Systems, Devices, and/or Methods for Managing Heat Energy
Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, which comprises a ship flight deck (e.g., an aluminum flight deck). The system further comprises a plurality of heat pipes. Each of the plurality of heat pipes is installed in a cavity defined by a ship flight deck. Each of the plurality of heat pipes can be surrounded by a high heat capacity material such as a Phase Change Material.
This application claims priority to, and incorporates by reference herein in its entirety, pending U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 62/655624 (Attorney Docket No. 1022-013), filed Apr. 10, 2018.BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
A wide variety of potential practical and useful embodiments will be more readily understood through the following detailed description of certain exemplary embodiments, with reference to the accompanying exemplary drawings in which:
Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, which comprises a ship flight deck (e.g., and aluminum flight deck). The system further comprises a plurality of heat pipes. Each of the plurality of heat pipes is installed in a cavity defined by a ship flight deck. Each of the plurality of heat pipes can be surrounded by a high heat capacity material such as a Phase Change Material.
Roles of amphibious ships (e.g., combat ships) can be to support the expanded capability of twenty-first century expeditionary strike platforms such as the Marine variant of the V-22 Osprey rotorcraft (“MV-22”) and the F-35B Joint Strike Fighter. The MV-22 is capable of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (“VTOL”), and the F-35B is capable of Short runway Take-Off and Vertical Landing (“STOVL”).
MV-22 and F-35B aircraft operations have exposed the flight decks to relatively high thermo-mechanical loads. Engine combustion produces a hot gas plume that exits the nacelle and is often directed to impinge a surface of the flight deck. Rotor downwash, which comprises cool air, entrains the gas plume but might be insufficient to maintain the deck temperature below thermo-mechanical degradation limits. In addition to takeoffs and landings, flight operations may utilize engines that run on idle while the aircraft is on the ship deck. In contrast, the F-35B currently utilizes a single hot exhaust duct located towards the rear of the aircraft and a cool air lift fan. Thermal signatures of the MV-22 and F-35B differ but heat transfer to deck surfaces is significant in both cases.
The introduction of the MV-22 to amphibious assault ships has resulted in flight deck warping during flight operations. Buckling of steel flight decks has been observed and documented. Subsequent assessments of the thermal loads imposed by the landing of the F-35B Joint Strike Fighter on these ships indicate unacceptably severe heating during landing. Because the localized region of heating is surrounded by unheated deck plate and is welded to a deck support structure (longitudinal and transverse stiffening beams), mechanically constrained thermal expansion is accommodated by deck plate buckling.
With the introduction of aluminum flight decks, such as those used on the
Expeditionary Fast Transport ships (EPF) (formerly designated Join High Speed Vessel (JHSV)), new challenges have emerged. Compared to steel flight decks, aluminum's lower yield strength can lead to significant plastic deformation and substantially permanent undulations in the deck surface, which can impact subsequent flight deck operations. The impact of the induced stresses may worsen over time as the hot exhaust gases subject the deck to thermal annealing, further lowering its yield strength as the benefits of using heat treated aluminum is lost. Additionally, the low cycle, high stress fatigue associated with repeated landings will reduce the anticipated lifespan of the deck.
Certain exemplary embodiments can mitigate the effects of the aforementioned thermal loading that is applied by aircraft such as, for example, VTOL and STOVL aircraft.
Certain exemplary embodiments provide a Thermal Management System (“TMS”), which makes use of high thermal conductivity heat pipes to spread heat from highly localized regions to areas where the heat can be effectively dissipated.
The heat pipe concept is based upon the evaporation of a working fluid near a heat source that sets up a region of elevated pressure in a hermetically sealed system. The latent heat of evaporation allows for heat energy to be transported down the pressure gradient as a vapor stream until it condenses at cooler regions in the pipe. There the heat pipe releases the latent heat of vaporization at a location well suited for removal. Replenishment of the condensed working fluid to the evaporator region is driven by a liquid pressure gradient in a saturated, porous wick (or microchannels), which lines walls of the heat pipe. The evaporation, vapor flow (heat transport), and condensation of the working fluid spreads heat from local hot spots, lowering temperatures and thermally induced stress gradients. Effective thermal conductivities many times greater than copper can be attained via use of heat pipes.
In an exemplary embodiment, sealed heat pipes are fitted within the open core of the extruded aluminum deck structure as shown in
Heat from hot exhaust gases impinging the flight deck are transported by thermal conduction through the flight deck and into the filler material. The filler material stores this thermal energy as sensible heat and, therefore, rises in temperature. Heat from the filler material is then transported through the heat pipe wall to initiate evaporation of the filler material and startup of the heat pipe. The heat pipe acts as a heat spreader, transporting heat from localized hot spots and spreading the heat throughout the flight deck where the heat can be removed by convection and radiation, significantly reducing maximum surface temperatures when compared to other exemplary decks. The overall design of the TMS including dimensions, working fluid, and boundary conditions will ultimately determine the flight deck's temperature during VTOL/STOVL operations.
In an exemplary embodiment (illustrated in
A space between the heat pipes and the surrounding deck core and face sheets can be substantially filled with a Phase Change Material (“PCM”). The purpose of the filler material is twofold: (1) store thermal energy as latent heat in situations where short bursts of thermal energy might not activate startup of heat pipe or if heat pipe is in starting from a frozen state and (2) to provide a thermal conduction pathway between the flight deck and heat pipe. A PCM can absorb or release large amounts of heat at (near) constant temperature during solid to liquid and/or liquid to solid transitions. Initially, the PCM can store thermal energy as sensible heat up until phase transition. The PCM can store large amounts of thermal energy as latent heat during the phase transition. The PCM is chosen such that the transition (i.e. melting point) occurs within the operating temperature range but is below the prescribed maximum temperature designated for the flight deck. The PCM can be organic or inorganic, including eutectic material and/or solid-solid PCMs.
Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, which comprises a ship flight deck. The system further comprises a plurality of heat pipes. Each of the plurality of heat pipes is installed in a cavity defined by a ship flight deck. Each of the plurality of heat pipes can be surrounded by a high heat capacity material such as a Phase Change Material. Each cavity can define a geometric cross-section, such as substantially circular, oblong, triangular, square, or any polygon, etc.
Each of the plurality of heat pipes can comprise tubing, such as tubing fabricated from aluminum, stainless steel, copper, any other metal or alloy, and/or that comprises a polymer etc. Each of the plurality of heat pipes can comprise aluminum tubing with a nickel-plated interior. Each of the plurality of heat pipes can comprise a porous wick liner that is constructed to be substantially saturated with water in operation.
In embodiments comprising a PCM, the PCM can absorb energy via a solid to liquid phase change. In embodiments comprising a PCM, the PCM can release energy via a liquid to solid phase change. In embodiments comprising a PCM, the PCM can be:
- a solid-solid PCM; and/or
- comprise a eutectic material; etc.
When the following terms are used substantively herein, the accompanying definitions apply. These terms and definitions are presented without prejudice, and, consistent with the application, the right to redefine these terms during the prosecution of this application or any application claiming priority hereto is reserved. For the purpose of interpreting a claim of any patent that claims priority hereto, each definition (or redefined term if an original definition was amended during the prosecution of that patent), functions as a clear and unambiguous disavowal of the subject matter outside of that definition.
- a—at least one.
- activity—an action, act, step, and/or process or portion thereof.
- adapter—a device used to effect operative compatibility between different parts of one or more pieces of an apparatus or system.
- and/or—either in conjunction with or in alternative to.
- apparatus—an appliance or device for a particular purpose
- associate—to join, connect together, and/or relate.
- can—is capable of, in at least some embodiments.
- cavity—a hollow space in an object.
- comprising—including but not limited to.
- configure—to make suitable or fit for a specific use or situation.
- connect—to join or fasten together.
- constructed to—made to and/or designed to.
- convert—to transform, adapt, and/or change.
- core—a central portion.
- corrugated—comprising channels that define ridges and/or grooves.
- coupleable—capable of being joined, connected, and/or linked together.
- coupling—linking in some fashion.
- cross-section—a section formed by a plane cutting through an object, such as at right angles to an axis.
- deck—a platform of a ship serving usually as a structural element and forming a cap for underlying compartments.
- define—to establish the outline, form, or structure of
- determine—to obtain, calculate, decide, deduce, and/or ascertain.
- device—a machine, manufacture, and/or collection thereof.
- eutectic material—a substantially homogeneous mixture of substances that melts or solidifies at a single temperature that is lower than the melting point of either of the constituents.
- extrude—to shape by forcing through a die.
- filler material—a high specific heat capacity fluid, which can comprise water, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, polyalkylene glycol, mineral oil, silicone oils, fluorocarbon oils, chlorofluorocarbons, fluorocarbons, halomethane, and/or nanoparticles, etc.
- frozen state—a condition at ambient temperature where a heat pipe absorbs and transfers energy substantially only via conductive heat transfer wherein a heat transfer fluid of the heat pipe has substantially not began to vaporize.
- galvanically matched—having substantially similar electropotentials such that little or no galvanic corrosion occurs.
- generate—to create, produce, give rise to, and/or bring into existence.
- heat pipe—a heat-transfer system that combines the principles of both thermal conductivity and phase transition to efficiently manage the transfer of heat between two solid interfaces. At the hot interface of a heat pipe, a liquid in contact with a thermally conductive solid surface can turn into a vapor by absorbing heat from that surface. The vapor then travels along the heat pipe to the cold interface and condenses back into a liquid—releasing the latent heat. The liquid then returns to the hot interface through either capillary action, centrifugal force, or gravity, and the cycle repeats. Due to the very high heat transfer coefficients for boiling and condensation, heat pipes are comparatively effective thermal conductors. The effective thermal conductivity varies with heat pipe length, and can approach 100 kW/(m·K) for long heat pipes, in comparison with approximately 0.4 kW/(m·K) for copper.
- high heat capacity material—a substance having an ability to absorb heat energy in a quantity greater than liquid water.
- impinge—to strike.
- inhibit—to decrease the rate of action of or substantially stop the action.
- install—to connect or set in position and prepare for use.
- interior—located within an enclosure.
- liner—a layer placed inside something.
- may—is allowed and/or permitted to, in at least some embodiments.
- method—a process, procedure, and/or collection of related activities for accomplishing something.
- microchannel—a channel with a hydraulic diameter below approximately one millimeter. Microchannels are used in fluid control and heat transfer.
- operate—to control a function of.
- Phase Change Material—a substance that changes phases responsive to changes in heat energy imparted to the substance.
- plurality—the state of being plural and/or more than one.
- polymer—a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
- porous—capable of passage of gas or liquid through pores or interstices.
- predetermined—established in advance.
- provide—to furnish, supply, give, and/or make available.
- receive—to get, take, acquire, and/or obtain.
- repeatedly—again and again; repetitively.
- request—to express a desire for and/or ask for.
- saturated—comprising substantially a maximum amount of something capable of being absorbed under a given set of conditions.
- seal—to fasten or close such that liquids or gases are substantially contained without significant leakage.
- set—a related plurality.
- ship flight deck—a landing surface on a boat, the landing surface constructed for landing of an aircraft.
- substantially—to a great extent or degree.
- support—to bear the weight of, especially from below.
- system—a collection of mechanisms, devices, machines, articles of manufacture, processes, data, and/or instructions, the collection designed to perform one or more specific functions.
- thermal energy—internal energy present in a system due to its temperature; wherein internal energy is energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.
- triangular—having a shape of a three sided polygon.
- tube—an elongate member having a longitudinal axis and defining a longitudinal cross-section resembling any closed shape such as, for example, a circle, a non-circle such as an oval (which generally can include a shape that is substantially in the form of an obround, ellipse, limaçon, cardioid, cartesian oval, and/or Cassini oval, etc.), and/or a polygon such as a triangle, rectangle, square, hexagon, the shape of the letter “D”, the shape of the letter “P”, etc. Thus, a right circular cylinder is one form of a tube, an elliptic cylinder is another form of a tube having an elliptical longitudinal cross-section, and a generalized cylinder is yet another form of a tube. A tube can be formed of a mesh material, and can be filled with a filler material
- via—by way of and/or utilizing.
- wick—an object that comprises a material that draws up liquid.
Still other substantially and specifically practical and useful embodiments will become readily apparent to those skilled in this art from reading the above-recited and/or herein-included detailed description and/or drawings of certain exemplary embodiments. It should be understood that numerous variations, modifications, and additional embodiments are possible, and accordingly, all such variations, modifications, and embodiments are to be regarded as being within the scope of this application.
Thus, regardless of the content of any portion (e.g., title, field, background, summary, description, abstract, drawing figure, etc.) of this application, unless clearly specified to the contrary, such as via explicit definition, assertion, or argument, with respect to any claim, whether of this application and/or any claim of any application claiming priority hereto, and whether originally presented or otherwise:
- there is no requirement for the inclusion of any particular described or illustrated characteristic, function, activity, or element, any particular sequence of activities, or any particular interrelationship of elements;
- no characteristic, function, activity, or element is “essential”;
- any elements can be integrated, segregated, and/or duplicated;
- any activity can be repeated, any activity can be performed by multiple entities, and/or any activity can be performed in multiple jurisdictions; and
- any activity or element can be specifically excluded, the sequence of activities can vary, and/or the interrelationship of elements can vary.
Moreover, when any number or range is described herein, unless clearly stated otherwise, that number or range is approximate. When any range is described herein, unless clearly stated otherwise, that range includes all values therein and all subranges therein. For example, if a range of 1 to 10 is described, that range includes all values therebetween, such as for example, 1.1, 2.5, 3.335, 5, 6.179, 8.9999, etc., and includes all subranges therebetween, such as for example, 1 to 3.65, 2.8 to 8.14, 1.93 to 9, etc.
When any claim element is followed by a drawing element number, that drawing element number is exemplary and non-limiting on claim scope. No claim of this application is intended to invoke paragraph six of 35 USC 112 unless the precise phrase “means for” is followed by a gerund.
Any information in any material (e.g., a United States patent, United States patent application, book, article, etc.) that has been incorporated by reference herein, is only incorporated by reference to the extent that no conflict exists between such information and the other statements and drawings set forth herein. In the event of such conflict, including a conflict that would render invalid any claim herein or seeking priority hereto, then any such conflicting information in such material is specifically not incorporated by reference herein.
Accordingly, every portion (e.g., title, field, background, summary, description, abstract, drawing figure, etc.) of this application, other than the claims themselves, is to be regarded as illustrative in nature, and not as restrictive, and the scope of subject matter protected by any patent that issues based on this application is defined only by the claims of that patent.
1. A system comprising:
- a ship flight deck; and
- a plurality of heat pipes, each of the plurality of heat pipes installed in a cavity defined by a ship flight deck, each of the plurality of heat pipes surrounded by a Phase Change Material, wherein: each cavity defines a triangular cross-section; each of the plurality of heat pipes comprises aluminum tubing with a nickel plated interior; and each of the plurality of heat pipes comprises a porous wick liner that is constructed to be substantially saturated with water in operation.
2. A system comprising:
- a ship flight deck; and
- a plurality of heat pipes, each of the plurality of heat pipes installed in a cavity defined by a ship flight deck, each of the plurality of heat pipes surrounded by a high heat capacity material, wherein: each cavity defines a triangular cross-section; each of the plurality of heat pipes comprises aluminum tubing with a nickel plated interior; and each of the plurality of heat pipes comprises a porous wick liner that is constructed to be substantially saturated with water in operation.
3. A system comprising:
- an aluminum ship flight deck; and
- a plurality of heat pipes, each of the plurality of heat pipes installed in a cavity defined by a ship flight deck, each of the plurality of heat pipes surrounded by a high heat capacity material.
4. The system of claim 3, wherein:
- each cavity defines a triangular cross-section.
5. The system of claim 3, wherein:
- each of the plurality of heat pipes comprises aluminum tubing.
6. The system of claim 3, wherein:
- each of the plurality of heat pipes comprises aluminum tubing with a nickel plated interior.
7. The system of claim 3, wherein:
- each of the plurality of heat pipes comprises a polymer.
8. The system of claim 3, wherein:
- each of the plurality of heat pipes comprises a porous wick liner that is constructed to be substantially saturated with water in operation.
9. The system of claim 3, wherein:
- the high heat capacity material is a Phase Change Material that absorbs energy via a solid to liquid phase change.
10. The system of claim 3, wherein:
- the high heat capacity material is a Phase Change Material that releases energy via a liquid to solid phase change.
11. The system of claim 3, wherein:
- the high heat capacity is organic.
12. The system of claim 3, wherein:
- the high heat capacity is inorganic.
13. The system of claim 3, wherein:
- the high heat capacity comprises a eutectic material.
14. The system of claim 3, wherein:
- the high heat capacity is a solid-solid Phase Change Material.