PHOTO CURABLE INKS

- Hewlett Packard

The present disclosure is drawn to polymeric photoactive agent, photo curable inks containing the polymeric photoactive agent, and methods of making the photo curable inks. The polymeric photoactive agent can include a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage.

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Description

The present Application is a Divisional Application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/540,211, filed Jun. 27, 2017, which was a U.S. National Stage Application of International Application No. PCT/US2015/013016, filed Jan. 27, 2015, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND

Recently, curing of ink by radiation, and in particular ultraviolet (UV) curing, has become popular. UV curable ink can be cured after printing by application of UV light. Typically, UV curable inks include monomers that form polymers by free radical polymerization. The growing end of each polymer chain is a radical that reacts with additional monomers, transferring the radical to the end of the chain as each monomer is added. A photo initiator is used to form the first radicals to begin the polymerization process. The photo initiator is capable of absorbing UV light to generate radicals to react with the monomers.

Two types of photo initiators can be used in UV curable compositions. Type I photo initiators are unimolecular photo initiators that undergo a hemolytic bond cleavage upon absorption of UV light, forming radicals. Type II photo initiators are bimolecular photo initiators. These are used as a system of a photo initiator with a synergist, which can together form radicals upon exposure to UV light. Some type II photo initiators react by hydrogen abstraction from the synergist to the photo initiator.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present disclosure is drawn to polymeric photoactive agents that can be used as photo initiators, sensitizers, or both. More specifically, the present disclosure provides polymeric photoactive agents comprising a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. The polymeric photoactive agents can be water soluble and stable in aqueous inks, such as aqueous thermal inkjet inks, for example. The polymeric photoactive agents also resist migration in the ink after curing. Thus, the polymeric photoactive agents of the present disclosure overcome some of the drawbacks of other photo initiators and sensitizers which do not behave in this positive manner in aqueous systems. Some small molecular weight photo initiators, such as isopropyl thioxanthone (ITX), can have unwanted odor, toxicity, and migration in cured materials. On the other hand, many polymeric photo initiators are not water soluble and are difficult to formulate into aqueous inks. Furthermore, some polymeric photo initiators using other types of linkages, such as ester linkages, are not stable in the basic aqueous conditions that are common in thermal inkjet inks.

The inkjet printing industry uses various types of inks, such as oil-based inks, solvent-based (non-aqueous) inks, water-based inks, and solid inks (which are melted in preparation for dispensing). Solvent-based inks are fast drying, and as a result, are widely used for industrial printing. When solvent-based inks containing binders and other ingredients are jetted onto a substrate, the solvent(s) partially or fully evaporate from the ink, leaving the binder and other ingredients such as pigment particles on the printed substrate in the form of a dry film. During the drying process, the solvents, which are often volatile organic compounds (VOC), emit vapors, and therefore, can pollute the environment. The amount of pollution produced can increase greatly with higher printing speeds or for wide format images, where large amounts of ink are deposited onto a substrate. As a result of this and other concerns, efforts related to preparing inks that are environmentally friendly have moved some research in the direction of water-based inks. However, radiation-curable (or photon-curable) water-based ink compositions are noticeably limited among available options due to their specific formulation properties. Accordingly, the development of radiation radiation-curable water-based ink compositions that exhibit, when printed, specific desirable printing properties such as, for example, jetting properties as well as improved adhesion would be an advancement in the field of inkjet technology.

Accordingly, a polymeric photoactive agent can include a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. As used herein, “xanthone” refers to the chemical compound having the Formula 1:

Also, as used herein, “xanthone analog” refers to xanthone itself and other chemical compounds having the same basic structure as xanthone, but in which one or more atoms are replaced by different atoms or moieties. For example, any of the hydrogen atoms can be replaced by R groups or the ring structures themselves can be replaced by other atoms. In some specific examples, the oxygen atom that is a member of the central ring of the xanthone molecule can be replaced by a sulfur atom, an —NH— group, or an —NR— group where R is CH3, CH2CH3, or CH2CH2CH3. In other examples, hydrogens on the aromatic rings can be replaced by carbon atoms connecting to form additional aromatic rings. Thioxanthone is an example of a xanthone analog in which this oxygen atom is replaced by a sulfur atom. As used herein, “thioxanthone” refers to the molecule also called thioxanthen-9-one, having the Formula 2:

Other molecules with a similar shape can also be xanthone analogs. Additional examples include compounds having Formulas 3-5:

where R (in Formula 4 or 5) is CH3, CH2CH3, or CH2CH2CH3, and X is —O—, —S—, —NH—, or —NR—.

The polyether chain can be a polyglycol, paraformaldehyde, or other polyether. For example, the polyether chain can be polyethylene glycol (PEG), methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG), polypropylene glycol (PPG), polybutylene glycol (PBG), or a polyglycol copolymer. In one specific example, the polyether chain can be selected from polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, and a copolymer of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol. Various molecular weights of polyether can be suitable. The type of polyether chain and the molecular weight of the polyether chain can in some cases affect the solubility of the final polymeric photoactive agent. For example, a higher ratio of oxygen atoms to carbon atoms in the polyether chain tends to make the polymeric photoactive agent more soluble. The molecular weight of the polyether chain can also affect the degree to which the polymeric photoactive agent can migrate in a cured ink. Longer polyether chains can make it more difficult for the polymeric photoactive agent to move within a cured ink, thus decreasing migration. Therefore, the type of polyether chain can be selected to give good water solubility and low migration of the polymeric photoactive agent in cured ink. In one example, the polyether chain can be a polyglycol having at least 5 glycol monomer units, and more specifically in one example, from 5 to 200 glycol monomer units.

The polyether chain can connect to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. As used herein, connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage means that a single oxygen atom is bonded both to a carbon atom in one of the aromatic side rings of the xanthone analog and to a carbon atom in the polyether chain. This ether linkage can be formed by a suitable reaction, such as a substitution reaction or a condensation reaction.

The xanthone analog, polyether chain, and ether linkage do not necessarily make up the entire polymeric photoactive agent. For example, additional groups can be attached along the polyether chain or at the opposite end of the polyether chain. In some cases, one or more additional xanthone analog moieties can be attached to the polyether chain. These additional xanthone analog moieties can connect to the polyether chain through ether linkages. In one example, an additional xanthone analog moiety can connect to an opposite end of the polyether chain through an ether linkage. In other examples, the polyether chain can have multiple branches and each branch can terminate with a xanthone analog moiety connected to the polyether chain through an ether linkage. Specific examples of such polymeric photoactive agents are described in detail below.

In some examples, the xanthone analog with the ether linkage can have a general formula according to Formula 6:

In Formula 6, the ether linkage is illustrated as an oxygen atom bonded to the right side ring of the xanthone analog. The oxygen atom can be bonded to any of the available carbon atoms in the right side ring by replacing a hydrogen atom. The groups R1, R2, R2, and R4 can be independently selected from: a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, —NO2, —O—Rd, —CO—Rd, —CO—O—Rd, —O—CO—Rd, —CO—NRdRe, —NRdRe, —NRd—CO—Re, —NRd—CO—O—Re, —NRd—CO—NReRf, —SRd, —SO—Rd, —SO2—Rd, —SO2—O—Rd, —SO2NRdRe, and a perfluoroalkyl group, wherein Rd, Re, and Rf are independently selected from: a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, and a substituted aralkyl. In one specific example, R1 to R4 can each be a hydrogen atom. The group X can be —O—, —S—, —NH—, or —NR— where R is CH3, CH2CH3, or CH2CH2CH3. Formula 6 illustrates only the xanthone analog with the ether linkage. A complete polymeric photoactive agent can be formed by combining a xanthone analog and ether linkage as in Formula 3 with a polyether chain. The polyether chain can be bonded to the oxygen atom forming the ether linkage.

In some examples, the polymeric photoactive agent can have a general formula according one of Formulas 7-10:

In each of Formulas 7-10, the groups R1, R2, R2, R4, and R5 can independently be a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, —NO2, —O—Rd, —CO—Rd, —CO—O—Rd, —O—CO—Rd, —CO—NRdRe, —NRdRe, —NRd—CO—Re, —NRd—CO—O—Re, —NRd—CO—NReRf, —SRd, —SO—Rd, —SO2—Rd, —SO2—O—Rd, —SO2NRdRe, or a perfluoroalkyl group. In these examples, Rd, Re, and Rf can independently be a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, or a substituted aralkyl. In one specific example, R1 to R5 can each be a hydrogen atom. The number of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The group X can be —O—, —S—, —NH—, or —NR— where R is CH3, CH2CH3, or CH2CH2CH3.

As shown in Formulas 7-10, the polymeric photoactive agent can include 1, 2, 3, or 4 xanthone analog moieties connected to a branching polyether chain. In other examples, the polyether chain can have more than 4 branches terminating in xanthone analog moieties.

In one example, the polymeric photoactive agent can have a general formula according to Formula 11:

In the specific example described by Formula 11, n can be any integer, e.g., 0 to 200, and in one example, the sum of m, n. and p can be from 10 to 25.

The molecular weight of the polymeric photoactive agent can affect its degree of migration in cured ink. For example, a polymeric photoactive agent with a weight average molecular weight (Mw) of about 500 Mw or more can have reduced migration in cured ink compared with a small molecule photo initiator or sensitizer. Migration can be further reduced by increasing the molecular weight of the polymeric photoactive agent to about 1000 Mw or more. In one example, the polymeric photoactive agent can have a molecular weight from about 500 Mw to about 5000 Mw. Polyethers of various molecular weights are available, allowing for the production of polymeric photoactive agents with various molecular weights. In some examples, the polyether chain can be selected from PEG 550, PEG 600, and PEG 1000. In polymeric photoactive agents having multiple xanthone analog moieties, a smaller molecular weight polyether chain can be used while still maintaining a high overall molecular weight of the polymeric photoactive agents. The molecular weight of the polymeric photoactive agent can also be changed by adding R groups to the xanthone analog. It is noted that when referring to “R groups” generically herein, this term is defined to include at least H and organic side chain side groups and other specific constituents described and defined elsewhere herein, e.g., R1, R2, R3,R4, R5,R6, Rd, Re, Rf, etc.

The molecular weight of the polymeric photoactive agent can also affect its solubility in water. In some cases, the polyether chain can be a water soluble polyether. Although the xanthone analog alone can be insoluble in water, adding the soluble polyether chain can make the entire polymeric photoactive agent soluble. In such cases, the soluble polyether can have a sufficient molecular weight so that its solubility properties overcome the insolubility of the xanthone analog. In other cases, water soluble R groups can be added to the xanthone analog to increase the solubility of the polymeric photoactive agent. In one example, the polymeric photoactive agent can have a water solubility of at least 0.5 wt %.

Typical aqueous ink jet inks can have a pH in the range of 7 to 12. Some commercially available photo initiators and sensitizers with ester linkages can break down in such basic conditions. The ether linkage in the polymeric photoactive agents according to the present disclosure can be stable under these conditions. In some examples, the polymeric photoactive agent can be stable in water up to a pH from 7 to 12. In other examples, the polymeric photoactive agent can be stable in water up to a pH of 8 or higher. As used herein, “stable” refers to the ability of the polymeric photoactive agent to have a shelf life of at least 1 year. Typically, aqueous ink jet inks can have a shelf life of greater than 1 year, greater than 2 years, or longer.

A general pathway for forming a polymeric photoactive agent in accordance with an example of the present disclosure is shown in Formula 12:

In the pathway shown in Formula 12, R1 to R5 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group or a group selected from a halogen atom, —NO2, —O—Rd, —CO—Rd, —CO—O—Rd, —O—CO—Rd, —CO—NRdRe, —NRdRe, —NRd—CO—Re, —NRd—CO—O—Re, —NRd—CO—NReRf, —SRd, —SO—Rd, —SO2—Rd, —SO2—O—Rd, —SO2NRdRe or a perfluoroalkyl group. Rd, Re and Rf independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group. The number of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The group X can be —O—, —S—, —NH—, or —NR— where R is CH3, CH2CH3, or CH2CH2CH3. The group Y can be a leaving group such as —Cl, —Br, —I, —OTs, or —OTf.

According to this pathway, a monosubstituted polyethylene glycol ether (1) is reacted with a leaving group to form a leaving group modified polyethylene glycol (2). Various reagents can be used to add the leaving group. For example, a halogenation reagent can be used to add —Cl, —Br, or —I leaving groups; a tosylation reagent can be used to add a —OTs leaving group; and a triflating reagent can be used to add a —OTf leaving group. A hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3) is reacted with NaOH to form a corresponding sodium salt (4). The sodium salt is then reacted with the leaving group modified polyethylene glycol (2) to form the polymeric photoactive agent. Lines leading to the center of aromatic rings in the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3), the sodium salt (4), and the final polymeric photoactive agent signify that the group can be attached at any available location on the ring.

Another example of a general pathway for forming a polymeric photoactive agent in accordance with the present disclosure is shown in Formula 13:

In the pathway shown in Formula 13, R1 to R4 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group or a group selected from a halogen atom, —NO2, —O—Rd, —CO—Rd, —CO—O—Rd, —O—CO—Rd, —CO—NRdRe, —NRdRe, —NRd—CO—Re, —NRd—CO—O—Re, —NRd—CO—NReRf, —SRd, —SO—Rd, —SO2—Rd, —SO2—O—Rd, —SO2NRdRe or a perfluoroalkyl group. Rd, Re and Rf independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group. The number of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The group X can be —O—, —S—, —NH—, or —NR— where R is CH3, CH2CH3, or CH2CH2CH3. The group Y can be a leaving group such as —Cl, —Br, —I, —OTs, or —OTf.

According to this pathway, polyethylene glycol (5) is reacted with a leaving group reagent to form a leaving group modified polyethylene glycol (6). A hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3) is reacted with NaOH to form a corresponding sodium salt (4). The sodium salt is then reacted with the leaving group modified polyethylene glycol (6) to form the polymeric photoactive agent. Lines leading to the center of aromatic rings in the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3), the sodium salt (4), and the final polymeric photoactive agent signify that the group can be attached at any available location on the ring.

A further example of a general pathway for forming a polymeric photoactive agent keeping with the present disclosure is shown in Formula 14:

In the pathway shown in Formula 14, R1 to R5 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group or a group selected from a halogen atom, —NO2, —O—Rd, —CO—Rd, —CO—O—Rd, —O—CO—Rd, —CO—NRdRe, —NRdRe, —NRd—CO—Re, —NRd—CO—O—Re, —NRd—CO—NReRf, —SRd, —SO—Rd, —SO2—Rd, —SO2—O—Rd, —SO2NRdRe or a perfluoroalkyl group. Rd, Re and Rf independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group. The number of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The group X can be —O—, —S—, —NH—, or —NR— where R is CH3, CH2CH3, or CH2CH2CH3. The group Y can be a leaving group such as —Cl, —Br, —I, —OTs, or —OTf.

According to this pathway, a glycerol polyethylene glycol derivative (7) is reacted with a leaving group reagent to form a leaving group modified glycerol polyethylene glycol derivative (8). A hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3) is reacted with NaOH to form a corresponding sodium salt (4). The sodium salt is then reacted with the leaving group modified glycerol polyethylene glycol derivative (8) to form the polymeric photoactive agent. Lines leading to the center of aromatic rings in the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3), the sodium salt (4), and the final polymeric photoactive agent signify that the group can be attached at any available location on the ring.

Yet another example of a general pathway for forming a polymeric photoactive agent in accordance with the present disclosure is shown in Formula 15:

In the pathway shown in Formula 15, R1 to R4 each independently represent a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group or a group selected from a halogen atom, —NO2, —O—Rd, —CO—Rd, —CO—O—Rd, —O—CO—Rd, —CO—NRdRe, —NRdRe, —NRd—CO—Re, —NRd—CO—O—Re, —NRd—CO—NReRf, —SRd, —SO—Rd, —SO2—Rd, —SO2—O—Rd, —SO2NRdRe or a perfluoroalkyl group. Rd, Re and Rf independently represent a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl or aralkyl group. The number of monomer units n can be any integer from 5 to 200. The group X can be —O—, —S—, —NH—, or —NR— where R is CH3, CH2CH3, or CH2CH2CH3. The group Y can be a leaving group such as —Cl, —Br, —I, —OTs, or —OTf.

According to this pathway, a pentaerythritol polyethylene glycol derivative (9) is reacted with a leaving group to form a leaving group modified pentaerythritol polyethylene glycol derivative (10). A hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3) is reacted with NaOH to form a corresponding sodium salt (4). The sodium salt is then reacted with the leaving group modified glycerol polyethylene glycol derivative (10) to form the polymeric photoactive agent. Lines leading to the center of aromatic rings in the hydroxyl-modified xanthone analog (3), the sodium salt (4), and the final polymeric photoactive agent signify that the group can be attached at any available location on the ring.

Formula 16 illustrates a detailed synthetic pathway for one example of a polymeric photoactive agent in accordance with the present disclosure:

According to this pathway, phenol (12) and 2-thiosalicylic acid (11) undergo a condensation reaction in concentrated sulfuric acid under heated conditions to yield 2-hydroxythioxanthen-9-one (3). The 2-hydroxythioxanthen-9-one is treated with sodium hydroxide in THF under reflux to give the corresponding sodium salt (4). Mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether (13) is reacted with thionyl chloride in the presence of DMF to give chloro mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether (14). A substitution reaction of the sodium salt (4) with the chloro compound (14) under reflux gives the desired polymeric photoactive agent (15).

An alternative pathway for synthesizing the same polymeric photoactive agent is shown in Formula 17:

In this pathway, mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether (13) is reacted with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of pyridine to give mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether tosylate (16). Then, a substation reaction of sodium salt (4) with the mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether tosylate (16) gives the desired polymeric photoactive agent (15).

A detailed synthetic pathway for forming another example of a polymeric photoactive agent in accordance with the present disclosure is shown in Formula 18:

In this pathway, polyethylene glycol (17) reacts with thionyl chloride in the presence of DMF to give dichloro polyethylene glycol (18). Then, a substitution reaction of sodium salt (4) with the dichloro polyethylene glycol (18) gives the desired polymeric photoactive agent (19).

Formula 19 illustrates an alternate pathway for forming the same polymeric photoactive agent:

According to this pathway, polyethylene glycol (17) is reacted with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of pyridine to give polyethylene glycol di-tosylate (20). Then, a substitution reaction of sodium salt (4) and the polyethylene glycol di-tosylate (20) gives the desired polymeric photoactive agent (19).

The present disclosure also extends to photo curable inks. In some examples, a UV curable ink or an LED curable ink can be used, e.g., UV and/or LED curable ink. These inks can include a photo reactive binder, e.g., UV and/or LED, a polymeric photoactive agent, co-photo initiator or an synergist, a colorant, and a liquid vehicle including a co-solvent and water. The polymeric photoactive agent can be a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage. In various aspects, the polymeric photo active agent can act as a photo initiator with the synergist, or it can act as a sensitizer for a co-photo initiator, for example.

In some cases, the photo reactive binder can include a UV curable polyurethane and hydrophobic radiation-curable monomers. In one example, the photo reactive binder can include a water dispersible (meth)acrylated polyurethane, such as NeoRad® R-441 by NeoResins (Avecia). Other examples of photo (UV) reactive binders can include Ucecoat® 7710, Ucecoat® 7655 (available from Cytec), Neorad® R-440, Neorad® R-441, Neorad® R-447, Neorad® R-448 (available from DSM NeoResins), Bayhydrol® UV 2317, Bayhydrol® UV VP LS 2348 (available from Bayer), Lux 430, Lux 399, Lux 484 (available from Alberdingk Boley), Laromer® LR 8949, Laromer® LR 8983, Laromer® PE 22WN, Laromer® PE 55WN, Laromer® UA 9060 (available from BASF), or combinations thereof.

The polymeric photoactive agents of the present disclosure can act as type II photo initiators. The photo curable ink can include a synergist so that the photo initiator and synergist together can generate radicals during photo curing, e.g., UV curing or LED curing or UV LED curing. In some examples, the synergist can be an amine synergist. The amine synergist can be a tertiary amine compound. In one example, the amine synergist can be a polymeric amine synergist such as a derivative of aniline and a polyether amine such as Jeffamine® 900. In other examples, the amine synergist can be trimethylamine, triethanolamine, methyldiethanolamine, phenyldiethanolamine, N,N,N′,N′-tetra(hydroxylethyl)ethylenediamine, dimethylaminoethyl acrylate, dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, ethyl dimethylaminobenzoate, or combinations thereof.

The polymeric photoactive agents of the present disclosure can act as the primary photo initiator in the photo curable ink, or they can act as a sensitizer for another co-photo initiator. Therefore, the photo curable ink can in some cases include a second photo initiator in addition to the polymeric photoactive agents disclosed herein, wherein the polymeric photoactive agent can act as a sensitizer in some respects. Examples of radical co-photo initiators include, by way of illustration and not limitation, 1-hydroxy-cyclohexylphenylketone, benzophenone, 2,4,6-trimethylbenzo-phenone, 4-methylbenzophenone, diphenyl-(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide, phenyl bis(2,4,6trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide, 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-phenyl-1-propanone, benzyl-dimethyl ketal, 2-methyl-l-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]-2-morpholinopropan-l-one, or combinations thereof. Non-limiting examples of additional photo initiators include alpha amino ketone UV photo initiators such as Ciba® Irgacure® 907, Ciba® Irgacure® 369, and Ciba® Irgacure® 379; bis acylphosphine oxide (BAPO) UV photo initiators such as Irgacure® 819, Darocur® 4265, and Darocur® TPO; alpha hydroxy ketone UV photo initiators such as Irgacure® 184 and Darocur® 1173; including photo initiators with or without sensitizers such as Darocur® ITX (2-isopropyl thioxanthone).

The colorant in the photo curable ink can be a pigment, a dye, or a combination thereof. In some examples, the colorant can be present in an amount from 0.5 wt % to 10 wt % in the photo curable ink. In one example, the colorant can be present in an amount from 1 wt % to 5 wt %. In another example, the colorant can be present in an amount from 5 wt % to 10 wt %.

In some examples, the colorant can be a dye. The dye can be nonionic, cationic, anionic, or a mixture of nonionic, cationic, and/or anionic dyes. Specific examples of dyes that can be used include, but are not limited to, Sulforhodamine B, Acid Blue 113, Acid Blue 29, Acid Red 4, Rose Bengal, Acid Yellow 17, Acid Yellow 29, Acid Yellow 42, Acridine Yellow G, Acid Yellow 23, Acid Blue 9, Nitro Blue Tetrazolium Chloride Monohydrate or Nitro BT, Rhodamine 6G, Rhodamine 123, Rhodamine B, Rhodamine B Isocyanate, Safranine O, Azure B, and Azure B Eosinate, which are available from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Company (St. Louis, Mo.). Examples of anionic, water-soluble dyes include, but are not limited to, Direct Yellow 132, Direct Blue 199, Magenta 377 (available from Ilford AG, Switzerland), alone or together with Acid Red 52. Examples of water-insoluble dyes include azo, xanthene, methine, polymethine, and anthraquinone dyes. Specific examples of water-insoluble dyes include Orasol® Blue GN, Orasol® Pink, and Orasol® Yellow dyes available from Ciba-Geigy Corp. Black dyes may include, but are not limited to, Direct Black 154, Direct Black 168, Fast Black 2, Direct Black 171, Direct Black 19, Acid Black 1, Acid Black 191, Mobay Black SP, and Acid Black 2.

In other examples, the colorant can be a pigment. The pigment can be self-dispersed with a polymer, oligomer, or small molecule; or can be dispersed with a separate dispersant. Suitable pigments include, but are not limited to, the following pigments available from BASF: Paliogen® Orange, Heliogen® Blue L 6901F, Heliogen® Blue NBD 7010, Heliogen® Blue K 7090, Heliogen® Blue L 7101F, Paliogen® Blue L 6470, Heliogen® Green K 8683, and Heliogen® Green L 9140. The following black pigments are available from Cabot: Monarch® 1400, Monarch® 1300, Monarch® 1100, Monarch® 1000, Monarch® 900, Monarch® 880, Monarch® 800, and Monarch® 700. The following pigments are available from CIBA: Chromophtal® Yellow 3G, Chromophtal® Yellow GR, Chromophtal® Yellow 8G, Igrazin® Yellow 5GT, Igralite® Rubine 4BL, Monastral® Magenta, Monastral® Scarlet, Monastral® Violet R, Monastral® Red B, and Monastral® Violet Maroon B. The following pigments are available from Degussa: Printex® U, Printex® V, Printex® 140U, Printex® 140V, Color Black FW 200, Color Black FW 2, Color Black FW 2V, Color Black FW 1, Color Black FW 18, Color Black S 160, Color Black S 170, Special Black 6, Special Black 5, Special Black 4A, and Special Black 4. The following pigment is available from DuPont: Tipure® R-101. The following pigments are available from Heubach: Dalamar® Yellow YT-858-D and Heucophthal Blue G XBT-583D. The following pigments are available from Clariant: Permanent Yellow GR, Permanent Yellow G, Permanent Yellow DHG, Permanent Yellow NCG-71, Permanent Yellow GG, Hansa Yellow RA, Hansa Brilliant Yellow 5GX-02, Hansa Yellow-X, Novoperm® Yellow HR, Novoperm® Yellow FGL, Hansa Brilliant Yellow 10GX, Permanent Yellow G3R-01, Hostaperm® Yellow H4G, Hostaperm® Yellow H3G, Hostaperm® Orange GR, Hostaperm® Scarlet GO, and Permanent Rubine F6B. The following pigments are available from Mobay: Quindo® Magenta, Indofast® Brilliant Scarlet, Quindo® Red R6700, Quindo® Red R6713, and Indofast® Violet. The following pigments are available from Sun Chemical: L74-1357 Yellow, L75-1331 Yellow, and L75-2577 Yellow. The following pigments are available from Columbian: Raven® 7000, Raven® 5750, Raven® 5250, Raven® 5000, and Raven® 3500. The following pigment is available from Sun Chemical: LHD9303 Black. Any other pigment and/or dye can be used that is useful in modifying the color of the UV curable ink. Additionally, the colorant can include a white pigment such as titanium dioxide, or other inorganic pigments such as zinc oxide and iron oxide.

The components of the photo curable ink can be selected to give the ink good ink jetting performance. Besides the curable binder, photo reactive photoactive agents, and the colorant, the photo curable ink can also include a liquid vehicle. Liquid vehicle formulations that can be used in the photo curable ink can include water and one or more co-solvents present in total at from 1 wt % to 50 wt %, depending on the jetting architecture. Further, one or more non-ionic, cationic, and/or anionic surfactant can be present, ranging from 0.01 wt % to 20 wt % (if present). In one example, the surfactant can be present in an amount from 5 wt % to 20 wt %. The liquid vehicle can also include dispersants in an amount from 5 wt % to 20 wt %. The balance of the formulation can be purified water, or other vehicle components such as biocides, viscosity modifiers, materials for pH adjustment, sequestering agents, preservatives, and the like. In one example, the liquid vehicle can be predominantly water.

Classes of co-solvents that can be used can include organic co-solvents including aliphatic alcohols, aromatic alcohols, diols, glycol ethers, polyglycol ethers, caprolactams, formamides, acetamides, and long chain alcohols. Examples of such compounds include primary aliphatic alcohols, secondary aliphatic alcohols, 1,2-alcohols, 1,3-alcohols, 1,5-alcohols, ethylene glycol alkyl ethers, propylene glycol alkyl ethers, higher homologs (C6-C12) of polyethylene glycol alkyl ethers, N-alkyl caprolactams, unsubstituted caprolactams, both substituted and unsubstituted formamides, both substituted and unsubstituted acetamides, and the like. Specific examples of solvents that can be used include, but are not limited to, 2-pyrrolidinone, N-methylpyrrolidone, 2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone, 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol, tetraethylene glycol, 1,6-hexanediol, 1,5-hexanediol and 1,5-pentanediol.

One or more surfactants can also be used, such as alkyl polyethylene oxides, alkyl phenyl polyethylene oxides, polyethylene oxide block copolymers, acetylenic polyethylene oxides, polyethylene oxide (di)esters, polyethylene oxide amines, protonated polyethylene oxide amines, protonated polyethylene oxide amides, dimethicone copolyols, substituted amine oxides, and the like. The amount of surfactant added to the formulation of this disclosure may range from 0.01 wt % to 20 wt %. Suitable surfactants can include, but are not limited to, liponic esters such as Tergitol™ 15-S-12, Tergitol™ 15-S-7 available from Dow Chemical Company, LEG-1 and LEG-7; Triton™ X-100; Triton™ X-405 available from Dow Chemical Company; LEG-1, and sodium dodecylsulfate.

Consistent with the formulation of this disclosure, various other additives can be employed to optimize the properties of the ink composition for specific applications. Examples of these additives are those added to inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms. These additives may be biocides, fungicides, and other microbial agents, which are routinely used in ink formulations. Examples of suitable microbial agents include, but are not limited to, NUOSEPT® (Nudex, Inc.), UCARCIDE™ (Union carbide Corp.), VANCIDE® (R.T. Vanderbilt Co.), PROXEL® (ICI America), and combinations thereof.

Sequestering agents, such as EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), may be included to eliminate the deleterious effects of heavy metal impurities, and buffer solutions may be used to control the pH of the ink. From 0.01 wt % to 2 wt %, for example, can be used if present. Viscosity modifiers and buffers may also be present, as well as other additives to modify properties of the ink as desired. Such additives can be present at from 0.01 wt % to 20 wt % if present.

Table 1 shows the composition of an example of a photo curable ink, e.g., UV LED curable ink, formulation example in accordance with the present disclosure. The ink can be formulated by mixing these ingredients or by other formulations. The pH of the ink can then be adjusted. In one example, the ingredients can be stirred for 30 minutes, and then aqueous potassium hydroxide can be added to adjust the pH to 7 to 12, or in one example, about 8.5. It is noted that though water concentrations are listed as “balance,” it is understood that the balance of components could included other liquid vehicle components or minor amounts of solids often present in inkjet ink compositions.

TABLE 1 Component Weight Percent Photo reactive binder   1-20% (UV reactive polymer) Polymeric photoactive agent 0.15-5% (sensitizer or photo initiator) Co-photo initiator  *0-10% Synergist   *0-5% Surfactant   0-20% Anti-kogation agent   0-5% Colorant 0.5-10% Organic Co-solvent 0.1-50% Water Balance *As noted, when the polymeric photo active agent is included as a sensitizer, the co-photo initiator is at greater than 0%. When the polymeric photo active agent is included as a photo initiator, the synergist is at greater than 0%. All three components can likewise be present, i.e. the polymeric photo active agent, the co-photo initiator, and the synergist.

The photo curable ink can be used to print on a broad selection of substrates including untreated plastics, flexible as well as rigid, porous substrates such as paper, cardboard, foam board, textile, and others. The ink has a good adhesion on a variety of substrates. The photo curable ink also has a good viscosity, enabling good printing performances and enables the ability to formulate inks suitable for inkjet application. In some examples, the ink can be formulated for thermal inkjet printing. The photo curable ink composition of the present disclosure enables high printing speed and is very well suited for a use in digital inkjet printing.

The polymeric photoactive agents of the present disclosure can be stable in aqueous environments at pH from 7 to 12 or higher. Thus, the photo curable ink can be formulated to have a pH from 7 to 12. In some examples, the photo curable ink can have a pH of 8 to 12. In one specific example, the photo curable ink can have a pH of about 8.5.

The polymeric photoactive agent can exhibit less migration in cured ink compared with small molecule photo initiators. The photo curable binder in the ink can comprise polymers or monomers that polymerize or cross-link during the curing process. As the binder cures, the polymeric photoactive agent can become locked into the cured binder due to the long polyether chain of the polymeric photoactive agent. Therefore, the photo curable ink can be formulated so that there is little or no migration of the polymeric photoactive agent in the ink after curing.

The present disclosure also extends to a method of making a photo curable ink. The method includes mixing a photo reactive binder; a polymeric photoactive agent comprising a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage; a co-photo initiator, a synergist, or combination thereof; a colorant; and a liquid vehicle including co-solvent and water. The photo curable ink can be UV curable, and in one specific example, UV LED curable. In one example, the method can also include adjusting the pH of the ink to be from 7 to 12. In another example, the method can include adjusting the pH of the ink to be 8 or higher.

It is to be understood that this disclosure is not limited to the particular process steps and materials disclosed herein because such process steps and materials may vary somewhat. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is used for the purpose of describing particular examples only. The terms are not intended to be limiting because the scope of the present disclosure is intended to be limited only by the appended claims and equivalents thereof.

It is noted that, as used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms “a,” “an,” and “the” include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

As used herein, “photoactive agent” refers to materials that participate in the initiation of photo polymerization, particularly materials that act as a photo initiator or a sensitizer for a photo initiator. The polymeric photoactive agents disclosed herein can be used either as a photo initiator or as a sensitizer for another photo initiator. In some systems, the polymeric photoactive agent can act as both a photo initiator and a sensitizer.

As used herein, “UV curable” refers to compositions that can be cured by exposure to ultraviolet light from any UV source such as a mercury vapor lamp, UV LED source, or the like. Mercury vapor lamps emit high intensity light at wavelengths from 240 nm to 270 nm and 350 nm to 380 nm. “LED curable” refers to compositions that can be cured either by ultraviolet light from an ultraviolet LED. Ultraviolet LEDs emit light at specific wavelengths. For example, ultraviolet LEDs are available at 365 nm and 395 nm wavelengths, among others. The term “photo curable” refers generally to compositions that can be cured by exposure to light from any wavelength suitable for the composition being cured. Typically, the photo curable composition will be UV curable, and in some cases UV LED curable.

As used herein, “liquid vehicle” or “ink vehicle” refers to a liquid fluid in which colorant is placed to form an ink. A wide variety of ink vehicles may be used with the systems and methods of the present disclosure. Such ink vehicles may include a mixture of a variety of different agents, including, surfactants, solvents, co-solvents, anti-kogation agents, buffers, biocides, sequestering agents, viscosity modifiers, surface-active agents, water, etc.

As used herein, “colorant” can include dyes and/or pigments.

As used herein, “dye” refers to compounds or molecules that absorb electromagnetic radiation or certain wavelengths thereof. Dyes can impart a visible color to an ink if the dyes absorb wavelengths in the visible spectrum.

As used herein, “pigment” generally includes pigment colorants, magnetic particles, aluminas, silicas, and/or other ceramics, organo-metallics or other opaque particles, whether or not such particulates impart color. Thus, though the present description primarily exemplifies the use of pigment colorants, the term “pigment” can be used more generally to describe not only pigment colorants, but other pigments such as organometallics, ferrites, ceramics, etc. In one specific example, however, the pigment is a pigment colorant.

As used herein, “ink-jetting” or “jetting” refers to compositions that are ejected from jetting architecture, such as ink-jet architecture. Ink-jet architecture can include thermal or piezo architecture. Additionally, such architecture can be configured to print varying drop sizes such as less than 10 picoliters, less than 20 picoliters, less than 30 picoliters, less than 40 picoliters, less than 50 picoliters, etc.

As used herein, the term “substantial” or “substantially” when used in reference to a quantity or amount of a material, or a specific characteristic thereof, refers to an amount that is sufficient to provide an effect that the material or characteristic was intended to provide. The exact degree of deviation allowable may in some cases depend on the specific context.

As used herein, the term “about” is used to provide flexibility to a numerical range endpoint by providing that a given value may be “a little above” or “a little below” the endpoint. The degree of flexibility of this term can be dictated by the particular variable and determined based on the associated description herein.

As used herein, a plurality of items, structural elements, compositional elements, and/or materials may be presented in a common list for convenience. However, these lists should be construed as though each member of the list is individually identified as a separate and unique member. Thus, no individual member of such list should be construed as a de facto equivalent of any other member of the same list solely based on their presentation in a common group without indications to the contrary.

Concentrations, amounts, and other numerical data may be expressed or presented herein in a range format. It is to be understood that such a range format is used merely for convenience and brevity and thus should be interpreted flexibly to include not only the numerical values explicitly recited as the limits of the range, but also to include individual numerical values or sub-ranges encompassed within that range as if each numerical value and sub-range is explicitly recited. As an illustration, a numerical range of “about 1 wt % to about 5 wt %” should be interpreted to include not only the explicitly recited values of about 1 wt % to about 5 wt %, but also include individual values and sub-ranges within the indicated range. Thus, included in this numerical range are individual values such as 2, 3.5, and 4 and sub-ranges such as from 1-3, from 2-4, and from 3-5, etc. This same principle applies to ranges reciting only one numerical value. Furthermore, such an interpretation should apply regardless of the breadth of the range or the characteristics being described.

EXAMPLES

The following illustrates several examples of the present disclosure. However, it is to be understood that the following are only illustrative of the application of the principles of the present disclosure. Numerous modifications and alternative compositions, methods, and systems may be devised without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure. The appended claims are intended to cover such modifications and arrangements.

Example 1

Synthesis of 2-hydroxythioxanthen-9-one: 2-Mercaptobenzoic acid (61.6 g, 0.4 mol) was added to concentrated sulfuric acid (600 mL) and stirred until uniformly dispersed. Then phenol (188.2 g, 2 mol) was added slowly and proportionwise with stirring, maintaining the temperature below 60° C. After the addition, the mixture was stirred for 1 hour at room temperature and then for 2 hours at 95-100° C. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature and then carefully poured into 4.5 L of boiling water. The mixture was stirred and filtered. The filter cake was then washed with water and dried in vacuum, which was then further purified by flash chromatography to give the desired 2-hydroxythioxanthen-9-one (3) (60 g, 60% yield).

Example 2

Synthesis of sodium salt of 2-hydroxythioxanthen-9-one: To a mixture of 2-hydroxythioxanthen-9-one (28.5 g, 0.125 mol) in 300 mL of THF was added sodium hydroxide (30 g, 0.75 mol). The mixture was heated to reflux for 2 hours. After cooling down to room temperature, THF was evaporated off. Then to the flask was added 200 mL of water and the solid was separated by filtration, washed with acetone (2×100 ml) and then hexanes (2×100 ml) and finally dried in an oven overnight, producing the desired sodium salt of 2-hydroxythioxanthen-9-one (28 g, 90% yield).

Example 3

Synthesis of dichloro-polyethylene glycol-1000: A mixture of polyethylene glycol-1000 (100 grams, 0.1 mol), thionyl chloride (60 grams, 0.5 mol) and 0.1 grams of N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was heated to reflux for 5 hours. After cooling down to room temperature, 20 mL of methanol was added slowly to the solution and stirred for 1 hour. Then the methanol and unreacted thionyl chloride were removed by vacuum to give the desired dichloro-polyethylene glycol (100 grams, 97% yield).

Example 4

Synthesis of dichloro-polyethylene glycol-600: A mixture of polyethylene glycol-600 (100 grams, 0.1 mol), thionyl chloride (60 grams, 0.5 mol) and 0.1 grams of N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was heated to reflux for 5 hours. After cooling down to room temperature, 20 mL of methanol was added slowly to the solution and stirred for 1 hour. Then the methanol and unreacted thionyl chloride were removed by vacuum to give the desired dichloro-polyethylene glycol (102 grams, 96% yield).

Example 5

Synthesis of polyethylene glycol di-tosylate: To a solution of polyethylene glycol-1000 (100 grams, 0.1 mol) in 250 mL of dichloromethane was added pyridine (14 mL, 0.16 mol). The above solution was cooled to 0° C. and then p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (22.88 grams, 0.12 mol) was added portion-wise at 0° C. under N2. The resulting solution was poured into ice-water. The organic layer was separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with chloroform (2×50 ml). The combined organic layer was washed with water and dried over sodium sulfate. The sodium sulfate was filtered off and evaporation of solvent gave the desired polyethylene glycol di-tosylate (65 grams, 100% yield).

Example 6

Synthesis of chloro mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether: A mixture of mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether (100 grams, 0.18 mol), thionyl chloride (60 grams, 0.5 mol) and 0.1 grams of N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was heated to reflux for 5 hours. After cooling down to room temperature, 20 mL of methanol was added slowly to the solution and stirred for 1 hour. Then the methanol and unreacted thionyl chloride were removed by vacuum to give the desired chloro mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether (14) (100 grams, 97% yield).

Example 7

Synthesis of bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 1000: A mixture of sodium salt of 2-hydroxythioxanthone (28 g, 0.112 mol) and dichloro-polyethylene glycol -1000 (58 g, 0.056 mol) in 100 mL of DMF was heated to reflux for 2 hours. Then DMF was removed by distillation. After cooling down to room temperature, to the residue was added 500 mL of acetone and 10 grams of activated carbon. The mixture was then heated to reflux for 20 min. Then the solid was filtered off by simple filtration. Evaporation of solvent by rotary evaporator gave a residue, which was further purified by flash chromatography, giving rise to the desired bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 1000 (60 g, 75% yield).

Example 8

Synthesis of bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 600: A mixture of sodium salt of 2-hydroxythioxanthone (34.7 g, 0.125 mol) and dichloro-polyethylene glycol -600 (40 g, 0.0625 mol) in 100 mL of DMF was heated to reflux for 2 hours. Then DMF was removed by distillation. After cooling down to room temperature, to the residue was added 500 mL of acetone and 10 grams of activated carbon. The mixture was then heated to reflux for 20 min. Then the solid was filtered off by simple filtration. Evaporation of solvent by rotary evaporator gave a residue, which was further purified by flash chromatography, giving rise to the desired bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 600 (35 g, 55% yield).

Example 9

Synthesis of bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 550: A mixture of sodium salt of 2-hydroxythioxanthone (34.7 g, 0.125 mol) and chloro mono-methyl polyethylene glycol ether (71 g, 0.125 mol) in 100 mL of DMF was heated to reflux for 2 hours. Then DMF was removed by distillation. After cooling down to room temperature, to the residue was added 500 mL of acetone and 10 grams of activated carbon. The mixture was then heated to reflux for 20 min. Then the solid was filtered off by simple filtration. Evaporation of solvent by rotary evaporator gave a residue, which was further purified by flash chromatography, giving rise to the desired bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 550.

Example 10

A photo curable inkjet ink (UV LED curable) is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2 Component Weight Percent Photo reactive binder (UV reactive)   15% Irgacure ® 819 (co-photo initiator)  0.3% bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of  0.5% PEG 600 (type II photo initiator or sensitizer) LEG-1 (surfactant)   1% CT-211 (surfactant)   1% Crodafos ® N3 (anti-kogation agent)  0.5% Pigments  2.5% 2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone   10% (co-solvent) Water 69.2%

Example 11

A UV or LED curable inkjet ink is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 3.

TABLE 3 Component Weight Percent Photo reactive binder (UV reactive)    5% Irgacure ® 819 (photo initiator)  0.1% bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of  0.25% PEG 600 (type II photo initiator or sensitizer) Aniline derivative of Jeffamine ® 900  0.5% (amine synergist) LEG-1 (surfactant)    1% CT-211(surfactant)  0.5% Crodafos ® N3 (anti-kogation agent)  0.5% Pigments    3% 2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone   10% (co-solvent) Water 79.15%

Example 12

A UV or LED curable inkjet ink is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 4.

TABLE 4 Component Weight Percent Photo reactive binder (UV reactive)   10% Irgacure ® 819 (co-photo initiator)  0.2% bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of  0.5% PEG 600 (type II photo initiator or sensitizer) LEG-1 (surfactant)   1% CT-211 (surfactant)   1% Crodafos ® N3 (anti-kogation agent)  0.5% Pigments   4% 2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone   10% (co-solvent) Water 72.5%

Example 13

A photo curable inkjet ink (UV LED curable) is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 5.

TABLE 5 Component Weight Percent Photo reactive binder (UV reactive)   15% Irgacure ® 819 (co-photo initiator)  0.3% bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of   1% PEG 600 (type II photo initiator or sensitizer) LEG-1 (surfactant)   1% CT-211 (surfactant)   1% Crodafos ® N3 (anti-kogation agent)  0.5% Pigments  2.5% 2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone   10% (co-solvent) Water 68.7%

Example 14

A photo curable inkjet ink (UV LED curable) is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 6.

TABLE 6 Component Weight Percent Photo reactive binder (UV reactive)   15% Irgacure ® 819 (co-photo initiator)  0.3% bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of   3% PEG 600 (type II photo initiator or sensitizer) LEG-1 (surfactant)   1% CT-211 (surfactant)   1% Crodafos ® N3 (anti-kogation agent)  0.5% Pigments  2.5% 2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone   10% (co-solvent) Water 66.7%

Example 15

A photo curable inkjet ink (UV LED curable) is prepared by mixing the following components as shown in Table 7.

TABLE 7 Component Weight Percent Photo reactive binder (UV reactive)   15% Irgacure ® 819 (co-photo initiator)  0.3% bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of   5% PEG 600 (type II photo initiator or sensitizer) LEG-1 (surfactant)   1% CT-211 (surfactant)   1% Crodafos ® N3 (anti-kogation agent)  0.5% Pigments  2.5% 2-hydroxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone   10% (co-solvent) Water 64.7%

Example 16

A photo (UV LED) curable inkjet ink was prepared with the ingredients and proportions as in Example 10, using the following method: (1) Mix UV-curable polyurethane dispersion, 30% of the water amount and IRG819 PI dispersion at 60° C. for 5 min; (2) Mix 2HE2P, 70% of the water amount, Crodafos N3A, CT211, and LEG-1, then neutralize to pH=7.5 with KOH solution; (3) Combine the mixtures from steps (1) and (2); (4) Add bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 600 (type II photo initiator or sensitizer), mix well until it is dissolved into the mixture; (5) Mix (4) Into 14-SE-73 pigment dispersion; and (6) Adjust to pH=8.5 using KOH solution.

Example 17

A print test of the ink from Example 16 was performed using the following method: (1) Ink was filled into TIJ4 pen; (2) Fixer was printed from a different pen onto two paper substrates: offset coated paper (Sterling Ultra Gloss “SUG”) and whitetop coated Kraft liner RockTenn 1 (“RT1”); (3) Ink was printed onto the paper substrates; (4) Ink was immediately dried using hot air blower for 5 seconds at 375° F.; and (5) Dried ink was then immediately cured at a speed of 100 fpm using a 16 W/cm2 LED 395 nm wavelength (from Phoseon).

Example 18

Durability tests were performed on the printed ink from Example 17. A wet rub test was performed after a pre-defined time period after printing and curing. For SUG, the wet rub test was performed 24 hr after printing. For RT1, the test was preformed 72 hrs after printing. A Taber test tool was used with Crockmeier cloth attached to the tip. The weight load was 350 g. One cycle was performed for SUG, and two cycles for RT1. Windex® solution was used during the wet rub test. The delta optical density (ΔOD) was determined by measuring OD before and after the rub. The lower the ΔOD, the better the durability. A ΔOD<0.15 is considered a very good score. An immediate dry rub test was also performed. In this test, a hand held rubbing tool was used to assess the smearing of dried and cured ink immediately after printing. The tool was fit with a rubber tip that when pushed down applies a constant pressure of 6-7 lb. The ΔOD is measured before and after the rub. The lower the ΔOD, the better the durability. A ΔOD<0.15 is considered a very good score. The results of the tests were as follows: The Example 10 black ink was printed as described above in two methods: Test 1—with the curing step; Test 2—without the curing step. The durability was tested on both papers SUG and RT1, using both durability methods described above, namely, Wet Rub and Immediate Rub. The results are shown in Table 8:

TABLE 8 Test 1-with Curing Test 2-without Curing ΔOD ΔOD Example 10 Black Ink Wet Immediate Wet Immediate on Media Rub Dry Rub Rub Dry Rub SUG 0.23 0.14 1.73 0.71 RT1 0.13 0.06 1.24 0.5

The results show that the Example 10 Black ink had significantly better wet rub and immediate dry rub resistance after curing. Initial OD was 2.08 and 1.76 on SUG and RT1 therefore a ΔOD of 0.23 for example means that after rubbing the print lost 0.23 OD units out of the initial 2.08 OD measuring, a ΔOD of 1.73 means that that ink lost a significant amount of 1.73 OD units out of the initial 2.08 OD measurement. The durability improvement by curing is evident in both Wet Rub and Immediate Rub measurements suggesting that the photo-initiator and bis(2-oxythioxanthone) derivative of PEG 600 (type II photo initiator or sensitizer) sensitizer package are efficiently curing and crosslinking the ink.

While the present technology has been described with reference to certain examples, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various modifications, changes, omissions, and substitutions can be made without departing from the spirit of the disclosure. It is intended, therefore, that the disclosure be limited only by the scope of the following claims.

Claims

1. A photo curable ink, comprising:

a photo reactive binder;
a polymeric photoactive agent comprising a xanthone analog modified with a polyether chain connecting to the xanthone analog through an ether linkage;
a co-photo initiator, a synergist, or combination thereof;
a colorant; and
a liquid vehicle including co-solvent and water.

2. The photo curable ink of claim 1, wherein the photo curable ink has a pH of 7 to 12, the polymeric photoactive agent is stable in the photo curable ink.

3. The photo curable ink of claim 1, wherein the photo curable ink is photo curable using UV LED electromagnetic radiation.

4. The photo curable ink of claim 1, wherein the polymeric photoactive agent is a sensitizer, and the ink comprises the co-photo initiator.

5. The photo curable ink of claim 1, wherein the polymeric photoactive agent is a photo initiator, and the ink comprises the synergist.

6. The photo curable ink of claim 1, further comprising an additional xanthone analog moiety connecting to an opposite end of the polyether chain through an ether linkage.

7. The photo curable ink of claim 6, wherein the xanthone analog moiety connecting the opposite end of the polyether chain through the ether linkage has the general formula:

wherein R1 to R4 are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, —NO2, —O—Rd, —CO—Rd, —CO—O—Rd, —O—CO—Rd, —CO—NRd Re, —NRdRe, —NRd—CO—Re, —NRd—CO—O—Re, —NRd—CO—NReRf, —SRd, —SO—Rd, —SO2—Rd, —SO2—O—Rd, —SO2NRdRe, and a perfluoroalkyl group, wherein Rd, Re, and Rf are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, and a substituted aralkyl; and
wherein X is selected from the group consisting of —O—, —S—, —NH—, and —NR—, wherein R is selected from the group consisting of CH3, CH2CH3, and CH2CH2CH3.

8. The photo curable ink of claim 1, wherein the polyether chain is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, and a copolymer of polyethylene glycol, and polypropylene glycol.

9. The photo curable ink of claim 1, wherein the polymeric photoactive agent has a general formula selected from the group consisting of:

wherein R1 to R5 are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, a substituted aralkyl, a halogen atom, —NO2, —O—Rd, —CO—Rd, —CO—O—Rd, —O—CO—Rd, —CO—NRdRe, —NRdRe, —NRd—CO—Re, —NRd—CO—O—Re, —NRd—CO—NReRf, —SRd, —SO—Rd, —SO2—Rd, —SO2—O—Rd, —SO2NRdRe, and a perfluoroalkyl group, wherein Rd, Re, and Rf are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, an unsubstituted alkyl, a substituted alkyl, an unsubstituted alkenyl, a substituted alkenyl, an unsubstituted aryl, a substituted aryl, an unsubstituted aralkyl, and a substituted aralkyl;
wherein n is any integer from 5 to 200; and
wherein X is selected from the group consisting of —O—, —S—, —NH—, and —NR—, wherein R is selected from the group consisting of CH3, CH2CH3, and CH2CH2CH3.

10. The photo curable ink of claim 1, wherein the polymeric photoactive agent has a molecular weight from about 500 to about 5000

11. The photo curable ink of claim 1, wherein the polymeric photoactive agent has a general formula: wherein n is any integer from 10 to 25.

12. The photo curable ink of claim 1, wherein the polyether chain is selected from the group consisting of PEG 550, PEG 600, and PEG 1000.

13. The photo curable ink of claim 1, wherein the polymeric photoactive agent has a water solubility of at least 0.5 wt %.

14. The photo curable ink of claim 1, wherein the polymeric photoactive agent has a water solubility of at least 0.5 wt %.

15. A method of making the photo curable ink of claim 1, comprising admixing the photo reactive binder; the polymeric photoactive agent; the co-photo initiator, the synergist, or combination thereof; the colorant; and the liquid vehicle to form the photo curable ink.

Patent History

Publication number: 20190256654
Type: Application
Filed: Apr 30, 2019
Publication Date: Aug 22, 2019
Applicant: Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. (Spring, TX)
Inventors: Zhang-Lin Zhou (San Diego, CA), Or Brandstein (San Diego, CA), Rodney David Stramel (San Diego, CA), Gregg A. Lane (San Diego, CA)
Application Number: 16/399,602

Classifications

International Classification: C08G 65/48 (20060101); C08K 5/101 (20060101); C08K 5/06 (20060101); C09D 11/03 (20060101); C09D 11/101 (20060101); C09D 11/30 (20060101);