NAPHTHALENE ISOXAZOLINE COMPOUNDS FOR CONTROLLING INVERTEBRATE PESTS

Disclosed are compounds of Formula 1, wherein J is and R1a, R1b, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R14, R15, R16, Q and X are as defined in the disclosure. Also disclosed are compositions containing the compounds of Formula 1 and methods for controlling an invertebrate pest comprising contacting the invertebrate pest or its environment with a biologically effective amount of a compound or a composition of the invention.

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Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to certain isoxazoline compounds and compositions suitable for agronomic and nonagronomic uses, and methods of their use for controlling invertebrate pests such as arthropods in both agronomic and nonagronomic environments.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The control of invertebrate pests is extremely important in achieving high crop efficiency. Damage by invertebrate pests to growing and stored agronomic crops can cause significant reduction in productivity and thereby result in increased costs to the consumer. The control of invertebrate pests in forestry, greenhouse crops, ornamentals, nursery crops, stored food and fiber products, household, turf, wood products, and public health is also important. Many products are commercially available for these purposes, but the need continues for new compounds that are more effective, less costly, less toxic, environmentally safer or have different sites of action.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention is directed to compounds of Formula 1, compositions containing them, and their use for controlling invertebrate pests:

wherein

    • J is C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano; —CH2(cyclopropyl) substituted with one cyano; or cyclopropyl, unsubstituted or substituted with one cyano or one C(O)NHR17; or
    • J is

    • R1a is Cl or CF3;
    • R1b is H or Cl;
    • R2 is C1-C4 alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with substituents independently selected from cyano, nitro, OR9, S(O)nR10, CO2R11 and C(O)NR12R13;
    • R3 is H; or C1-C4 alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with substituents independently selected from cyano, nitro, OR9, S(O)nR10, CO2R11 and C(O)NR12R13;
    • R4 is H, C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 haloalkyl;
    • R5 is H or C1-C4 alkyl;
    • R6 is H or C1-C4 alkyl;
    • R7 is H, C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 haloalkyl; X is —O— or —C(O)—;
    • R8 is H, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl or C3-C6 cycloalkyl;
    • each R9, R10, R11, R12 and R13 is independently H or C1-C4 alkyl;
    • R14 is H; or C1-C4 alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with substituents independently selected from cyano, nitro, OR9, S(O)nR10, CO2R11 and C(O)NR12R13;
    • R15 is H, C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 haloalkyl;
    • R16 is fluoro, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 haloalkoxy, amino or C1-C6 alkylamino;
    • R17 is H, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl or C3-C6 cycloalkyl;
    • Q is pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, 1,2,4-triazinyl, 1,3,5-triazinyl, furanyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, 1,2,3-triazolyl, 1,2,4-triazolyl, tetrazolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, 1,2,3-oxadiazolyl, 1,2,4-oxadiazolyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl, 1,2,3-thiadiazolyl, 1,2,4-thiadiazolyl or 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl, each unsubstituted or substituted with substituents independently selected from cyano, nitro, halogen, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 alkoxy, C1-C4 haloalkoxy, C1-C4 alkylthio, C1-C4 haloalkylthio, C1-C4 alkylsulfinyl, C1-C4 haloalkylsulfinyl, C1-C4 alkylsulfonyl, C1-C4 haloalkylsulfonyl, C2—O5 alkoxycarbonyl, C2—O5 alkylaminocarbonyl and C3—O5 dialkylaminocarbonyl; and
    • each n is independently 0, 1 or 2.

This invention also provides a composition comprising a compound of Formula 1 and at least one additional component selected from the group consisting of surfactants, solid diluents and liquid diluents. In one embodiment, this invention also provides a composition for controlling an invertebrate pest comprising a compound of Formula 1 and at least one additional component selected from the group consisting of surfactants, solid diluents and liquid diluents, said composition optionally further comprising at least one additional biologically active compound or agent.

This invention provides a method for controlling an invertebrate pest comprising contacting the invertebrate pest or its environment with a biologically effective amount of a compound of Formula 1 (e.g., as a composition described herein). This invention also relates to such method wherein the invertebrate pest or its environment is contacted with a composition comprising a biologically effective amount of a compound of Formula 1, and at least one additional component selected from the group consisting of surfactants, solid diluents and liquid diluents, said composition optionally further comprising a biologically effective amount of at least one additional biologically active compound or agent.

This invention also provides a method for protecting a seed from an invertebrate pest comprising contacting the seed with a biologically effective amount of a compound of Formula 1 (e.g., as a composition described herein). This invention also relates to the treated seed.

This invention also provides a method for increasing vigor of a crop plant comprising contacting the crop plant, the seed from which the crop plant is grown or the locus (e.g., growth medium) of the crop plant with a biologically effective amount of a compound of Formula 1 (e.g., as a composition described herein).

DETAILS OF THE INVENTION

As used herein, the terms “comprises,” “comprising,” “includes,” “including,” “has,” “having,” “contains”, “containing,” “characterized by” or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion, subject to any limitation explicitly indicated. For example, a composition, mixture, process or method that comprises a list of elements is not necessarily limited to only those elements but may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such composition, mixture, process or method.

The transitional phrase “consisting of” excludes any element, step, or ingredient not specified. If in the claim, such would close the claim to the inclusion of materials other than those recited except for impurities ordinarily associated therewith. When the phrase “consisting of” appears in a clause of the body of a claim, rather than immediately following the preamble, it limits only the element set forth in that clause; other elements are not excluded from the claim as a whole.

The transitional phrase “consisting essentially of” is used to define a composition or method that includes materials, steps, features, components, or elements, in addition to those literally disclosed, provided that these additional materials, steps, features, components, or elements do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristic(s) of the claimed invention. The term “consisting essentially of” occupies a middle ground between “comprising” and “consisting of”.

Where applicants have defined an invention or a portion thereof with an open-ended term such as “comprising,” it should be readily understood that (unless otherwise stated) the description should be interpreted to also describe such an invention using the terms “consisting essentially of” or “consisting of.”

Further, unless expressly stated to the contrary, “or” refers to an inclusive or and not to an exclusive or. For example, a condition A or B is satisfied by any one of the following: A is true (or present) and B is false (or not present), A is false (or not present) and B is true (or present), and both A and B are true (or present).

Also, the indefinite articles “a” and “an” preceding an element or component of the invention are intended to be nonrestrictive regarding the number of instances (i.e. occurrences) of the element or component. Therefore “a” or “an” should be read to include one or at least one, and the singular word form of the element or component also includes the plural unless the number is obviously meant to be singular.

As referred to in this disclosure, the term “invertebrate pest” includes arthropods, gastropods, nematodes and helminths of economic importance as pests. The term “arthropod” includes insects, mites, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, millipedes, pill bugs and symphylans. The term “gastropod” includes snails, slugs and other Stylommatophora. The term “nematode” includes members of the phylum Nematoda.

In the context of this disclosure “invertebrate pest control” means inhibition of invertebrate pest development (including mortality, feeding reduction, and/or mating disruption), and related expressions are defined analogously.

The term “agronomic” refers to the production of field crops such as for food and fiber and includes the growth of maize or corn, soybeans and other legumes, rice, cereal (e.g., wheat, oats, barley, rye and rice), leafy vegetables (e.g., lettuce, cabbage, and other cole crops), fruiting vegetables (e.g., tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, crucifers and cucurbits), potatoes, sweet potatoes, grapes, cotton, tree fruits (e.g., pome, stone and citrus), small fruit (e.g., berries and cherries) and other specialty crops (e.g., canola, sunflower and olives).

The term “nonagronomic” refers to other than field crops, such as horticultural crops (e.g., greenhouse, nursery or ornamental plants not grown in a field), residential, agricultural, commercial and industrial structures, turf (e.g., sod farm, pasture, golf course, lawn, sports field, etc.), wood products, stored product, agro-forestry and vegetation management, and public health applications.

The term “crop vigor” refers to rate of growth or biomass accumulation of a crop plant. An “increase in vigor” refers to an increase in growth or biomass accumulation in a crop plant relative to an untreated control crop plant. The term “crop yield” refers to the return on crop material, in terms of both quantity and quality, obtained after harvesting a crop plant. An “increase in crop yield” refers to an increase in crop yield relative to an untreated control crop plant.

The term “biologically effective amount” refers to the amount of a biologically active compound (e.g., a compound of Formula 1) sufficient to produce the desired biological effect when applied to (i.e. contacted with) an invertebrate pest to be controlled or its environment, or to a plant, the seed from which the plant is grown, or the locus of the plant (e.g., growth medium) to protect the plant from injury by the invertebrate pest or for other desired effect (e.g., increasing plant vigor).

In the above recitations, the term “alkyl”, used either alone or in compound words such as “alkylthio” or “haloalkyl” includes straight-chain or branched alkyl, such as, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, or the different butyl, pentyl or hexyl isomers.

“Alkoxy” includes, for example, methoxy, ethoxy, n-propyloxy, isopropyloxy and the different butoxy, pentoxy and hexyloxy isomers. “Alkylthio” includes branched or straight-chain alkylthio moieties such as methylthio, ethylthio, and the different propylthio, butylthio, pentylthio and hexylthio isomers.

The term “halogen”, either alone or in compound words such as “haloalkyl”, or when used in descriptions such as “alkyl substituted with halogen” includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. Further, when used in compound words such as “haloalkyl”, or when used in descriptions such as “alkyl substituted with halogen” said alkyl may be partially or fully substituted with halogen atoms which may be the same or different. Examples of “haloalkyl” or “alkyl substituted with halogen” include F3C—, ClCH2—, CF3CH2— and CF3CCl2—.

The chemical abbreviations S(O) and S(═O) as used herein represent a sulfinyl moiety. The chemical abbreviations SO2, S(O)2 and S(═O)2 as used herein represent a sulfonyl moiety. The chemical abbreviations C(O) and C(═O) as used herein represent a carbonyl moiety. The chemical abbreviations CO2, C(O)O and C(═O)O as used herein represent an oxycarbonyl moiety.

A dashed line in a structure fragment denotes the attachment point of the fragment to the remainder of the molecule. For example, when the variable J in Formula 1 is defined as J-1, the dashed line in the structure of J-1 means that J-1 is attached to the remainder of the structure of Formula 1 at that position, as shown below.

The variable X in J-4 is defined as —O— or —C(O)—, and this means that J-4 is as shown below.

When the variable J is defined as —CH2(cyclopropyl) substituted with one cyano, this means that J is as shown below (i.e. the cyano group can be attached to either the methylene group or to any carbon atom of the cyclopropyl ring).

The total number of carbon atoms in a substituent group is indicated by the “Ci-Cj” prefix. For example, C1-C4 alkyl designates methyl, ethyl, and the various propyl and butyl isomers.

When a compound is substituted with a substituent bearing a subscript that indicates the number of said substituents can exceed 1, said substituents (when they exceed 1) are independently selected from the group of defined substituents. Further, when the subscript indicates a range, e.g. (R)i-j, then the number of substituents may be selected from the integers between i and j inclusive. When a group contains a substituent which can be hydrogen, then when this substituent is taken as hydrogen, it is recognized that this is equivalent to said group being unsubstituted. When one or more positions on a group are said to be “not substituted” or “unsubstituted”, then hydrogen atoms are attached to take up any free valency.

When a substituent is a 5- or 6-membered nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring, it may be attached to the remainder of Formula 1 though any available carbon or nitrogen ring atom, unless otherwise described.

A wide variety of synthetic methods are known in the art to enable preparation of aromatic and nonaromatic heterocyclic rings and ring systems; for extensive reviews see the eight volume set of Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry, A. R. Katritzky and C. W. Rees editors-in-chief, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1984 and the twelve volume set of Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II, A. R. Katritzky, C. W. Rees and E. F. V. Scriven editors-in-chief, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1996.

Compounds of this invention can exist as one or more stereoisomers. Stereoisomers are isomers of identical constitution but differing in the arrangement of their atoms in space and include enantiomers, diastereomers, cis-trans isomers (also known as geometric isomers) and atropisomers. Atropisomers result from restricted rotation about single bonds where the rotational barrier is high enough to permit isolation of the isomeric species. One skilled in the art will appreciate that one stereoisomer may be more active and/or may exhibit beneficial effects when enriched relative to the other stereoisomer(s) or when separated from the other stereoisomer(s). Additionally, the skilled artisan knows how to separate, enrich, and/or to selectively prepare said stereoisomers. For a comprehensive discussion of all aspects of stereoisomerism, see Ernest L. Eliel and Samuel H. Wilen, Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds, John Wiley & Sons, 1994.

Compounds selected from Formula 1 typically exist in more than one form, and Formula 1 thus includes all crystalline and non-crystalline forms of the compounds that Formula 1 represents. Non-crystalline forms include embodiments which are solids such as waxes and gums as well as embodiments which are liquids such as solutions and melts. Crystalline forms include embodiments which represent essentially a single crystal type and embodiments which represent a mixture of polymorphs (i.e. different crystalline types). The term “polymorph” refers to a particular crystalline form of a chemical compound that can crystallize in different crystalline forms, these forms having different arrangements and/or conformations of the molecules in the crystal lattice. Although polymorphs can have the same chemical composition, they can also differ in composition due to the presence or absence of co-crystallized water or other molecules, which can be weakly or strongly bound in the lattice. Polymorphs can differ in such chemical, physical and biological properties as crystal shape, density, hardness, color, chemical stability, melting point, hygroscopicity, suspensibility, dissolution rate and biological availability. One skilled in the art will appreciate that a polymorph of a compound represented by Formula 1 can exhibit beneficial effects (e.g., suitability for preparation of useful formulations, improved biological performance) relative to another polymorph or a mixture of polymorphs of the same compound represented by Formula 1. Preparation and isolation of a particular polymorph of a compound represented by Formula 1 can be achieved by methods known to those skilled in the art including, for example, crystallization using selected solvents and temperatures. Compounds of this invention may exist as one or more crystalline polymorphs. This invention comprises both individual polymorphs and mixtures of polymorphs, including mixtures enriched in one polymorph relative to others. For a comprehensive discussion of polymorphism see R. Hilfiker, Ed., Polymorphism In the Pharmaceutical Industry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006.

Embodiments of the present invention as described in the Summary of the Invention include those described below. In the following Embodiments, reference to “a compound of Formula 1” includes the definitions of substituents specified in the Summary of the Invention unless further defined in the Embodiments.

    • Embodiment 1. A compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-1.
    • Embodiment 1a. A compound of Embodiment 1 wherein R2 is C1-C4 alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with substituents independently selected from OMe, SMe, S(O)Me and SO2Me.
    • Embodiment 1b. A compound of Embodiment 1a wherein R2 is C1-C4 alkyl substituted with OMe, SMe, S(O)Me or SO2Me.
    • Embodiment 1c. A compound of Embodiment 1a wherein R2 is C1-C4 alkyl.
    • Embodiment 1d. A compound of Embodiment 1c wherein R2 is methyl.
    • Embodiment 1e. A compound of any of Embodiments 1-1d wherein R3 is H or methyl.
    • Embodiment 1f. A compound of any of Embodiments 1-1d wherein R4 is H, C1-C2 alkyl or C1-C2 haloalkyl.
    • Embodiment 2. A compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2.
    • Embodiment 2a. A compound of Embodiment 2 or 2a wherein R5 is H or methyl.
    • Embodiment 2b. A compound of Embodiment 2a wherein R5 is methyl.
    • Embodiment 2c. A compound of Embodiment 2a wherein R5 is H.
    • Embodiment 2d. A compound of any of Embodiments 2-2c wherein Q is pyridinyl or pyrimidinyl.
    • Embodiment 2e. A compound of Embodiment 2d wherein Q is pyridinyl.
    • Embodiment 2f. A compound of Embodiment 2d wherein Q is pyrimidinyl.
    • Embodiment 2g. A compound of any of Embodiments 2-2f wherein J-2 is

    • Embodiment 3. A composition consisting of a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a and a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b

      • wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 60:40.
    • Embodiment 3a. A composition of Embodiment 3 wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 80:20.
    • Embodiment 3b. A composition of Embodiment 3 wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 90:10.
    • Embodiment 3c. A composition of Embodiment 3 wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 95:5.
    • Embodiment 3d. A composition of Embodiment 3 wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 99:1.
    • Embodiment 3e. A composition consisting of a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a and a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b

      • and
      • R5 is methyl;
      • wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 60:40.
    • Embodiment 3f. A composition of Embodiment 3e wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 80:20.
    • Embodiment 3g. A composition of Embodiment 3e wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 90:10.
    • Embodiment 3h. A composition of Embodiment 3e wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 95:5.
    • Embodiment 3i. A composition of Embodiment 3e wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 99:1.
    • Embodiment 3j. A composition consisting of a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a and a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b

      • and
      • Q is pyridinyl;
      • wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 60:40.
    • Embodiment 3k. A composition of Embodiment 3j wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 80:20.
    • Embodiment 3l. A composition of Embodiment 3j wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 90:10.
    • Embodiment 3m. A composition of Embodiment 3j wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 95:5.
    • Embodiment 3n. A composition of Embodiment 3j wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 99:1.
    • Embodiment 3o. A composition consisting of a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a and a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b

      • and
      • Q is pyrimidinyl;
      • wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 60:40.
    • Embodiment 3p. A composition of Embodiment 3o wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 80:20.
    • Embodiment 3q. A composition of Embodiment 3o wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 90:10.
    • Embodiment 3r. A composition of Embodiment 3o wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 95:5.
    • Embodiment 3s. A composition of Embodiment 3o wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2b is greater than 99:1.
    • Embodiment 4. A compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-3.
    • Embodiment 4a. A compound of Embodiment 4 wherein R6 is H.
    • Embodiment 4b. A compound of Embodiment 4 wherein R7 is C1-C4 alkyl.
    • Embodiment 4c. A compound of Embodiment 4b wherein R7 is methyl or ethyl.
    • Embodiment 4d. A compound of Embodiment 4c wherein R7 is methyl.
    • Embodiment 5. A compound of Formula 1 or Embodiment 1 wherein J is J-4.
    • Embodiment 5a. A compound of Embodiment 5 wherein X is —O—.
    • Embodiment 5b. A compound of Embodiment 5 wherein X is —C(O)—.
    • Embodiment 5c. A compound of Embodiment 5, 5a or 5b wherein R8 is C1-C2 alkyl or C1-C2 haloalkyl.
    • Embodiment 5d. A compound of Embodiment 5c wherein R8 is methyl or ethyl.
    • Embodiment 5e. A compound of Embodiment 5d wherein R8 is methyl.
    • Embodiment 6. A compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5.
    • Embodiment 6a. A compound of Embodiment 6 wherein R14 is C1-C4 alkyl.
    • Embodiment 6b. A compound of Embodiment 6a wherein R14 is methyl or ethyl.
    • Embodiment 6c. A compound of Embodiment 6b wherein R14 is methyl.
    • Embodiment 6d. A compound of any of Embodiments 6-6c wherein R15 is C1-C4 alkyl.
    • Embodiment 6e. A compound of Embodiment 6d wherein R14 is methyl or ethyl.
    • Embodiment 6f. A compound of Embodiment 6e wherein R14 is methyl.
    • Embodiment 6g. A compound of any of Embodiments 6-6f wherein J-5 is

    • Embodiment 7. A composition consisting of a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5a and a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5b

      • wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5b is greater than 60:40.
    • Embodiment 7a. A composition of Embodiment 7 wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5b is greater than 80:20.
    • Embodiment 7b. A composition of Embodiment 7 wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5b is greater than 90:10.
    • Embodiment 7c. A composition of Embodiment 7 wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5b is greater than 95:5.
    • Embodiment 7b. A composition of Embodiment 7 wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5a to the compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5b is greater than 99:1.
    • Embodiment 8. A compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-6.
    • Embodiment 8a. A compound of Embodiment 8 wherein R16 is F, methyl or amino
    • Embodiment 8b. A compound of Embodiment 8a wherein R16 is methyl.
    • Embodiment 9. A compound of Formula 1 wherein J is C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano.
    • Embodiment 9a. A compound of Embodiment 9 wherein J is ethyl substituted with one cyano.
    • Embodiment 9b. A compound of Embodiment 9a wherein J is —CH(CN)CH3.
    • Embodiment 10. A compound of Formula 1 wherein J is —CH2(cyclopropyl) substituted with one cyano.
    • Embodiment 10a. A compound of Embodiment 10 wherein J is —CH(CN)(cyclopropyl).
    • Embodiment 11. A compound of Formula 1 wherein J is cyclopropyl, unsubstituted or substituted with one cyano or one C(O)NHR17.
    • Embodiment 11a. A compound of Embodiment 11 wherein J is cyclopropyl.
    • Embodiment 11b. A compound of Embodiment 11 wherein J is 1-(cyano)cyclopropyl.
    • Embodiment 11c. A compound of Formula 1 wherein J is C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano; or cyclopropyl.
    • Embodiment 12. A compound of Formula 1 or any of Embodiments 1-11c wherein R1a is Cl.
    • Embodiment 12a. A compound of Formula 1 or any of Embodiments 1-11c wherein R1a is CF3.
    • Embodiment 13. A compound of Formula 1 or any of Embodiments 1-12a wherein R1b is H.
    • Embodiment 13a. A compound of Formula 1 or any of Embodiments 1-12a wherein R1b is Cl.
    • Embodiment 14. A compound of Formula 1 or any of Embodiments 1-11c wherein R1a is H and R1b is CF3.
    • Embodiment 15. A compound of Formula 1 or any of Embodiments 1-11c wherein R1a is Cl and R1b is Cl.
    • Embodiment 16. A compound of Formula 1 or any of Embodiments 1-11c wherein R1a is Cl and R1b is CF3.
    • Embodiment 17. A compound of Formula 1 or any of Embodiments 1-11c wherein R1a is H and R1b is CF3, or R1a is Cl and R1b is Cl, or R1a is Cl and R1b is CF3.
    • Embodiment 17a. A compound of Formula 1 or any of Embodiments 1-11c wherein R1a is H and R1b is CF3, or R1a is Cl and R1b is Cl.
    • Embodiment 18. A composition consisting of a compound of Formula 1-1S and Formula 1-1R

      • wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1-1S to the compound of Formula 1-1R is greater than 60:40.
    • Embodiment 18a. A composition of Embodiment 18 wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1-1S to the compound of Formula 1-1R is greater than 80:20.
    • Embodiment 18b. A composition of Embodiment 18 wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1-1S to the compound of Formula 1-1R is greater than 90:10.
    • Embodiment 18c. A composition of Embodiment 18 wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1-1S to the compound of Formula 1-1R is greater than 95:5.
    • Embodiment 18d. A composition of Embodiment 18 wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1-1S to the compound of Formula 1-1R is greater than 99:1.
    • Embodiment 19. A composition consisting of a compound of Formula 1-1S and Formula 1-1R

      • wherein the ratio of the compound of Formula 1-1S to the compound of Formula 1-1R is greater than 60:40.
    • Embodiment 19a. A composition of Embodiment 19 wherein J is J-1.
    • Embodiment 19b. A composition of Embodiment 19 wherein J is J-2.
    • Embodiment 19c. A composition of Embodiment 19b wherein J is J-2a

    • Embodiment 19d. A composition of Embodiment 19 wherein J is J-3.
    • Embodiment 19e. A composition of Embodiment 19 wherein J is J-4.
    • Embodiment 19f. A composition of Embodiment 19 wherein J is J-5.
    • Embodiment 19g. A composition of Embodiment 19f wherein J is J-5a

    • Embodiment 19h. A composition of Embodiment 19 wherein J is J-6.
    • Embodiment 19i. A composition of Embodiment 19 wherein J is C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano.
    • Embodiment 19j. A composition of Embodiment 19 wherein J is —CH2(cyclopropyl) substituted with one cyano.
    • Embodiment 19k. A composition of Embodiment 19 wherein J is cyclopropyl, unsubstituted or substituted with one cyano or one C(O)NHR17.
    • Embodiments 20-20k are identical to Embodiments 19-19k except that the ratio of the compound of Formula 1-1S to the compound of Formula 1-1R is greater than 80:20.
    • Embodiments 21-21k are identical to Embodiments 19-19k except that the ratio of the compound of Formula 1-1S to the compound of Formula 1-1R is greater than 90:10.
    • Embodiments 22-22k are identical to Embodiments 19-19k except that the ratio of the compound of Formula 1-1S to the compound of Formula 1-1R is greater than 95:5.
    • Embodiments 23-23k are identical to Embodiments 19-19k except that the ratio of the compound of Formula 1-1S to the compound of Formula 1-1R is greater than 99:1.

Embodiments of this invention, including Embodiments 1-23k above as well as any other embodiments described herein, can be combined in any manner, and the descriptions of variables in the embodiments pertain not only to the compounds of Formula 1 but also to the starting compounds and intermediate compounds useful for preparing the compounds of Formula 1. In addition, embodiments of this invention, including Embodiments 1-23k above as well as any other embodiments described herein, and any combination thereof, pertain to the compositions and methods of the present invention.

Combinations of Embodiments 1-23k are illustrated by:

    • Embodiment A. A compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-1, J-2 or J-5.
    • Embodiment B. The compound of Embodiment A wherein J is J-1.
    • Embodiment C. The compound of Embodiment B wherein R2 is C1-C4 alkyl.
    • Embodiment D. The compound of Embodiment C wherein R2 is methyl.
    • Embodiment E. The compound of Embodiment A wherein J is J-2.
    • Embodiment F. The compound of Embodiment E wherein R5 is H or methyl.
    • Embodiment G. The compound of Embodiment F wherein Q is pyridinyl or pyrimidinyl.
    • Embodiment H. The compound of any one of Embodiments E, F or G wherein J-2 is

    • Embodiment I. The compound of Embodiment A wherein J is J-5.
    • Embodiment J. The compound of Embodiment I wherein R14 is C1-C4 alkyl.
    • Embodiment K. The compound of any one of Embodiments I or J wherein J-5 is

    • Embodiment L. The compound of any one of Embodiments A-K wherein the compound of Formula 1 is Formula 1-1S

    • Embodiment M. A compound of Formula 1 wherein J is C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano; —CH2(cyclopropyl) substituted with one cyano; or cyclopropyl, unsubstituted or substituted with one cyano or one C(O)NHR17; or J-1, J-2 or J-5.
    • Embodiment N. A compound of Embodiment M wherein R1a is Cl and R1b is Cl; or R1a is CF3 and R1b is H.
    • Embodiment O. A compound of Embodiment N wherein J is C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano; or cyclopropyl.
    • Embodiment P. A compound of Embodiment N wherein J is J-1.
    • Embodiment Q. A compound of Embodiment P wherein R2 is methyl;
    • R3 is H or methyl; and
    • R4 is H or methyl.
    • Embodiment R. A compound of Embodiment N wherein J is J-2.
    • Embodiment 5. A compound of Embodiment R wherein R5 is H or methyl; and
    • Q is pyridinyl or pyrimidinyl.
    • Embodiment T. A compound of Embodiment 5 wherein J-2 is

    • Embodiment U. A compound of Embodiment N wherein J is J-5.
    • Embodiment V. A compound of Embodiment U wherein R14 is H or methyl; and
    • R15 is C1-C4 alkyl.
    • Embodiment W. A compound of Embodiment V wherein J-5 is

    • Embodiment L-1. The compound of Formula 1-1S

    • Embodiment L-2. A compound of Formula 1-1S wherein J is C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano; —CH2(cyclopropyl) substituted with one cyano; or cyclopropyl, unsubstituted or substituted with one cyano or one C(O)NHR17; or J-1, J-2 or J-5.
    • Embodiment L-3. A compound of Embodiment L-2 wherein R1a is Cl and R1b is Cl; or R1a is CF3 and R1b is H.
    • Embodiment L-4. A compound of Embodiment L-3 wherein J is C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano; or cyclopropyl.
    • Embodiment L-5. A compound of Embodiment L-3 wherein J is J-1.
    • Embodiment L-6. A compound of Embodiment L-5 wherein R2 is methyl;
    • R3 is H or methyl; and
    • R4 is H or methyl.
    • Embodiment L-7. A compound of Embodiment L-3 wherein J is J-2.
    • Embodiment L-8. A compound of Embodiment L-7 wherein R5 is H or methyl; and
    • Q is pyridinyl or pyrimidinyl.
    • Embodiment L-9. A compound of Embodiment L-8 wherein J-2 is

    • Embodiment L-10. A compound of Embodiment L-3 wherein J is J-5.
    • Embodiment L-11. A compound of Embodiment L-10 wherein R14 is H or methyl; and
    • R15 is C1-C4 alkyl.
    • Embodiment L-12. A compound of Embodiment U wherein J-5 is

Specific embodiments include compounds of Formula 1 selected from the group consisting of compounds 1, 3, 8, 10, 11, 19, 20, 33, 34, 39, 50, 61, 67, 69, 70 and 71. Compound numbers refer to the Index Tables. Specific embodiments thus include compounds of Formula 1 selected from the group consisting of a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, J is J-1, R2 is methyl, R3 is H, and R4 is H (compound 1); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, J is J-1, R2 is methyl, R3 is H, and R4 is methyl (compound 3); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, J is J-2, R5 is H, and Q is 2-pyrimidinyl (compound 10); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is CF3, R1b is Cl, J is J-2, R5 is H, and Q is 2-pyrimidinyl (compound 11); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, J is J-2, R5 is methyl, and Q is 2-pyrimidinyl (compound 19); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, J is J-2a, R5 is methyl, and Q is 2-pyridinyl (compound 20); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, J is J-3, R6 is H, and R7 is methyl (compound 33); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, J is J-4, X is 0, and R8 is ethyl (compound 34); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, J is J-5a, R14 is methyl, and R15 is methyl (compound 39); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is CF3, R1b is H, J is J-2, R5 is H, and Q is 2-pyrimidinyl (compound 50); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is CF3, R1b is H, and J is cyclopropyl (compound 67); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is CF3, R1b is H, and J is 1-(cyano)ethyl (compound 69); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, and J is cyclopropyl (compound 70); a compound of Formula 1 wherein R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, and J is 1-(cyano)ethyl (compound 71); a compound of Formula 1-1S wherein R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, J is J-1, R2 is methyl, R3 is H, and R4 is H (compound 8); and a compound of Formula 1-1S wherein R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, J is J-2, R5 is H, and Q is 2-pyrimidinyl (compound 61).

Of note is that compounds of this invention are characterized by favorable metabolic and/or soil residual patterns and exhibit activity controlling a spectrum of agronomic and nonagronomic invertebrate pests.

Of particular note, for reasons of invertebrate pest control spectrum and economic importance, protection of agronomic crops from damage or injury caused by invertebrate pests by controlling invertebrate pests are embodiments of the invention. Compounds of this invention because of their favorable translocation properties or systemicity in plants also protect foliar or other plant parts which are not directly contacted with a compound of Formula 1 or a composition comprising the compound.

Bioaccumulation of pesticides in non-target organisms is an important safety consideration and it is often desirable to limit the systemic exposure and/or accumulation of pesticides and/or their metabolites in non-target organisms. For example, if a compound is to be applied as an insecticide to a crop plant, it is desirable that the compound does not accumulate in the plasma or fat of a vertebrate animal.

Compounds of Formula 1 may show favorable pharmacokinetic properties in vertebrate animals. In particular, compounds of Formula 1 have been found to have rapid clearance from vertebrate animal plasma/blood and a low distribution into vertebrate animal fat, thus reducing the possibility of unwanted bioaccumulation. Of note is the fluorine atom at the 4-position of the phenyl ring attached to the 5-position of the isoxazoline ring.

The pharmacokinetic properties of compounds of Formula 1 can be measured using a wide variety of assay protocols known in the science of pharmacology. In one illustrative method involving a single oral dose, three male and three female rats each receive a single dose of a test substance via oral gavage. Blood is collected via tail vein at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h, and then every 24 h thereafter until sacrifice. To process the samples to plasma, blood is collected in tubes containing ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) and centrifuged at approximately 3000 rpm to separate plasma from red blood cells. Alternatively, blood is collected using microcapillary tubes and dispensed into tubes containing HPLC water (1:1, v/v). Fat is also collected, homogenized and extracted to determine the concentration of the compound of Formula 1 at sacrifice. The plasma or blood and fat are analyzed for the compound of Formula 1 and/or metabolites, for example, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC/MS/MS) to determine the concentration of the test substance. The plasma or blood pharmacokinetic data is analyzed using nonlinear modeling software (e.g., Phoenix® WinNonlin®, Pharsight-A Certara™ Company, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A.) to determine the plasma/blood half-life of the compound of Formula 1, the time after administration when the maximum plasma/blood concentration is reached (Tmax), the maximum plasma/blood concentration (Cmax), and the area under the plasma/blood concentration curve (AUC). As analysis of fat requires rat sacrifice, fat data is obtained at single time points (i.e. the time of rat sacrifice). The fat:plasma or fat:blood ratio of the compound of Formula 1 is then determined.

Also noteworthy as embodiments of the present invention are compositions comprising a compound of any of the preceding Embodiments, as well as any other embodiments described herein, and any combinations thereof, and at least one additional component selected from the group consisting of a surfactant, a solid diluent and a liquid diluent, said compositions optionally further comprising at least one additional biologically active compound or agent.

Further noteworthy as embodiments of the present invention are compositions for controlling an invertebrate pest comprising a compound of any of the preceding Embodiments, as well as any other embodiments described herein, and any combinations thereof, and at least one additional component selected from the group consisting of a surfactant, a solid diluent and a liquid diluent, said compositions optionally further comprising at least one additional biologically active compound or agent. Embodiments of the invention further include methods for controlling an invertebrate pest comprising contacting the invertebrate pest or its environment with a biologically effective amount of a compound of any of the preceding Embodiments (e.g., as a composition described herein).

Embodiments of the invention also include a composition comprising a compound of any of the preceding Embodiments, in the form of a soil drench liquid formulation. Embodiments of the invention further include methods for controlling an invertebrate pest comprising contacting the soil with a liquid composition as a soil drench comprising a biologically effective amount of a compound of any of the preceding Embodiments.

Embodiments of the invention also include a spray composition for controlling an invertebrate pest comprising a biologically effective amount of a compound of any of the preceding Embodiments and a propellant. Embodiments of the invention further include a bait composition for controlling an invertebrate pest comprising a biologically effective amount of a compound of any of the preceding Embodiments, one or more food materials, optionally an attractant, and optionally a humectant. Embodiments of the invention also include a device for controlling an invertebrate pest comprising said bait composition and a housing adapted to receive said bait composition, wherein the housing has at least one opening sized to permit the invertebrate pest to pass through the opening so the invertebrate pest can gain access to said bait composition from a location outside the housing, and wherein the housing is further adapted to be placed in or near a locus of potential or known activity for the invertebrate pest.

Embodiments of the invention also include methods for protecting a seed from an invertebrate pest comprising contacting the seed with a biologically effective amount of a compound of any of the preceding Embodiments.

Embodiments of the invention also include methods for controlling an invertebrate pest comprising contacting the invertebrate pest or its environment with a biologically effective amount of a compound of Formula 1 (e.g., as a composition described herein), provided that the methods are not methods of medical treatment of a human body by therapy.

This invention also relates to such methods wherein the invertebrate pest or its environment is contacted with a composition comprising a biologically effective amount of a compound of Formula 1, and at least one additional component selected from the group consisting of surfactants, solid diluents and liquid diluents, said composition optionally further comprising a biologically effective amount of at least one additional biologically active compound or agent, provided that the methods are not methods of medical treatment of a human body by therapy.

The compounds of Formula 1 can be prepared by one or more of the following methods and variations as described in Schemes 1-11. The definitions of substituents in the compounds of Formulae 1-15 below are as defined above in the Summary of the Invention unless otherwise noted. Compounds of Formulae 1a and 1b are subsets of the compounds of Formula 1, and all substituents for Formulae 1a and 1b are as defined above for Formula 1. The following abbreviations may be used: DMF is N,N-dimethylformamide, and DBU is 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene.

Compounds of Formula 1a (Formula 1 wherein J is J-1, J-2, J-4, J-5 or J-6) can be prepared from compounds of Formula 2 by the method shown in Scheme 1. In this method, a carboxylic acid of Formula 2 is coupled with an amine compound of Formula of 3 (wherein J is J-1, J-2, J-4, J-5 or J-6), generally in the presence of a dehydrating coupling reagent. Coupling reagents useful in this method include dicyclohexyl carbodiimide, 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide and carbonyl diimidazole. Further coupling reagents useful in this method include 1-propanephosphonic acid cyclic anhydride, 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxide hexafluorophosphate and N-[dimethylamino)-1H-1,2,3-triazolo-[4,5-b]pyridin-1-ylmethylene]-N-methylmethanaminium hexafluorophosphate N-oxide; these coupling reagents are generally used in the presence of a base such as triethylamine, pyridine, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine or N,N-diisopropylethylamine. Typical reaction conditions include an anhydrous aprotic solvent such as dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran or DMF, and a reaction temperature between room temperature and 70° C.

The compounds of Formula of 1a can also be prepared by converting the carboxylic acids of Formula of 2 to their corresponding acid chlorides, and then coupling the acid chlorides with the amines of Formula of 3. The method of Scheme 1 is illustrated in Step C of Synthesis Example 1, and in Synthesis Examples 2 and 4.

Compounds of Formula 1a (Formula 1 wherein J is J-1, J-2, J-4, J-5 or J-6) can also be prepared by the method shown in Scheme 2. In this method, an aryl bromide or iodide of Formula 4 is carbonylated and coupled with an amine compound of Formula of 3 (wherein J is J-1, J-2, J-4, J-5 or J-6).

This aminocarbonylation method typically involves treatment of an aryl bromide of Formula 4 (wherein X is Br or I) with an amine of Formula 3 in the presence of a palladium catalyst under a CO (carbon monoxide) atmosphere. Palladium catalysts useful in this method typically comprise palladium in a formal oxidation state of either 0 (i.e. Pd(0)) or 2 (i.e. Pd(II)). Examples of palladium-containing compounds and complexes useful as catalysts in this method include PdCl2(PPh3)2 (bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (II) dichloride), Pd(PPh3)4 (tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(O)), Pd(C5H7O2)2 (palladium(II) acetylacetonate), Pd2(dba)3 (tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0)), and [1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)-ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II). The method of Scheme 2 is generally conducted in a liquid phase, with the palladium catalyst having good solubility in the liquid phase. Useful liquid phase solvents include ethers such as 1,2-dimethoxyethane, amides such as N,N-dimethyl-acetamide, and non-halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene.

The method of Scheme 2 can be conducted over a wide range of temperatures, ranging from about 25 to about 150° C. Of note are temperatures from about 60 and about 110° C., which typically provide faster reaction rates and higher product yields. Literature examples of aminocarbonylation methods include H. Horino et al., Synthesis 1989, 715; and J. J. Li, G. W. Gribble, editors, Palladium in Heterocyclic Chemistry: A Guide for the Synthetic Chemist, 2000. The method of Scheme 2 is illustrated in Step B of Synthesis Example 5.

Compounds of Formula 1 wherein J is (i) C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano, (ii) —CH2(cyclopropyl) substituted with one cyano, or (iii) cyclopropyl, unsubstituted or substituted with one cyano or one C(O)NHR17, can be prepared by methods similar to the methods described in Schemes 1 and 2.

Compounds of Formula 1b (Formula 1 wherein J is J-3) can be prepared from compounds of Formula 5 by the method shown in Scheme 3. In this method, an amide of Formula 5 is treated with an appropriately substituted amine of Formula 6.

The method of Scheme 3 can be performed by treatment of the amide of Formula 5 with DMF-DMA at a temperature ranging from about 25 to about 110° C., followed by coupling with the amine of Formula of 6 or its corresponding salt. The compounds of Formula 1b can also be prepared by in a single step by treatment of the amide of Formula 5 with triethyl orthoformate and the amine of Formula of 6 or its corresponding salt in toluene. For literature examples of this method, see T. Mita et al., WO 2009/005015; W. Zhao et al., Org. Lett. 2011, 5160; and Y. Kusuoka et al., WO 2014/126208. The method of Scheme 3 is illustrated in Step B of Synthesis Example 3.

Compounds of Formula 5 can be prepared from the corresponding carboxylic acids of Formula 2 as shown in the method of Scheme 4.

The general transformation shown in Scheme 4 is well-known in the literature, and includes the coupling of carboxylic acids with ammonia sources such as ammonium hydroxide, ammonium in dioxane, and ammonium carbonate, via their corresponding acid chlorides. Alternatively, the coupling can be performed directly in the presence of coupling reagents such as HBTU in solvents such as THF or dioxanes. The method of Scheme 4 is illustrated in Step A of Synthesis Example 3.

Compounds of Formula 2 can be prepared by hydrolysis of esters of Formula 7 (wherein Ra is methyl or ethyl) as shown in the method of Scheme 5.

In this method, the ester of Formula 7 is converted to the corresponding carboxylic acid of Formula 2 by procedures known in the art. For example, treatment of the ester of Formula 7 with aqueous lithium hydroxide in tetrahydrofuran, followed by acidification, yields the corresponding carboxylic acid of Formula 2. The method of Scheme 5 is illustrated in Step B of Synthesis Example 1.

Compounds of Formula 7 can be prepared by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of styrenes of Formula 8 with nitrile oxides derived from oximes of Formula 9 as shown in the method of Scheme 6.

This method typically involves chlorination of the oxime of Formula 9 and subsequent dehydrochlorination to yield an in situ generated nitrile oxide, which then undergoes 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with the styrene of Formula 8 to afford the compound of Formula 7. In a typical procedure, a chlorinating reagent such as sodium hypochlorite, N-chlorosuccinimide, or chloramine-T is combined with the oxime of Formula 9 in the presence of the styrene of Formula 8. Depending on the reaction conditions, an amine base such as pyridine or triethylamine may be necessary to facilitate the dehydrochlorination reaction. Solvents useful in this method include tetrahydrofuran, diethyl ether, methylene chloride, dioxane, and toluene. Reaction temperatures range from room temperature to the reflux temperature of the solvent. For general procedures for the cycloaddition of nitrile oxides and olefins, see Lee, Synthesis, 1982, 6, 508-509; Kanemasa et al., Tetrahedron, 2000, 56, 1057-1064; EP 1,538,138 A1, as well as references cited within. The method of Scheme 6 is illustrated in Step A of Synthesis Example 1.

Compounds of Formulae 8 and 9 are commercially available or are known in the art; see, for example, T. Mita et al., U.S. Pat. No. 7,951,828, and G. Lahm et al., WO 2007/079162.

Compounds of Formula 4 can be prepared by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of styrenes of Formula 8 with nitrile oxides derived from oximes of Formula 10 as shown in the method of Scheme 7.

The method of Scheme 7 is similar to the method of Scheme 6. The oximes of Formula 10 are commercially available or are known in the art; see, for example, G. Lahm et al., WO 2007/079162. The method of Scheme 7 is illustrated in Step A of Synthesis Example 5.

Compounds of Formula 7 can also be prepared by the cyclization of compounds of Formula 11 with hydroxylamine as shown in the method of Scheme 8.

In this method, isoxazolines of Formula 7 can be formed by treatment of ketones of Formula of 11 with hydroxylamine or its salt in the presence of an aqueous base such as NaOH, Cs2CO3 or K2CO3, in a solvent such as dichloroethane, chloroform or THF. For examples of this method, see G. Annis, WO 2009/126668; and K. Matoba et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49(33), 5762.

Compounds of Formula 11 can be prepared by the condensation of compounds of Formula 12 with naphthalene ketones of Formula 13 as shown in the method of Scheme 9.

This method involves reaction of the compounds of Formulae 12 and 13 in the presence of a base such as Ca(OH)2, K2CO3, CsCO3 in a solvent such as toluene, DMF, MTBE, trifluormethylbenzene or acetonitrile, or in a mixture of such solvents. Typical reaction temperatures range from about 60 to about 130° C. For an example of this method, see G. Annis, WO 2009/126668.

Compounds of Formulae 12 and 13 are commercially available or are known in the art; see, for example, Chunhua Yang et al., WO 2017/176948; D. Leysen et al., WO 2005/082236; and F. Cohen et al., WO 2006/069063.

Compounds of Formula 4 can also be prepared by the cyclization of compounds of Formula 14 with hydroxylamine as shown in the method of Scheme 10.

This method is similar to the method described in Scheme 8. Analogous treatment of the compounds of Formula 14 with hydroxylamine forms isoxazolines of Formula 4.

Compounds of Formula 14 can be prepared by the condensation of compounds of Formula 12 and naphthalene ketones of Formula 15 as shown in the method of Scheme 11.

This method is similar to the method described in Scheme 9. Analogous treatment of the compounds of Formula 12 and the naphthalene ketones of Formula 15 with base forms the compounds of Formula 14. Compounds of Formulae 12 and 15 are commercially available or are known in the art; see, for example, D. Leysen et al., WO 2005/082236; and F. Cohen et al., WO 2006/069063.

It is recognized that some reagents and reaction conditions described above for preparing compounds of Formula 1 may not be compatible with certain functionalities present in the intermediates. In these instances, the incorporation of protection/deprotection sequences or functional group interconversions into the synthesis will aid in obtaining the desired products.

The use and choice of the protecting groups will be apparent to one skilled in chemical synthesis (see, for example, Greene, T. W.; Wuts, P. G. M. Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 2nd ed.; Wiley: New York, 1991). One skilled in the art will recognize that, in some cases, after introduction of the reagents depicted in the individual schemes, additional routine synthetic steps not described in detail may be needed to complete the synthesis of compounds of Formula 1. One skilled in the art will also recognize that it may be necessary to perform a combination of the steps illustrated in the above schemes in an order other than that implied by the particular sequence presented to prepare the compounds of Formula 1.

One skilled in the art will also recognize that compounds of Formula 1 and the intermediates described herein can be subjected to various electrophilic, nucleophilic, radical, organometallic, oxidation, and reduction reactions to add substituents or modify existing substituents.

Without further elaboration, it is believed that one skilled in the art using the preceding description can utilize the present invention to its fullest extent. The following Synthesis Examples are, therefore, to be construed as merely illustrative, and not limiting of the disclosure in any way whatsoever. Steps in the following Synthesis Examples illustrate a procedure for each step in an overall synthetic transformation, and the starting material for each step may not have necessarily been prepared by a particular preparative run whose procedure is described in other Examples or Steps. Percentages are by weight except for chromatographic solvent mixtures or where otherwise indicated. Parts and percentages for chromatographic solvent mixtures are by volume unless otherwise indicated. 1H NMR spectra are reported in ppm downfield from tetramethylsilane; “s” means singlet, “d” means doublet, “t” means triplet, “q” means quartet, “m” means multiplet, “dd” means doublet of doublets, “dt” means doublet of triplets, “br s” means broad singlet. DMF means N,N-dimethylformamide Compound numbers refer to Index Tables A-G.

Synthesis Example 1 Preparation of N-[(1R)-2-amino-1-methyl-2-oxoethyl]-4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxamide (compound 1) Step A: Preparation of methyl 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxylate

To a stirred solution of methyl 4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxylate (1.50 g, 6.55 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (4.0 mL) was added N-chlorosuccinimide (1.05 g, 7.86 mmol). This mixture was stirred for 1.5 h at room temperature, and then a solution of 1,3-dichloro-4-fluoro-5-[1-(trifluoromethyl)ethenyl]benzene (2.04 g, 7.86 mmol) and triethylamine (1.38 mL, 9.83 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (10.0 mL) was added. After stirring for additional 2 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was diluted with water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography using hexanes/ethyl acetate as eluent to afford the title compound as a white solid (1.30 g, 43% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3): 8.87 (m, 1H), 8.78 (m, 1H), 8.08 (d, 1H), 7.67 (m, 2H), 7.63 (d, 2H), 7.52 (d, 1H), 4.27 (d, 1H), 4.02 (s, 3H), 3.89 (d, 1H).

Step B: Preparation of 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxylic acid

To a stirred solution of methyl 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxylate (i.e. the product from Step A) (1.20 g, 2.47 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (10 mL) was added a solution of lithium hydroxide monohydrate (0.31 g, 7.41 mmol) in water (10 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water and diethyl ether. Then the aqueous layer was acidified with 6 N aqueous hydrochloric acid to pH 2 and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried and concentrated to provide the title compound as a white solid (1.10 g, 94% yield).

1H NMR (DMSO-d6): 13.52 (br s, 1H), 8.83 (m, 1H), 8.77 (m, 1H), 8.12 (d, 1H), 7.92 (d, 1H), 7.88 (d, 2H), 7.73 (m, 2H), 4.56 (s, 2H).

Step C: Preparation of N-[(1R)-2-amino-1-methyl-2-oxoethyl]-4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxamide

A mixture of 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxylic acid (i.e. the product from Step B) (190 mg, 0.40 mmol), (R)-2-aminopropanamide hydrochloride (97 mg, 0.80 mmol), triethylamine (0.17 mL, 1.20 mmol) and 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxide hexafluorophosphate (HATU, 182 mg, 0.48 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was then partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, the phases were separated, and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried, and concentrated. The resulting residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using hexanes/ethyl acetate as eluent to give the title product, a compound of the present invention, as a white solid (180 mg, 83% yield). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6): 8.77 (d, 1H), 8.72 (d, 1H), 8.30 (d, 1H), 7.88 (m, 3H), 7.63-7.72 (m, 3H), 7.46 (br s, 1H), 7.05 (br s, 1H), 4.54 (s, 2H), 4.50 (m, 1H), 1.36 (d, 3H).

Synthesis Example 2 Preparation of 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-N-(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1-naphthalenecarboxamide (compound 15)

A mixture of 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxylic acid (200 mg, 0.42 mmol), 2-pyridylmethanamine (92 mg, 0.84 mmol), triethylamine (0.18 mL, 1.26 mmol) and 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxide hexafluorophosphate (HATU, 240 mg, 0.64 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was then partitioned between ethyl acetate and water. The phases were separated, and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried, and concentrated. The resulting residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using hexanes/ethyl acetate as eluent to give the title product, a compound of the present invention, as a white solid (132 mg, 56% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3): 8.80 (d, 1H), 8.50 (d, 1H), 8.36 (d, 1H), 7.71 (ddd, 1H), 7.58-7.66 (m, 5H), 7.49 (s, 1H), 7.48 (s, 1H), 7.36 (d, 1H), 7.22 (dd, 1H), 4.84 (d, 2H), 4.25 (d, 1H), 3.89 (d, 1H).

Synthesis Example 3 Preparation of 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-N-[(methoxyimino)methyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxamide (compound 33) Step A: Preparation of 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxamide

To a suspension of 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxylic acid (500 mg, 1.06 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL) was added oxalyl chloride (269 mg, 2.12 mmol) and 1 drop of DMF. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hr, then concentrated and distilled with toluene under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in THF (5 mL) and ammonium hydroxide aqueous solution (3 mL, 14.8 M) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 hr, and then partitioned between ethyl acetate and water. The layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried, and concentrated to give the primary amide as a white solid (490 mg). The crude amide was used directly in the next step without further purification.

Step B: Preparation of 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-N-[(methoxyimino)methyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxamide

A mixture of the 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxamide (490 mg), methoxyamine hydrochloride (266 mg, 3.18 mmol), and triethyl orthoformate (2 mL, 12 mmol) in toluene (20 mL) was stirred at 70° C. for 24 hr. The reaction mixture was cooled and partitioned between ethyl acetate and water. The layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried, concentrated, and the residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using hexanes/ethyl acetate as eluent to give the title product, a compound of the present invention, as a white solid (402 mg, 72% yield in two steps). 1H NMR (CDCl3): 8.83 (d, 1H), 8.66 (d, 1H), 8.34 (d, 1H), 7.89 (d, 1H), 7.69 (m, 3H), 7.64 (d, 2H), 7.54 (d, 1H), 4.27 (d, 1H), 3.90 (d, 1H), 3.89 (s, 3H).

Synthesis Example 4 Preparation of 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-N-(2-pyridinylmethyl)-N-[(4R)-2-ethyl-3-oxo-4-isoazolidinyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxamide (compound 34)

To a suspension of 4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenecarboxylic acid (200 mg, 0.42 mmol) in dichloromethane (10 mL) was added oxalyl chloride (107 mg, 0.84 mmol) and 1 drop of DMF. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hr, then concentrated and distilled with toluene under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in 2 mL of dichloromethane and added slowly to a suspension of (4R)-4-amino-2-ethylisoxazolidin-3-one hydrochloride (210 mg, 1.26 mmol) and triethylamine (170 mg, 1.68 mmor) in dichloromethane (5 mL) at room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight, then concentrated, and the residue purified by silica gel column chromatography using hexanes/ethyl acetate as eluent to afford the title compound as a white solid (196 mg, 79% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3): 8.81 (d, 1H), 8.30 (d, 1H), 7.60-7.67 (m, 5H), 7.45 (d, 1H), 6.85 (br s, 1H), 5.00 (m, 2H), 4.26 (d, 1H), 4.13 (dd, 1H), 3.89 (d, 1H), 3.65 (m, 2H), 1.26 (t, 3H).

Synthesis Example 5 Preparation of N-[[4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenyl]carbonyl]glycine methyl ester (compound 35) Step A: Preparation of 3-(4-bromo-1-naphthalenyl)-5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazole

To a stirred solution of 4-bromo-1-naphthalenecarboxylate oxime (1.00 g, 4.0 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (12.0 mL) was added N-chlorosuccinimide (0.64 g, 4.8 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temperature, and then a solution of 1,3-dichloro, 4-fluoro-5-[1-(trifluoromethyl)ethenyl]benzene (1.24 g, 4.8 mmol) and triethylamine (1.68 mL, 12.0 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (12.0 mL) was added. After stirring for additional 2 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was diluted with water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography using hexanes/ethyl acetate as eluent to afford the title compound as a white solid (1.60 g, 76% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3): 8.88 (m, 1H), 8.35 (m, 1H), 7.82 (d, 1H), 7.69 (m, 2H), 7.64 (d, 2H), 7.36 (d, 1H), 4.27 (d, 1H), 3.88 (d, 1H).

Step B: Preparation of N-[[4-[5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-1-naphthalenyl]carbonyl]glycine methyl ester

A mixture of 3-(4-bromo-1-naphthalenyl)-5-(3,5-dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazole (1000 mg, 1.97 mmol), [1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)-ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II) (PdCl2(dppf)) (146 mg, 0.20 mmol), glycine methyl ester hydrochloride (371 mg, 2.96 mmol) and triethylamine (2.76 mL, 19.7 mmol) in toluene (20 mL) was purged with carbon monoxide for 15 minutes. The reaction mixture was stirred at 70° C. under a carbon monoxide atmosphere overnight. The mixture was cooled to room temperature, filtered through a short pad of Celite® diatomaceous filter aid, and rinsed with a small amount of ethyl acetate. The filtrate was concentrated, and the residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using hexanes/ethyl acetate as eluent to provide the title product, a compound of the present invention, as a white solid (600 mg, 56% yield). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6): 9.13 (t, 1H), 8.78 (d, 1H), 8.32 (d, 1H), 7.90 (m, 3H), 7.70 (m, 3H), 4.53 (s, 2H), 4.11 (d, 2H), 4.74 (s, 3H).

Synthesis Example 1 above is an example of the preparation of a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-1.

Synthesis Example 2 above is an example of the preparation of a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-2.

Synthesis Example 3 above is an example of the preparation of a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-3.

Synthesis Example 4 above is an example of the preparation of a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-4.

Synthesis Example 5 above is an example of the preparation of a compound of Formula 1 wherein J is J-5.

Compounds of Formula 1 wherein J is J-6 can be prepared by procedures similar to those described above in Synthesis Examples 1, 2, 4 and 5.

Compounds of Formula 1 wherein J is (i) C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano, (ii) —CH2(cyclopropyl) substituted with one cyano, or (iii) cyclopropyl, unsubstituted or substituted with one cyano or one C(O)NHR17, can be prepared by procedures similar to those described above in Synthesis Examples 1, 2, 4 and 5.

By the procedures described herein together with methods known in the art, the following compounds of Tables 1-1 to 7-2 can be prepared. The following abbreviations are used in the Tables which follow: Me means methyl, Et means ethyl, i-Pr means isopropyl, i-Bu means isobutyl, and OMe means methoxy.

TABLE 1-1 R1a R1b R2 R3 R4 Cl Cl Me H H Cl Cl Cl H Me Cl Cl Me H Et Cl Cl Me H i-Pr Cl Cl Me H CH2CF3 Cl Cl Me Me H Cl Cl Me Me Me Cl Cl Me Me Et Cl Cl Me Me i-Pr Cl Cl Me Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl Et H H Cl Cl Et H Me Cl Cl Et H Et Cl Cl Et H i-Pr Cl Cl Et H CH2CF3 Cl Cl Et Me H Cl Cl Et Me Me Cl Cl Et Me Et Cl Cl Et Me i-Pr Cl Cl Et Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Pr H H Cl Cl i-Pr H Me Cl Cl i-Pr H Et Cl Cl i-Pr H i-Pr Cl Cl i-Pr H CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Pr Me H Cl Cl i-Pr Me Me Cl Cl i-Pr Me Et Cl Cl i-Pr Me i-Pr Cl Cl i-Pr Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Bu H H Cl Cl i-Bu H Me Cl Cl i-Bu H Et Cl Cl i-Bu H i-Pr Cl Cl i-Bu H CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Bu Me H Cl Cl i-Bu Me Me Cl Cl i-Bu Me Et Cl Cl i-Bu Me i-Pr Cl Cl i-Bu Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OH H H Cl Cl CH2OH H Me Cl Cl CH2OH H Et Cl Cl CH2OH H i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OH H CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OH Me H Cl Cl CH2OH Me Me Cl Cl CH2OH Me Et Cl Cl CH2OH Me i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OH Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OMe H H Cl Cl CH2OMe H Me Cl Cl CH2OMe H Et Cl Cl CH2OMe H i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OMe H CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OMe Me H Cl Cl CH2OMe Me Me Cl Cl CH2OMe Me Et Cl Cl CH2OMe Me i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OMe Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me H H CF3 Cl Me H Me CF3 Cl Me H Et CF3 Cl Me H i-Pr CF3 Cl Me H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me Me H CF3 Cl Me Me Me CF3 Cl Me Me Et CF3 Cl Me Me i-Pr CF3 Cl Me Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Et H H CF3 Cl Et H Me CF3 Cl Et H Et CF3 Cl Et H i-Pr CF3 Cl Et H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Et Me H CF3 Cl Et Me Me CF3 Cl Et Me Et CF3 Cl Et Me i-Pr CF3 Cl Et Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Pr H H CF3 Cl i-Pr H Me CF3 Cl i-Pr H Et CF3 Cl i-Pr H i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Pr H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Pr Me H CF3 Cl i-Pr Me Me CF3 Cl i-Pr Me Et CF3 Cl i-Pr Me i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Pr Me CH2CF3 CF3 H Me H H CF3 H Me H Me CF3 H Me H Et CF3 H Me H i-Pr CF3 H Me H CH2CF3 CF3 H Me Me H CF3 H Me Me Me CF3 H Me Me Et CF3 H Me Me i-Pr CF3 H Me Me CH2CF3 CF3 H Et H H CF3 H Et H Me CF3 H Et H Et CF3 H Et H i-Pr CF3 H Et H CH2CF3 CF3 H Et Me H CF3 H Et Me Me CF3 H Et Me Et CF3 H Et Me i-Pr CF3 H Et Me CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Pr H H CF3 H i-Pr H Me CF3 H i-Pr H Et CF3 H i-Pr H i-Pr CF3 H i-Pr H CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Pr Me H CF3 H i-Pr Me Me CF3 H i-Pr Me Et CF3 H i-Pr Me i-Pr CF3 H i-Pr Me CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Bu H H CF3 H i-Bu H Me CF3 H i-Bu H Et CF3 H i-Bu H i-Pr CF3 H i-Bu H CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Bu Me H CF3 H i-Bu Me Me CF3 H i-Bu Me Et CF3 H i-Bu Me i-Pr CF3 H i-Bu Me CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OH H H CF3 H CH2OH H Me CF3 H CH2OH H Et CF3 H CH2OH H i-Pr CF3 H CH2OH H CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OH Me H CF3 H CH2OH Me Me CF3 H CH2OH Me Et CF3 H CH2OH Me i-Pr CF3 H CH2OH Me CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OMe H H CF3 H CH2OMe H Me CF3 H CH2OMe H Et CF3 H CH2OMe H i-Pr CF3 H CH2OMe H CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OMe Me H CF3 H CH2OMe Me Me CF3 H CH2OMe Me Et CF3 H CH2OMe Me i-Pr CF3 H CH2OMe Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Bu H H CF3 Cl i-Bu H Me CF3 Cl i-Bu H Et CF3 Cl i-Bu H i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Bu H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Bu Me H CF3 Cl i-Bu Me Me CF3 Cl i-Bu Me Et CF3 Cl i-Bu Me i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Bu Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OH H H CF3 Cl CH2OH H Me CF3 Cl CH2OH H Et CF3 Cl CH2OH H i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OH H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OH Me H CF3 Cl CH2OH Me Me CF3 Cl CH2OH Me Et CF3 Cl CH2OH Me i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OH Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OMe H H CF3 Cl CH2OMe H Me CF3 Cl CH2OMe H Et CF3 Cl CH2OMe H i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OMe H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me H CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me Me CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me Et CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me CH2CF3

TABLE 1-2 R1a R1b R2 R3 R4 Cl Cl Me H H Cl Cl Cl H Me Cl Cl Me H Et Cl Cl Me H i-Pr Cl Cl Me H CH2CF3 Cl Cl Me Me H Cl Cl Me Me Me Cl Cl Me Me Et Cl Cl Me Me i-Pr Cl Cl Me Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl Et H H Cl Cl Et H Me Cl Cl Et H Et Cl Cl Et H i-Pr Cl Cl Et H CH2CF3 Cl Cl Et Me H Cl Cl Et Me Me Cl Cl Et Me Et Cl Cl Et Me i-Pr Cl Cl Et Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Pr H H Cl Cl i-Pr H Me Cl Cl i-Pr H Et Cl Cl i-Pr H i-Pr Cl Cl i-Pr H CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Pr Me H Cl Cl i-Pr Me Me Cl Cl i-Pr Me Et Cl Cl i-Pr Me i-Pr Cl Cl i-Pr Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Bu H H Cl Cl i-Bu H Me Cl Cl i-Bu H Et Cl Cl i-Bu H i-Pr Cl Cl i-Bu H CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Bu Me H Cl Cl i-Bu Me Me Cl Cl i-Bu Me Et Cl Cl i-Bu Me i-Pr Cl Cl i-Bu Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OH H H Cl Cl CH2OH H Me Cl Cl CH2OH H Et Cl Cl CH2OH H i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OH H CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OH Me H Cl Cl CH2OH Me Me Cl Cl CH2OH Me Et Cl Cl CH2OH Me i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OH Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OMe H H Cl Cl CH2OMe H Me Cl Cl CH2OMe H Et Cl Cl CH2OMe H i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OMe H CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OMe Me H Cl Cl CH2OMe Me Me Cl Cl CH2OMe Me Et Cl Cl CH2OMe Me i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OMe Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me H H CF3 Cl Me H Me CF3 Cl Me H Et CF3 Cl Me H i-Pr CF3 Cl Me H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me Me H CF3 Cl Me Me Me CF3 Cl Me Me Et CF3 Cl Me Me i-Pr CF3 Cl Me Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Et H H CF3 Cl Et H Me CF3 Cl Et H Et CF3 Cl Et H i-Pr CF3 Cl Et H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Et Me H CF3 Cl Et Me Me CF3 Cl Et Me Et CF3 Cl Et Me i-Pr CF3 Cl Et Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Pr H H CF3 Cl i-Pr H Me CF3 Cl i-Pr H Et CF3 Cl i-Pr H i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Pr H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Pr Me H CF3 Cl i-Pr Me Me CF3 Cl i-Pr Me Et CF3 Cl i-Pr Me i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Pr Me CH2CF3 CF3 H Me H H CF3 H Me H Me CF3 H Me H Et CF3 H Me H i-Pr CF3 H Me H CH2CF3 CF3 H Me Me H CF3 H Me Me Me CF3 H Me Me Et CF3 H Me Me i-Pr CF3 H Me Me CH2CF3 CF3 H Et H H CF3 H Et H Me CF3 H Et H Et CF3 H Et H i-Pr CF3 H Et H CH2CF3 CF3 H Et Me H CF3 H Et Me Me CF3 H Et Me Et CF3 H Et Me i-Pr CF3 H Et Me CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Pr H H CF3 H i-Pr H Me CF3 H i-Pr H Et CF3 H i-Pr H i-Pr CF3 H i-Pr H CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Pr Me H CF3 H i-Pr Me Me CF3 H i-Pr Me Et CF3 H i-Pr Me i-Pr CF3 H i-Pr Me CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Bu H H CF3 H i-Bu H Me CF3 H i-Bu H Et CF3 H i-Bu H i-Pr CF3 H i-Bu H CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Bu Me H CF3 H i-Bu Me Me CF3 H i-Bu Me Et CF3 H i-Bu Me i-Pr CF3 H i-Bu Me CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OH H H CF3 H CH2OH H Me CF3 H CH2OH H Et CF3 H CH2OH H i-Pr CF3 H CH2OH H CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OH Me H CF3 H CH2OH Me Me CF3 H CH2OH Me Et CF3 H CH2OH Me i-Pr CF3 H CH2OH Me CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OMe H H CF3 H CH2OMe H Me CF3 H CH2OMe H Et CF3 H CH2OMe H i-Pr CF3 H CH2OMe H CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OMe Me H CF3 H CH2OMe Me Me CF3 H CH2OMe Me Et CF3 H CH2OMe Me i-Pr CF3 H CH2OMe Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Bu H H CF3 Cl i-Bu H Me CF3 Cl i-Bu H Et CF3 Cl i-Bu H i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Bu H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Bu Me H CF3 Cl i-Bu Me Me CF3 Cl i-Bu Me Et CF3 Cl i-Bu Me i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Bu Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OH H H CF3 Cl CH2OH H Me CF3 Cl CH2OH H Et CF3 Cl CH2OH H i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OH H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OH Me H CF3 Cl CH2OH Me Me CF3 Cl CH2OH Me Et CF3 Cl CH2OH Me i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OH Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OMe H H CF3 Cl CH2OMe H Me CF3 Cl CH2OMe H Et CF3 Cl CH2OMe H i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OMe H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me H CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me Me CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me Et CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me CH2CF3

TABLE 2-1 Q Q Q Q R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, R5 is H 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is CF3, R1b is H, R5 is H 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is CF3, R1b is Cl, R5 is H 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, R5 is Me 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is CF3, R1b is H, R5 is Me 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is CF3, R1b is Cl, R5 is Me 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl

TABLE 2-2 Q Q Q Q R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, R5 is Me 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is CF3, R1b is H, R5 is Me 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is CF3, R1b is Cl, R5 is Me 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl

TABLE 2-3 Q Q Q Q R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, R5 is H 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is CF3, R1b is H, R5 is H 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is CF3, R1b is Cl, R5 is H 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, R5 is Me 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is CF3, R1b is H, R5 is Me 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is CF3, R1b is Cl, R5 is Me 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl

TABLE 2-4 Q Q Q Q R1a is Cl, R1b is Cl, R5 is Me 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is CF3, R1b is H, R5 is Me 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl R1a is CF3, R1b is Cl, R5 is Me 2-pyridinyl 3-pyridinyl 4-pyridinyl 2-pyrimidinyl 4-pyrimidinyl 5-pyrimidinyl 2-pyrazinyl 3-pyrazinyl 3-pyridazinyl 4-pyridazinyl 3-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 5-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 6-(1,2,4-triazinyl) 2-(1,3,5-triazinyl) 2-furanyl 3-furanyl 2-thienyl 3-thienyl 2-pyrrolyl 3-pyrrolyl 1-Me-2-pyrrolyl 1-Me-3-pyrrolyl 3-pyrazolyl 4-pyrazolyl 5-pyrazolyl 1-Me-3-pyrazolyl 1-Me-4-pyrazolyl 1-Me-5-pyrazolyl 2-imidazolyl 4-imidazolyl 1-Me-2-imidazolyl 1-Me-4-imidazolyl 1-Me-5-imidazolyl 1,2,3-triazolyl 1-Me-4-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,3-triazolyl) 1,2,4-triazolyl 1-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 1-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 2-Me-5-(1,2,4-triazolyl) 4-Me-3-(1,2,4-triazolyl) tetrazolyl 1-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-Me-5-(tetrazolyl) 2-oxazolyl 4-oxazolyl 5-oxazolyl 2-thiazolyl 4-thiazolyl 5-thiazolyl 3-isoxazolyl 4-isoxazolyl 5-isoxazolyl 3-isothiazolyl 4-isothiazolyl 5-isothiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-oxadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-oxadiazolyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl 4-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,3-thiadiazolyl) 3-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 5-(1,2,4-thiadiazolyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl

TABLE 3-1 R1a R1b R6 R7 R1a R1b R6 R7 Cl Cl H Me CF3 H H Me Cl Cl H Et CF3 H H Et Cl Cl Me Me CF3 H Me Me Cl Cl Me Et CF3 H Me Et CF3 Cl H Me CF3 Cl Me Me CF3 Cl H Et CF3 Cl Me Et

TABLE 3-2 R1a R1b R6 R7 R1a R1b R6 R7 Cl Cl H Me CF3 H H Me Cl Cl H Et CF3 H H Et Cl Cl Me Me CF3 H Me Me Cl Cl Me Et CF3 H Me Et CF3 Cl H Me CF3 Cl Me Me CF3 Cl H Et CF3 Cl Me Et

TABLE 4-1 R1a R1b R8 R1a R1b R8 X is —O— Cl Cl Me CF3 H Me Cl Cl Et CF3 H Et Cl Cl CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me CF3 Cl Et CF3 Cl CH2CF3 X is —C(O)— Cl Cl Me CF3 H Me Cl Cl Et CF3 H Et Cl Cl CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me CF3 Cl Et CF3 Cl CH2CF3

TABLE 4-2 R1a R1b R8 R1a R1b R8 X is —O— Cl Cl Me CF3 H Me Cl Cl Et CF3 H Et Cl Cl CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me CF3 Cl Et CF3 Cl CH2CF3 X is —C(O)— Cl Cl Me CF3 H Me Cl Cl Et CF3 H Et Cl Cl CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me CF3 Cl Et CF3 Cl CH2CF3

TABLE 5-1 R1a R1b R14 R15 R1a R1b R14 R15 Cl Cl Me H CF3 H Me H Cl Cl Et H CF3 H Et H Cl Cl i-Pr H CF3 H i-Pr H Cl Cl i-Bu H CF3 H i-Bu H Cl Cl CH2OH H CF3 H CH2OH H Cl Cl CH2OMe H CF3 H CH2OMe H Cl Cl Me Me CF3 H Me Me Cl Cl Et Me CF3 H Et Me Cl Cl i-Pr Me CF3 H i-Pr Me Cl Cl i-Bu Me CF3 H i-Bu Me Cl Cl CH2OH Me CF3 H CH2OH Me Cl Cl CH2OMe Me CF3 H CH2OMe Me Cl Cl Me Et CF3 H Me Et Cl Cl Et Et CF3 H Et Et Cl Cl i-Pr Et CF3 H i-Pr Et Cl Cl i-Bu Et CF3 H i-Bu Et Cl Cl CH2OH Et CF3 H CH2OH Et Cl Cl CH2OMe Et CF3 H CH2OMe Et Cl Cl Me i-Pr CF3 H Me i-Pr Cl Cl Et i-Pr CF3 H Et i-Pr Cl Cl i-Pr i-Pr CF3 H i-Pr i-Pr Cl Cl i-Bu i-Pr CF3 H i-Bu i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OH i-Pr CF3 H CH2OH i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OMe i-Pr CF3 H CH2OMe i-Pr Cl Cl Me CH2CF3 CF3 H Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl Et CH2CF3 CF3 H Et CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Pr CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Pr CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Bu CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Bu CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OH CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OH CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OMe CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OMe CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me H CF3 Cl Me i-Pr CF3 Cl Et H CF3 Cl Et i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Pr H CF3 Cl i-Pr i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Bu H CF3 Cl i-Bu i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OH H CF3 Cl CH2OH i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OMe H CF3 Cl CH2OMe i-Pr CF3 Cl Me Me CF3 Cl Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Et Me CF3 Cl Et CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Pr Me CF3 Cl i-Pr CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Bu Me CF3 Cl i-Bu CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OH Me CF3 Cl CH2OH CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me CF3 Cl CH2OMe CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me Et CF3 Cl Et Et CF3 Cl i-Pr Et CF3 Cl i-Bu Et CF3 Cl CH2OH Et CF3 Cl CH2OMe Et

TABLE 5-2 R1a R1b R14 R15 R1a R1b R14 R15 Cl Cl Me H CF3 H Me H Cl Cl Et H CF3 H Et H Cl Cl i-Pr H CF3 H i-Pr H Cl Cl i-Bu H CF3 H i-Bu H Cl Cl CH2OH H CF3 H CH2OH H Cl Cl CH2OMe H CF3 H CH2OMe H Cl Cl Me Me CF3 H Me Me Cl Cl Et Me CF3 H Et Me Cl Cl i-Pr Me CF3 H i-Pr Me Cl Cl i-Bu Me CF3 H i-Bu Me Cl Cl CH2OH Me CF3 H CH2OH Me Cl Cl CH2OMe Me CF3 H CH2OMe Me Cl Cl Me Et CF3 H Me Et Cl Cl Et Et CF3 H Et Et Cl Cl i-Pr Et CF3 H i-Pr Et Cl Cl i-Bu Et CF3 H i-Bu Et Cl Cl CH2OH Et CF3 H CH2OH Et Cl Cl CH2OMe Et CF3 H CH2OMe Et Cl Cl Me i-Pr CF3 H Me i-Pr Cl Cl Et i-Pr CF3 H Et i-Pr Cl Cl i-Pr i-Pr CF3 H i-Pr i-Pr Cl Cl i-Bu i-Pr CF3 H i-Bu i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OH i-Pr CF3 H CH2OH i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OMe i-Pr CF3 H CH2OMe i-Pr Cl Cl Me CH2CF3 CF3 H Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl Et CH2CF3 CF3 H Et CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Pr CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Pr CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Bu CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Bu CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OH CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OH CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OMe CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OMe CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me H CF3 Cl Me i-Pr CF3 Cl Et H CF3 Cl Et i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Pr H CF3 Cl i-Pr i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Bu H CF3 Cl i-Bu i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OH H CF3 Cl CH2OH i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OMe H CF3 Cl CH2OMe i-Pr CF3 Cl Me Me CF3 Cl Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Et Me CF3 Cl Et CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Pr Me CF3 Cl i-Pr CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Bu Me CF3 Cl i-Bu CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OH Me CF3 Cl CH2OH CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me CF3 Cl CH2OMe CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me Et CF3 Cl Et Et CF3 Cl i-Pr Et CF3 Cl i-Bu Et CF3 Cl CH2OH Et CF3 Cl CH2OMe Et

TABLE 5-3 R1a R1b R14 R15 R1a R1b R14 R15 Cl Cl Me H CF3 H Me H Cl Cl Et H CF3 H Et H Cl Cl i-Pr H CF3 H i-Pr H Cl Cl i-Bu H CF3 H i-Bu H Cl Cl CH2OH H CF3 H CH2OH H Cl Cl CH2OMe H CF3 H CH2OMe H Cl Cl Me Me CF3 H Me Me Cl Cl Et Me CF3 H Et Me Cl Cl i-Pr Me CF3 H i-Pr Me Cl Cl i-Bu Me CF3 H i-Bu Me Cl Cl CH2OH Me CF3 H CH2OH Me Cl Cl CH2OMe Me CF3 H CH2OMe Me Cl Cl Me Et CF3 H Me Et Cl Cl Et Et CF3 H Et Et Cl Cl i-Pr Et CF3 H i-Pr Et Cl Cl i-Bu Et CF3 H i-Bu Et Cl Cl CH2OH Et CF3 H CH2OH Et Cl Cl CH2OMe Et CF3 H CH2OMe Et Cl Cl Me i-Pr CF3 H Me i-Pr Cl Cl Et i-Pr CF3 H Et i-Pr Cl Cl i-Pr i-Pr CF3 H i-Pr i-Pr Cl Cl i-Bu i-Pr CF3 H i-Bu i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OH i-Pr CF3 H CH2OH i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OMe i-Pr CF3 H CH2OMe i-Pr Cl Cl Me CH2CF3 CF3 H Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl Et CH2CF3 CF3 H Et CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Pr CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Pr CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Bu CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Bu CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OH CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OH CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OMe CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OMe CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me H CF3 Cl Me i-Pr CF3 Cl Et H CF3 Cl Et i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Pr H CF3 Cl i-Pr i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Bu H CF3 Cl i-Bu i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OH H CF3 Cl CH2OH i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OMe H CF3 Cl CH2OMe i-Pr CF3 Cl Me Me CF3 Cl Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Et Me CF3 Cl Et CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Pr Me CF3 Cl i-Pr CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Bu Me CF3 Cl i-Bu CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OH Me CF3 Cl CH2OH CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me CF3 Cl CH2OMe CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me Et CF3 Cl Et Et CF3 Cl i-Pr Et CF3 Cl i-Bu Et CF3 Cl CH2OH Et CF3 Cl CH2OMe Et

TABLE 5-4 R1a R1b R14 R15 R1a R1b R14 R15 Cl Cl Me H CF3 H Me H Cl Cl Et H CF3 H Et H Cl Cl i-Pr H CF3 H i-Pr H Cl Cl i-Bu H CF3 H i-Bu H Cl Cl CH2OH H CF3 H CH2OH H Cl Cl CH2OMe H CF3 H CH2OMe H Cl Cl Me Me CF3 H Me Me Cl Cl Et Me CF3 H Et Me Cl Cl i-Pr Me CF3 H i-Pr Me Cl Cl i-Bu Me CF3 H i-Bu Me Cl Cl CH2OH Me CF3 H CH2OH Me Cl Cl CH2OMe Me CF3 H CH2OMe Me Cl Cl Me Et CF3 H Me Et Cl Cl Et Et CF3 H Et Et Cl Cl i-Pr Et CF3 H i-Pr Et Cl Cl i-Bu Et CF3 H i-Bu Et Cl Cl CH2OH Et CF3 H CH2OH Et Cl Cl CH2OMe Et CF3 H CH2OMe Et Cl Cl Me i-Pr CF3 H Me i-Pr Cl Cl Et i-Pr CF3 H Et i-Pr Cl Cl i-Pr i-Pr CF3 H i-Pr i-Pr Cl Cl i-Bu i-Pr CF3 H i-Bu i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OH i-Pr CF3 H CH2OH i-Pr Cl Cl CH2OMe i-Pr CF3 H CH2OMe i-Pr Cl Cl Me CH2CF3 CF3 H Me CH2CF3 Cl Cl Et CH2CF3 CF3 H Et CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Pr CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Pr CH2CF3 Cl Cl i-Bu CH2CF3 CF3 H i-Bu CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OH CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OH CH2CF3 Cl Cl CH2OMe CH2CF3 CF3 H CH2OMe CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me H CF3 Cl Me i-Pr CF3 Cl Et H CF3 Cl Et i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Pr H CF3 Cl i-Pr i-Pr CF3 Cl i-Bu H CF3 Cl i-Bu i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OH H CF3 Cl CH2OH i-Pr CF3 Cl CH2OMe H CF3 Cl CH2OMe i-Pr CF3 Cl Me Me CF3 Cl Me CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Et Me CF3 Cl Et CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Pr Me CF3 Cl i-Pr CH2CF3 CF3 Cl i-Bu Me CF3 Cl i-Bu CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OH Me CF3 Cl CH2OH CH2CF3 CF3 Cl CH2OMe Me CF3 Cl CH2OMe CH2CF3 CF3 Cl Me Et CF3 Cl Et Et CF3 Cl i-Pr Et CF3 Cl i-Bu Et CF3 Cl CH2OH Et CF3 Cl CH2OMe Et

TABLE 6-1 R1a R1b R16 R1a R1b R16 Cl Cl Me CF3 H Me Cl Cl F CF3 H F Cl Cl NH2 CF3 H NH2 CF3 Cl Me CF3 Cl F CF3 Cl NH2

TABLE 6-2 R1a R1b R16 R1a R1b R16 Cl Cl Me CF3 H Me Cl Cl F CF3 H F Cl Cl NH2 CF3 H NH2 CF3 Cl Me CF3 Cl F CF3 Cl NH2

TABLE 7-1 R1a R1b J R1a R1b J Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl cyclopropyl CF3 H cyclopropyl Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl cyclopropyl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl

TABLE 7-2 R1a R1b J R1a R1b J Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl cyclopropyl CF3 H cyclopropyl Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H Cl Cl CF3 H CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl cyclopropyl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl CF3 Cl

Specific compounds of Formula 1, prepared by the methods and variations as described in preceding Schemes 1-11 and Synthesis Examples 1-5, are shown in the Index Tables below. The following abbreviations may be used: Cmpd means Compound, t is tertiary, c is cyclo, Me is methyl, Et is ethyl and Ph is phenyl. The abbreviation “Ex.” stands for “Example” and is followed by a number indicating in which Synthesis Example the compound is prepared.

Melting point data (MP) is reported as a temperature range (for example, 122-126). Mass spectral data (MS) is reported as a single numerical value (for example, 542). For mass spectral data (AP+ (M+1)), the numerical value reported is the molecular weight of the parent molecular ion (M) formed by addition of H+ (molecular weight of 1) to the molecule to give a M+1 peak observed by mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (AP+). The alternate molecular ion peaks (e.g., M+2 or M+4) that occur with compounds containing multiple halogens are not reported.

INDEX TABLE A Cmpd. MP/ No. R1a R1b J MS data 1 Cl Cl 542 2 CF3 Cl 575 3 Cl Cl 556 4 Cl Cl 570 5 Cl Cl  78-82 6 Cl Cl 122-126 7 Cl Cl 147-151 43 CF3 H 106-110 44 Cl Cl 584 45 Cl Cl 572 46 Cl Cl 570 47 Cl Cl 595 48 Cl Cl 581

INDEX TABLE A-1 Cmpd. No. R1a J MS data 8 Cl 542

INDEX TABLE A-2 Cmpd. No. R1a J MS data 9 Cl 542

INDEX TABLE B Cmpd. MP/ No. R1a R1b J MS data 10 Cl Cl 563 11 CF3 Cl 597 12 Cl Cl 563 13 Cl Cl 563 14 Cl Cl 563 15 Cl Cl 562 16 Cl Cl 563 17 Cl Cl 563 18 Cl Cl 576 19 Cl Cl 577 20 Cl Cl 576 21 Cl Cl 577 22 Cl Cl 565 23 Cl Cl 551 24 Cl Cl 552 25 Cl Cl 566 26 Cl Cl 553 27 Cl Cl 566 28 Cl Cl 568 29 Cl Cl 551 30 Cl Cl 551 31 Cl Cl 565 32 Cl Cl 631 49 CF3 H 151-155 50 CF3 H 153-157 51 CF3 H 563 52 Cl Cl 631 53 Cl Cl 593 54 Cl Cl 207-208 55 Cl Cl  69-71 56 Cl Cl 183-184 57 Cl Cl 202-203 58 Cl Cl 577 59 Cl Cl 577 60 Cl Cl 590

INDEX TABLE B-1 Cmpd. MP/ No. R1a R1b J MS data 61 Cl Cl 120-124 63 Cl Cl 577

INDEX TABLE B-2 Cmpd. No. R1a R1b J MS data 62 Cl Cl 563

INDEX TABLE C Cmpd. No. R1a J MS data 33 Cl 528

INDEX TABLE D Cmpd. No. R1a J MS data 34 Cl 584 64 Cl 582

INDEX TABLE E Cmpd. MP/ No. R1a R1b J MS data 35 Cl Cl 543 36 CF3 Cl 577 37 CF3 Cl 563 38 Cl Cl 529 39 Cl Cl 557 40 Cl Cl 543 41 Cl Cl 587 42 Cl Cl 573 65 CF3 H 161-165 66 CF3 H  79-83

INDEX TABLE F Cmpd. MP/ No. R1a R1b J MS data 67 CF3 H cyclopropyl 153-157 68 CF3 H 200-204 69 CF3 H 524 70 Cl Cl cyclopropyl 511 71 Cl Cl 524 72 Cl Cl 256-260 73 Cl Cl 525.1 74 Cl Cl 538.2 75 Cl Cl  94-98 76 Cl Cl 135-139 77 Cl Cl 536 78 Cl Cl 550

INDEX TABLE G Cmpd. No. R1a R1b J MS data 79 Cl Cl 604

A compound of this invention will generally be used as an invertebrate pest control active ingredient in a composition, i.e. formulation, with at least one additional component selected from the group consisting of surfactants, solid diluents and liquid diluents, which serves as a carrier. The formulation or composition ingredients are selected to be consistent with the physical properties of the active ingredient, mode of application and environmental factors such as soil type, moisture and temperature.

Useful formulations include both liquid and solid compositions. Liquid compositions include solutions (including emulsifiable concentrates), suspensions, emulsions (including microemulsions, oil in water emulsions, flowable concentrates and/or suspoemulsions) and the like, which optionally can be thickened into gels. The general types of aqueous liquid compositions are soluble concentrate, suspension concentrate, capsule suspension, concentrated emulsion, microemulsion, oil in water emulsion, flowable concentrate and suspoemulsion. The general types of nonaqueous liquid compositions are emulsifiable concentrate, microemulsifiable concentrate, dispersible concentrate and oil dispersion.

The general types of solid compositions are dusts, powders, granules, pellets, prills, pastilles, tablets, filled films (including seed coatings) and the like, which can be water-dispersible (“wettable”) or water-soluble. Films and coatings formed from film-forming solutions or flowable suspensions are particularly useful for seed treatment. Active ingredient can be (micro)encapsulated and further formed into a suspension or solid formulation; alternatively the entire formulation of active ingredient can be encapsulated (or “overcoated”). Encapsulation can control or delay release of the active ingredient. An emulsifiable granule combines the advantages of both an emulsifiable concentrate formulation and a dry granular formulation. High-strength compositions are primarily used as intermediates for further formulation.

Sprayable formulations are typically extended in a suitable medium before spraying. Such liquid and solid formulations are formulated to be readily diluted in the spray medium, usually water, but occasionally another suitable medium like an aromatic or paraffinic hydrocarbon or vegetable oil. Spray volumes can range from about one to several thousand liters per hectare, but more typically are in the range from about ten to several hundred liters per hectare. Sprayable formulations can be tank mixed with water or another suitable medium for foliar treatment by aerial or ground application, or for application to the growing medium of the plant. Liquid and dry formulations can be metered directly into drip irrigation systems or metered into the furrow during planting. Liquid and solid formulations can be applied onto seeds of crops and other desirable vegetation as seed treatments before planting to protect developing roots and other subterranean plant parts and/or foliage through systemic uptake.

The formulations will typically contain effective amounts of active ingredient, diluent and surfactant within the following approximate ranges which add up to 100 percent by weight.

Weight Percent Active Ingredient Diluent Surfactant Water-Dispersible and Water- 0.001-90 0-99.999 0-15 soluble Granules, Tablets and Powders Oil Dispersions, Suspensions,    1-50 40-99    0-50 Emulsions, Solutions (including Emulsifiable Concentrates) Dusts    1-25 70-99    0-5  Granules and Pellets 0.001-99 5-99.999 0-15 High Strength Compositions   90-99 0-10    0-2 

Solid diluents include, for example, clays such as bentonite, montmorillonite, attapulgite and kaolin, gypsum, cellulose, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, starch, dextrin, sugars (e.g., lactose, sucrose), silica, talc, mica, diatomaceous earth, urea, calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate and bicarbonate, and sodium sulfate. Typical solid diluents are described in Watkins et al., Handbook of Insecticide Dust Diluents and Carriers, 2nd Ed., Dorland Books, Caldwell, N.J.

Liquid diluents include, for example, water, N,N-dimethylalkanamides (e.g., N,N-dimethylformamide), limonene, dimethyl sulfoxide, N-alkylpyrrolidones (e.g., N-methylpyrrolidinone), alkyl phosphates (e.g., triethylphosphate), ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, propylene carbonate, butylene carbonate, paraffins (e.g., white mineral oils, normal paraffins, isoparaffins), alkylbenzenes, alkylnaphthalenes, glycerine, glycerol triacetate, sorbitol, aromatic hydrocarbons, dearomatized aliphatics, alkylbenzenes, alkylnaphthalenes, ketones such as cyclohexanone, 2-heptanone, isophorone and 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, acetates such as isoamyl acetate, hexyl acetate, heptyl acetate, octyl acetate, nonyl acetate, tridecyl acetate and isobornyl acetate, other esters such as alkylated lactate esters, dibasic esters alkyl and aryl benzoates, γ-butyrolactone, and alcohols, which can be linear, branched, saturated or unsaturated, such as methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropyl alcohol, n-butanol, isobutyl alcohol, n-hexanol, 2-ethylhexanol, n-octanol, decanol, isodecyl alcohol, isooctadecanol, cetyl alcohol, lauryl alcohol, tridecyl alcohol, oleyl alcohol, cyclohexanol, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, diacetone alcohol, cresol and benzyl alcohol. Liquid diluents also include glycerol esters of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (typically C6-C22), such as plant seed and fruit oils (e.g., oils of olive, castor, linseed, sesame, corn (maize), peanut, sunflower, grapeseed, safflower, cottonseed, soybean, rapeseed, coconut and palm kernel), animal-sourced fats (e.g., beef tallow, pork tallow, lard, cod liver oil, fish oil), and mixtures thereof. Liquid diluents also include alkylated fatty acids (e.g., methylated, ethylated, butylated) wherein the fatty acids may be obtained by hydrolysis of glycerol esters from plant and animal sources, and can be purified by distillation. Typical liquid diluents are described in Marsden, Solvents Guide, 2nd Ed., Interscience, New York, 1950.

The solid and liquid compositions of the present invention often include one or more surfactants. When added to a liquid, surfactants (also known as “surface-active agents”) generally modify, most often reduce, the surface tension of the liquid. Depending on the nature of the hydrophilic and lipophilic groups in a surfactant molecule, surfactants can be useful as wetting agents, dispersants, emulsifiers or defoaming agents.

Surfactants can be classified as nonionic, anionic or cationic. Nonionic surfactants useful for the present compositions include, but are not limited to: alcohol alkoxylates such as alcohol alkoxylates based on natural and synthetic alcohols (which may be branched or linear) and prepared from the alcohols and ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide or mixtures thereof; amine ethoxylates, alkanolamides and ethoxylated alkanolamides; alkoxylated triglycerides such as ethoxylated soybean, castor and rapeseed oils; alkylphenol alkoxylates such as octylphenol ethoxylates, nonylphenol ethoxylates, dinonyl phenol ethoxylates and dodecyl phenol ethoxylates (prepared from the phenols and ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide or mixtures thereof); block polymers prepared from ethylene oxide or propylene oxide and reverse block polymers where the terminal blocks are prepared from propylene oxide; ethoxylated fatty acids; ethoxylated fatty esters and oils; ethoxylated methyl esters; ethoxylated tristyrylphenol (including those prepared from ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide or mixtures thereof); fatty acid esters, glycerol esters, lanolin-based derivatives, polyethoxylate esters such as polyethoxylated sorbitan fatty acid esters, polyethoxylated sorbitol fatty acid esters and polyethoxylated glycerol fatty acid esters; other sorbitan derivatives such as sorbitan esters; polymeric surfactants such as random copolymers, block copolymers, alkyd peg (polyethylene glycol) resins, graft or comb polymers and star polymers; polyethylene glycols (pegs); polyethylene glycol fatty acid esters; silicone-based surfactants; and sugar-derivatives such as sucrose esters, alkyl polyglycosides and alkyl polysaccharides.

Useful anionic surfactants include, but are not limited to: alkylaryl sulfonic acids and their salts; carboxylated alcohol or alkylphenol ethoxylates; diphenyl sulfonate derivatives; lignin and lignin derivatives such as lignosulfonates; maleic or succinic acids or their anhydrides; olefin sulfonates; phosphate esters such as phosphate esters of alcohol alkoxylates, phosphate esters of alkylphenol alkoxylates and phosphate esters of styryl phenol ethoxylates; protein-based surfactants; sarcosine derivatives; styryl phenol ether sulfate; sulfates and sulfonates of oils and fatty acids; sulfates and sulfonates of ethoxylated alkylphenols; sulfates of alcohols; sulfates of ethoxylated alcohols; sulfonates of amines and amides such as N,N-alkyltaurates; sulfonates of benzene, cumene, toluene, xylene, and dodecyl and tridecylbenzenes; sulfonates of condensed naphthalenes; sulfonates of naphthalene and alkyl naphthalene; sulfonates of fractionated petroleum; sulfosuccinamates; and sulfosuccinates and their derivatives such as dialkyl sulfosuccinate salts.

Useful cationic surfactants include, but are not limited to: amides and ethoxylated amides; amines such as N-alkyl propanediamines, tripropylenetriamines and dipropylenetetramines, and ethoxylated amines, ethoxylated diamines and propoxylated amines (prepared from the amines and ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide or mixtures thereof); amine salts such as amine acetates and diamine salts; quaternary ammonium salts such as quaternary salts, ethoxylated quaternary salts and diquaternary salts; and amine oxides such as alkyldimethylamine oxides and bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-alkylamine oxides.

Also useful for the present compositions are mixtures of nonionic and anionic surfactants or mixtures of nonionic and cationic surfactants. Nonionic, anionic and cationic surfactants and their recommended uses are disclosed in a variety of published references including McCutcheon's Emulsifiers and Detergents, annual American and International Editions published by McCutcheon's Division, The Manufacturing Confectioner Publishing Co.; Sisely and Wood, Encyclopedia of Surface Active Agents, Chemical Publ. Co., Inc., New York, 1964; and A. S. Davidson and B. Milwidsky, Synthetic Detergents, Seventh Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1987.

Compositions of this invention may also contain formulation auxiliaries and additives, known to those skilled in the art as formulation aids (some of which may be considered to also function as solid diluents, liquid diluents or surfactants). Such formulation auxiliaries and additives may control: pH (buffers), foaming during processing (antifoams such polyorganosiloxanes), sedimentation of active ingredients (suspending agents), viscosity (thixotropic thickeners), in-container microbial growth (antimicrobials), product freezing (antifreezes), color (dyes/pigment dispersions), wash-off (film formers or stickers), evaporation (evaporation retardants), and other formulation attributes. Film formers include, for example, polyvinyl acetates, polyvinyl acetate copolymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer, polyvinyl alcohols, polyvinyl alcohol copolymers and waxes. Examples of formulation auxiliaries and additives include those listed in McCutcheon's Volume 2: Functional Materials, annual International and North American editions published by McCutcheon's Division, The Manufacturing Confectioner Publishing Co.; and PCT Publication WO 03/024222.

The compound of Formula 1 and any other active ingredients are typically incorporated into the present compositions by dissolving the active ingredient in a solvent or by grinding in a liquid or dry diluent. Solutions, including emulsifiable concentrates, can be prepared by simply mixing the ingredients. If the solvent of a liquid composition intended for use as an emulsifiable concentrate is water-immiscible, an emulsifier is typically added to emulsify the active-containing solvent upon dilution with water. Active ingredient slurries, with particle diameters of up to 2,000 μm can be wet milled using media mills to obtain particles with average diameters below 3 μm. Aqueous slurries can be made into finished suspension concentrates (see, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 3,060,084) or further processed by spray drying to form water-dispersible granules. Dry formulations usually require dry milling processes, which produce average particle diameters in the 2 to 10 μm range. Dusts and powders can be prepared by blending and usually grinding (such as with a hammer mill or fluid-energy mill). Granules and pellets can be prepared by spraying the active material upon preformed granular carriers or by agglomeration techniques. See Browning, “Agglomeration”, Chemical Engineering, Dec. 4, 1967, pp 147-48, Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook, 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963, pages 8-57 and following, and WO 91/13546. Pellets can be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,172,714. Water-dispersible and water-soluble granules can be prepared as taught in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,144,050, 3,920,442 and DE 3,246,493. Tablets can be prepared as taught in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,180,587, 5,232,701 and 5,208,030. Films can be prepared as taught in GB 2,095,558 and U.S. Pat. No. 3,299,566.

For further information regarding the art of formulation, see T. S. Woods, “The Formulator's Toolbox—Product Forms for Modern Agriculture” in Pesticide Chemistry and Bioscience, The Food-Environment Challenge, T. Brooks and T. R. Roberts, Eds., Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Pesticide Chemistry, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 1999, pp. 120-133. See also U.S. Pat. No. 3,235,361, Col. 6, line 16 through Col. 7, line 19 and Examples 10-41; U.S. Pat. No. 3,309,192, Col. 5, line 43 through Col. 7, line 62 and Examples 8, 12, 15, 39, 41, 52, 53, 58, 132, 138-140, 162-164, 166, 167 and 169-182; U.S. Pat. No. 2,891,855, Col. 3, line 66 through Col. 5, line 17 and Examples 1-4; Klingman, Weed Control as a Science, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1961, pp 81-96; Hance et al., Weed Control Handbook, 8th Ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1989; and Developments in formulation technology, PJB Publications, Richmond, U K, 2000.

In the following Examples, all formulations are prepared in conventional ways. Compound numbers refer to compounds in Index Tables A-G. Without further elaboration, it is believed that one skilled in the art using the preceding description can utilize the present invention to its fullest extent. The following Examples are, therefore, to be construed as merely illustrative, and not limiting of the disclosure in any way whatsoever. Percentages are by weight except where otherwise indicated.

Example A

High Strength Concentrate Compound 1 98.5% silica aerogel  0.5% synthetic amorphous fine silica  1.0%

Example B

Wettable Powder Compound 3 65.0% dodecylphenol polyethylene glycol ether 2.0% sodium ligninsulfonate 4.0% sodium silicoaluminate 6.0% montmorillonite (calcined) 23.0%

Example C

Granule Compound 8 10.0% attapulgite granules (low volatile matter, 90.0% 0.71/0.30 mm; U.S.S. No. 25-50 sieves)

Example D

Extruded Pellet Compound 10 25.0% anhydrous sodium sulfate 10.0% crude calcium ligninsulfonate 5.0% sodium alkylnaphthalenesulfonate 1.0% calcium/magnesium bentonite 59.0%

Example E

Emulsifiable Concentrate Compound 11 10.0% polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexoleate 20.0% C6-C10 fatty acid methyl ester 70.0%

Example F

Microemulsion Compound 19 5.0% polyvinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer 30.0% alkylpolyglycoside 30.0% glyceryl monooleate 15.0% water 20.0%

Example G

Seed Treatment Compound 20 20.00% polyvinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer 5.00% montan acid wax 5.00% calcium ligninsulfonate 1.00% polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene block copolymers 1.00% stearyl alcohol (POE 20) 2.00% polyorganosilane 0.20% colorant red dye 0.05% water 65.75%

Example H

Fertilizer Stick Compound 33 2.5% pyrrolidone-styrene copolymer 4.8% tristyrylphenyl 16-ethoxylate 2.3% talc 0.8% corn starch 5.0% slow-release fertilizer 36.0% kaolin 38.0% water 10.6%

Example I

Suspension Concentrate compound 34  35% butyl polyoxyethylene/polypropylene block copolymer 4.0% stearic acid/polyethylene glycol copolymer 1.0% styrene acrylic polymer 1.0% xanthan gum 0.1% propylene glycol 5.0% silicone based defoamer 0.1% 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one 0.1% water 53.7% 

Example J

Emulsion in Water compound 39 10.0%  butyl polyoxyethylene/polypropylene block copolymer 4.0% stearic acid/polyethylene glycol copolymer 1.0% styrene acrylic polymer 1.0% xanthan gum 0.1% propylene glycol 5.0% silicone based defoamer 0.1% 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one 0.1% aromatic petroleum based hydrocarbon 20.0 water 58.7% 

Example K

Oil Dispersion compound 50   25% polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate   15% organically modified bentonite clay  2.5% fatty acid methyl ester 57.5%

Example L

Suspoemulsion compound 61 10.0% imidacloprid 5.0% butyl polyoxyethylene/polypropylene block copolymer 4.0% stearic acid/polyethylene glycol copolymer 1.0% styrene acrylic polymer 1.0% xanthan gum 0.1% propylene glycol 5.0% silicone based defoamer 0.1% 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one 0.1% aromatic petroleum based hydrocarbon 20.0% water 53.7%

Example M

Suspension Concentrate compound 67  35% butyl polyoxyethylene/polypropylene block copolymer 4.0% stearic acid/polyethylene glycol copolymer 1.0% styrene acrylic polymer 1.0% xanthan gum 0.1% propylene glycol 5.0% silicone based defoamer 0.1% 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one 0.1% water 53.7% 

Example N

Emulsion in Water compound 69 10.0% butyl polyoxyethylene/polypropylene block copolymer 4.0% stearic acid/polyethylene glycol copolymer 1.0% styrene acrylic polymer 1.0% xanthan gum 0.1% propylene glycol 5.0% silicone based defoamer 0.1% 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one 0.1% aromatic petroleum based hydrocarbon 20.0 water 58.7%

Example O

Oil Dispersion compound 70   25% polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate   15% organically modified bentonite clay  2.5% fatty acid methyl ester 57.5%

Example P

Suspoemulsion compound 71 10.0% imidacloprid 5.0% butyl polyoxyethylene/polypropylene block 4.0% copolymer stearic acid/polyethylene glycol copolymer 1.0% styrene acrylic polymer 1.0% xanthan gum 0.1% propylene glycol 5.0% silicone based defoamer 0.1% 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one 0.1% aromatic petroleum based hydrocarbon 20.0% water 53.7%

Compounds of this invention exhibit activity against a wide spectrum of invertebrate pests. These pests include invertebrates inhabiting a variety of environments such as, for example, plant foliage, roots, soil, harvested crops or other foodstuffs, or building structures. These pests include, for example, invertebrates feeding on foliage (including leaves, stems, flowers and fruits), seeds, wood or textile fibers, and thereby causing injury or damage to, for example, growing or stored agronomic crops, forests, greenhouse crops, ornamentals, nursery crops, stored foodstuffs or fiber products, or houses or other structures or their contents. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that not all compounds are equally effective against all growth stages of all pests.

These present compounds and compositions are thus useful agronomically for protecting field crops from phytophagous invertebrate pests, and also nonagronomically for protecting other horticultural crops and plants from phytophagous invertebrate pests. This utility includes protecting crops and other plants (i.e. both agronomic and nonagronomic) that contain genetic material introduced by genetic engineering (i.e. transgenic) or modified by mutagenesis to provide advantageous traits. Examples of such traits include tolerance to herbicides, resistance to phytophagous pests (e.g., insects, mites, aphids, spiders, nematodes, snails, plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses), improved plant growth, increased tolerance of adverse growing conditions such as high or low temperatures, low or high soil moisture, and high salinity, increased flowering or fruiting, greater harvest yields, more rapid maturation, higher quality and/or nutritional value of the harvested product, or improved storage or process properties of the harvested products. Transgenic plants can be modified to express multiple traits. Examples of plants containing traits provided by genetic engineering or mutagenesis include varieties of corn, cotton, soybean and potato expressing an insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis toxin such as YIELD GARD®, KNOCKOUT®, STARLINK®, BOLLGARD®, NuCOTN® and NEWLEAF®, INVICTA RR2 PRO™, and herbicide-tolerant varieties of corn, cotton, soybean and rapeseed such as ROUNDUP READY®, LIBERTY LINK®, IMI®, STS® and CLEARFIELD®, as well as crops expressing N-acetyltransferase (GAT) to provide resistance to glyphosate herbicide, or crops containing the HRA gene providing resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS). The present compounds and compositions may exhibit enhanced effects with traits introduced by genetic engineering or modified by mutagenesis, thus enhancing phenotypic expression or effectiveness of the traits or increasing the invertebrate pest control effectiveness of the present compounds and compositions. In particular, the present compounds and compositions may exhibit enhance effects with the phenotypic expression of proteins or other natural products toxic to invertebrate pests to provide greater-than-additive control of these pests.

Compositions of this invention can also optionally comprise plant nutrients, e.g., a fertilizer composition comprising at least one plant nutrient selected from nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, boron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum. Of note are compositions comprising at least one fertilizer composition comprising at least one plant nutrient selected from nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, calcium and magnesium. Compositions of the present invention which further comprise at least one plant nutrient can be in the form of liquids or solids. Of note are solid formulations in the form of granules, small sticks or tablets. Solid formulations comprising a fertilizer composition can be prepared by mixing the compound or composition of the present invention with the fertilizer composition together with formulating ingredients and then preparing the formulation by methods such as granulation or extrusion. Alternatively solid formulations can be prepared by spraying a solution or suspension of a compound or composition of the present invention in a volatile solvent onto a previous prepared fertilizer composition in the form of dimensionally stable mixtures, e.g., granules, small sticks or tablets, and then evaporating the solvent.

Nonagronomic uses refer to invertebrate pest control in the areas other than fields of crop plants. Nonagronomic uses of the present compounds and compositions include control of invertebrate pests in stored grains, beans and other foodstuffs, and in textiles such as clothing and carpets. Nonagronomic uses of the present compounds and compositions also include invertebrate pest control in ornamental plants, forests, in yards, along roadsides and railroad rights of way, and on turf such as lawns, golf courses and pastures. Nonagronomic uses of the present compounds and compositions also include invertebrate pest control in houses and other buildings which may be occupied by humans and/or companion, farm, ranch, zoo or other animals. Nonagronomic uses of the present compounds and compositions also include the control of pests such as termites that can damage wood or other structural materials used in buildings.

Examples of agronomic or nonagronomic invertebrate pests include eggs, larvae and adults of the order Lepidoptera, such as armyworms, cutworms, loopers, and heliothines in the family Noctuidae (e.g., pink stem borer (Sesamia inferens Walker), corn stalk borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre), southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cramer), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith), beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner), cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval), yellow striped armyworm (Spodoptera ornithogalli Guenée), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel), velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner), green fruitworm (Lithophane antennata Walker), cabbage armyworm (Barathra brassicae Linnaeus), soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens Walker), cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens Fabricius)); borers, casebearers, webworms, coneworms, cabbageworms and skeletonizers from the family Pyralidae (e.g., European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner), navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella Walker), corn root webworm (Crambus caliginosellus Clemens), sod webworms (Pyralidae: Crambinae) such as sod worm (Herpetogramma licarsisalis Walker), sugarcane stem borer (Chilo infuscatellus Snellen), tomato small borer (Neoleucinodes elegantalis Guenée), green leafroller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis), grape leaffolder (Desmia funeralis Hübner), melon worm (Diaphania nitidalis Stoll), cabbage center grub (Helluala hydralis Guenée), yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Walker), early shoot borer (Scirpophaga infuscatellus Snellen), white stem borer (Scirpophaga innotata Walker), top shoot borer (Scirpophaga nivella Fabricius), dark-headed rice borer (Chilo polychrysus Meyrick), striped riceborer (Chilo suppressalis Walker), cabbage cluster caterpillar (Crocidolomia binotalis English)); leafrollers, budworms, seed worms, and fruit worms in the family Tortricidae (e.g., codling moth (Cydia pomonella Linnaeus), grape berry moth (Endopiza viteana Clemens), oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta Busck), citrus false codling moth (Cryptophlebia leucotreta Meyrick), citrus borer (Ecdytolopha aurantiana Lima), redbanded leafroller (Argyrotaenia velutinana Walker), obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana Harris), light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana Walker), European grape berry moth (Eupoecilia ambiguella Hübner), apple bud moth (Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott), omnivorous leafroller (Platynota stultana Walsingham), barred fruit-tree tortrix (Pandemis cerasana Hübner), apple brown tortrix (Pandemis heparana Denis & Schiffermúller)); and many other economically important lepidoptera (e.g., diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella Linnaeus), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar Linnaeus), peach fruit borer (Carposina niponensis Walsingham), peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella Zeller), potato tuberworm (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller), spotted teniform leafminer (Lithocolletis blancardella Fabricius), Asiatic apple leafminer (Lithocolletis ringoniella Matsumura), rice leaffolder (Lerodea eufala Edwards), apple leafminer (Leucoptera scitella Zeller)); eggs, nymphs and adults of the order Blattodea including cockroaches from the families Blattellidae and Blattidae (e.g., oriental cockroach (Blatta orientalis Linnaeus), Asian cockroach (Blatella asahinai Mizukubo), German cockroach (Blattella germanica Linnaeus), brownbanded cockroach (Supella longipalpa Fabricius), American cockroach (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus), brown cockroach (Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister), Madeira cockroach (Leucophaea maderae Fabricius)), smoky brown cockroach (Periplaneta fuliginosa Service), Australian Cockroach (Periplaneta australasiae Fabr.), lobster cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea Olivier) and smooth cockroach (Symploce pallens Stephens)); eggs, foliar feeding, fruit feeding, root feeding, seed feeding and vesicular tissue feeding larvae and adults of the order Coleoptera including weevils from the families Anthribidae, Bruchidae, and Curculionidae (e.g., boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman), rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel), granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius Linnaeus), rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus)), annual bluegrass weevil (Listronotus maculicollis Dietz), bluegrass billbug (Sphenophorus parvulus Gyllenhal), hunting billbug (Sphenophorus venatus vestitus), Denver billbug (Sphenophorus cicatristriatus Fahraeus)); flea beetles, cucumber beetles, rootworms, leaf beetles, potato beetles, and leafminers in the family Chrysomelidae (e.g., Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte)); chafers and other beetles from the family Scarabaeidae (e.g., Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman), oriental beetle (Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse) Baraud), northern masked chafer (Cyclocephala borealis Arrow), southern masked chafer (Cyclocephala immaculata Olivier or C. lurida Bland), dung beetle and white grub (Aphodius spp.), black turfgrass ataenius (Ataenius spretulus Haldeman), green June beetle (Cotinis nitida Linnaeus), Asiatic garden beetle (Maladera castanea Arrow), May/June beetles (Phyllophaga spp.) and European chafer (Rhizotrogus majalis Razoumowsky)); carpet beetles from the family Dermestidae; wireworms from the family Elateridae; bark beetles from the family Scolytidae and flour beetles from the family Tenebrionidae.

In addition, agronomic and nonagronomic pests include: eggs, adults and larvae of the order Dermaptera including earwigs from the family Forficulidae (e.g., European earwig (Forficula auricularia Linnaeus), black earwig (Chelisoches morio Fabricius)); eggs, immatures, adults and nymphs of the orders Hemiptera and Homoptera such as, plant bugs from the family Miridae, cicadas from the family Cicadidae, leafhoppers (e.g. Empoasca spp.) from the family Cicadellidae, bed bugs (e.g., Cimex lectularius Linnaeus) from the family Cimicidae, planthoppers from the families Fulgoroidae and Delphacidae, treehoppers from the family Membracidae, psyllids from the family Psyllidae, whiteflies from the family Aleyrodidae, aphids from the family Aphididae, phylloxera from the family Phylloxeridae, mealybugs from the family Pseudococcidae, scales from the families Coccidae, Diaspididae and Margarodidae, lace bugs from the family Tingidae, stink bugs from the family Pentatomidae, chinch bugs (e.g., hairy chinch bug (Blissus leucopterus hirtus Montandon) and southern chinch bug (Blissus insularis Barber)) and other seed bugs from the family Lygaeidae, spittlebugs from the family Cercopidae squash bugs from the family Coreidae, and red bugs and cotton stainers from the family Pyrrhocoridae.

Agronomic and nonagronomic pests also include: eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults of the order Acari (mites) such as spider mites and red mites in the family Tetranychidae (e.g., European red mite (Panonychus ulmi Koch), two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch), McDaniel mite (Tetranychus mcdanieli McGregor)); flat mites in the family Tenuipalpidae (e.g., citrus flat mite (Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor)); rust and bud mites in the family Eriophyidae and other foliar feeding mites, dust mites in the family Epidermoptidae, follicle mites in the family Demodicidae, grain mites in the family Glycyphagidae; ticks in the family Ixodidae, commonly known as hard ticks (e.g., deer tick (Ixodes scapularis Say), Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus Neumann), American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis Say), lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum Linnaeus)) and ticks in the family Argasidae, commonly known as soft ticks (e.g., relapsing fever tick (Ornithodoros turicata), common fowl tick (Argas radiatus)); scab and itch mites in the families Psoroptidae, Pyemotidae, and Sarcoptidae; eggs, adults and immatures of the order Orthoptera including grasshoppers, locusts and crickets (e.g., migratory grasshoppers (e.g., Melanoplus sanguinipes Fabricius, M. differentialis Thomas), American grasshoppers (e.g., Schistocerca americana Drury), desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal), migratory locust (Locusta migratoria Linnaeus), bush locust (Zonocerus spp.), house cricket (Acheta domesticus Linnaeus), mole crickets (e.g., tawny mole cricket (Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder) and southern mole cricket (Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-Tos)); eggs, adults and immatures of the order Diptera including leafminers (e.g., Liriomyza spp. such as serpentine vegetable leafminer (Liriomyza sativae Blanchard)), midges, fruit flies (Tephritidae), frit flies (e.g., Oscinella frit Linnaeus), soil maggots, house flies (e.g., Musca domestica Linnaeus), lesser house flies (e.g., Fannia canicularis Linnaeus, F. femoralis Stein), stable flies (e.g., Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus), face flies, horn flies, blow flies (e.g., Chrysomya spp., Phormia spp.), and other muscoid fly pests, horse flies (e.g., Tabanus spp.), bot flies (e.g., Gastrophilus spp., Oestrus spp.), cattle grubs (e.g., Hypoderma spp.), deer flies (e.g., Chrysops spp.), keds (e.g., Melophagus ovinus Linnaeus) and other Brachycera, mosquitoes (e.g., Aedes spp., Anopheles spp., Culex spp.), black flies (e.g., Prosimulium spp., Simulium spp.), biting midges, sand flies, sciarids, and other Nematocera; eggs, adults and immatures of the order Thysanoptera including onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman), flower thrips (Frankliniella spp.), and other foliar feeding thrips; insect pests of the order Hymenoptera including ants of the Family Formicidae including the Florida carpenter ant (Camponotus floridanus Buckley), red carpenter ant (Camponotus ferrugineus Fabricius), black carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus De Geer), white-footed ant (Technomyrmex albipes fr. Smith), big headed ants (Pheidole sp.), ghost ant (Tapinoma melanocephalum Fabricius); Pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonic Linnaeus), little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata Roger), fire ant (Solenopsis geminata Fabricius), red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren), Argentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis Mayr), crazy ant (Paratrechina longicornis Latreille), pavement ant (Tetramorium caespitum Linnaeus), cornfield ant (Lasius alienus Forster) and odorous house ant (Tapinoma sessile Say). Other Hymenoptera including bees (including carpenter bees), hornets, yellow jackets, wasps, and sawflies (Neodiprion spp.; Cephus spp.); insect pests of the order Isoptera including termites in the Termitidae (e.g., Macrotermes sp., Odontotermes obesus Rambur), Kalotermitidae (e.g., Cryptotermes sp.), and Rhinotermitidae (e.g., Reticulitermes sp., Coptotermes sp., Heterotermes tenuis Hagen) families, the eastern subterranean termite (Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar), western subterranean termite (Reticulitermes hesperus Banks), Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki), West Indian drywood termite (Incisitermes immigrans Snyder), powder post termite (Cryptotermes brevis Walker), drywood termite (Incisitermes snyderi Light), southeastern subterranean termite (Reticulitermes virginicus Banks), western drywood termite (Incisitermes minor Hagen), arboreal termites such as Nasutitermes sp. and other termites of economic importance; insect pests of the order Thysanura such as silverfish (Lepisma saccharina Linnaeus) and firebrat (Thermobia domestica Packard). Additional arthropod pests covered include: spiders in the order Araneae such as the brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik) and the black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans Fabricius), and centipedes in the order Scutigeromorpha such as the house centipede (Scutigera coleoptrata Linnaeus).

Examples of invertebrate pests of stored grain include larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus), lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica), rice weevil (Stiophilus oryzae), maize weevil (Stiophilus zeamais), cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), granary weevil (Stiophilus granarius), Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella), Mediterranean flour beetle (Ephestia kuhniella) and flat or rusty grain beetle (Cryptolestis ferrugineus).

Compounds of this invention have activity against pests in the order Lepidoptera (e.g., Alabama argillacea Hübner (cotton leaf worm), Archips argyrospila Walker (fruit tree leaf roller), A. rosana Linnaeus (European leaf roller) and other Archips species, Chilo suppressalis Walker (rice stem borer), Cnaphalocrosis medinalis Guenée (rice leaf roller), Crambus caliginosellus Clemens (corn root webworm), Crambus teterrellus Zincken (bluegrass webworm), Cydia pomonella Linnaeus (codling moth), Earias insulana Boisduval (spiny bollworm), Earias vittella Fabricius (spotted bollworm), Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (American bollworm), Helicoverpa zea Boddie (corn earworm), Heliothis virescens Fabricius (tobacco budworm), Herpetogramma licarsisalis Walker (sod webworm), Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiffermüller (grape berry moth), Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders (pink bollworm), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (citrus leafminer), Pieris brassicae Linnaeus (large white butterfly), Pieris rapae Linnaeus (small white butterfly), Plutella xylostella Linnaeus (diamondback moth), Spodoptera exigua Hübner (beet armyworm), Spodoptera litura Fabricius (tobacco cutworm, cluster caterpillar), Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (fall armyworm), Trichoplusia ni Hübner (cabbage looper) and Tuta absoluta Meyrick (tomato leafminer)).

Compounds of this invention have activity against pests in the order Homoptera including: Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (pea aphid), Aphis craccivora Koch (cowpea aphid), Aphis fabae Scopoli (black bean aphid), Aphis gossypii Glover (cotton aphid, melon aphid), Aphis pomi De Geer (apple aphid), Aphis spiraecola Patch (spirea aphid), Aulacorthum solani Kaltenbach (foxglove aphid), Chaetosiphon fragaefolii Cockerell (strawberry aphid), Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov/Mordvilko (Russian wheat aphid), Dysaphis plantaginea Paaserini (rosy apple aphid), Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann (woolly apple aphid), Hyalopterus pruni Geoffroy (mealy plum aphid), Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach (turnip aphid), Metopolophium dirrhodum Walker (cereal aphid), Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (potato aphid), Myzus persicae Sulzer (peach-potato aphid, green peach aphid), Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (lettuce aphid), Pemphigus spp. (root aphids and gall aphids), Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch (corn leaf aphid), Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus (bird cherry-oat aphid), Schizaphis graminum Rondani (greenbug), Sitobion avenae Fabricius (English grain aphid), Therioaphis maculata Buckton (spotted alfalfa aphid), Toxoptera aurantii Boyer de Fonscolombe (black citrus aphid), and Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (brown citrus aphid); Adelges spp. (adelgids); Phylloxera devastatrix Pergande (pecan phylloxera); Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (tobacco whitefly, sweetpotato whitefly), Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (silverleaf whitefly), Dialeurodes citri Ashmead (citrus whitefly) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (greenhouse whitefly); Empoasca fabae Harris (potato leafhopper), Laodelphax striatellus Fallen (smaller brown planthopper), Macrolestes quadrilineatus Forbes (aster leafhopper), Nephotettix cinticeps Uhler (green leafhopper), Nephotettix nigropictus Stâl (rice leafhopper), Nilaparvata lugens Stâl (brown planthopper), Peregrinus maidis Ashmead (corn planthopper), Sogatella furcifera Horvath (white-backed planthopper), Sogatodes orizicola Muir (rice delphacid), Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee white apple leafhopper, Erythroneoura spp. (grape leafhoppers); Magicidada septendecim Linnaeus (periodical cicada); Icerya purchasi Maskell (cottony cushion scale), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock (San Jose scale); Planococcus citri Risso (citrus mealybug); Pseudococcus spp. (other mealybug complex); Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster (pear psylla), Trioza diospyri Ashmead (persimmon psylla). Compounds of this invention have activity against pests in the order Hemiptera including: Acrosternum hilare Say (green stink bug), Anasa tristis De Geer (squash bug), Blissus leucopterus leucopterus Say (chinch bug), Cimex lectularius Linnaeus (bed bug) Corythuca gossypii Fabricius (cotton lace bug), Cyrtopeltis modesta Distant (tomato bug), Dysdercus suturellus Herrich-Schaffer (cotton stainer), Euchistus servus Say (brown stink bug), Euchistus variolarius Palisot de Beauvois (one-spotted stink bug), Graptosthetus spp. (complex of seed bugs), Halymorpha halys Stâl (brown marmorated stink bug), Leptoglossus corculus Say (leaf-footed pine seed bug), Lygus lineolaris Palisot de Beauvois (tarnished plant bug), Nezara viridula Linnaeus (southern green stink bug), Oebalus pugnax Fabricius (rice stink bug), Oncopeltus fasciatus Dallas (large milkweed bug), Pseudatomoscelis seriatus Reuter (cotton fleahopper). Other insect orders controlled by compounds of the invention include Thysanoptera (e.g., Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (western flower thrips), Scirthothrips citri Moulton (citrus thrips), Sericothrips variabilis Beach (soybean thrips), and Thrips tabaci Lindeman (onion thrips); and the order Coleoptera (e.g., Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Colorado potato beetle), Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Mexican bean beetle) and wireworms of the genera Agriotes, Athous or Limonius).

Of note is use of compounds of this invention for controlling diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella). Of note is use of compounds of this invention for controlling fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). Of note is use of compounds of this invention for controlling western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). Of note is use of compounds of this invention for controlling potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae). Of note is use of compounds of this invention for controlling corn planthopper (Peregrinus maidis). Of note is use of compounds of this invention for controlling cotton melon aphid (Aphis gossypii). Of note is use of compounds of this invention for controlling green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Of note is use of compounds of this invention for controlling sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci).

Compounds of the present invention may also be useful for increasing vigor of a crop plant. This method comprises contacting the crop plant (e.g., foliage, flowers, fruit or roots) or the seed from which the crop plant is grown with a compound of Formula 1 in amount sufficient to achieve the desired plant vigor effect (i.e. biologically effective amount). Typically the compound of Formula 1 is applied in a formulated composition. Although the compound of Formula 1 is often applied directly to the crop plant or its seed, it can also be applied to the locus of the crop plant, i.e. the environment of the crop plant, particularly the portion of the environment in close enough proximity to allow the compound of Formula 1 to migrate to the crop plant. The locus relevant to this method most commonly comprises the growth medium (i.e. medium providing nutrients to the plant), typically soil in which the plant is grown. Treatment of a crop plant to increase vigor of the crop plant thus comprises contacting the crop plant, the seed from which the crop plant is grown or the locus of the crop plant with a biologically effective amount of a compound of Formula 1.

Increased crop vigor can result in one or more of the following observed effects: (a) optimal crop establishment as demonstrated by excellent seed germination, crop emergence and crop stand; (b) enhanced crop growth as demonstrated by rapid and robust leaf growth (e.g., measured by leaf area index), plant height, number of tillers (e.g., for rice), root mass and overall dry weight of vegetative mass of the crop; (c) improved crop yields, as demonstrated by time to flowering, duration of flowering, number of flowers, total biomass accumulation (i.e. yield quantity) and/or fruit or grain grade marketability of produce (i.e. yield quality); (d) enhanced ability of the crop to withstand or prevent plant disease infections and arthropod, nematode or mollusk pest infestations; and (e) increased ability of the crop to withstand environmental stresses such as exposure to thermal extremes, suboptimal moisture or phytotoxic chemicals.

The compounds of the present invention may increase the vigor of treated plants compared to untreated plants by killing or otherwise preventing feeding of phytophagous invertebrate pests in the environment of the plants. In the absence of such control of phytophagous invertebrate pests, the pests reduce plant vigor by consuming plant tissues or sap, or transmitting plant pathogens such as viruses. Even in the absence of phytophagous invertebrate pests, the compounds of the invention may increase plant vigor by modifying metabolism of plants. Generally, the vigor of a crop plant will be most significantly increased by treating the plant with a compound of the invention if the plant is grown in a nonideal environment, i.e. an environment comprising one or more aspects adverse to the plant achieving the full genetic potential it would exhibit in an ideal environment.

Of note is a method for increasing vigor of a crop plant wherein the crop plant is grown in an environment comprising phytophagous invertebrate pests. Also of note is a method for increasing vigor of a crop plant wherein the crop plant is grown in an environment not comprising phytophagous invertebrate pests. Also of note is a method for increasing vigor of a crop plant wherein the crop plant is grown in an environment comprising an amount of moisture less than ideal for supporting growth of the crop plant. Of note is a method for increasing vigor of a crop plant wherein the crop is rice. Also of note is a method for increasing vigor of a crop plant wherein the crop is maize (corn). Also of note is a method for increasing vigor of a crop plant wherein the crop is soybean.

Compounds of this invention can also be mixed with one or more other biologically active compounds or agents including insecticides, fungicides, nematocides, bactericides, acaricides, herbicides, herbicide safeners, growth regulators such as insect molting inhibitors and rooting stimulants, chemosterilants, semiochemicals, repellents, attractants, pheromones, feeding stimulants, other biologically active compounds or entomopathogenic bacteria, virus or fungi to form a multi-component pesticide giving an even broader spectrum of agronomic and nonagronomic utility. Thus the present invention also pertains to a composition comprising a biologically effective amount of a compound of Formula 1, at least one additional component selected from the group consisting of surfactants, solid diluents and liquid diluents, and at least one additional biologically active compound or agent. For mixtures of the present invention, the other biologically active compounds or agents can be formulated together with the present compounds, including the compounds of Formula 1, to form a premix, or the other biologically active compounds or agents can be formulated separately from the present compounds, including the compounds of Formula 1, and the two formulations combined together before application (e.g., in a spray tank) or, alternatively, applied in succession.

Examples of such biologically active compounds or agents with which compounds of this invention can be formulated are insecticides such as abamectin, acephate, acequinocyl, acetamiprid, acrinathrin, afidopyropen ([(3S,4R,4aR,6S,6a,S,12R,12aS,12bS)-3-[(cyclopropylcarbonyl)oxy]-1,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,12,12a,12b-decahydro-6,12-dihydroxy-4,6a,12b-trimethyl-11-oxo-9-(3-pyridinyl)-2H,11H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyrano[3,4-e]pyran-4-yl]methyl cyclopropanecarboxylate), amidoflumet, amitraz, avermectin, azadirachtin, azinphos-methyl, benfuracarb, bensultap, bifenthrin, bifenazate, bistrifluron, borate, buprofezin, cadusafos, carbaryl, carbofuran, cartap, carzol, chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, chlorfluazuron, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, chromafenozide, clofentezin, clothianidin, cyantraniliprole (3-bromo-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-N-[4-cyano-2-methyl-6-[(methylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide), cyclaniliprole (3-bromo-N-[2-bromo-4-chloro-6-[[(1 cyclopropylethyl)amino]carbonyl]phenyl]-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide), cycloprothrin, cycloxaprid ((5S,8R)-1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl]2,3,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-9-nitro-5,8-Epoxy-1H-imidazo[1,2-a]azepine) cyflumetofen, cyfluthrin, beta-cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyromazine, deltamethrin, diafenthiuron, diazinon, dieldrin, diflubenzuron, dimefluthrin, dimehypo, dimethoate, dinotefuran, diofenolan, emamectin, endosulfan, esfenvalerate, ethiprole, etofenprox, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide, fenitrothion, fenothiocarb, fenoxycarb, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, fipronil, flometoquin (2-ethyl-3,7-dimethyl-6-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]-4-quinolinyl methyl carbonate), flonicamid, flubendiamide, flucythrinate, flufenerim, flufenoxuron, flufenoxystrobin (methyl (αE)-2-[[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]methyl]-α-(methoxymethylene)benzeneacetate), flufensulfone (5-chloro-2-[(3,4,4-trifluoro-3-buten-1-yl)sulfonyl]thiazole), fluhexafon, fluopyram, flupiprole (1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-[(2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl)amino]-4-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazole-3-carbonitrile), flupyradifurone (4-[[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl](2,2-difluoroethyl)amino]-2(5H)-furanone), fluvalinate, tau-fluvalinate, fonophos, formetanate, fosthiazate, halofenozide, heptafluthrin ([2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)phenyl]methyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-[(1Z)-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propen-1-yl]cyclopropanecarboxylate), hexaflumuron, hexythiazox, hydramethylnon, imidacloprid, indoxacarb, insecticidal soaps, isofenphos, lufenuron, malathion, meperfluthrin ([2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)phenyl]methyl (1R,3S)-3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate), metaflumizone, metaldehyde, methamidophos, methidathion, methiodicarb, methomyl, methoprene, methoxychlor, metofluthrin, methoxyfenozide, metofluthrin, monocrotophos, monofluorothrin ([2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)phenyl]methyl 3-(2-cyano-1-propen-1-yl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate), nicotine, nitenpyram, nithiazine, novaluron, noviflumuron, oxamyl, parathion, parathion-methyl, permethrin, phorate, phosalone, phosmet, phosphamidon, pirimicarb, profenofos, profluthrin, propargite, protrifenbute, pyflubumide (1,3,5-trimethyl-N-(2-methyl-1-oxopropyl)-N-[3-(2-methylpropyl)-4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-methoxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide), pymetrozine, pyrafluprole, pyrethrin, pyridaben, pyridalyl, pyrifluquinazon, pyriminostrobin (methyl (αE)-2-[[[2-[(2,4-dichlorophenyl) amino]-6-(trifluoromethyl)-4-pyrimidinyl]oxy]methyl]-α-(methoxymethylene)benzeneacetate), pyriprole, pyriproxyfen, rotenone, ryanodine, silafluofen, spinetoram, spinosad, spirodiclofen, spiromesifen, spirotetramat, sulprofos, sulfoxaflor (N-[methyloxido[1-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pyridinyl]ethyl]-λ4-sulfanylidene]cyanamide), tebufenozide, tebufenpyrad, teflubenzuron, tefluthrin, terbufos, tetrachlorvinphos, tetramethrin, tetramethylfluthrin ([2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)phenyl]methyl 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxylate), tetraniliprole, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiodicarb, thiosultap-sodium, tioxazafen (3-phenyl-5-(2-thienyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole), tolfenpyrad, tralomethrin, triazamate, trichlorfon, triflumezopyrim (2,4-dioxo-1-(5-pyrimidinylmethyl)-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinium inner salt), triflumuron, Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins, entomopathogenic bacteria, entomopathogenic viruses and entomopathogenic fungi.

Of note are insecticides such as abamectin, acetamiprid, acrinathrin, afidopyropen, amitraz, avermectin, azadirachtin, benfuracarb, bensultap, bifenthrin, buprofezin, cadusafos, carbaryl, cartap, chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, clothianidin, cyantraniliprole, cyclaniliprole, cycloprothrin, cyfluthrin, beta-cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyromazine, deltamethrin, dieldrin, dinotefuran, diofenolan, emamectin, endosulfan, esfenvalerate, ethiprole, etofenprox, etoxazole, fenitrothion, fenothiocarb, fenoxycarb, fenvalerate, fipronil, flometoquin, flonicamid, flubendiamide, flufenoxuron, flufenoxystrobin, flufensulfone, flupiprole, flupyradifurone, fluvalinate, formetanate, fosthiazate, heptafluthrin, hexaflumuron, hydramethylnon, imidacloprid, indoxacarb, lufenuron, meperfluthrin, metaflumizone, methiodicarb, methomyl, methoprene, methoxyfenozide, metofluthrin, monofluorothrin, nitenpyram, nithiazine, novaluron, oxamyl, pyflubumide, pymetrozine, pyrethrin, pyridaben, pyridalyl, pyriminostrobin, pyriproxyfen, ryanodine, spinetoram, spinosad, spirodiclofen, spiromesifen, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor, tebufenozide, tetramethrin, tetramethylfluthrin, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiodicarb, thiosultap-sodium, tralomethrin, triazamate, triflumezopyrim, triflumuron, Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins, all strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and all strains of nucleo polyhedrosis viruses.

One embodiment of biological agents for mixing with compounds of this invention include entomopathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus thuringiensis, and the encapsulated delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis such as MVP® and MVPII® bioinsecticides prepared by the CellCap® process (CellCap®, MVP® and MVPII® are trademarks of Mycogen Corporation, Indianapolis, Ind., USA); entomopathogenic fungi such as green muscardine fungus; and entomopathogenic (both naturally occurring and genetically modified) viruses including baculovirus, nucleopolyhedro virus (NPV) such as Helicoverpa zea nucleopolyhedrovirus (HzNPV), Anagrapha falcifera nucleopolyhedrovirus (AfNPV); and granulosis virus (GV) such as Cydia pomonella granulosis virus (CpGV).

Of particular note is such a combination where the other invertebrate pest control active ingredient belongs to a different chemical class or has a different site of action than the compound of Formula 1. In certain instances, a combination with at least one other invertebrate pest control active ingredient having a similar spectrum of control but a different site of action will be particularly advantageous for resistance management. Thus, a composition of the present invention can further comprise a biologically effective amount of at least one additional invertebrate pest control active ingredient having a similar spectrum of control but belonging to a different chemical class or having a different site of action. These additional biologically active compounds or agents include, but are not limited to, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors such as the carbamates methomyl, oxamyl, thiodicarb, triazamate, and the organophosphates chlorpyrifos; GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists such as the cyclodienes dieldrin and endosulfan, and the phenylpyrazoles ethiprole and fipronil; sodium channel modulators such as the pyrethroids bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, beta-cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, dimefluthrin, esfenvalerate, metofluthrin and profluthrin; nicotinic acetylcholinereceptor (nAChR) agonists such as the neonicotinoids acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, nithiazine, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam, and sulfoxaflor; nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) allosteric activators such as the spinosyns spinetoram and spinosad; chloride channel activators such as the avermectins abamectin and emamectin; juvenile hormone mimics such as diofenolan, methoprene, fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen; selective homopteran feeding blockers such as pymetrozine and flonicamid; mite growth inhibitors such as etoxazole; inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase such as propargite; ucouplers of oxidative phosphorylation via disruption of the proton gradient such as chlorfenapyr; nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) channel blockers such as the nereistoxin analogs cartap; inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis such as the benzoylureas flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron, novaluron, noviflumuron and triflumuron, and buprofezin; dipteran moulting disrupters such as cyromazine; ecdysone receptor agonists such as the diacylhydrazines methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide; octopamine receptor agonists such as amitraz; mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors such as hydramethylnon; mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors such as pyridaben; voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers such as indoxacarb; inhibitors of acetyl CoA carboxylase such as the tetronic and tetramic acids spirodiclofen, spiromesifen and spirotetramat; mitochondrial complex II electron transport inhibitors such as the β-ketonitriles cyenopyrafen and cyflumetofen; ryanidine receptor modulators such as the anthranilic diamides chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole, diamides such as flubendiamide, and ryanodine receptor ligands such as ryanodine; compounds wherein the target site responsible for biological activity is unknown or uncharacterized such as azadirachtin, bifenazate, pyridalyl, pyrifluquinazon and triflumezopyrim; microbial disrupters of insect midgut membranes such as Bacillus thuringensis and the delta-endotoxins they produce and Bacillus sphaericus; and biological agents including nucleo polyhedro viruses (NPV) and other naturally occurring or genetically modified insecticidal viruses.

Further examples of biologically active compounds or agents with which compounds of this invention can be formulated are: fungicides such as acibenzolar-S-methyl, aldimorph, ametoctradin, amisulbrom, anilazine, azaconazole, azoxystrobin, benalaxyl (including benalaxyl-M), benodanil, benomyl, benthiavalicarb (including benthiavalicarb-isopropyl), benzovindiflupyr, bethoxazin, binapacryl, biphenyl, bitertanol, bixafen, blasticidin-S, boscalid, bromuconazole, bupirimate, buthiobate, carboxin, carpropamid, captafol, captan, carbendazim, chloroneb, chlorothalonil, chlozolinate, copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride, copper sulfate, coumoxystrobin, cyazofamid, cyflufenamid, cymoxanil, cyproconazole, cyprodinil, dichlofluanid, diclocymet, diclomezine, dicloran, diethofencarb, difenoconazole, diflumetorim, dimethirimol, dimethomorph, dimoxystrobin, diniconazole (including diniconazole-M), dinocap, dithianon, dithiolanes, dodemorph, dodine, econazole, etaconazole, edifenphos, enoxastrobin (also known as enestroburin), epoxiconazole, ethaboxam, ethirimol, etridiazole, famoxadone, fenamidone, fenaminstrobin, fenarimol, fenbuconazole, fenfuram, fenhexamide, fenoxanil, fenpiclonil, fenpropidin, fenpropimorph, fenpyrazamine, fentin acetate, fentin hydroxide, ferbam, ferimzone, flometoquin, fluazinam, fludioxonil, flufenoxystrobin, flumorph, fluopicolide, fluopyram, fluoxastrobin, fluquinconazole, flusilazole, flusulfamide, flutianil, flutolanil, flutriafol, fluxapyroxad, folpet, fthalide (also known as phthalide), fuberidazole, furalaxyl, furametpyr, hexaconazole, hymexazole, guazatine, imazalil, imibenconazole, iminoctadine albesilate, iminoctadine triacetate, iodicarb, ipconazole, isofetamid, iprobenfos, iprodione, iprovalicarb, isoprothiolane, isopyrazam, isotianil, kasugamycin, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, mandipropamid, mandestrobin, maneb, mapanipyrin, mepronil, meptyldinocap, metalaxyl (including metalaxyl-M/mefenoxam), metconazole, methasulfocarb, metiram, metominostrobin, metrafenone, myclobutanil, naftitine, neo-asozin (ferric methanearsonate), nuarimol, octhilinone, ofurace, orysastrobin, oxadixyl, oxathiapiprolin, oxolinic acid, oxpoconazole, oxycarboxin, oxytetracycline, penconazole, pencycuron, penflufen, penthiopyrad, perfurazoate, phosphorous acid (including salts thereof, e.g., fosetyl-aluminm), picoxystrobin, piperalin, polyoxin, probenazole, prochloraz, procymidone, propamocarb, propiconazole, propineb, proquinazid, prothiocarb, prothioconazole, pyraclostrobin, pyrametostrobin, pyraoxystrobin, pyrazophos, pyribencarb, pyributacarb, pyrifenox, pyriofenone, perisoxazole, pyrimethanil, pyrifenox, pyrrolnitrin, pyroquilon, quinconazole, quinmethionate, quinoxyfen, quintozene, silthiofam, sedaxane, simeconazole, spiroxamine, streptomycin, sulfur, tebuconazole, tebufloquin, teclofthalam, tecloftalam, tecnazene, terbinafine, tetraconazole, thiabendazole, thifluzamide, thiophanate, thiophanate-methyl, thiram, tiadinil, tolclofos-methyl, tolprocarb, tolyfluanid, triadimefon, triadimenol, triarimol, triazoxide, tribasic copper sulfate, triclopyricarb, tridemorph, trifloxystrobin, triflumizole, trimoprhamide tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, triforine, triticonazole, uniconazole, validamycin, valifenalate (also known as valifenal), vinclozolin, zineb, ziram, zoxamide and 1-[4-[4-[5-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-3-isoxazolyl]-2-thiazolyl]-1-piperidinyl]-2-[5-methyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]ethanone; nematocides such as fluopyram, spirotetramat, thiodicarb, fosthiazate, abamectin, iprodione, fluensulfone, dimethyl disulfide, tioxazafen, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), metam (sodium and potassium), dazomet, chloropicrin, fenamiphos, ethoprophos, cadusaphos, terbufos, imicyafos, oxamyl, carbofuran, tioxazafen, Bacillus firmus and Pasteuria nishizawae; bactericides such as streptomycin; acaricides such as amitraz, chinomethionat, chlorobenzilate, cyhexatin, dicofol, dienochlor, etoxazole, fenazaquin, fenbutatin oxide, fenpropathrin, fenpyroximate, hexythiazox, propargite, pyridaben and tebufenpyrad.

In certain instances, combinations of a compound of this invention with other biologically active (particularly invertebrate pest control) compounds or agents (i.e. active ingredients) can result in an enhanced effect. Reducing the quantity of active ingredients released in the environment while ensuring effective pest control is always desirable. When enhanced invertebrate pest control occurs at application rates giving agronomically satisfactory levels of invertebrate pest control, such combinations can be advantageous for reducing crop production cost and decreasing environmental load.

Compounds of this invention and compositions thereof can be applied to plants genetically transformed to express proteins toxic to invertebrate pests (such as Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins). Such an application may provide a broader spectrum of plant protection and be advantageous for resistance management. The exogenously applied invertebrate pest control compounds of this invention in combination with the expressed toxin proteins may provide an enhanced effect.

General references for these agricultural protectants (i.e. insecticides, fungicides, nematocides, acaricides, herbicides and biological agents) include The Pesticide Manual, 13th Edition, C. D. S. Tomlin, Ed., British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, Surrey, U. K., 2003 and The BioPesticide Manual, 2nd Edition, L. G. Copping, Ed., British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, Surrey, U. K., 2001.

Invertebrate pests are controlled in agronomic and nonagronomic applications by applying one or more compounds of this invention, typically in the form of a composition, in a biologically effective amount, to the environment of the pests, including the agronomic and/or nonagronomic locus of infestation, to the area to be protected, or directly on the pests to be controlled.

Thus the present invention comprises a method for controlling an invertebrate pest in agronomic and/or nonagronomic applications, comprising contacting the invertebrate pest or its environment with a biologically effective amount of one or more of the compounds of the invention, or with a composition comprising at least one such compound or a composition comprising at least one such compound and a biologically effective amount of at least one additional biologically active compound or agent. Examples of suitable compositions comprising a compound of the invention and a biologically effective amount of at least one additional biologically active compound or agent include granular compositions wherein the additional active compound is present on the same granule as the compound of the invention or on granules separate from those of the compound of the invention.

To achieve contact with a compound or composition of the invention to protect a field crop from invertebrate pests, the compound or composition is typically applied to the seed of the crop before planting, to the foliage (e.g., leaves, stems, flowers, fruits) of crop plants, or to the soil or other growth medium before or after the crop is planted.

One embodiment of a method of contact is by spraying. Alternatively, a granular composition comprising a compound of the invention can be applied to the plant foliage or the soil. Compounds of this invention can also be effectively delivered through plant uptake by contacting the plant with a composition comprising a compound of this invention applied as a soil drench of a liquid formulation, a granular formulation to the soil, a nursery box treatment or a dip of transplants. Of note is a composition of the present invention in the form of a soil drench liquid formulation. Also of note is a method for controlling an invertebrate pest comprising contacting the invertebrate pest or its environment with a biologically effective amount of a compound of the present invention or with a composition comprising a biologically effective amount of a compound of the present invention. Of further note is this method wherein the environment is soil and the composition is applied to the soil as a soil drench formulation. Of further note is that compounds of this invention are also effective by localized application to the locus of infestation. Other methods of contact include application of a compound or a composition of the invention by direct and residual sprays, aerial sprays, gels, seed coatings, microencapsulations, systemic uptake, baits, ear tags, boluses, foggers, fumigants, aerosols, dusts and many others. One embodiment of a method of contact is a dimensionally stable fertilizer granule, stick or tablet comprising a compound or composition of the invention. The compounds of this invention can also be impregnated into materials for fabricating invertebrate control devices (e.g., insect netting).

Compounds of the invention are useful in treating all plants, plant parts and seeds. Plant and seed varieties and cultivars can be obtained by conventional propagation and breeding methods or by genetic engineering methods. Genetically modified plants or seeds (transgenic plants or seeds) are those in which a heterologous gene (transgene) has been stably integrated into the plant's or seed's genome. A transgene that is defined by its particular location in the plant genome is called a transformation or transgenic event.

Genetically modified plant and seed cultivars which can be treated according to the invention include those that are resistant against one or more biotic stresses (pests such as nematodes, insects, mites, fungi, etc.) or abiotic stresses (drought, cold temperature, soil salinity, etc.), or that contain other desirable characteristics. Plants and seeds can be genetically modified to exhibit traits of, for example, herbicide tolerance, insect-resistance, modified oil profiles or drought tolerance.

Treatment of genetically modified plants and seeds with compounds of the invention may result in super-additive or enhanced effects. For example, reduction in application rates, broadening of the activity spectrum, increased tolerance to biotic/abiotic stresses or enhanced storage stability may be greater than expected from just simple additive effects of the application of compounds of the invention on genetically modified plants and seeds.

Compounds of this invention are also useful in seed treatments for protecting seeds from invertebrate pests. In the context of the present disclosure and claims, treating a seed means contacting the seed with a biologically effective amount of a compound of this invention, which is typically formulated as a composition of the invention. This seed treatment protects the seed from invertebrate soil pests and generally can also protect roots and other plant parts in contact with the soil of the seedling developing from the germinating seed. The seed treatment may also provide protection of foliage by translocation of the compound of this invention or a second active ingredient within the developing plant. Seed treatments can be applied to all types of seeds, including those from which plants genetically transformed to express specialized traits will germinate. Representative examples include those expressing proteins toxic to invertebrate pests, such as Bacillus thuringiensis toxin or those expressing herbicide resistance such as glyphosate acetyltransferase, which provides resistance to glyphosate. Seed treatments with compounds of this invention can also increase vigor of plants growing from the seed.

One method of seed treatment is by spraying or dusting the seed with a compound of the invention (i.e. as a formulated composition) before sowing the seeds. Compositions formulated for seed treatment generally comprise a film former or adhesive agent. Therefore typically a seed coating composition of the present invention comprises a biologically effective amount of a compound of Formula 1, and a film former or adhesive agent. Seed can be coated by spraying a flowable suspension concentrate directly into a tumbling bed of seeds and then drying the seeds. Alternatively, other formulation types such as wetted powders, solutions, suspoemulsions, emulsifiable concentrates and emulsions in water can be sprayed on the seed. This process is particularly useful for applying film coatings on seeds. Various coating machines and processes are available to one skilled in the art. Suitable processes include those listed in P. Kosters et al., Seed Treatment: Progress and Prospects, 1994 BCPC Mongraph No. 57, and references listed therein.

Compounds of Formula 1 and their compositions, both alone and in combination with other insecticides, nematicides, and fungicides, are particularly useful in seed treatment for crops including, but not limited to, maize or corn, soybeans, cotton, cereal (e.g., wheat, oats, barley, rye and rice), potatoes, vegetables and oilseed rape.

Other insecticides with which compounds of Formula 1 can be formulated to provide mixtures useful in seed treatment include abamectin, acetamiprid, acrinathrin, amitraz, avermectin, azadirachtin, bensultap, bifenthrin, buprofezin, cadusafos, carbaryl, carbofuran, cartap, chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, clothianidin, cyantraniliprole, cyfluthrin, beta-cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyromazine, deltamethrin, dieldrin, dinotefuran, diofenolan, emamectin, endosulfan, esfenvalerate, ethiprole, etofenprox, etoxazole, fenothiocarb, fenoxycarb, fenvalerate, fipronil, flonicamid, flubendiamide, flufenoxuron, fluvalinate, formetanate, fosthiazate, hexaflumuron, hydramethylnon, imidacloprid, indoxacarb, lufenuron, metaflumizone, methiocarb, methomyl, methoprene, methoxyfenozide, nitenpyram, nithiazine, novaluron, oxamyl, pymetrozine, pyrethrin, pyridaben, pyridalyl, pyriproxyfen, ryanodine, spinetoram, spinosad, spirodiclofen, spiromesifen, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor, tebufenozide, tetramethrin, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiodicarb, thiosultap-sodium, tralomethrin, triazamate, triflumuron, Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins, all strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and all strains of nucleo polyhedrosis viruses.

Fungicides with which compounds of Formula 1 can be formulated to provide mixtures useful in seed treatment include amisulbrom, azoxystrobin, boscalid, carbendazim, carboxin, cymoxanil, cyproconazole, difenoconazole, dimethomorph, fluazinam, fludioxonil, fluquinconazole, fluopicolide, fluoxastrobin, flutriafol, fluxapyroxad, ipconazole, iprodione, metalaxyl, mefenoxam, metconazole, myclobutanil, paclobutrazole, penflufen, picoxystrobin, prothioconazole, pyraclostrobin, sedaxane, silthiofam, tebuconazole, thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl, thiram, trifloxystrobin and triticonazole.

Compositions comprising compounds of Formula 1 useful for seed treatment can further comprise bacteria and fungi that have the ability to provide protection from the harmful effects of plant pathogenic fungi or bacteria and/or soil born animals such as nematodes. Bacteria exhibiting nematicidal properties may include but are not limited to Bacillus firmus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillius subtiliis and Pasteuria penetrans. A suitable Bacillus firmus strain is strain CNCM 1-1582 (GB-126) which is commercially available as BioNem™. A suitable Bacillus cereus strain is strain NCMM 1-1592. Both Bacillus strains are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,406,690.

Other suitable bacteria exhibiting nematicidal activity are B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a and B. subtilis strain GB03. Bacteria exhibiting fungicidal properties may include but are not limited to B. pumilus strain GB34. Fungal species exhibiting nematicidal properties may include but are not limited to Myrothecium verrucaria, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Purpureocillium lilacinum.

Seed treatments can also include one or more nematicidal agents of natural origin such as the elicitor protein called harpin which is isolated from certain bacterial plant pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora. An example is the Harpin-N-Tek seed treatment technology available as N-Hibit™ Gold CST.

Seed treatments can also include one or more species of legume-root nodulating bacteria such as the microsymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria Bradyrhizobium japonicum. These inocculants can optionally include one or more lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs), which are nodulation (Nod) factors produced by rhizobia bacteria during the initiation of nodule formation on the roots of legumes. For example, the Optimize® brand seed treatment technology incorporates LCO Promoter Technology™ in combination with an inocculant.

Seed treatments can also include one or more isoflavones which can increase the level of root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi improve plant growth by enhancing the root uptake of nutrients such as water, sulfates, nitrates, phosphates and metals. Examples of isoflavones include, but are not limited to, genistein, biochanin A, formononetin, daidzein, glycitein, hesperetin, naringenin and pratensein. Formononetin is available as an active ingredient in mycorrhizal inocculant products such as PHC Colonize® AG.

Seed treatments can also include one or more plant activators that induce systemic acquired resistance in plants following contact by a pathogen. An example of a plant activator which induces such protective mechanisms is acibenzolar-S-methyl.

The treated seed typically comprises a compound of the present invention in an amount from about 0.1 g to 1 kg per 100 kg of seed (i.e. from about 0.0001 to 1% by weight of the seed before treatment). A flowable suspension formulated for seed treatment typically comprises from about 0.5 to about 70% of the active ingredient, from about 0.5 to about 30% of a film-forming adhesive, from about 0.5 to about 20% of a dispersing agent, from 0 to about 5% of a thickener, from 0 to about 5% of a pigment and/or dye, from 0 to about 2% of an antifoaming agent, from 0 to about 1% of a preservative, and from 0 to about 75% of a volatile liquid diluent.

The compounds of this invention can be incorporated into a bait composition that is consumed by an invertebrate pest or used within a device such as a trap, bait station, and the like. Such a bait composition can be in the form of granules which comprise (a) active ingredients, namely a biologically effective amount of a compound of Formula 1; (b) one or more food materials; optionally (c) an attractant, and optionally (d) one or more humectants. Of note are granules or bait compositions which comprise between about 0.001-5% active ingredients, about 40-99% food material and/or attractant; and optionally about 0.05-10% humectants, which are effective in controlling soil invertebrate pests at very low application rates, particularly at doses of active ingredient that are lethal by ingestion rather than by direct contact. Some food materials can function both as a food source and an attractant. Food materials include carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Examples of food materials are vegetable flour, sugar, starches, animal fat, vegetable oil, yeast extracts and milk solids. Examples of attractants are odorants and flavorants, such as fruit or plant extracts, perfume, or other animal or plant component, pheromones or other agents known to attract a target invertebrate pest. Examples of humectants, i.e. moisture retaining agents, are glycols and other polyols, glycerine and sorbitol. Of note is a bait composition (and a method utilizing such a bait composition) used to control at least one invertebrate pest selected from the group consisting of ants, termites and cockroaches. A device for controlling an invertebrate pest can comprise the present bait composition and a housing adapted to receive the bait composition, wherein the housing has at least one opening sized to permit the invertebrate pest to pass through the opening so the invertebrate pest can gain access to the bait composition from a location outside the housing, and wherein the housing is further adapted to be placed in or near a locus of potential or known activity for the invertebrate pest.

One embodiment of the present invention relates to a method for controlling invertebrate pests, comprising diluting the pesticidal composition of the present invention (a compound of Formula 1 formulated with surfactants, solid diluents and liquid diluents or a formulated mixture of a compound of Formula 1 and at least one other pesticide) with water, and optionally adding an adjuvant to form a diluted composition, and contacting the invertebrate pest or its environment with an effective amount of said diluted composition.

Although a spray composition formed by diluting with water a sufficient concentration of the present pesticidal composition can provide sufficient efficacy for controlling invertebrate pests, separately formulated adjuvant products can also be added to spray tank mixtures. These additional adjuvants are commonly known as “spray adjuvants” or “tank-mix adjuvants”, and include any substance mixed in a spray tank to improve the performance of a pesticide or alter the physical properties of the spray mixture. Adjuvants can be surfactants, emulsifying agents, petroleum-based crop oils, crop-derived seed oils, acidifiers, buffers, thickeners or defoaming agents. Adjuvants are used to enhancing efficacy (e.g., biological availability, adhesion, penetration, uniformity of coverage and durability of protection), or minimizing or eliminating spray application problems associated with incompatibility, foaming, drift, evaporation, volatilization and degradation. To obtain optimal performance, adjuvants are selected with regard to the properties of the active ingredient, formulation and target (e.g., crops, insect pests).

Among the spray adjuvants, oils including crop oils, crop oil concentrates, vegetable oil concentrates and methylated seed oil concentrates are most commonly used to improve the efficacy of pesticides, possibly by means of promoting more even and uniform spray deposits. In situations where phytotoxicity potentially caused by oils or other water-immiscible liquids are of concern, spray compositions prepared from the composition of the present invention will generally not contain oil-based spray adjuvants. However, in situations where phytotoxicity caused by oil-based spray adjuvants is commercially insignificant, spray compositions prepared from the composition of the present composition can also contain oil-based spray adjuvants, which can potentially further increase control of invertebrate pests, as well as rainfastness.

Products identified as “crop oil” typically contain 95 to 98% paraffin or naphtha-based petroleum oil and 1 to 2% of one or more surfactants functioning as emulsifiers. Products identified as “crop oil concentrates” typically consist of 80 to 85% of emulsifiable petroleum-based oil and 15 to 20% of nonionic surfactants. Products correctly identified as “vegetable oil concentrates” typically consist of 80 to 85% of vegetable oil (i.e. seed or fruit oil, most commonly from cotton, linseed, soybean or sunflower) and 15 to 20% of nonionic surfactants. Adjuvant performance can be improved by replacing the vegetable oil with methyl esters of fatty acids that are typically derived from vegetable oils. Examples of methylated seed oil concentrates include MSO® Concentrate (UAP-Loveland Products, Inc.) and Premium MSO Methylated Spray Oil (Helena Chemical Company).

The amount of adjuvants added to spray mixtures generally does not exceed about 2.5% by volume, and more typically the amount is from about 0.1 to about 1% by volume. The application rates of adjuvants added to spray mixtures are typically between about 1 to 5 L per hectare. Representative examples of spray adjuvants include: Adigor® (Syngenta) 47% methylated rapeseed oil in liquid hydrocarbons, Silwet® (Helena Chemical Company) polyalkyleneoxide modified heptamethyltrisiloxane and Assist® (BASF) 17% surfactant blend in 83% paraffin based mineral oil.

The compounds of this invention can be applied without other adjuvants, but most often application will be of a formulation comprising one or more active ingredients with suitable carriers, diluents, and surfactants and possibly in combination with a food depending on the contemplated end use. One method of application involves spraying a water dispersion or refined oil solution of a compound of the present invention. Combinations with spray oils, spray oil concentrations, spreader stickers, adjuvants, other solvents, and piperonyl butoxide often enhance compound efficacy. For nonagronomic uses such sprays can be applied from spray containers such as a can, a bottle or other container, either by means of a pump or by releasing it from a pressurized container, e.g., a pressurized aerosol spray can. Such spray compositions can take various forms, for example, sprays, mists, foams, fumes or fog. Such spray compositions thus can further comprise propellants, foaming agents, etc. as the case may be. Of note is a spray composition comprising a biologically effective amount of a compound or a composition of the present invention and a carrier. One embodiment of such a spray composition comprises a biologically effective amount of a compound or a composition of the present invention and a propellant. Representative propellants include, but are not limited to, methane, ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, butene, pentane, isopentane, neopentane, pentene, hydrofluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, dimethyl ether, and mixtures of the foregoing. Of note is a spray composition (and a method utilizing such a spray composition dispensed from a spray container) used to control at least one invertebrate pest selected from the group consisting of mosquitoes, black flies, stable flies, deer flies, horse flies, wasps, yellow jackets, hornets, ticks, spiders, ants, gnats, and the like, including individually or in combinations.

The following Tests demonstrate the control efficacy of compounds of this invention on specific pests. “Control efficacy” represents inhibition of invertebrate pest development (including mortality) that causes significantly reduced feeding. The pest control protection afforded by the compounds is not limited, however, to these species. See Index Tables A-G for compound descriptions.

BIOLOGICAL EXAMPLES OF THE INVENTION Formulation and Spray Methodology for Tests A-H

Test compounds were formulated using a solution containing 10% acetone, 90% water and 300 ppm Activator 90® non-ionic surfactant (Loveland Products, Loveland, Colo., USA). The formulated compounds were applied in 1 mL of liquid through an atomizer nozzle positioned 1.27 cm (0.5 inches) above the top of each test unit. Test compounds were sprayed at the rates indicated, and each test was replicated three times.

Test A

For evaluating control of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) the test unit consisted of a small open container with a 12-14-day-old mustard plant inside. This was pre-infested with ˜50 neonate larvae that were dispensed into the test unit via corn cob grits using an inoculator. The larvae moved onto the test plant after being dispensed into the test unit.

Test compounds were formulated and sprayed at 250, 50, 10 and 2 ppm. After spraying of the formulated test compound, each test unit was allowed to dry for 1 hour and then a black, screened cap was placed on top. The test units were held for 6 days in a growth chamber at 25° C. and 70% relative humidity. Plant feeding damage was then visually assessed based on foliage consumed, and larvae were assessed for mortality.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 250 ppm, the following provided very good to excellent levels of control efficacy (40% or less feeding damage and/or 100% mortality): 1, 2, 10, 34, 35, 39 and 40.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 50 ppm, the following provided very good to excellent levels of control efficacy (40% or less feeding damage and/or 100% mortality): 1, 2, 10, 34, 35, 39 and 40.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 10 ppm, the following provided very good to excellent levels of control efficacy (40% or less feeding damage and/or 100% mortality): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78 and 79.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 2 ppm, the following provided very good to excellent levels of control efficacy (40% or less feeding damage and/or 100% mortality): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78 and 79.

Test B For evaluating control of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)) the test unit consisted of a small open container with a 4-5-day-old corn (maize) plant inside. This was pre-infested with 10-15 1-day-old larvae on a piece of insect diet.

Test compounds were formulated and sprayed at 250, 50, 10 and 2 ppm. After spraying of the formulated test compound, the test units were maintained in a growth chamber for 6 days at 25° C. and 70% relative humidity. Plant feeding damage was then visually assessed based on foliage consumed, and larvae were assessed for mortality.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 250 ppm, the following provided very good to excellent levels of control efficacy (40% or less feeding damage and/or 100% mortality): 1, 2, 10, 34, 35, 39 and 40.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 50 ppm, the following provided very good to excellent levels of control efficacy (40% or less feeding damage and/or 100% mortality): 1, 2, 10, 34, 35, 39 and 40.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 10 ppm, the following provided very good to excellent levels of control efficacy (40% or less feeding damage and/or 100% mortality): 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 39, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78 or 79.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 2 ppm, the following provided very good to excellent levels of control efficacy (40% or less feeding damage and/or 100% mortality): 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 33, 34, 39, 43, 46, 49, 50, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 70, 71, 74, 76, 78 or 79.

Test C

For evaluating control of corn planthopper (Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead)) through contact and/or systemic means, the test unit consisted of a small open container with a 3-4-day-old corn (maize) plant inside. White sand was added to the top of the soil prior to application of the test compound.

Test compounds were formulated and sprayed at 50 ppm. After spraying of the formulated test compound, the test units were allowed to dry for 1 h before they were post-infested with ˜15-20 nymphs (18-to-21-day-old). A black, screened cap was placed on the top of each test unit, and the test units were held for 6 days in a growth chamber at 22-24° C. and 50-70% relative humidity. Each test unit was then visually assessed for insect mortality.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 50 ppm, the following resulted in at least 80% mortality: 11, 44, 46, 60, 61 and 63.

Test D

For evaluating control of potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae (Harris)) through contact and/or systemic means, the test unit consisted of a small open container with a 5-6-day-old Soleil bean plant (primary leaves emerged) inside. White sand was added to the top of the soil, and one of the primary leaves was excised prior to application of the test compound.

Test compounds were formulated and sprayed at 250, 50, 10 and 2 ppm. After spraying of the formulated test compound, the test units were allowed to dry for 1 hour before they were post-infested with 5 potato leafhoppers (18-to-21-day-old adults). A black, screened cap was placed on the top of the test unit, and the test units were held for 6 days in a growth chamber at 20° C. and 70% relative humidity. Each test unit was then visually assessed for insect mortality.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 250 ppm, the following resulted in at least 80% mortality: 1, 2, 10, 34, 35, 39 and 40.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 50 ppm, the following resulted in at least 80% mortality: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 27, 31, 33, 34, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 78 or 79.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 10 ppm, the following resulted in at least 80% mortality: 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 27, 33, 41, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 78, 79.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 2 ppm, the following resulted in at least 80% mortality: 15, 16, 18, 20, 33, 61 and 63.

Test E

For evaluating control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae (Sulzer)) through contact and/or systemic means, the test unit consisted of a small open container with a 12-15-day-old radish plant inside. This was pre-infested by placing on a leaf of the test plant 30-40 aphids on a piece of leaf excised from a culture plant (cut-leaf method). The aphids moved onto the test plant as the leaf piece desiccated. After pre-infestation, the soil of the test unit was covered with a layer of sand.

Test compounds were formulated and sprayed at 250, 50 and 10 ppm. After spraying of the formulated test compound, each test unit was allowed to dry for 1 hour and then a black, screened cap was placed on top. The test units were held for 6 days in a growth chamber at 19-21° C. and 50-70% relative humidity. Each test unit was then visually assessed for insect mortality.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 250 ppm, the following resulted in at least 80% mortality: 2, 10, 34 and 35.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 50 ppm, the following resulted in at least 80% mortality: 3, 4, 8, 11, 18, 19, 20, 33, 34, 35, 41, 44, 50, 58, 60, 61, 63 and 70.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 10 ppm, the following resulted in at least 80% mortality: 61 and 63.

Test F

For evaluating control of cotton melon aphid (Aphis gossypii (Glover)) through contact and/or systemic means, the test unit consisted of a small open container with a 5-day-old okra plant inside. This was pre-infested with 30-40 insects on a piece of leaf according to the cut-leaf method, and the soil of the test unit was covered with a layer of sand.

Test compounds were formulated and sprayed at 250, 50 and 10 ppm. After spraying, the test units were maintained in a growth chamber for 6 days at 19° C. and 70% relative humidity. Each test unit was then visually assessed for insect mortality.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 250 ppm, the following resulted in at least 80% mortality: 1, 2, 10, 34, 35 and 39.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 50 ppm, the following resulted in at least 80% mortality: 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22, 33, 34, 35, 41, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63 and 70.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 10 ppm, the following resulted in at least 80% mortality: 19, 20, 33, 41, 44, 59, 60, 61, 63 and 70.

Test G

For evaluating control of the sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)) through contact and/or systemic means, the test unit consisted of a small open container with a 12-14-day-old cotton plant inside. Prior to the spray application, both cotyledons were removed from the plant, leaving one true leaf for the assay. Adult whiteflies were allowed to lay eggs on the plant and then were removed from the test unit. Cotton plants infested with at least 15 eggs were submitted to the test for spraying.

Test compounds were formulated and sprayed at 250, 50, and 10 ppm. After spraying, the test units were allowed to dry for 1 hour. The cylinders were then removed, and the units were taken to a growth chamber and held for 13 days at 28° C. and 50-70% relative humidity. Each test unit was then visually assessed for insect mortality.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 250 ppm, the following resulted in at least 70% mortality: 2, 34 and 40.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 50 ppm, the following resulted in at least 70% mortality: 3, 8, 11, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 33, 34, 41, 42, 44, 46, 49, 55, 58, 60, 61, 63 and 70.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 10 ppm, the following resulted in at least 70% mortality: 8, 11, 18, 19, 20, 33, 34, 42, 49, 61 and 63.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 2 ppm, the following resulted in at least 70% mortality: 18, 20, 33 and 63.

Test H

For evaluating control of the Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniellla occidentalis (Pergande)) through contact and/or systemic means, the test unit consisted of a small open container with a 5-7-day-old Soleil bean plant inside.

Test compounds were formulated and sprayed at 250, 50, 10 and 2 ppm. After spraying, the test units were allowed to dry for 1 hour, and then ˜60 thrips (adults and nymphs) were added to each unit. A black, screened cap was placed on top, and the test units were held for 6 days at 25° C. and 45-55% relative humidity. Each test unit was then visually assessed for plant damage and insect mortality.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 250 ppm, the following provided very good to excellent levels of control efficacy (30% or less plant damage and/or 100% mortality): 1, 2, 10, 34, 35, 39 and 40.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 50 ppm, the following provided very good to excellent levels of control efficacy (30% or less plant damage and/or 100% mortality): 1, 10, 34, 35, 39 and 40.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 10 ppm, the following provided very good to excellent levels of control efficacy (30% or less plant damage and/or 100% mortality): 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 33, 34, 39, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78 and 79.

Of the compounds of Formula 1 tested at 2 ppm, the following provided very good to excellent levels of control efficacy (30% or less plant damage and/or 100% mortality): 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 19, 20, 22, 26, 27, 33, 34, 39, 43, 44, 46, 47, 50, 59, 60, 61, 63, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78 and 79.

Claims

1. A compound selected from Formula 1, wherein

J is C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano; —CH2(cyclopropyl) substituted with one cyano; or cyclopropyl, unsubstituted or substituted with one cyano or one C(O)NHR17; or
J is
R1a is Cl or CF3;
R1b is H or Cl;
R2 is C1-C4 alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with substituents independently selected from cyano, nitro, OR9, S(O)nR10, CO2R11 and C(O)NR12R13;
R3 is H; or C1-C4 alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with substituents independently selected from cyano, nitro, OR9, S(O)nR10, CO2R11 and C(O)NR12R13;
R4 is H, C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 haloalkyl;
R5 is H or C1-C4 alkyl;
R6 is H or C1-C4 alkyl;
R7 is H, C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 haloalkyl;
X is —O— or —C(O)—;
R8 is H, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl or C3-C6 cycloalkyl;
each R9, R10, R11, R12 and R13 is independently H or C1-C4 alkyl;
R14 is H; or C1-C4 alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with substituents independently selected from cyano, nitro, OR9, S(O)nR10, CO2R11 and C(O)NR12R13;
R15 is H, C1-C4 alkyl or C1-C4 haloalkyl;
R16 is fluoro, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 haloalkoxy, amino or C1-C6 alkylamino;
R17 is H, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl or C3-C6 cycloalkyl;
Q is pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, 1,2,4-triazinyl, 1,3,5-triazinyl, furanyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, 1,2,3-triazolyl, 1,2,4-triazolyl, tetrazolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, 1,2,3-oxadiazolyl, 1,2,4-oxadiazolyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazolyl, 1,2,3-thiadiazolyl, 1,2,4-thiadiazolyl or 1,3,4-thiadiazolyl, each unsubstituted or substituted with substituents independently selected from cyano, nitro, halogen, C1-C4 alkyl, C1-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 alkoxy, C1-C4 haloalkoxy, C1-C4 alkylthio, C1-C4 haloalkylthio, C1-C4 alkylsulfinyl, C1-C4 haloalkylsulfinyl, C1-C4 alkylsulfonyl, C1-C4 haloalkylsulfonyl, C2—O5 alkoxycarbonyl, C2—O5 alkylaminocarbonyl and C3-C5 dialkylaminocarbonyl; and
each n is independently 0, 1 or 2.

2. The compound of claim 1 wherein

J is C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano; —CH2(cyclopropyl) substituted with one cyano; or cyclopropyl, unsubstituted or substituted with one cyano or one C(O)NHR17; or J-1, J-2 or J-5.

3. The compound of claim 2 wherein

R1a is Cl and R1b is Cl; or
R1a is CF3 and R1b is H.

4. The compound of claim 3 wherein

J is C2-C4 alkyl substituted with one cyano; or cyclopropyl.

5. The compound of claim 3 wherein J is J-1.

6. The compound of claim 5 wherein

R2 is methyl;
R3 is H or methyl; and
R4 is H or methyl.

7. The compound of claim 3 wherein J is J-2.

8. The compound of claim 7 wherein

R5 is H or methyl; and
Q is pyridinyl or pyrimidinyl.

9. The compound of claim 8 wherein J-2 is

10. The compound of claim 3 wherein J is J-5.

11. The compound of claim 10 wherein

R14 is H or methyl; and
R15 is C1-C4 alkyl.

12. The compound of claim 11 wherein J-5 is

13. A composition comprising a compound of claim 1 and at least one additional component selected from the group consisting of surfactants, solid diluents and liquid diluents, said composition optionally further comprising at least one additional biologically active compound or agent.

14. The composition of claim 13 wherein the at least one additional biologically active compound or agent is selected from the group consisting of abamectin, acephate, acequinocyl, acetamiprid, acrinathrin, afidopyropen, amidoflumet, amitraz, avermectin, azadirachtin, azinphos-methyl, benfuracarb, bensultap, bifenthrin, bifenazate, bistrifluron, borate, buprofezin, carbaryl, carbofuran, cartap, carzol, chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, chlorfluazuron, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, chromafenozide, clofentezin, clothianidin, cyantraniliprole, cyclaniliprole, cycloprothrin, cycloxaprid, cyflumetofen, cyfluthrin, beta-cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyromazine, deltamethrin, diafenthiuron, diazinon, dieldrin, diflubenzuron, dimefluthrin, dimehypo, dimethoate, dinotefuran, diofenolan, emamectin, endosulfan, esfenvalerate, ethiprole, etofenprox, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide, fenitrothion, fenothiocarb, fenoxycarb, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, fipronil, flometoquin, flonicamid, flubendiamide, flucythrinate, flufenerim, flufenoxuron, flufenoxystrobin, flufensulfone, fluorpyram, flupiprole, flupyradifurone, fluvalinate, tau-fluvalinate, fonophos, formetanate, fosthiazate, halofenozide, heptafluthrin, hexaflumuron, hexythiazox, hydramethylnon, imidacloprid, indoxacarb, insecticidal soaps, isofenphos, lufenuron, malathion, meperfluthrin, metaflumizone, metaldehyde, methamidophos, methidathion, methiodicarb, methomyl, methoprene, methoxychlor, metofluthrin, monocrotophos, monofluthrin, methoxyfenozide, nitenpyram, nithiazine, novaluron, noviflumuron, oxamyl, parathion, parathion-methyl, permethrin, phorate, phosalone, phosmet, phosphamidon, pirimicarb, profenofos, profluthrin, propargite, protrifenbute, pyflubumide, pymetrozine, pyrafluprole, pyrethrin, pyridaben, pyridalyl, pyrifluquinazon, pyriminostrobin, pyriprole, pyriproxyfen, rotenone, ryanodine, silafluofen, spinetoram, spinosad, spirodiclofen, spiromesifen, spirotetramat, sulprofos, sulfoxaflor, tebufenozide, tebufenpyrad, teflubenzuron, tefluthrin, terbufos, tetrachlorvinphos, tetramethrin, tetramethylfluthrin, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiodicarb, thiosultap-sodium, tolfenpyrad, tralomethrin, triazamate, trichlorfon, triflumuron, all strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, entomopathogenic bacteria, all strains of Nucleo polyhedrosis viruses, entomopathogenic viruses and entomopathogenic fungi.

15. The composition of claim 14 wherein the at least one additional biologically active compound or agent is selected from the group consisting of abamectin, acetamiprid, acrinathrin, afidopyropen, amitraz, avermectin, azadirachtin, benfuracarb, bensultap, bifenthrin, 3-bromo-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-N-[4-cyano-2-methyl-6-[(methylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide, buprofezin, carbaryl, cartap, chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, clothianidin, cyantraniliprole, cyclaniliprole, cycloprothrin, cyfluthrin, beta-cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyromazine, deltamethrin, dieldrin, dinotefuran, diofenolan, emamectin, endosulfan, esfenvalerate, ethiprole, etofenprox, etoxazole, fenitrothion, fenothiocarb, fenoxycarb, fenvalerate, fipronil, flometoquin, flonicamid, flubendiamide, flufenoxuron, flufenoxystrobin, flufensulfone, flupiprole, flupyradifurone, fluvalinate, formetanate, fosthiazate, heptafluthrin, hexaflumuron, hydramethylnon, imidacloprid, indoxacarb, lufenuron, meperfluthirn, metaflumizone, methiodicarb, methomyl, methoprene, methoxyfenozide, metofluthrin, monofluthrin, nitenpyram, nithiazine, novaluron, oxamyl, pyflubumide, pymetrozine, pyrethrin, pyridaben, pyridalyl, pyriminostrobin, pyriproxyfen, ryanodine, spinetoram, spinosad, spirodiclofen, spiromesifen, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor, tebufenozide, tetramethrin, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, thiodicarb, thiosultap-sodium, tralomethrin, tetramethylfluthrin, triazamate, triflumuron, all strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and all strains of Nucleo polyhedrosis viruses.

16. A method for controlling an invertebrate pest comprising contacting the invertebrate pest or its environment with a biologically effective amount of a compound of claim 1.

17. A treated seed comprising a compound of claim 1 in an amount of from about 0.0001 to 1% by weight of the seed before treatment.

Patent History
Publication number: 20210045388
Type: Application
Filed: Feb 1, 2019
Publication Date: Feb 18, 2021
Inventors: Ming XU (Newark, DE), George Philip LAHM (Wilmington, DE), Jeffrey Keith LONG (Wilmington, DE)
Application Number: 16/968,913
Classifications
International Classification: A01N 43/80 (20060101); C07D 413/12 (20060101); C07D 261/04 (20060101);