to that exhibited after cocaine overdose.

Thus, although both PDE7 inhibitors and dopamine D1 agonists can increase cellular levels of cAMP, these two classes of agents produce very different effects when administered with cocaine.

PDE7 inhibitors and dopamine D1 agonists were next tested for their effect on cocaine priming-induced relapse. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, as above, and were then exposed to extinction conditions. Cocaine was replaced with saline solution. After lever pressing was significantly reduced, reinstatement procedures were begun. Rats were treated with vehicle or agent and ten minutes later were administered cocaine. Lever pressing was counted for one hour following cocaine administration. Results for the PDE7 inhibitor OMS182056 are shown in FIG. 4. Administration of OMS182056 did not have a significant effect on cocaine-induced priming response. Results for the dopamine D1 agonist SKF82958 are shown in FIG. 5. Treatment with SKF82958 significantly reduced lever pressing induced by cocaine priming. However, as above the animals treated with SKF82958 exhibited significantly abnormal behavior. Once again, administration of PDE7 inhibitors and dopamine D1 agonist had very different results in cocaine addicted animals.

The PDE7 inhibitor OMS182056 and the dopamine D1 agonist SKF82958 were administered without cocaine during an extinction period to determine whether these agents have addictive properties. Results are shown in FIGS. 6 and 7. Neither agent caused increased lever pressing by rats when administered on its own. OMS182056 did exhibit a slight, but statistically non-significant, trend toward decreased lever pressing. Thus, neither agent exhibited addictive properties.

OMS182056 was tested for its effect on cocaine-seeking behavior immediately after extinction. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, as above, and were then exposed to extinction conditions. On the first day, cocaine was replaced with saline solution, OMS182056 (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) was administered to the rats and lever presses were counted. Results are shown in FIG. 8. OMS182056 at 3 mg/kg significantly reduced the amount of cocaine seeking behavior at the beginning of the extinction process.

OMS182056 was tested for its effect on cocaine seeking behavior after a stress-induced relapse of addiction. Effect on yohimbine-induced relapse was tested first. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, as above, and were then exposed to extinction conditions. For the reinstatement phase, the day after the last extinction session, rats were injected with yohimbine (1.25 mg/kg) and after thirty minutes were placed in the operant chamber and lever presses were monitored for thirty minutes. It is known that administration of the α-2 adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine, increasing brain noradrenaline cell firing and release, acts as a pharmacological stressor and facilitates relapse to alcohol seeking. (Le et al., Psychopharmacology 179:366-73 (2005)). Results are shown in FIG. 9. At doses of 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, OMS182056 exhibited significant effects in preventing stress induced relapse to cocaine addiction. An additional PDE7 inhibitor, in accordance with Formula 6 herein above (OMS182401), was also tested for its effect on cocaine seeking behavior after a stress-induced relapse of addiction at doses of 0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg. Results are shown in FIG. 10. At all three doses, OMS182401 exhibited significant effects in preventing stress induced relapse to cocaine addiction.

OMS182056 was tested for its effect on cocaine-seeking behavior after a cue-induced relapse of addiction. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, with the addition of a visual or olfactory cue, and were then exposed to extinction condition without cocaine. For the reinstatement phase, the day after the last extinction session, rats were reexposed to previously learned cues. Lever presses were monitored and results are shown in FIG. 11. Although the results were not statistically significant, administration of increasing amounts of OMS182056 (1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg) resulted in a trend toward dose-related reduction of cue-induced relapse in the animals. OMS 182401 was also tested for its effect on cocaine-seeking behavior after a cue-induced relapse of addiction. Results are shown in FIG. 13. Three concentrations of OMS182401 were tested: 0.3 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, and 3.0 mg/kg and results were statistically significant at all three concentrations. Administration of increasing amounts of OMS182401 resulted in statistically significant, dose-related reduction of cue-induced relapse in the animals.

OMS182401 was also tested for its effect on cocaine-self administration over a longer period of time. Rats were surgically implanted with jugular catheters and allowed to recover for one week. Animals then underwent daily six-hour (long-access) training sessions in which each press of the active lever triggered delivery of 0.25 mg cocaine. After one week, the ratio was increased so that five lever presses were required to receive the same amount of cocaine. The animal training continued for about six weeks. After achieving a stable rate of active lever pressing for six consecutive days, the animals were injected i.p. with vehicle or drug (4.5 mg/kg) twice per day. Reinforced responses were assessed over two hour periods.

Results are shown in FIG. 14. Chronic OMS182401 treatment reduced cocaine self-administration in the long-access rat model. The effect of OMS182401 remained stable over at least seven treatment days. Cocaine self-administration returned to baseline level when treatment with OMS182401 was stopped. None of the tested compounds altered pressing of the inactive lever. Data not shown. This experiment confirms the efficacy of PDE7 inhibitors observed in acute models of treatment of cocaine addiction and indicates that OMS 182401 is consistent with chronic dosing.

Example 2: PDE7 Inhibition Reduces Binge Eating in Response to Stress

Reinstatement of binge eating behavior has been obtained in experimental animals through a combination of repeated food restriction and stress. (Cifani et al, Psychopharmacology 204:113-125 (2009). For the present invention, stress-induced binge eating was tested as in Cifani. Rats were housed in individual cages and were given chow and water ad libitum for two weeks prior to the experiment. During the experiment, rats were given one of two food sources: standard rat food pellets or Highly Palatable Food (HPF); a mixture of 52% Nutella TM chocolate cream, 33% rat food pellets, and 15% water (5.33 kcal/g; 56%, 31%, and 7% from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively).

Rats were divided into four groups. Individual groups were subjected to the following 8-day cycles, three consecutive times. Rats were given PDE7 or vehicle on day 25.

(1) Control group—Non-restricted, non-stressed (NR+NS). Rats had chow ad libitum for four days. On days 5 and 6, they received chow ad libitum and HPF for two hours. On days 7 and 8, rats had chow ad libitum. On day 25 the animals were not exposed to stress.

(2) Restricted, non-stressed (R+NS). Rats had chow restricted to 66% of normal intake for four days. On days 5 and 6, they received chow ad libitum and HPF for two hours. On days 7 and 8, rats had 66% of normal chow intake. On day 25 the animals were not exposed to stress.

(3) Non-restricted, stressed (NR+S). Rats had chow ad libitum for four days. On days 5 and 6, they received chow ad libitum and HPF for two hours. On days 7 and 8, rats had chow ad libitum. On day 25 the animals were exposed to stress.

(4) Restricted and stressed (R+S). Rats had chow restricted to 66% of normal intake for four days. On days 5 and 6, they received chow ad libitum and HPF for two hours. On days 7 and 8, rats had 66% of normal chow intake. On day 25 the animals were exposed to stress.

Stress was induced by placing HPF in an unreachable container within sight and smell of the animal for fifteen minutes before allowing the animal to eat the HPF.

On day 25, after appropriate animals were stressed, animals were administered the PDE7 inhibitor OMS182401 (1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg) or a control vehicle. After one hour, animals were given HPF and ad libitum chow. Intake of HPF was measured after two hours. Results are shown in FIGS. 12A-12D.

In all groups, animals ate increasing amounts of HPF over the two hour period. In NR+NS, NR+S and R+NS groups administration of OMS182401 did not significantly affect the amount of HPF consumed by the animals. In the R+S group, both the initial rate of HPF consumption and the total amount eaten in 2 hours were greater than in the other 3 groups. Thus the R+S condition models human binge eating. In addition, in the R+S group, animals administered 3.0 mg/kg OMS182401 consumed less HPF than other animals. By the end of the two hour period, the difference in HPF consumption between the control animals and the animals given 3.0 mg/kg OMS182401 was significant. Thus, administration of the PDE7 inhibitor OMS 182401 reduced stress-induced binge eating in a rat model of the condition.

Example 3: PDE7 Inhibition Alleviates Nicotine Addiction

The ability of PDE7 inhibition to reduce nicotine use was demonstrated in a rat model of nicotine addiction. Male Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 200 g at the time of arrival in the lab were used. The rats were housed in groups of three in a humidity- and temperature-controlled (22° C.) vivarium on a 12 h: 12 h reverse light/dark cycle (on, 17:00; off, 05:00) with ad libitum access to food and water.

Rats were surgically implanted with jugular catheters and allowed to recover for one week. The animals underwent daily two-hour (short access) or six-hour (long access) training sessions in which every three active lever presses triggered the delivery of 0.03 mg of nicotine. After achieving a stable rate of active lever pressing, the animals were injected i.p. with vehicle or drug (either OMS182401 or OMS182399, another PDE7 inhibitor in accordance with Formula 6 above) fifteen minutes before the test session. The measured read-out was number of reinforced responses over two hours. The half-life of OMS182401 in rats is between 1.7-4.9 hours. Results are shown in FIG. 15 (OMS182401, short access), 16 (OMS182401, long access) and 20 (OMS182399, short access). PDE7 inhibition by OMS182401 reduced nicotine self-administration in a dose-dependent manner in both the short- and long-access rat models. PDE7 inhibition by OMS182399 reduced nicotine self-administration at 3.0 mg/kg and 9.0 mg/kg in the short-access rat model. The compounds did not alter pressing of the inactive lever in either case.

The ability of PDE7 inhibition to accelerate nicotine extinction was demonstrated in a rat model of nicotine addiction. Rats were trained to a stable level of nicotine self-administration. The active lever was not associated with any reinforced reward. Prior to the first extinction session, animals were injected with vehicle or OMS182401. The total responses at the active lever during the first hour of the first extinction session were counted. Results are shown in FIG. 17. OMS182401 facilitated nicotine extinction in a statistically significant manner.

The ability of PDE7 inhibition to reduce nicotine use after cue-induced reinstatement was demonstrated in a rat model of nicotine addiction. Rats were trained to a stable rate of nicotine self-administration and to discriminate between nicotine and saline availability. During the nicotine sessions, a tone (7 kHz, 70 dB) was present throughout and the cue light (above the active lever) was on after the responses. During the saline sessions, the testing chamber was always illuminated by the house light and the white noise was on after each response. The discrimination phase was followed by an extinction period that is continued until lever pressing was less than 20% of the stable rate. To test the compound, vehicle or OMS182401 were injected and the animals were exposed to the nicotine stimulus conditions. Total responses at active lever were counted during the first hour of the nicotine stimulus condition. Results are shown in FIG. 18. PDE7 inhibition by OMS182401 reduced cue-induced nicotine relapse in the subject animals. The response at the inactive lever was not affected by OMS182401 administration.

The ability of PDE7 inhibition to reduce nicotine use after stress-induced reinstatement was demonstrated in a rat model using yohimbine, an u2-adrenergic antagonist, as a stressor. Yohimbine acts as a pharmacological stressor and facilitates relapse to nicotine seeking. OMS182401 was tested for its effect on nicotine-seeking behavior. Rats were trained to a stable rate of nicotine self-administration. The active lever was not associated with any reinforced reward (extinction), and the rate of “active” lever pressing declined over several sessions. When the lever-press rate declined to less than 20% of the stable rate, the animals were injected with 1.25 mg/kg yohimbine i.p. with either vehicle or test compound. Total responses at active lever were counted during the first hour after yohimbine administration. Results are shown in FIG. 19. PDE7 inhibition by OMS182401 reduced stress-induced relapse to nicotine seeking by the subject animals. Inactive lever response was not affected by administration of either yohimbine or OMS182401.

While illustrative embodiments have been illustrated and described, it will be appreciated that various changes can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims

1. A method of treating or reducing relapse use of an addictive agent, comprising:

determining that a subject previously reduced or eliminated use of the addictive agent in response to treatment with an effective amount of an anti-addiction treatment;
determining that the subject is no longer exposed to an effective amount of the anti-addiction treatment; and
administering an effective amount of an inhibitor of a phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) to the subject who has undergone a period of abstinence from, or limited or reduced use of, the addictive agent, wherein the PDE7 inhibitory agent is a selective PDE7 inhibitor for which the lesser of the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A activity and the IC50 for inhibiting PDE7B activity is less than one-tenth the IC50 that the agent has for inhibiting the activity of any other PDE enzyme from the PDE1-6 and PDE8-11 enzyme families.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject is addicted to an addictive agent selected from the group consisting of: alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, a marijuana derivative, an opioid agonist, a benzodiazepine, a barbiturate, and a psychostimulant.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the addictive agent is alcohol.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the addictive agent is nicotine.

5. The method of claim 2, wherein the opioid agonist is selected from the group consisting of: morphine, methadone, fentanyl, sufentanil and heroin.

6. The method of claim 2, wherein the opioid agonist is oxycodone or hydrocodone.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein the psychostimulant is cocaine, amphetamine or an amphetamine derivative.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein the psychostimulant is cocaine.

9. The method of claim 1, wherein the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A and/or PDE7B activity of less than about 1 μM.

10. The method of claim 1, wherein the PDE7 inhibitory agent has an IC50 for inhibiting PDE7A and/or PDE7B activity of less than about 100 nM.

11. The method of claim 1, wherein the PDE7 inhibitory agent has a molecular weight of less than about 450 g/mole.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein the PDE7 inhibitory agent is a member selected from the group consisting of formula 1A, formula 1B, formula 29, formula 30, formula 31, formula 32, formula 33, formula 34, formula 35, formula 36, formula 37, formula 38, formula 39, formula 40, formula 41, formula 42, formula 43A, formula 43B, formula 44, formula 45, formula 46, formula 47, formula 48, formula 49, formula 50, formula 51, formula 52, formula 53, formula 54, formula 6A, formula 6B, formula 6C, formula 6D, formula 6E, formula 6F, formula 6G, formula 6H, formula 16A, compound 1, compound 2, compound 3, and compound 4.

13. The method of claim 1, further comprising administering to the subject an additional therapeutic agent wherein each of the PDE7 inhibitor and the additional therapeutic agent contribute to the effective reduction of the relapse use.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein said additional therapeutic agent is selected from the group consisting of: an opioid antagonist, a mixed opioid partial agonist/antagonist, an antidepressant, an antiepileptic, an antiemetic, a corticotrophin-releasing factor-1 (CRF-1) receptor antagonist, a selective serotonin-3 (5-HT3) antagonist, a 5-HT2A/2C antagonist, and a cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor antagonist.

15. A method of treating or preventing relapse use of an addictive agent or practice of an addictive or compulsive behavior associated with a primary impulse-control disorder or an obsessive-compulsive disorder, comprising administering an effective amount of an inhibitor of a phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) to a subject who has undergone a period of abstinence from, or limited or reduced use of, the addictive agent or practice of the addictive or compulsive behavior.

16. A method of treating an addiction that is an addiction to an addictive substance or that is the practice of an addictive or compulsive behavior associated with a primary impulse-control disorder or an obsessive-compulsive disorder, comprising:

determining that a subject has or is at risk of developing an addiction; and
administering to the subject an amount of an inhibitor of a phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) effective for the treatment or prevention of the addiction.

Patent History

Publication number: 20180289632
Type: Application
Filed: Jan 15, 2018
Publication Date: Oct 11, 2018
Inventors: Gregory A. Demopulos (Mercer Island, WA), George A. Gaitanaris (Seattle, WA)
Application Number: 15/871,768

Classifications

International Classification: A61K 31/00 (20060101); A61K 31/135 (20060101); A61K 31/197 (20060101); A61K 31/337 (20060101); A61K 31/357 (20060101); A61K 31/381 (20060101); A61K 31/385 (20060101); A61K 31/4015 (20060101); A61K 31/4025 (20060101); A61K 31/4178 (20060101); A61K 31/44 (20060101); A61K 31/454 (20060101); A61K 31/485 (20060101); A61K 31/4985 (20060101); A61K 31/505 (20060101); A61K 31/517 (20060101); A61K 31/519 (20060101); A61K 31/55 (20060101); A61K 31/137 (20060101);