TUMOR CELL VACCINES

The present disclosure provides an allogeneic whole cell cancer vaccine platform that includes compositions and methods for treating and preventing cancer. Provided herein are compositions containing a therapeutically effective amount of cells from one or more cancer cell lines, some or all of which are modified to (i) inhibit or reduce expression of one or more immunosuppressive factors by the cells, and/or (ii) express or increase expression of one or more immunostimulatory factors by the cells, and/or (iii) express or increase expression of one or more tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including TAAs that have been mutated, and which comprise cancer cell lines that natively express a heterogeneity of tumor associated antigens and/or neoantigens. Also provided herein are methods of making the vaccine compositions, methods of preparing, and methods of use thereof.

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Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 17/109,757 filed Dec. 2, 2020, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/943,055 filed Dec. 3, 2019. The entire contents of these applications are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF MATERIAL SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY

The Sequence Listing, which is a part of the present disclosure, is submitted concurrently with the specification as a text file. The name of the text file containing the Sequence Listing is “54907B_Seglisting.txt”, which was created on Mar. 25, 2021 and is 343,845 bytes in size. The subject matter of the Sequence Listing is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference.

BACKGROUND

Cancer is a leading cause of death. Recent breakthroughs in immunotherapy approaches, including checkpoint inhibitors, have significantly advanced the treatment of cancer, but these approaches are neither customizable nor broadly applicable across indications or to all patients within an indication. Furthermore, only a subset of patients are eligible for and respond to these immunotherapy approaches. Therapeutic cancer vaccines have the potential to generate anti-tumor immune responses capable of eliciting clinical responses in cancer patients, but many of these therapies have a single target or are otherwise limited in scope of immunomodulatory targets and/or breadth of antigen specificity. The development of a therapeutic vaccine customized for an indication that targets the heterogeneity of the cells within an individual tumor remains a challenge.

A vast majority of therapeutic cancer vaccine platforms are inherently limited in the number of antigens that can be targeted in a single formulation. The lack of breadth in these vaccines adversely impacts efficacy and can lead to clinical relapse through a phenomenon called antigen escape, with the appearance of antigen-negative tumor cells. While these approaches may somewhat reduce tumor burden, they do not eliminate antigen-negative tumor cells or cancer stem cells. Harnessing a patient's own immune system to target a wide breadth of antigens could reduce tumor burden as well as prevent recurrence through the antigenic heterogeneity of the immune response. Thus, a need exists for improved whole cell cancer vaccines. Provided herein are methods and compositions that address this need.

SUMMARY

In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides an allogeneic whole cell cancer vaccine platform that includes compositions and methods for treating and preventing cancer. The present disclosure provides compositions and methods that are customizable for the treatment of various solid tumor indications and target the heterogeneity of the cells within an individual tumor. The compositions and methods of embodiments of the present disclosure are broadly applicable across solid tumor indications and to patients afflicted with such indications. In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides compositions of cancer cell lines that (i) are modified as described herein and (ii) express a sufficient number and amount of tumor associated antigens (TAAs) such that, when administered to a subject afflicted with a cancer, cancers, or cancerous tumor(s), a TAA-specific immune response is generated.

In one embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 1 cancer cell line, wherein the cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that express at least 5 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with a cancer of a subject intended to receive said composition, and wherein said composition is capable of eliciting an immune response specific to the at least 5 TAAs. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 1 cancer cell line, wherein the cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that express at least 10 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with a cancer of a subject intended to receive said composition, and wherein said composition is capable of eliciting an immune response specific to the at least 10 TAAs. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 1 cancer cell line, wherein the cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that express at least 15 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with a cancer of a subject intended to receive said composition, and wherein said composition is capable of eliciting an immune response specific to the at least 15 TAAs. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that express at least 5 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with a cancer of a subject intended to receive said composition, and wherein each cell line or the combination of the cell lines are modified to express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that express at least 15 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with a cancer of a subject intended to receive said composition, and wherein each cell line or the combination of the cell lines are modified to express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factor. In still another embodiment, provided herein is an aforementioned composition wherein said composition is capable of stimulating a 1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, or 25-fold or higher increase in IFNγ production compared to a composition comprising unmodified cancer cell lines.

In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that express at least 5 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with a cancer of a subject intended to receive said composition, and wherein each cell line or the combination of the cell lines are modified to inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that express at least 5 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with a cancer of a subject intended to receive said composition, and wherein each cell line or the combination of the cell lines are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor. In another embodiment, provided herein is an aforementioned composition wherein each cell line or the combination of the cell lines comprises cells that express 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30 TAAs associated with the cancer of the subject intended to receive said composition. In another embodiment, the composition comprises 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 cancer cell lines. In still another embodiment, each cell line or a combination of the cell lines are modified to express or increase expression of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 immunostimulatory factors. In yet another embodiment, each cell line or a combination of the cell lines are modified to inhibit or decrease expression of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 immunosuppressive factors.

In still another embodiment of the present disclosure, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and wherein at least 1 of the cell lines is modified to knockdown or knockout one or more of CD276, TGFβ1, and TGFβ2. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and wherein said at least 1 immunostimulatory factor increases dendritic cell maturation. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and wherein said composition is capable of stimulating a 1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, or 25-fold or higher increase in IFNγ production compared to a composition comprising unmodified cancer cell lines. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor, and wherein said composition is capable of stimulating at least a 1.5-fold increase in IFNγ production compared to a composition comprising unmodified cancer cell lines. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, and (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor, and wherein said composition is capable of stimulating at least a 1.5-fold increase in IFNγ production compared to a composition comprising unmodified cancer cell lines. In still another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 3 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, and (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor, and wherein said composition is capable of stimulating at least a 1.7-fold increase in IFNγ production compared to a composition comprising unmodified cancer cell lines. In yet another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 3 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, and (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 2 immunosuppressive factors, and wherein said composition is capable of stimulating at least a 2.0-fold increase in IFNγ production compared to a composition comprising unmodified cancer cell lines.

In one embodiment, provided herein is an immunogenic composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 1 cancer cell line, wherein the cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and (ii) increase expression of at least 1 tumor associated antigen (TAA) that is either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines. In another embodiment, provided herein is an immunogenic composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein the cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, and (ii) increase expression of at least 2 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) that are either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines. In another embodiment, provided herein is an immunogenic composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 3 cancer cell lines, wherein the cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, and (ii) increase expression of at least 2 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) that are either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines.

In another embodiment, provided herein is an aforemention immunogenic composition wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines are modified to (i) express or increase expression of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 immunostimulatory factors, and/or (iii) increase expression of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 TAAs that are either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines. In another embodiment, provided herein is an aforementioned immunogenic composition capable of stimulating at least a 1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, or 2-fold increase in IFNγ production compared to a composition comprising unmodified cancer cell lines.

In yet another embodiment, provided herein is an immunogenic composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 1 cancer cell line, wherein the cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor, and (iii) increase expression of at least 1 tumor associated antigen (TAA) that is either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines. In another embodiment, provided herein is an immunogenic composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 2 immunosuppressive factors, and (iii) increase expression of at least 2 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) that are either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines. In another embodiment, provided herein is an immunogenic composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 3 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 2 immunosuppressive factors, and (iii) increase expression of at least 1 tumor associated antigen (TAA) that is either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines. In another embodiment, provided herein is an immunogenic composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 3 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 2 immunosuppressive factors, and (iii) increase expression of at least 2 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) that are either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines.

In some embodiments, an aforementioned immunogenic composition is provided wherein the composition comprises 4, 5, or 6 cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to increase expression of at least 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 or more TAAs that are either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines. In another embodiment, n each cell line or a combination of the cell lines are modified to (i) express or increase expression of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 immunostimulatory factors, (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 immunosuppressive factors, and/or (iii) increase expression of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 TAAs that are either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines.

In still another embodiment of the present disclosure, provided herein is animmunogenic composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 3 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 2 immunosuppressive factors, and/or (iii) express or increase expression of one or more of CT83, MSLN, TERT, PSMA, MAGEA1, EGFRvIII, hCMV pp65, TBXT, BORIS, FSHR, MAGEA10, MAGEC2, WT1, FBP, TDGF1, Claudin 18, LYK6K, FAP, PRAME, HPV16/18 E6/E7, or mutated versions thereof. In some embodiments, the mutated versions comprise: (i) a modified version selected from the group consisting of modTERT, modPSMA, modMAGEA1, modTBXT, modBORIS, modFSHR, modMAGEA10, modMAGEC2, modWT1, modKRAS, modFBP, modTDGF1, modClaudin 18, modLY6K, modFAP, and modPRAME; or (ii) a fusion protein selected from the group consisting of modCT83-MSLN, modMAGEA1-EGFRvIII-pp65, modTBXT-modBORIS, modFSHR-modMAGEA10, modTBXT-modMAGEC2, modTBXT-modWT1, modTBXT-modWT1-KRAS, modWT1-modFBP, modPSMA-modTDGF1, modWT1-modClaudin 18, modPSMA-modLY6K, modFAP-modClaudin 18, and modPRAME-modTBXT. In still other embodiments, the mutated versions comprise: (i) a modified version selected from the group consisting of modMesothelin (SEQ ID NO: 62), modTERT (SEQ ID NO: 36), modPSMA (SEQ ID NO: 38), modMAGEA1 (SEQ ID NO: 73), modTBXT (SEQ ID NO: 79), modBORIS(SEQ ID NO: 60), modFSHR (SEQ ID NO: 95), modMAGEA10 (SEQ ID NO: 97), modMAGEC2 (SEQ ID NO: 87), modWT1 (SEQ ID NO: 81), KRAS G12D (SEQ ID NO: 83) or KRAS G12V (SEQ ID NO:85), modFBP (SEQ ID NO: 93), modTDGF1 (SEQ ID NO: 89), modClaudin 18 (SEQ ID NO: 110), modLYK6K (SEQ ID NO: 112), modFAP (SEQ ID NO: 115), and modPRAME (SEQ ID NO:99); or (ii) a fusion protein selected from the group consisting of CT83-MSLN (SEQ ID NO: 22), modMAGEA1-EGFRvIII-pp65 (SEQ ID NO: 40), modTBXT-modBORIS (SEQ ID NO:42), modFSHR-modMAGEA10 (SEQ ID NO: 44), modTBXT-modMAGEC2 (SEQ ID NO: 46), modTBXT-modWT1 (SEQ ID NO: 48), modTBXT-modWT1 (KRAS) (SEQ ID NO: 50), modWT1-modFBP (SEQ ID NO: 52), modPSMA-modTDGF1 (SEQ ID NO: 54), modWT1-modClaudin 18 (SEQ ID NO: 56), modPSMA-modLY6K (SEQ ID NO: 58), and modPRAME-modTBXT (SEQ ID NO: 66).

In still another embodiment of the present disclosure, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a cancer stem cell line, wherein said cancer stem cell line is modified to express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a cancer stem cell line, wherein said cancer stem cell line is modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a cancer stem cell line, wherein said cell line is modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and (ii) increase expression of at least 1 TAA that is either not expressed or minimally expressed by the cancer stem cell line. In some embodiments, the at least 1 TAA is selected from the group consisting of TERT, PSMA, MAGEA1, EGFRvIII, hCMV pp65, TBXT, BORIS, FSHR, MAGEA10, MAGEC2, WT1, KRAS, FBP, TDGF1, Claudin 18, LY6K, FAP, PRAME, HPV16/18 E6/E7, and FAP, or mutated versions thereof.

In still another embodiment of the present disclosure, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a cancer stem cell line, wherein said cancer stem cell line is modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor, and (iii) increase expression of at least 1 tumor associated antigen (TAA) that is either not expressed or minimally expressed by the cancer stem cell line. In another embodiment, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a cancer stem cell line, wherein said cancer stem cell line is modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 2 immunosuppressive factor, and (iii) increase expression of at least 2 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) that are either not expressed or minimally expressed by the cancer stem cell line. In some embodiments, the cancer stem cell line is selected from the group consisting of JHOM-2B, OVCAR-3, OV56, JHOS-4, JHOC-5, OVCAR-4, JHOS-2, EFO-21, CFPAC-1, Capan-1, Panc 02.13, SUIT-2, Panc 03.27, SK-MEL-28, RVH-421, Hs 895.T, Hs 940.T, SK-MEL-1, Hs 936.T, SH-4, COLO 800, UACC-62, NCI-H2066, NCI-H1963, NCI-H209, NCI-H889, COR-L47, NCI-H1092, NCI-H1436, COR-L95, COR-L279, NCI-H1048, NCI-H69, DMS 53, HuH-6, Li7, SNU-182, JHH-7, SK-HEP-1, Hep 3B2.1-7, SNU-1066, SNU-1041, SNU-1076, BICR 18, CAL-33, YD-8, CAL-29, KMBC-2, 253J, 253J-BV, SW780, SW1710, VM-CUB-1, BC-3C, KNS-81, TM-31, NMC-G1, GB-1, SNU-201, DBTRG-05MG, YKG-1, ECC10, RERF-GC-1B, TGBC-11-TKB, SNU-620, GSU, KE-39, HuG1-N, NUGC-4, SNU-16, OCUM-1, C2BBe1, Caco-2, SNU-1033, SW1463, COLO 201, GP2d, LoVo, SW403, CL-14, HCC2157, HCC38, HCC1954, HCC1143, HCC1806, HCC1599, MDA-MB-415, CAL-51, KO52, SKNO-1, Kasumi-1, Kasumi-6, MHH-CALL-3, MHH-CALL-2, JVM-2, HNT-34, HOS, OUMS-27, T1-73, Hs 870.T, Hs 706.T, SJSA-1, RD-ES, U205, SaOS-2, SK-ES-1, MKN-45, HSC-3, HSC-4, DETROIT 562, and SCC-9.

In still another embodiment of the present disclosure, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of small cell lung cancer cell line DMS 53, wherein said cell line DMS 53 is (i) modified to knockdown TGFβ2, (ii) knockout CD276, and (iii) upregulate expression of GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L, and IL-12. In another embodiment of the present disclosure, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of small cell lung cancer cell line DMS 53, wherein said cell line DMS 53 is (i) modified to knockdown TGFβ2, (ii) knockout CD276, and (iii) upregulate expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L. In still another embodiment of the present disclosure, provided herein is a vaccine composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of small cell lung cancer cell line DMS 53, wherein said composition stimulates an immune response specific to at least 1 tumor associated antigen (TAA) expressed by said cell line DMS 53. In still another embodiment of the present disclosure, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein at least 1 of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and wherein at least 1 of the cell lines is small cell lung cancer cell line DMS 53 and comprises cells that are modified to express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor or inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor. In still another embodiment of the present disclosure, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein at least 1 cell line comprises cells that are modified to express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and wherein 1 cell line is small cell lung cancer DMS 53.

In yet another embodiment of the present disclosure, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of small cell lung cancer cell line DMS 53, wherein said cell line is modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor. In still another embodiment of the present disclosure, provided herein is a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of 3 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, and (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factors, and wherein 1 of the cell lines is small cell lung cancer cell line DMS 53.

In some embodiments, an aforementioned composition is provided wherein said composition is a vaccine composition. In some embodiments, an aforementioned composition is provided wherein said composition is capable of eliciting an immune response in a subject. In some embodiments, an aforementioned composition is provided wherein said composition comprises 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, an aforementioned composition is provided wherein said composition comprises modifications to express or increase expression of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 immunostimulatory factors. In some embodiments, an aforementioned composition is provided wherein said composition comprises modifications to inhibit or decrease expression of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 immunosuppressive factors. In some embodiments, an aforementioned composition is provided wherein said composition comprises modifications to express or increase expression of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 TAAs. In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence of one or more of the TAAs has been modified to include a mutation or a neoepitope.

In some embodiments of the present disclosure, an aforementioned composition is provided wherein said immune response is an innate immune response, an adaptive immune response, a cellular immune response, and/or a humoral response. In one embodiment the immune response is an adaptive immune response. In some embodiments, the adaptive immune response comprises the production of antigen specific cells selected from the group consisting of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, gamma-delta T cells, natural killer T cells, and B cells. In other embodiments of the present disclosure, the antigen specific CD4+ T cells comprise memory cells, T helper type 1 cells, T helper type 9 cells, T helper type 17 cells, T helper type 22 cells, and T follicular helper cells. In some embodiments, the antigen specific CD8+ T cells comprise memory cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In other embodiments, the antigen specific B cells comprise memory cells, immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin D, immunoglobulin E, and immunoglobulin A. In some embodiments, each cell line or a combination of the cell lines express at least 10 TAAs. In other embodiments, the TAAs are also expressed in a cancer of a subject intended to receive said composition.

In some embodiments, an aforementioned composition is provided wherein the therapeutically effective amount comprises approximately 8×106 cells of each cell line. In another embodiment, the therapeutically effective amount comprises approximately 1×107 cells of each cell line. In some embodiments, the therapeutically effective amount comprises approximately 1.0×106-6.0×107 cells of each cell line. In some embodiments, an aforementioned composition is provided wherein the therapeutically effective amount comprises approximately an equal number of cells of each cell line. In some embodiments, an aforementioned composition is provided herein the cell lines are genetically heterogeneous allogeneic, genetically homogeneous allogeneic, genetically heterogeneous xenogeneic, genetically homogeneous xenogeneic, or a combination of allogeneic and xenogeneic.

Provided herein in various embodiments is an aforementioned composition wherein the cell lines are from parental cell lines of solid tumors originating from the lung, prostate, testis, breast, colon, bladder, gastrointestinal system, brain, spinal cord, urinary tract, colon, rectum, stomach, head and neck, liver, kidney, central nervous system, endocrine system, mesothelium, ovaries, endometrium, pancreas, esophagus, neuroendocrine system, uterus, or skin. In some embodiments, the parental cell lines comprise cells selected from the group consisting of squamous cells, carcinoma cells, adenocarcinoma cells, adenosquamous cells, large cell cells, small cell cells, sarcoma cells, clear cell carcinoma cells, carcinosarcoma cells, mixed mesodermal cells, and teratocarcinoma cells. In some embodiments, the sarcoma cells comprise osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, mesothelioma, fibrosarcoma, angiosarcoma, liposarcoma, glioma, gliosarcoma, astrocytoma, myxosarcoma, mesenchymous or mixed mesodermal. In some embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are non-small cell lung cancer cell lines or small cell lung cancer cell lines. In other embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of NCI-H460, NCIH520, A549, DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23. In some embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are small cell lung cancer cell lines. In other embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of DMS 114, NCI-H196, NCI-H1092, SBC-5, NCI-H510A, NCI-H889, NCI-H1341, NCIH-1876, NCI-H2029, NCI-H841, DMS 53, and NCI-H1694. In other embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are prostate cancer cell lines or testicular cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of PC3, DU-145, LNCAP, NEC8, and NTERA-2c1-D1. In some embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are colorectal cancer cell lines. In other embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of HCT-15, RKO, HuTu-80, HCT-116, and LS411N. In some embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are breast or triple negative breast cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of Hs 578T, AU565, CAMA-1, MCF-7, and T-47D. In other embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are bladder or urinary tract cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of UM-UC-3, J82, TCCSUP, HT-1376, and SCaBER. In other embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are head and neck cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of HSC-4, Detroit 562, KON, HO-1-N-1, and OSC-20. In other embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are gastric or stomach cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of Fu97, MKN74, MKN45, OCUM-1, and MKN1. In other embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are liver cancer or hepatocellular cancer (HCC) cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of Hep-G2, JHH-2, JHH-4, JHH-5, JHH-6, Li7, HLF, HuH-1, HuH-6, and HuH-7. In some embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are glioblastoma cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of DBTRG-05MG, LN-229, SF-126, GB-1, and KNS-60. In other embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are ovarian cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of TOV-112D, ES-2, TOV-21G, OVTOKO, and MCAS. In some embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are esophageal cancer cell lines. In other embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of TE-10, TE-6, TE-4, EC-GI-10, OE33, TE-9, TT, TE-11, OE19, and OE21. In some embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are kidney or renal cell carcinoma cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of A-498, A-704, 769-P, 786-O, ACHN, KMRC-1, KMRC-2, VMRC-RCZ, and VMRC-RCW. In other embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are pancreatic cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of PANC-1, KP-3, KP-4, SUIT-2, and PSN11. In some embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are endometrial cancer cell lines. In other embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of SNG-M, HEC-1-B, JHUEM-3, RL95-2, MFE-280, MFE-296, TEN, JHUEM-2, AN3-CA, and Ishikawa. In some embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are skin or melanoma cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of RPM1-7951, MeWo, Hs 688(A).T, COLO 829, C32, A-375, Hs 294T, Hs 695T, Hs 852T, and A2058. In other embodiments, the cell line or cell lines are mesothelioma cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines are selected from the group consisting of NCI-H28, MSTO-211H, IST-Mes1, ACC-MESO-1, NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452, MPP 89, and IST-Mes2.

In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned composition further comprising a cancer stem cell line. In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned composition further comprising cell line DMS 53. In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned composition wherein 1 of the cell lines is of a different cancer than at least 1 of the other cell lines. In another embodiment, at least 3 cell lines are each of the same type of cancer. In some embodiments, at least 3 cell lines are each of a different cell histology type or molecular subtype. In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned composition wherein the cell histology type is selected from the group consisting of squamous, carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell, small cell, and sarcoma.

In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned composition wherein the modification to increase expression of the at least 1 immunostimulatory factor comprises use of a lentiviral vector or vectors encoding the at least 1 immunostimulatory factor. In one embodiment, the at least 1 immunostimulatory factor is expressed at a level at least 2.0-fold higher compared to unmodified cell lines. In another embodiment, the at least 1 immunostimulatory factor is selected from the group consisting of GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L, GITR, IL-15, IL-23, and IL-12. In another embodiment, the immunostimulatory factors are GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L, and IL-12. In another embodiment, the immunostimulatory factors are GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L, and IL-15. In another embodiment, the GM-CSF comprises SEQ ID NO: 8. In another embodiment, the membrane bound CD40L comprises SEQ ID NO: 3. In another embodiment, the IL-12 comprises SEQ ID NO: 10.

In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned composition wherein the modification to inhibit or decrease expression of the at least 1 immunosuppressive factor comprises a knockout or a knockdown of said at least 1 immunosuppressive factor. In om embodiments, expression of the at least 1 immunosuppressive factor is decreased by at least approximately 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30%. In another embodiment, the modification is a knockdown.

In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned composition wherein the modifications to inhibit or decrease expression of the at least 1 immunosuppressive factor comprise a combination of knocking down expression of the at least 1 immunosuppressive factor and knocking out expression of a different immunosuppressive factor. In some embodiments, the at least 1 immunosuppressive factor is selected from the group consisting of CD276, CD47, CTLA4, HLA-E, HLA-G, IDO1, IL-10, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and TGFβ3. In another embodiment, the at least 1 immunosuppressive factor is selected from the group consisting of CD276, HLA-E, HLA-G, TGFβ1, and TGFβ2. In another embodiment, the immunosuppressive factors are TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276. In still another embodiment, the immunosuppressive factors are TGFβ2 and CD276. In yet another embodiment of the present disclosure, the immunosuppressive factors are TGFβ1 and CD276. In some embodiments, the TGFβ1 is knocked down using short hairpin RNA comprising SEQ ID NO: 25. In other embodiments, TGFβ2 is knocked down using short hairpin RNA comprising SEQ ID NO: 24. In still other embodiments, CD276 is knocked out using a zinc finger nuclease pair that targets a CD276 genomic DNA sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 26.

In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned composition wherein the composition comprises cell lines that express a heterogeneity of HLA supertypes, and wherein at least 2 different HLA-A and at least 2 HLA-B supertypes are represented. In some embodiments, the composition expresses major histocompatibility complex molecules in the HLA-A24, HLA-A01, HLA-A03, HLA-B07, HLA-B08, HLA-B27, and HLA-B44 supertypes. In other embodiments, the composition expresses major histocompatibility complex molecules in the HLA-A24, HLA-A03, HLA-A01, HLA-B07, HLA-B27, and HLA-B44 supertypes. In yet other embodiments, the composition expresses HLA-A01, HLA-A03, HLA-B07, HLA-B08, and HLA-B44 supertypes. In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned composition wherein the cell line(s) is a genetically homogeneous cell line. In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned composition wherein the cell line(s) is a genetically heterogeneous cell line.

Various methods are contemplated and provided by the present disclusre. In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of an aforementioned composition. In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to at least 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30 or more tumor associated antigens (TAAs) in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of an aforementioned composition. In some embodiments, provided herein is a method of stimulating an immune response in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of 2 aforementioned compositions In one embodiment, provided herein is a method of stimulating an immune response in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of 2 or more compositions described herein, wherein the compositions comprise different combinations of cell lines. In one embodiment, provided herein is a method of stimulating an immune response in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of 2 compositions described herein, wherein the compositions each comprise 3 different cell lines. In some embodiments, the immune response comprises increased production of antigen specific or vaccine specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. In other embodiments, the immune response comprises increased production of one or more of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-20, IL-22, TNFα, IFNγ, CCLS, or CXCL10. In one embodiment, the immune response comprises increased production of IFNγ. In some embodiments, the immune response comprises increased production of Granzyme A, Granzyme B, Perforin, and CD107a. In other embodiments, the immune response comprises decreased levels of regulatory T cells, mononuclear monocyte derived suppressor cells, and polymorphonuclear derived suppressor cells. In still other embodiments, the immune response comprises decreased levels of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR). In other embodiments, the immune response comprises changes in immune infiltrate in the tumor microenvironment.

In one embodiment, provided herein is a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a composition described herein. In one embodiment, provided herein is a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of 2 or more compositions described herein, wherein the compositions comprise different combinations of cell lines. In one embodiment, provided herein is a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of 2 compositions described herein, wherein the compositions each comprise 3 different cell lines. In one embodiment, provided herein is a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a composition described herein, and further comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a chemotherapeutic agent. In one embodiment, provided herein is a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of one or more compositions described herein, and further comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of cyclophosphamide. In some embodiments, the therapeutically effective amount of cyclophosphamide comprises 50 mg/day for 1-10 days prior to the administration of the therapeutically effective amount of the composition.

In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a composition described herein, and further comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a checkpoint inhibitor. In another embodiment, the checkpoint inhibitor is selected from the group consisting of an inhibitor of CTLA-4, 4-1BB (CD137), 4-1BBL (CD137L), PDL1, PDL2, PD1, B7-H3, B7-H4, BTLA, HVEM, TIM3, GAL9, LAG3, TIM3, B7H3, B7H4, VISTA, KIR, BTLA, SIGLEC9, and 2B4. In some embodiments, the checkpoint inhibitor is selected from the group consisting of pembrolizumab, avelumab, atezolizumab, cetrelimab, dostarlimab, cemiplimab, spartalizumab, camrelizumab, durvalumab, and nivolumab. In other embodiments, an aforementioned method is provided further comprising administering to the subject an isolated tumor associated antigen (TAA). In one embodiment, provided herein is a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a composition described herein, and further comprising administering to the subject one or more inhibitors selected from the group consisting of inhibitors of ALK, PARP, VEGFRs, EGFR, FGFR1-3, HIF1a, PDGFR1-2, c-Met, c-KIT, Her2, Her3, AR, PR, RET, EPHB4, STAT3, Ras, HDAC1-11, mTOR, and CXCR4.

In one embodiment, provided herein is a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a composition provided herein, and further comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of radiation therapy. In one embodiment, provided herein is a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a composition described herein, and further comprising administering to the patient a cancer treatment surgery. In one embodiment, provided herein is a method of concurrently treating two or more cancers in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a composition described herein.

In another embodiment, provided herein is a method of preparing a vaccine composition described herein, comprising the steps of: (a) selecting one or more cancer cell lines that express at least, 5, 10, 15 or 20 or more TAAs; and (b) modifying each of the one or more cancer cell lines of (a), wherein the cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and/or (ii) increase expression of at least 1 TAA that is either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines. In one embodiment, the cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that are additionally modified to inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor. In another embodiment, the modifying step comprises introducing one or more vectors into one or more of the cell lines. In yet another embodiment, the one or more vectors are lentiviral vectors. In still another embodiment, the method further comprises the step of adapting the modified cell lines to a xeno-free media. In another embodiment, the method further comprises the step of irradiating the cell lines. In another embodiment, the method further comprises the step of adapting the cells to a cryopreservation media.

In various embodiments, the rpesent disclosure provides an aforemention method wherein the composition or compositions are administered to the subject by a route selected from the group consisting of parenteral, enteral, oral, intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous, intratumoral, intranodal, intranasal, transdermal, inhalation, mucosal, and topical. In one embodiment, the route is intradermal. In some embodiments, the composition or compositions are administered to an administration site on the subject selected from the group consisting of arm or arms, thigh or thighs, and back. In another embodiment, the compositions are intradermally administered at different administration sites on the subject. In another embodiment, the composition is intradermally administered by injection with a syringe positioned at an angle between 5 and 15 degrees from the surface of the administration site. In some embodiments, a method of treating cancer in a subject is provided comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a first dose and therapeutically effective amounts of subsequent doses of one or more compositions provided herein, wherein the one or more compositions are administered 1-24 times in year one, 1-16 times in year two, and 1-14 times in year three. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response in a subject comprising administering to the subject a first dose of a therapeutically effective amount of two compositions provided herein, wherein the first four doses are administered every 21 days up to day 63, and then every 42 days for three additional doses up to day 189. In one embodiment, the method further comprises administering five additional doses at 42-day intervals up to day 399, and then at least at two 84-day intervals thereafter.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response in a subject comprising administering to the subject a first dose and subsequent doses of a therapeutically effective amount of two compositions provided herein, wherein the first four doses are administered every 14 days up to day 42, and then every 42 days for three additional doses up to day 168. In one embodiment, the method further comprises administering to the subject five additional doses at 42-day intervals up to day 378, and then at least at two 84-day intervals thereafter.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating a cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of two compositions, wherein each composition comprises at least 2 cancer cell lines modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor, and (iii) increase expression of at least 1 tumor associated antigen (TAA) that is either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines, wherein one composition is administered to the upper body of the subject, and the other composition is administered to the lower body of the subject. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating a cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject a first dose and subsequent doses of a therapeutically effective amount of two compositions, wherein each composition comprises at least 2 cancer cell lines modified to (i) express or increase expression of one or more of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L, (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of one or more of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276, and (iii) increase expression of at least 1 TAA that is either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines, wherein one composition is administered to the upper body of the subject, and the other composition is administered to the lower body of the subject. In some embodiments, the methods provided herein further comprises administering to the subject one or more therapeutic agents or treatments. In other embodiments, the subject refrains from treatment with other vaccines or therapeutic agents. In some embodiments, the therapeutic agent or treatment is selected from the group consisting of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery, small molecule inhibitors, and checkpoint inhibitors. In one embodiment, the therapeutic agent is cyclophosphamide. In other embodiments, the checkpoint inhibitor is selected from the group consisting of an inhibitor of CTLA-4, 4-1BB (CD137), 4-1BBL (CD137L), PDL1, PDL2, PD1, B7-H3, B7-H4, BTLA, HVEM, TIM3, GAL9, LAG3, TIM3, B7H3, B7H4, VISTA, KIR, BTLA, SIGLEC9, and 2B4. In some embodiments, the checkpoint inhibitor is pembrolizumab, avelumab, atezolizumab, cetrelimab, dostarlimab, cemiplimab, spartalizumab, camrelizumab, durvalumab, or nivolumab. In some embodiments, the one or more therapeutic agents or treatments are administered prior to at least 1 administration of said first dose and/or said subsequent doses. In other embodiments, the one or more therapeutic agents or treatments are administered prior to, concurrently, or subsequent to each administration of said composition. In still other embodiments, a first therapeutic agent is administered prior to said first dose, and wherein a second therapeutic agent is administered concurrently with said first dose and said subsequent doses.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response in a subject comprising: a. administering to the subject a first dose of a therapeutically effective amount of two compositions provided herein, wherein said two compositions are administered concurrently at different sites, and administering to the subject subsequent doses of said two compositions after administering said first dose, wherein said two compositions are administered concurrently at different sites; and b. optionally administering to the subject therapeutically effective doses cyclophosphamide for 1-10 days prior to administering the first dose of (a), and optionally for 1-10 days prior to administering said subsequent doses of (a); c. optionally administering to the subject a checkpoint inhibitor either (i) concurrently with each dose of (a), or (ii) every one, two, three, or four weeks following the first dose of (a). In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising: a. administering to the subject a first dose of a therapeutically effective amount of two compositions described herein, and administering to the subject subsequent doses of said two compositions after administering said first dose, wherein said two compositions are administered concurrently at different sites; b. optionally administering to the subject cyclophosphamide for 1-10 days prior to administering the first dose of (a), and optionally for 1-10 days prior to administering said subsequent doses of (a); c. optionally administering to the subject a checkpoint inhibitor either (i) concurrently with each dose of (a), or (ii) every one, two, three, or four weeks following the first dose of (a). In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising: a. administering to the subject a first dose of a therapeutically effective amount of two compositions according to any one of claims 1-138, and administering to the subject subsequent doses of said two compositions after administering said first dose, wherein said two compositions are administered concurrently at different sites, and wherein said subsequent doses are administered at 3, 6, 9, 15, 21, and 27 weeks following administration of said first dose; b. administering to the subject cyclophosphamide daily for 7 days prior to administering said first dose and said subsequent doses of (a); c. administering to the subject a checkpoint inhibitor at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 weeks following said first dose of (a). In one embodiment, cyclophosphamide is administered orally and the checkpoint inhibitor is pembrolizumab and is administered intravenously. In another embodiment, cyclophosphamide is administered orally at a dosage of 50 mg and the checkpoint inhibitor is pembrolizumab and is administered intravenously at a dosage of 200 mg.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating cancer in a subject comprising: a. administering to the subject a first dose of a therapeutically effective amount of two compositions provided herein, and administering to the subject subsequent doses of said two compositions after administering said first dose, wherein said two compositions are administered concurrently at different sites, and wherein said subsequent doses are administered at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 weeks following administration of said first dose; b. administering to the subject cyclophosphamide daily for 7 days prior to administering said first dose and said subsequent doses of (a); and c. administering to the subject a checkpoint inhibitor at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30 weeks following said first dose of (a). In one embodiment, cyclophosphamide is administered orally at a dosage of 50 mg and the checkpoint inhibitor is durvalumab and is administered intravenously at a dosage of 10 mg/kg. In other embodiments, the methods further comprise the step of abstaining from cannabinoid administration for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 days prior to administration of the compositions and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 days after administration of the compositions.

In some embodiments, each embraced in groups or individually, the subject suffers from a cancer selected from the group consisting of lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer, glioma, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, melanoma, and mesothelioma. In one embodiment, the breast cancer is triple negative breast cancer. In another embodiment, the glioma is an astrocytoma. In still another embodiment, the astrocytoma is glioblastoma multiform (GBM).

The present disclosure also provides kits. In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides a kit comprising one or more compositions provided herein. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a kit comprising at least 1 vial, said vial comprising a composition described herein. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a kit comprising a first vaccine composition in a first vial and a second vaccine composition in a second vial, wherein said first and second vaccine compositions each comprise at least 2 cancer cell lines that are modified to express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors. In yet another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a A kit comprising 6 vials, wherein the vials each contain a composition comprising a cancer cell line, and wherein at least 4 of the 6 vials comprise a cancer cell line that is modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, and/or (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 2 immunosuppressive factors, and/or (iii) increase expression of at least 1 TAA that is either not expressed or minimally expressed by 1 cell line or the combination of the cell lines, wherein at least 4 of the vials contain different compositions. In some embodiments, the kit further comprises instructions for use. In some embodiments, the kit is used for the treatment of cancer.

Unit doses of the composition provded herein are alos contemplated. In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides a unit dose of a medicament for treating cancer comprising 6 compositions of different cancer cell lines, wherein at least 4 compositions comprise a cell line that is modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, and (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 2 immunosuppressive factors. In some embodiments, cell lines comprise: (a) non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and/or small cell lung cancer cell lines selected from the group consisting of NCI-H460, NCIH520, A549, DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23; (b) DMS 53 and five small cell lung cancer cell lines selected from the group consisting of DMS 114, NCI-H196, NCI-H1092, SBC-5, NCI-H510A, NCI-H889, NCI-H1341, NCIH-1876, NCI-H2029, NCI-H841, DMS 53, and NCI-H1694; (c) DMS 53 and prostate cancer cell lines or testicular cancer cell lines PC3, DU-145, LNCAP, NEC8, and NTERA-2c1-D1; (d) DMS 53 and colorectal cancer cell lines HCT-15, RKO, HuTu-80, HCT-116, and LS411N; (e) DMS 53 and breast or triple negative breast cancer cell lines Hs 578T, AU565, CAMA-1, MCF-7, and T-47D; (f) DMS 53 and bladder or urinary tract cancer cell lines UM-UC-3, J82, TCCSUP, HT-1376, and SCaBER; (g) DMS 53 and head or neck cancer cell lines HSC-4, Detroit 562, KON, HO-1-N-1, and OSC-20; (h) DMS 53 and gastric or stomach cancer cell lines Fu97, MKN74, MKN45, OCUM-1, and MKN1; (i) DMS 53 and five liver cancer or hepatocellular cancer (HCC) cell lines selected from the group consisting of Hep-G2, JHH-2, JHH-4, JHH-5, JHH-6, Li7, HLF, HuH-1, HuH-6, and HuH-7; (j) DMS 53 and glioblastoma cancer cell lines DBTRG-05MG, LN-229, SF-126, GB-1, and KNS-60; (k) DMS 53 and ovarian cancer cell lines selected from the group consisting of TOV-112D, ES-2, TOV-21G, OVTOKO, and MCAS; (l) DMS 53 and five esophageal cancer cell lines selected from the group consisting of TE-10, TE-6, TE-4, EC-GI-10, OE33, TE-9, TT, TE-11, OE19, and OE21; (m) DMS 53 and five kidney or renal cell carcinoma cancer cell lines selected from the group consisting of A-498, A-704, 769-P, 786-O, ACHN, KMRC-1, KMRC-2, VMRC-RCZ, and VMRC-RCW; (n) DMS 53 and pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1, KP-3, KP-4, SUIT-2, and PSN11; (o) DMS 53 and five endometrial cancer cell lines selected from the group consisting of SNG-M, HEC-1-B, JHUEM-3, RL95-2, MFE-280, MFE-296, TEN, JHUEM-2, AN3-CA, and Ishikawa; (p) DMS 53 and five skin or melanoma cancer cell lines selected from the group consisting of RPMI-7951, MeWo, Hs 688(A).T, COLO 829, C32, A-375, Hs 294T, Hs 695T, Hs 852T, and A2058; or (q) DMS 53 and five mesothelioma cancer cell lines selected from the group consisting of NCI-H28, MSTO-211H, IST-Mes1, ACC-MESO-1, NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452, MPP 89, and IST-Mes2.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a unit dose of a medicament for treating cancer comprising 6 compositions of different cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line is modified to (i) express or increase expression of at least 2 immunostimulatory factors, (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 2 immunosuppressive factors, and/or (iii) express or increase expression of at least 1 TAA that is either not expressed or minimally expressed by the cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, two compositions comprising 3 cell lines each are mixed.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460, NCI-H520, and A549; wherein (a) NCI-H460 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L, and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (b) NCI-H520 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L, and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (c) A549 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L, and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460, NCIH520, and A549; wherein (a) NCI-H460 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L, and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (b) NCI-H520 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L, and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (c) A549 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L, and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; wherein said therapeutically effective amount is approximately 1.0×107 cells for each cell line or approximately 6×107 cells. In still another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of lung cancer cell lines DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23, wherein (a) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L, and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (b) LK-2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L, (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276, and (iii) to express MSLN and CT83; and (c) NCI-H23 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L, and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of lung cancer cell lines DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23; wherein (a) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L, and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (b) LK-2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L, (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276, and (iii) to express MSLN and CT83; and (c) NCI-H23 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L, and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; wherein said therapeutically effective amount is approximately 1.0×107 cells for each cell line or approximately 6×107 cells.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines LN-229, GB-1, and SF-126, wherein: (a) LN-229 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) GB-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (c) SF-126 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTERT. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines DBTRG-05MG, KNS 60, and DMS 53, wherein: (a) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (b) DBTRG-05MG is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (c) KNS 60 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modMAGEA1, EGFRvIII, and hCMV pp65.

In yet another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines HCT-15, RKO, and HuTu-80, wherein: (a) HCT-15 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (b) RKO is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (c) HuTu-80 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines HCT-116, LS411N and DMS 53, wherein: (a) HCT-116 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT, modWT1, KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V; (b) LS411N is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (c) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines PC3, NEC8, NTERA-2c1-D1, wherein: (a) PC3 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT and modMAGEC2; (b) NEC8 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (c) NTERA-2c1-D1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines DU-145, LNCaP, and DMS 53, wherein: (a) DU-145 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) LNCaP is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (c) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines J82, HT-1376, and TCCSUP, wherein: (a) J82 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) HT-1376 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (c) TCCSUP is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines SCaBER, UM-UC-3 and DMS 53, wherein: (a) SCaBER is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modFOLR1; (b) UM-UC-3 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (c) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines OVTOKO, MCAS, TOV-112D, wherein: (a) OVTOKO is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (b) MCAS is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modhTERT; (c) TOV-112D is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modFSHR and modMAGEA10. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines TOV-21G, ES-2 and DMS 53, wherein: (a) TOV-21G is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modFOLR1; (b) ES2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modBORIS; and (c) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines HSC-4, HO-1-N-1, and DETROIT 562, wherein: (a) HSC-4 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) HO-1-N-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPRAME and modTBXT; and (c) DETROIT 562 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines KON, OSC-20 and DMS 53, wherein: (a) KON is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express HPV16 E6 and E7 and HPV18 E6 and E7; (b) OSC-20 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (c) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines MKN-1, MKN-45, and MKN-74, wherein: (a) MKN-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA and modLYK6; (b) MKN-45 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (c) MKN-74 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines OCUM-1, Fu97 and DMS 53, wherein: (a) OCUM-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; (b) Fu97 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modCLDN18; and (c) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines CAMA-1, AU565, and HS-578T, wherein: (a) CAMA-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) AU565 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTERT; and (c) HS-578T is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D and DMS 53, wherein: (a) MCF-7 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and CD276; (b) T47D is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT and modBORIS; and (c) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned vaccine composition wherein said therapeutically effective amount is approximately 1.0×107 cells for each cell line or approximately 6×107 cells.

In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides a composition comprising a first cocktail and a second cocktail; wherein said first cocktail comprises therapeutically effective amounts of at least 2 irradiated cancer cell lines modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L, and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and wherein said second cocktail comprises cell line DMS 53 modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L, and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276. In one embodiment, said first cocktail and/or said second cocktail comprises one or more cell lines modified to express or increase expression of CT83, MSLN, TERT, PSMA, MAGEA1, EGFRvIII, hCMV pp65, TBXT, BORIS, FSHR, MAGEA10, MAGEC2, WT1, KRAS, FBP, TDGF1, Claudin 18, LYK6K, PRAME, HPV16/18 E6/E7, or mutated versions thereof.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460, NCI-H520, and A549; wherein (a) NCI-H460 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (b) NCI-H520 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (c) A549 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of lung cancer cell lines DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23; wherein (d) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) LK-2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (iii) to express MSLN and CT83; and (f) NCI-H23 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460, NCI-H520, and A549; wherein (a) NCI-H460 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (b) NCI-H520 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (c) A549 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of lung cancer cell lines DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23; wherein (d) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) LK-2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (iii) to express MSLN and CT83; and (f) NCI-H23 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with glioblastoma in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines LN-229, GB-1, SF-126; wherein: (a) LN-229 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) GB-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (c) SF-126 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modhTERT; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines DBTRG-05MG, KNS 60, and DMS 53; wherein: (d) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) DBTRG-05MG is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (f) KNS 60 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modMAGEA1, EGFRvIII, and hCMV pp65; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating glioblastoma in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines LN-229, GB-1, SF-126; wherein: (a) LN-229 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) GB-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (c) SF-126 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTERT; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines DBTRG-05MG, KNS 60, and DMS 53; wherein: (d) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) DBTRG-05MG is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (f) KNS 60 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modMAGEA1, EGFRvIII, and hCMV pp65; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with colorectal cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines HCT-15, RKO, and HuTu-80, wherein: (a) HCT-15 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (b) RKO is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (c) HuTu-80 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines HCT-116, LS411N and DMS 53; wherein: (d) HCT-116 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT, modWT1, KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V; (e) LS411N is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating colorectal cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines HCT-15, RKO, and HuTu-80, wherein: (a) HCT-15 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (b) RKO is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (c) HuTu-80 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines HCT-116, LS411N and DMS 53; wherein: (d) HCT-116 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT, modWT1, KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V; (e) LS411N is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with prostate cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines PC3, NEC8, NTERA-2c1-D1, wherein: (a) PC3 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT and modMAGEC2; (b) NEC8 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (c) NTERA-2c1-D1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines DU-145, LNCaP, and DMS 53, wherein: (d) DU-145 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (e) LNCaP is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating prostate cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines PC3, NEC8, NTERA-2c1-D1, wherein: (a) PC3 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT and modMAGEC2; (b) NEC8 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (c) NTERA-2c1-D1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines DU-145, LNCaP, and DMS 53, wherein: (d) DU 145 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (e) LNCaP is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with bladder cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines J82, HT-1376, and TCCSUP, wherein: (a) J82 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) HT-1376 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (c) TCCSUP is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines SCaBER, UM-UC-3 and DMS 53, wherein: (d) SCaBER is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modFOLR1; (e) UM-UC-3 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating bladder cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines J82, HT-1376, and TCCSUP, wherein: (a) J82 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) HT-1376 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (c) TCCSUP is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines SCaBER, UM-UC-3 and DMS 53, wherein: (d) SCaBER is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modFOLR1; (e) UM-UC-3 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with ovarian cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines OVTOKO, MCAS, TOV-112D, wherein: (a) OVTOKO is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (b) MCAS is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modhTERT; (c) TOV-112D is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modFSHR and modMAGEA10; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines TOV-21G, ES-2 and DMS 53, wherein: (d) TOV-21G is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modFOLR1; (e) ES2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modBORIS; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating ovarian cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines OVTOKO, MCAS, TOV-112D, wherein: (a) OVTOKO is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (b) MCAS is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modhTERT; (c) TOV-112D is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modFSHR and modMAGEA10; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines TOV-21G, ES-2 and DMS 53, wherein: (d) TOV-21G is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modFOLR1; (e) ES2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modBORIS; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with head and neck cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines HSC-4, HO-1-N-1, DETROIT 562, wherein: (a) HSC-4 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) HO-1-N-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPRAME and modTBXT; and (c) DETROIT 562 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines KON, OSC-20 and DMS 53, wherein: (d) KON is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express HPV16 E6 and E7 and HPV18 E6 and E7; (e) OSC-20 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating head and neck cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines HSC-4, HO-1-N-1, DETROIT 562, wherein: (a) HSC-4 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) HO-1-N-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPRAME and modTBXT; and (c) DETROIT 562 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines KON, OSC-20 and DMS 53, wherein: (d) KON is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express HPV16 E6 and E7 and HPV18 E6 and E7; (e) OSC-20 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with gastric cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines MKN-1, MKN-45, and MKN-74; wherein (a) MKN-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA and modLYK6; (b) MKN-45 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (c) MKN-74 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, and CD276; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines OCUM-1, Fu97 and DMS 53, wherein (d) OCUM-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; (e) Fu97 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modCLDN18; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating gastric cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines MKN-1, MKN-45, and MKN-74; wherein (a) MKN-lis modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA and modLYK6; (b) MKN-45 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (c) MKN-74 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, and CD276; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines OCUM-1, Fu97 and DMS 53, wherein (d) OCUM-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; (e) Fu97 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modCLDN18; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with breast cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines CAMA-1, AU565, HS-578T, MCF-7, T47D and DMS 53, wherein: (a) CAMA-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) AU565 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTERT; and (c) HS-578T is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and CD276; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D and DMS 53, wherein: (d) MCF-7 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) T47D is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT and modBORIS; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of treating breast cancer in a human subject comprising administering (i) a therapeutically effective amount of a first vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines CAMA-1, AU565, and HS-578T, wherein: (a) CAMA-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) AU565 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTERT; and (c) HS-578T is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and CD276; and (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a second vaccine composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D and DMS 53, wherein: (d) MCF-7 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) T47D is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT and modBORIS; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; wherein the first vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second vaccine composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with NSCLC in a human subject comprising: a. orally administering cyclophosphamide daily for one week at a dose of 50 mg/day; b. after said one week in (a), further administering a first dose of a vaccine comprising a first and second composition, wherein the first composition comprises therapeutically effective amounts of lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460, NCI-H520, and A549; wherein (a) NCI-H460 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (b) NCI-H520 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (c) A549 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and the second composition comprises therapeutically effective amounts of lung cancer cell lines DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23; wherein (d) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) LK-2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (iii) to express MSLN and CT83; and (f) NCI-H23 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; c. after said one week in (a), further administering via injection a first dose of a composition comprising pembrolizumab at a dosage of 200 mg; d. further administering subsequent doses of the first and second compositions at 3, 6, 9, 15, 21, and 27 weeks following administration of said first dose in (b), and wherein 50 mg of cyclophosphamide is orally administered for 7 days leading up to each subsequent dose; e. further administering intravenously subsequent doses of the composition comprising pembrolizumab at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 weeks following said first dose in (c) at a dosage of 200 mg; wherein the first composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In still another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with a cancer in a human subject comprising: a. orally administering cyclophosphamide daily for one week at a dose of 50 mg/day; b. after said one week in (a), further administering a first dose of a vaccine comprising a first and second composition, wherein the first composition is a composition provided herein; and the second composition is a different composition provided herein; c. after said one week in (a), further administering via injection a first dose of a composition comprising pembrolizumab at a dosage of 200 mg; d. further administering subsequent doses of the first and second compositions at 3, 6, 9, 15, 21, and 27 weeks following administration of said first dose in (b), and wherein 50 mg of cyclophosphamide is orally administered for 7 days leading up to each subsequent dose; e. further administering intravenously subsequent doses of the composition comprising pembrolizumab at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 weeks following said first dose in (c) at a dosage of 200 mg; wherein the first composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to TAAs associated with NSCLC in a human subject comprising: a. orally administering cyclophosphamide daily for one week at a dose of 50 mg/day; b. after said one week in (a), further administering a first dose of a vaccine comprising a first and second composition, wherein the first composition comprises therapeutically effective amounts of lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460, NCI-H520, and A549; wherein (a) NCI-H460 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (b) NCI-H520 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (c) A549 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and the second composition comprises therapeutically effective amounts of lung cancer cell lines DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23; wherein (d) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) LK-2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (iii) to express MSLN and CT83; and (f) NCI-H23 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; c. after said one week in (a), further administering via injection a first dose of a composition comprising durvalumab at a dosage of 10 mg/kg; d. further administering subsequent doses of the first and second compositions at 2, 4, 10, 16, 22, and 28 weeks following administration of said first dose in (b), and wherein 50 mg of cyclophosphamide is orally administered for 7 days leading up to each subsequent dose; e. further administering intravenously subsequent doses of the composition comprising durvalumab at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28 and 30 weeks following said first dose in (c) at a dosage of 10 mg/kg; wherein the first composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a method of stimulating an immune response specific to TAAs associated with NSCLC in a human subject comprising: a. orally administering cyclophosphamide daily for one week at a dose of 50 mg/day; b. after said one week in (a), further administering a first dose of a vaccine comprising a first and second composition, wherein the first composition is a composition provided herein and the second composition is a different composition provided herin; c. after said one week in (a), further administering via injection a first dose of a composition comprising durvalumab at a dosage of 10 mg/kg; d. further administering subsequent doses of the first and second compositions at 2, 4, 10, 16, 22, and 28 weeks following administration of said first dose in (b), and wherein 50 mg of cyclophosphamide is orally administered for 7 days leading up to each subsequent dose; e. further administering intravenously subsequent doses of the composition comprising durvalumab at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28 and 30 weeks following said first dose in (c) at a dosage of 10 mg/kg; wherein the first composition is administered intradermally in the subject's arm, and the second composition is administered intradermally in the subject's thigh.

In yet another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a kit comprising six vials, wherein each vial comprises cells of lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460, NCIH520, A549, DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23, and wherein: (a) NCI-H460 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (b) NCI-H520 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (c) A549 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (d) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) LK-2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (iii) to express MSLN and CT83; and (f) NCI-H23 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a kit comprising six vials, wherein each vial comprises cells of cancer cell lines LN-229, GB-1, SF-126, DBTRG-05MG, KNS 60, and DMS 53, wherein: (a) LN-229 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) GB-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (c) SF-126 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTERT; (d) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) DBTRG-05MG is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (f) KNS 60 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modMAGEA1, EGFRvIII, and hCMV pp65. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a kit comprising six vials, wherein each vial comprises cells of cancer cell lines HCT-15, RKO, HuTu-80, HCT-116, LS411N and DMS 53, wherein: (a) HCT-15 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (b) RKO is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (c) HuTu-80 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (d) HCT-116 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT, modWT1, KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V; (e) LS411N is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276.

In still another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a kit comprising six vials, wherein each vial comprises cells of cancer cell lines PC3, NEC8, NTERA-2c1-D1, DU-145, LNCaP, and DMS 53, wherein: (a) PC3 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT and modMAGEC2; (b) NEC8 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; (c) NTERA-2c1-D1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; (d) DU-145 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (e) LNCaP is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a kit comprising six vials, wherein each vial comprises cells of cancer cell lines J82, HT-1376, TCCSUP, SCaBER, UM-UC-3 and DMS 53, wherein: (a) J82 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) HT-1376 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (c) TCCSUP is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (d) SCaBER is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modFOLR1; (e) UM-UC-3 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a kit comprising six vials, wherein each vial comprises cells of cancer cell lines OVTOKO, MCAS, TOV-112D, TOV-21G, ES-2 and DMS 53, wherein: (a) OVTOKO is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (b) MCAS is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modhTERT; (c) TOV-112D is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modFSHR and modMAGEA10; (d) TOV-21G is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modFOLR1; (e) ES2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modBORIS; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a kit comprising six vials, wherein each vial comprises cells of cancer cell lines HSC-4, HO-1-N-1, DETROIT 562, KON, OSC-20 and DMS 53, wherein: (a) HSC-4 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) HO-1-N-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPRAME and modTBXT; (c) DETROIT 562 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (d) KON is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express HPV16 E6 and E7 and HPV18 E6 and E7; (e) OSC-20 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276.

In yet another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a kit comprising six vials, wherein each vial comprises approximately cells of cancer cell lines MKN-1, MKN-45, MKN-74, OCUM-1, Fu97 and DMS 53, wherein: (a) MKN-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA and modLYK6; (b) MKN-45 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (c) MKN-74 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, and CD276; (d) OCUM-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; (e) Fu97 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modCLDN18; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a kit comprising six vials, wherein each vial comprises cells of cancer cell lines CAMA-1, AU565, HS-578T, MCF-7, T47D and DMS 53, wherein: (a) CAMA-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) AU565 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTERT; and (c) HS-578T is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and CD276; (d) MCF-7 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) T47D is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT and modBORIS; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a unit dose of a lung cancer vaccine comprising six compositions wherein each composition comprises approximately 1.0×107 cells of lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460, NCIH520, A549, DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23; wherein: (a) NCI-H460 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (b) NCI-H520 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (c) A549 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (d) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) LK-2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (iii) to express MSLN and CT83; and (f) NCI-H23 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a unit dose of a cancer vaccine comprising six compositions wherein each composition comprises approximately 1.0×107 cells of cancer cell lines LN-229, GB-1, SF-126, DBTRG-05MG, KNS 60, and DMS 53, wherein: (a) LN-229 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA (b) GB-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (c) SF-126 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modhTERT; (d) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) DBTRG-05MG is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (f) KNS 60 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modMAGEA1, EGFRvIII, and hCMV pp65.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a unit dose of a cancer vaccine comprising six compositions wherein each composition comprises approximately 1.0×107 cells of cancer cell lines HCT-15, RKO, HuTu-80, HCT-116, LS411N and DMS 53, wherein: (a) HCT-15 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (b) RKO is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (c) HuTu-80 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (d) HCT-116 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT, modWT1, KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V; (e) LS411N is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a unit dose of a cancer vaccine comprising six compositions wherein each composition comprises approximately 1.0×107 cells of cancer cell lines PC3, NEC8, NTERA-2c1-D1, DU-145, LNCaP, and DMS 53, wherein: (a) PC3 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT and modMAGEC2; (b) NEC8 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; (c) NTERA-2c1-D1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; (d) DU-145 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (e) LNCaP is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276.

In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a unit dose of a cancer vaccine comprising six compositions wherein each composition comprises approximately 1.0×107 cells of cancer cell lines J82, HT-1376, TCCSUP, SCaBER, UM-UC-3 and DMS 53, wherein: (a) J82 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) HT-1376 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (c) TCCSUP is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (d) SCaBER is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modFOLR1; (e) UM-UC-3 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a unit dose of a cancer vaccine comprising six compositions wherein each composition comprises approximately 1.0×107 cells of cancer cell lines OVTOKO, MCAS, TOV-112D, TOV-21G, ES-2 and DMS 53, wherein: (a) OVTOKO is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (b) MCAS is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTERT; (c) TOV-112D is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modFSHR and modMAGEA10; (d) TOV-21G is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modFOLR1; (e) ES2 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modBORIS; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276.

In yet another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a unit dose of a cancer vaccine comprising six compositions wherein each composition comprises approximately 1.0×107 cells of cancer cell lines HSC-4, HO-1-N-1, DETROIT 562, KON, OSC-20 and DMS 53, wherein: (a) HSC-4 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) HO-1-N-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPRAME and modTBXT; (c) DETROIT 562 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; (d) KON is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express HPV16 E6 and E7 and HPV18 E6 and E7; (e) OSC-20 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a unit dose of a cancer vaccine comprising six compositions wherein each composition comprises approximately 1.0×107 cells of cancer cell lines MKN-1, MKN-45, MKN-74, OCUM-1, Fu97 and DMS 53, wherein: (a) MKN-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA and modLYK6; (b) MKN-45 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; (c) MKN-74 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, and CD276; (d) OCUM-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of CD276; (e) Fu97 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modWT1 and modCLDN18; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276.

In still another embodiment, the present disclosure provides a unit dose of a cancer vaccine comprising six compositions wherein each composition comprises approximately 1.0×107 cells of cancer cell lines CAMA-1, AU565, HS-578T, MCF-7, T47D and DMS 53, wherein: (a) CAMA-1 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2, and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modPSMA; (b) AU565 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTERT; and (c) HS-578T is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and CD276 (d) MCF-7 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and CD276; (e) T47D is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF, IL-12, and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of CD276; and (iii) modified to express modTBXT and modBORIS; and (f) DMS 53 is modified to (i) increase expression of GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L; and (ii) decrease expression of TGFβ2 and CD276.

In some embodiments, an aforementioned composition is provided wherein DMS 53 is further modified to increase expression of IL-12. In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned unit dose wherein DMS 53 is further modified to increase expression of IL-12. In other embodiments, an aforementioned kit is provided wherein DMS 53 is further modified to increase expression of IL-12. In still other embodiments, the present disclosure provides an aforementioned method wherein DMS 53 is further modified to increase expression of IL-12.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIGS. 1 A and B show reduction of HLA-G mRNA and protein expression in cells stably transduced with shRNA knocking down HLA-G in comparison to controls.

FIGS. 2 A and B show reduction of HLA-G expression increases IFNγ production.

FIGS. 3 A-C show reduction of CD47 expression in the A549 (FIG. 3A), NCI-H460 (FIG. 3B), and NCI-H520 (FIG. 3C) cell lines by zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated gene editing.

FIGS. 4 A and B show reduction of CD47 in the NCI-H520 cell line increases phagocytosis (FIG. 4A) by monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages and increases IFNγ responses (FIG. 4B) in the ELISpot assay.

FIG. 5 shows ZFN-mediated gene editing of PD-L1 in the NCI-H460 cell line results in a 99% decrease in PD-L1 expression.

FIG. 6 shows ZFN-mediated gene editing of BST2 in the NCI-H2009 cell line results in a 98.5% reduction in BST2 expression.

FIGS. 7 A-C show reduction of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in NCI-H460 cell line by shRNA (FIG. 7A), Cas9 (FIG. 7B), and ZFN-mediated (FIG. 7C) gene editing.

FIGS. 8 A and B show shRNA mediated knockdown of TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 in the DMS 53 (FIG. 8A) cell line and NCI-H520 (FIG. 8B) cell line.

FIGS. 9 A-E show the reduction of TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 in the NCI-H2023 (FIG. 9A), NCI-H23 (FIG. 9B), A549 (FIG. 9C), LK-2 (FIG. 9D), and NCI-H1703 (FIG. 9E) cell lines.

FIGS. 10 A-C show that knockdown of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, or TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in the NCI-H460 cell line significantly increases IFNγ responses against the parental NCI-H460 cells and the Survivin (BIRC5) antigen.

FIGS. 11 A and B show that loading dendritic cells (DCs) with lysate from NCI-H520 TGFβ1 KD cells increases IFNγ responses against parental NCI-H460 cells upon re-stimulation in the IFNγ ELISpot assay and in the mixed lymphocyte co-culture assay.

FIG. 12 shows the IFNγ response comparison between TGFβ1 TGFβ2 knockdown and knockout.

FIG. 13 shows the proteomic comparison between TGFβ1 TGFβ2 knockdown and knockout.

FIGS. 14 A-F show IFNγ responses against unmodified parental cell lines elicited by exemplary combinations of TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 modified cell lines.

FIGS. 15 A and B show IFNγ responses to cancer antigens elicited by exemplary combinations of TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 modified cell lines.

FIGS. 16 A and B show reduction of HLA-E expression in the RERF-LC-Ad1 cell line increases cellular immune responses.

FIGS. 17 A and B show reduction of CTLA-4 expression in the NCI-H520 cell line increases cellular immune responses.

FIGS. 18 A and B show reduction of CD276 in the A549 cell line increases cellular immune responses.

FIGS. 19 A-D show reduction of CD47 expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in the NCI-H2023 cell line.

FIGS. 20 A-D show reduction of CD47 expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in the NCI-H23 cell line.

FIGS. 21 A-D show reduction of CD47 expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in the A549 cell line.

FIGS. 22 A-D show reduction of CD47 expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in the NCI-H460 cell line.

FIGS. 23 A-C show reduction of CD47 expression and TGFβ1 secretion in the NCI-H1703 cell line.

FIGS. 24 A-C show reduction of CD47 expression and TGFβ2 secretion in the LK-2 cell line.

FIGS. 25 A-C show reduction of CD47 expression and TGFβ2 secretion in the DMS 53 cell line.

FIGS. 26 A-C show reduction of CD47 expression and TGFβ2 secretion in the NCI-H520 cell line.

FIGS. 27 A-D show reduction of CD276 expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in the NCI-H2023 cell line.

FIGS. 28 A-D show reduction of CD276 expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in the NCI-H23 cell line.

FIGS. 29 A-D show reduction of CD276 expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in the A549 cell line.

FIGS. 30 A-D show reduction of CD276 expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in the NCI-H460 cell line.

FIGS. 31 A-C show reduction of CD276 expression and TGFβ1 secretion in the NCI-H1703 cell line.

FIGS. 32 A-C show reduction of CD276 expression and TGFβ2 secretion in the LK-2 cell line.

FIGS. 33 A-C show reduction of CD276 expression an TGFβ2 secretion in the DMS 53 cell line.

FIGS. 34 A-C show reduction of CD276 expression and TGFβ2 secretion in the NCI-H520 cell line.

FIGS. 35 A and B show reduction of CD276 expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in the NCI-H460 (FIG. 35A) and A549 (FIG. 35B) cell lines increases cellular immune responses.

FIGS. 36 A-D show reduction of CD47 and CD276 expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in the A549 cell line.

FIGS. 37 A and B show reduction of CD47 and CD276 expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion increases immunogenicity.

FIGS. 38 A-D show expression of membrane bound CD40L in the A549 cell line increases dendritic cell (DC) maturation and cellular immune responses.

FIG. 39 shows overexpression of GM-CSF in the NCI-H460 cell line increases cellular immune responses.

FIG. 40 shows expression of IL-12 in the A549 cell line increases cellular immune responses.

FIGS. 41 A-D show expression of GITR in the NCI-H520 (FIG. 41A), A549 (FIG. 41B), LK-2 (FIG. 41C), and NCI-H460 (FIG. 41D) cell lines.

FIGS. 42 A-D show expression of GITR enhances cellular immune responses.

FIGS. 43 A and B show expression of IL-15 enhances cellular immune responses.

FIGS. 44 A and B show expression of IL-23 enhances cellular immune responses.

FIG. 45 shows the expression of XCL1.

FIGS. 46 A-E show expression of Mesothelin and increased mesothelin-specific IFNγ responses in the NCI-H520 cell line (FIG. 46A), LK-2 cell line (FIG. 46B and FIG. 46E), A549 cell line (FIG. 46C), and NCI-H460 cell line (FIG. 46 D).

FIG. 47 shows the expression of CT83.

FIGS. 48 A-E show secretion of GM-CSF and expression of membrane bound CD40L in the A549 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO cell line.

FIGS. 49 A-E show secretion of GM-CSF and expression of membrane bound CD40L in the NCI-H460 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO cell line.

FIGS. 50 A-E show secretion of GM-CSF and expression of membrane bound CD40L in the A549 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO cell line.

FIGS. 51 A-E show secretion of GM-CSF and expression of membrane bound CD40L in the NCI-H460 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO cell line.

FIGS. 52 A-C show secretion of GM-CSF and expression of membrane bound CD40L in TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO or TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO cell lines increases cellular immune responses and DC maturation.

FIGS. 53 A-F show secretion of GM-CSF, expression of membrane bound CD40L, and secretion of IL-12 in the A549 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO cell line.

FIGS. 54 A-F show secretion of GM-CSF, expression of membrane bound CD40L, and secretion of IL-12 in the NCI-H460 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO cell line.

FIGS. 55 A and B show secretion of GM-CSF, expression of membrane bound CD40L, and secretion of IL-12 by the A549 (FIG. 55A) and NCI-H460 (FIG. 55B) TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO cell lines increases antigen specific responses.

FIG. 56 shows the secretion of GM-CSF, expression of membrane bound CD40L, and secretion of IL-12 in the A549 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO cell line.

FIGS. 57 A-F show secretion of GM-CSF, expression of membrane bound CD40L, and secretion of IL-12 in the NCI-H460 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO cell line.

FIGS. 58 A-D show secretion of GM-CSF, expression of membrane bound CD40L, and secretion of IL-12 by the A549 and NCI-H460 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO cell lines increases DC maturation and antigen specific responses.

FIG. 59 shows that HLA mismatch results in increased immunogenicity.

FIG. 60 shows the expression of NSCLC antigens in certain cell lines.

FIGS. 61 A-C show a comparison of endogenous TAA expression profiles of NSCLC vaccines and Belagenpumatucel-L.

FIGS. 62 A and B show IFNγ responses elicited by single lines compared to cocktails of cell lines.

FIG. 63 shows IFNγ responses against selected antigens.

FIG. 64 shows expression of membrane bound CD40L on the NSCLC vaccine cell lines.

FIGS. 65 A and B show expression of CT83 and Mesothelin by the LK-2 cell line and IFNγ responses to the CT83 and mesothelin antigens.

FIGS. 66 A and B show a comparison of IFNγ responses generated by belagenpumatucel-L and NSCLC vaccine.

FIGS. 67 A and B show a comparison of IFNγ responses generated by belagenpumatucel-L and NSCLC vaccine in individual donors.

FIGS. 68 A-C show endogenous expression of GBM antigens (FIG. 68A) and GBM CSC-like markers in candidate vaccine cell lines (FIG. 68B) and GBM patient tumor samples (FIG. 68C).

FIGS. 69 A-C show IFNγ responses elicited by single candidate GBM vaccine cell lines (FIG. 69A) and in cocktails of cell lines (FIGS. 69B-C).

FIGS. 70 A and B show endogenous expression of GBM antigens by the GBM vaccine cell lines (FIG. 70A) and the number of GBM antigens expressed by the vaccine cell lines also expressed in GBM patient tumors (FIG. 70B).

FIGS. 71 A-K show the expression of and IFNγ responses to antigens introduced in the GBM vaccine cell lines compared to unmodified controls. Expression of modTERT by SF-126 (FIG. 71A) and IFNγ responses to TERT (FIG. 71G) in GBM-vaccine A. Expression of modPSMA by LN-229 (FIG. 71B) and IFNγ responses to PSMA (FIG. 71H) in GBM-vaccine A. Expression of modMAGEA1, EGFRvIII and pp65 by KNS 60 (FIGS. 71C-F) and IFNγ responses to MAGEA1, EGFRvIII and pp65 (FIGS. 71I-K) in GBM-vaccine B.

FIG. 72 shows expression of membrane bound CD40L by the GBM vaccine component cell lines.

FIG. 73 A-C shows antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the GBM vaccine (FIG. 73A), GBM vaccine-A (FIG. 73B), and GBM vaccine-B (FIG. 73C) compared to unmodified controls.

FIG. 74 shows antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the GBM vaccine in individual donors compared to unmodified controls.

FIGS. 75 A-C show endogenous expression of CRC antigens (FIG. 75A) and CRC CSC-like markers in selected cell lines (FIG. 75B) and CRC patient tumor samples (FIG. 75C).

FIGS. 76 A-C show IFNγ responses elicited by single candidate CRC vaccine cell lines (FIG. 76A) and in cocktails (FIGS. 76B and C).

FIG. 77 shows IFNγ responses elicited by single candidate CRC vaccine cell lines alone compared to cocktails of cell lines.

FIGS. 78 A and B shows endogenous expression of CRC antigens by the CRC vaccine cell lines (FIG. 78A) and the number of CRC antigens expressed by the vaccine cell lines also expressed in CRC patient tumors (FIG. 78B).

FIGS. 79 A-J show the expression of and IFNγ responses to antigens introduced in the CRC vaccine cell lines compared to unmodified controls. Expression of modPSMA by HuTu80 (FIG. 79A) and IFNγ responses to PSMA (FIG. 79F) in CRC-vaccine A. Expression of modTBXT, modWT1, KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V by HCT-116 (FIG. 79B-C) and IFNγ responses to TBXT (FIG. 79G), WT1 (FIG. 79H), KRAS G12D (FIG. 79I) and KRAS G12D (FIG. 79J) in CRC-vaccine B.

FIG. 80 shows expression of membrane bound CD40L by the CRC vaccine component cell lines.

FIGS. 81 A-C show antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the CRC vaccine (FIG. 81A), CRC vaccine-A (FIG. 81B) and CRC vaccine-B (FIG. 81C) compared to unmodified controls.

FIG. 82 shows antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the CRC vaccine in individual donors compared to unmodified controls.

FIG. 83 shows antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by CRC vaccine cell lines alone and in cocktails of cell lines.

FIG. 84 shows endogenous expression of PCa antigens in candidate and final PCa vaccine cell line components.

FIGS. 85 A and B show antigens expressed by the PCa vaccine in PCa patient tumors (FIG. 85A) and the number of PCa antigens expressed by the vaccine cell lines also expressed in PCa patient tumors (FIG. 85B).

FIGS. 86 A-D show IFNγ responses elicited by individual PCa candidate vaccine cell lines alone (FIG. 86A) and in cocktails (FIGS. 86B-C) of cell lines and that unmodified LNCaP, NEC8, and NTERA-2c1-Dlcell lines are more immunogenic in cocktails (FIG. 86D)

FIGS. 87 A-F show the expression of and IFNγ responses to antigens introduced in the PCa vaccine cell lines compared to unmodified controls. Expression of modTBXT (FIG. 87A) by PC3 and IFNγ responses to TBXT (FIG. 87D) in PCa-vaccine A. Expression of modMAGEC2 (FIG. 87B) by PC3 and IFNγ responses to MAGEC2 (FIG. 87E) in PCa-vaccine A. Expression of modPSMA (FIG. 87C) by DU145 and IFNγ responses to PSMA (FIG. 87F) in PCa-vaccine B.

FIG. 88 shows expression of membrane bound CD40L by the PCa vaccine component cell lines.

FIGS. 89 A-C show antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the PCa vaccine (FIG. 89A), PCa vaccine-A (FIG. 89B) and PCa vaccine-B (FIG. 89C) compared to unmodified controls.

FIG. 90 shows antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the PCa vaccine in individual donors compared to unmodified controls.

FIGS. 91 A-E show the Pca vaccine cell lines as cocktails of cell lines are more immunogenic than single cell lines.

FIG. 91A shows IFNγ responses to individual PCA vaccine-A cell lines. Pca vaccine-A (FIG. 91B and FIG. 91D) and PCa vaccine-B (FIG. 91C and FIG. 91E) induce more robust IFNγ responses than single component cell lines to parental cell lines and PCa antigens.

FIGS. 92 A and B show endogenous expression of bladder cancer antigens (FIG. 92A) and bladder cancer CSC-like markers (FIG. 92B) by candidate UBC vaccine cell lines.

FIGS. 93 A-C show IFNγ responses elicited by individual UBC candidate vaccine cell lines alone (FIG. 93A) and in cocktails (FIG. 93B and FIG. 93C).

FIGS. 94 A-C show endogenous expression of bladder cancer antigens by UBC vaccine cell lines (94A), expression of these antigens patient tumors (FIG. 94B) and the number of bladder cancer antigens expressed by the UBC vaccine cell lines also expressed in bladder cancer patient tumors (FIG. 94C).

FIGS. 95 A-H show the expression of and IFNγ responses to antigens introduced in the UBC vaccine cell lines compared to unmodified controls. Expression of modPSMA (FIG. 95A) and modCripto1 (FIG. 95B) by J82 and IFNγ responses to PSMA (FIG. 95E) and Criptol (FIG. 95F) induced by UBC-vaccine A. Expression of modWT1 (FIG. 95C) and modFOLR1 (FIG. 95D) by SCaBER and IFNγ responses to WT1 (FIG. 95G) and FOLR1 (FIG. 95H) in UBC-vaccine B.

FIG. 96 shows expression of membrane bound CD40L by the UBC vaccine component cell lines.

FIGS. 97 A-C show antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the UBC vaccine (FIG. 97A), UBC vaccine-A (FIG. 97B), and UBC vaccine-B (FIG. 97C) compared to unmodified controls.

FIG. 98 shows antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the UBC vaccine in individual donors compared to unmodified controls.

FIGS. 99 A and B show endogenous expression of ovarian cancer antigens (FIG. 99A) and ovarian cancer CSC-like markers (FIG. 99B) by candidate ovarian cancer vaccine component cell lines.

FIGS. 100 A-C show IFNγ responses elicited by individual OC candidate vaccine cell lines alone (FIG. 100A) and in cocktails (FIG. 100B and FIG. 100C).

FIGS. 101 A-C show endogenous antigen expression by selected OC vaccine component cell lines (FIG. 101A) expression of these antigens patient tumors (FIG. 101B) and the number of ovarian cancer antigens expressed by the OC vaccine cell lines also expressed in ovarian cancer patient tumors (FIG. 101C).

FIGS. 102 A-L show the expression of and IFNγ responses to antigens introduced in the OC vaccine cell lines compared to unmodified controls. Expression of modTERT (FIG. 102A) by MCAS and IFNγ responses to TERT by OC-vaccine A (FIG. 102G), expression of modFSHR (FIG. 102B) and modMAGEA10 (FIG. 102D) by TOV-112D and IFNγ responses to FSHR (FIG. 102H) and MAGEA10 (FIG. 102I) by OC-vaccine A. Expression of modWT1 (FIG. 102C) and modFOLR1 (FIG. 102E) by TOV-21G and IFNγ responses to WT1 (FIG. 102K) and FOLR1 (FIG. 102J) by OC vaccine-B. Expression of modBORIS by ES-2 (FIG. 102F) and IFNγ responses to BORIS by OC vaccine-B (FIG. 102L).

FIGS. 103 A and B show IFNγ responses to the unmodified and vaccine component cell lines TOV-21G (FIG. 103A) and ES-2 (FIG. 103B) cell lines.

FIG. 104 shows expression of membrane bound CD40L by the OC vaccine component cell lines.

FIGS. 105 A-C show antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the OC vaccine (FIG. 105A), OC vaccine-A (FIG. 105B), and OC vaccine-B (FIG. 105C) compared to unmodified controls.

FIG. 106 shows antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the OC vaccine in individual donors compared to unmodified controls.

FIGS. 107 A and B show endogenous expression of head and neck cancer antigens (FIG. 107A) and of head and neck cancer CSC-like markers (FIG. 107B) by candidate and selected head and neck cancer vaccine component cell lines.

FIGS. 108 A and B show expression of antigens in patient tumors also expressed by selected HN vaccine component cell lines (FIG. 108A) and the number of head and neck cancer antigens expressed by the HN vaccine cell lines also expressed in head and neck cancer patient tumors (FIG. 108B).

FIGS. 109 A-E show IFNγ responses elicited by individual HN candidate vaccine cell lines alone (FIG. 109A), and in cocktails of cell lines (FIG. 109B and FIG. 109C), most HN cell lines are more immunogenic in cocktails (FIG. 109D), and the modified HN vaccine component cell lines are more immunogenic than the parental cell lines (FIG. 109E).

FIGS. 110 A-K show expression of modPSMA by HSC-4 (FIG. 110A) and IFNγ responses to PSMA (FIG. 110E), expression of modPRAME (FIG. 110B) and modTBXT (FIG. 110C) by HO-1-N-1 (FIG. 110A) and IFNγ responses to PRAME (FIG. 110F) and TBXT (FIG. 110G), expression of HPV16 and HPV18 E6 and E7 by KON (FIG. 110D) and IFNγ responses to HPV16 E6 and E7 in all donors (FIG. 110H) and individual donors (FIG. 110I), and IFNγ responses to HPV18 E6 and E7 in all donors (FIG. 110J) and individual donors (FIG. 110K).

FIG. 111 shows expression of membrane bound CD40L by the HN vaccine component cell lines.

FIGS. 112 A-F show antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the HN vaccine (FIG. 112A) all HN antigens and non-viral HN antigens (FIG. 112D), HN vaccine-A (FIG. 112B) to all HN antigens and to non-viral HN antigens (FIG. 112E) and HN vaccine-B to all HN antigens (FIG. 112C) and non-viral HN antigens (FIG. 112F) compared to unmodified controls.

FIGS. 113 A and B show antigen specific responses in individual donors to all HN antigens (top panel) and to non-viral HN antigens (bottom panel).

FIGS. 114 A and B show endogenous expression of gastric cancer antigens (FIG. 114A) and gastric cancer CSC-like markers (FIG. 114B) by candidate ovarian cancer vaccine component cell lines.

FIGS. 115 A-C show IFNγ responses elicited by individual GCA candidate vaccine cell lines alone (FIG. 115A) and in cocktails (FIG. 115B and FIG. 115C).

FIGS. 116 A-C show endogenous antigen expression by selected GCA vaccine component cell lines (FIG. 116A) expression of these antigens patient tumors (FIG. 116B) and the number of gastric cancer antigens expressed by the GCA vaccine cell lines also expressed in gastric cancer patient tumors (FIG. 116C).

FIGS. 117 A-H show expression of modPSMA (FIG. 117A) and modLY6K (FIG. 117B) by MKN-1 and IFNγ responses to PSMA (FIG. 117E) and LY6K (FIG. 117F), show expression of modWT1 (FIG. 117C) and modCLDN18 (FIG. 117D) by Fu97 and IFNγ responses to WT1 (FIG. 117G) and CLDN18 (FIG. 117H).

FIG. 118 shows expression of membrane bound CD40L by the GCA vaccine component cell lines.

FIGS. 119 A-C show antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the GCA vaccine (FIG. 119A), GCA vaccine-A (FIG. 119B), and GCA vaccine-B (FIG. 119C) compared to unmodified controls.

FIG. 120 shows antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the GCA vaccine in individual donors compared to unmodified controls.

FIGS. 121 A and B show endogenous expression of breast cancer antigens (FIG. 121A) and breast cancer CSC-like markers (FIG. 121B) by candidate breast cancer vaccine component cell lines.

FIGS. 122 A-D show IFNγ responses elicited by individual BRC candidate vaccine cell lines alone (FIG. 122A and FIG. 122C) and in cocktails (FIG. 122B, FIG. 122C, and FIG. 122D).

FIGS. 123 A-C show endogenous antigen expression by selected BRC vaccine component cell lines (FIG. 123A) expression of these antigens in patient tumors (FIG. 123B) and breast cancer patient tumors (FIG. 123C).

FIGS. 124 A-H show expression of modPSMA by CAMA-1 (FIG. 124A) and IFNγ responses to PSMA (FIG. 124E), show expression of modTERT by AU565 (FIG. 124B) and IFNγ responses to TERT (FIG. 124F), and show expression of modTBXT (FIG. 124C) and ModBORIS (FIG. 124D) by T47D and IFNγ responses to TBXT (FIG. 124G) and BORIS (FIG. 124H).

FIG. 125 shows expression of membrane bound CD40L by the BRC vaccine component cell lines.

FIGS. 126 A-C show antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the BRC vaccine (FIG. 126A), BRC vaccine-A (FIG. 126B) and BRC vaccine-B (FIG. 126C) compared to unmodified controls.

FIG. 127 shows antigen specific IFNγ responses induced by the unit dose of the BRC vaccine in individual donors compare to unmodified controls.

FIGS. 128 A-D show BRC vaccine-A (FIG. 128A and FIG. 128C) and BRC vaccine-B (FIG. 128B and FIG. 128D) compositions induce a greater breadth and magnitude of antigen specific responses compared to single component cell lines.

FIG. 129 shows the sequence alignment between human native PSMA (huPSMA; SEQ ID NO: 70) and the designed PSMA with non-synonymous mutations (NSMs) (PSMAmod; SEQ ID NO: 38).

FIG. 130 A-C shows HLA supertype frequency pairs in a population.

FIG. 131 shows the number of neoepitopes existing in the cell lines of a vaccine composition and designed neoepitopes in GBM recognized by donors expressing HLA-A and HLA-B supertype pairs within the population subsets described in FIG. 131.

FIG. 132 shows the number of neoepitopes targeted by four different mRNA immunotherapies.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Embodiments of the present disclosure provide a platform approach to cancer vaccination that provides both breadth, in terms of the types of cancer amenable to treatment by the compositions, methods, and regimens disclosed, and magnitude, in terms of the immune responses elicited by the compositions, methods, and regimens disclosed.

In various embodiments of the present disclosure, intradermal injection of an allogenic whole cancer cell vaccine induces a localized inflammatory response recruiting immune cells to the injection site. Without being bound to any theory or mechanism, following administration of the vaccine, antigen presenting cells (APCs) that are present locally in the skin (vaccine microenvironment, VME), such as Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal dendritic cells (DCs), uptake vaccine cell components by phagocytosis and then migrate through the dermis to a draining lymph node. At the draining lymph node, DCs or LCs that have phagocytized the vaccine cell line components can prime naïve T cells and B cells. Priming of naïve T and B cells initiates an adaptive immune response to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) expressed by the vaccine cell lines. In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the priming occurs in vivo and not in vitro or ex vivo. In embodiments of the vaccine compositions provided herein, the multitude of TAAs expressed by the vaccine cell lines are also expressed a subject's tumor. Expansion of antigen specific T cells at the draining lymph node and the trafficking of these T cells to the tumor microenvironment (TME) can initiate a vaccine-induced anti-tumor response.

Immunogenicity of an allogenic vaccine can be enhanced through genetic modifications of the cell lines comprising the vaccine composition to introduce TAAs (native/wild-type or designed/mutated as described herein). Immunogenicity of an allogenic vaccine can be further enhanced through genetic modifications of the cell lines comprising the vaccine composition to reduce expression of immunosuppressive factors and/or increase the expression or secretion of immunostimulatory signals. Modulation of these factors can enhance the uptake of vaccine cell components by LCs and DCs in the dermis, facilitate the trafficking of DCs and LCs to the draining lymph node, and enhance effector T cell and B cell priming in the draining lymph node, thereby providing more potent anti-tumor responses.

In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides an allogeneic whole cell cancer vaccine platform that includes compositions and methods for treating cancer, and/or preventing cancer, and/or stimulating an immune response. Criteria and methods according to embodiments of the present disclosure include without limitation: (i) criteria and methods for cell line selection for inclusion in a vaccine composition, (ii) criteria and methods for combining multiple cell lines into a therapeutic vaccine composition, (iii) criteria and methods for making cell line modifications, and (iv) criteria and methods for administering therapeutic compositions with and without additional therapeutic agents. In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides an allogeneic whole cell cancer vaccine platform that includes, without limitation, administration of multiple cocktails comprising combinations of cell lines that together comprise one unit dose, wherein unit doses are strategically administered over time, and additionally optionally includes administration of other therapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide and additionally optionally a checkpoint inhibitor.

The present disclosure provides, in some embodiments, compositions and methods for tailoring a treatment regimen for a subject based on the subject's tumor type. In some embodiments, the present disclosure provides a cancer vaccine platform whereby allogeneic cell line(s) are identified and optionally modified and administered to a subject. In various embodiments, the tumor origin (primary site) of the cell line(s), the amount and number of TAAs expressed by the cell line(s), the number of cell line modifications, and the number of cell lines included in a unit dose are each customized based on the subject's tumor type, stage of cancer, and other considerations As described herein, the tumor origin of the cell lines may be the same or different than the tumor intended to be treated. In some embodiments, the cancer cell lines may be cancer stem cell lines.

Definitions

In this disclosure, “comprises”, “comprising”, “containing”, “having”, and the like have the meaning ascribed to them in U.S. patent law and mean “includes”, “including”, and the like; the terms “consisting essentially of” or “consists essentially” likewise have the meaning ascribed in U.S. patent law and these terms are open-ended, allowing for the presence of more than that which is recited so long as basic or novel characteristics of that which is recited are not changed by the presence of more than that which is recited, but excluding prior art embodiments.

Unless specifically otherwise stated or obvious from context, as used herein, the terms “a”, “an”, and “the” are understood to be singular or plural.

The terms “cell”, “cell line”, “cancer cell line”, “tumor cell line”, and the like as used interchangeably herein refers to a cell line that originated from a cancerous tumor as described herein, and/or originates from a parental cell line of a tumor originating from a specific source/organ/tissue. In some embodiments the cancer cell line is a cancer stem cell line as described herein. In certain embodiments, the cancer cell line is known to express or does express multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and/or tumor specific antigens (TSAs). In some embodiments of the disclosure, a cancer cell line is modified to express, or increase expression of, one or more TAAs. In certain embodiments, the cancer cell line includes a cell line following any number of cell passages, any variation in growth media or conditions, introduction of a modification that can change the characteristics of the cell line such as, for example, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) immortalization, use of xenografting techniques including serial passage through xenogenic models such as, for example, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) or next generation sequencing (NGS) mice, and/or co-culture with one or more other cell lines to provide a mixed population of cell lines. As used herein, the term “cell line” includes all cell lines identified as having any overlap in profile or segment, as determined, in some embodiments, by Short Tandem Repeat (STR) sequencing, or as otherwise determined by one of skill in the art. As used herein, the term “cell line” also encompasses any genetically homogeneous cell lines, in that the cells that make up the cell line(s) are clonally derived from a single cell such that they are genetically identical. This can be accomplished, for example, by limiting dilution subcloning of a heterogeneous cell line. The term “cell line” also encompasses any genetically heterogeneous cell line, in that the cells that make up the cell line(s) are not expected to be genetically identical and contain multiple subpopulations of cancer cells. Various examples of cell lines are described herein. Unless otherwise specifically stated, the term “cell line” or “cancer cell line” encompasses the plural “cell lines.”

As used herein, the term “tumor” refers to an accumulation or mass of abnormal cells. Tumors may be benign (non-cancerous), premalignant (pre-cancerous, including hyperplasia, atypia, metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ), or malignant (cancerous). It is well known that tumors may be “hot” or “cold”. By way of example, melanoma and lung cancer, among others, demonstrate relatively high response rates to checkpoint inhibitors and are commonly referred to as “hot” tumors. These are in sharp contrast to tumors with low immune infiltrates called “cold” tumors or non-T-cell-inflamed cancers, such as those from the prostate, pancreas, glioblastoma, and bladder, among others. In some embodiments, the compositions and methods provided herein are useful to treat or prevent cancers with associated hot tumors. In some embodiments, the compositions and methods provided herein are useful to treat or prevent cancers with cold tumors. Embodiments of the vaccine compositions of the present disclosure can be used to convert cold (i.e., treatment-resistant or refractory) cancers or tumors to hot (i.e., amenable to treatment, including a checkpoint inhibition-based treatment) cancers or tumors. Immune responses against cold tumors are dampened because of the lack of neoepitopes associated with low mutational burden. In various embodiments, the compositions described herein comprise a multitude of potential neoepitopes arising from point-mutations that can generate a multitude of exogenous antigenic epitopes. In this way, the patients' immune system can recognize these epitopes as non-self, subsequently break self-tolerance, and mount an anti-tumor response to a cold tumor, including induction of an adaptive immune response to wide breadth of antigens (See Leko, V. et al. J Immunol (2019)).

Cancer stem cells are responsible for initiating tumor development, cell proliferation, and metastasis and are key components of relapse following chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In certain embodiments, a cancer stem cell line or a cell line that displays cancer stem cell characteristics is included in one or more of the vaccine compositions. As used herein, the phrase “cancer stem cell” (CSC) or “cancer stem cell line” refers to a cell or cell line within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. CSCs are highly resistant to traditional cancer therapies and are hypothesized to be the leading driver of metastasis and tumor recurrence. To clarify, a cell line that displays cancer stem cell characteristics is included within the definition of a “cancer stem cell”. Exemplary cancer stem cell markers identified by primary tumor site are provided in Table 2 and described herein. Cell lines expressing one or more of these markers are encompassed by the definition of “cancer stem cell line”. Exemplary cancer stem cell lines are described herein, each of which are encompassed by the definition of “cancer stem cell line”.

As used herein, the phrase “each cell line or a combination of cell lines” refers to, where multiple cell lines are provided in a combination, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more or the combination of the cell lines. As used herein, the phrase “each cell line or a combination of cell lines have been modified” refers to, where multiple cell lines are provided in combination, modification of one, some, or all cell lines, and also refers to the possibility that not all of the cell lines included in the combination have been modified. By way of example, the phrase “a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 2 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that have been modified . . . ” means that each of the two cell lines has been modified or one of the two cell lines has been modified. By way of another example, the phrase “a composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 3 cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that have been modified . . . ” means that each (i.e., all three) of the cell lines have been modified or that one or two of the three cell lines have been modified.

The term “oncogene” as used herein refers to a gene involved in tumorigenesis. An oncogene is a mutated gene that contributes to the development of a cancer. In their normal, unmutated state, onocgenes are called proto-oncogenes, and they play roles in the regulation of cell division.

As used herein, the phrase “identifying one or more . . . mutations,” for example in the process for preparing compositions useful for stimulating an immune response or treating cancer as described herein, refers to newly identifying, identifying within a database or dataset or otherwise using a series of criteria or one or more components thereof as described herein and, optionally, selecting the oncogene or mutation for use or inclusion in a vaccine composition as described herein.

The phrase “ . . . cells that express at least [ ] tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with a cancer of a subject intended to receive said composition.” as used herein refers to cells that express, either natively or by way of genetic modification, the designated number of TAAs and wherein said same TAAs are expressed or known to be expressed by cells of a patient's tumor. The expression of specific TAAs by cells of a patient's tumor may be determined by assay, surgical procedures (e.g., biopsy), or other methods known in the art. In other embodiments, a clinician may consult the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and other known resources to identify a list of TAAs known to be expressed by cells of a particular tumor type.

As used herein, the phrase “ . . . that is either not expressed or minimally expressed . . . ” means that the referenced gene or protein (e.g., a TAA or an immunosuppressive protein or an immunostimulatory protein) is not expressed by a cell line or is expressed at a low level, where such level is inconsequential to or has a limited impact on immunogenicity. For example, it is readily appreciated in the art that a TAA may be present or expressed in a cell line in an amount insufficient to have a desired impact on the therapeutic effect of a vaccine composition including said cell line. In such a scenario, the present disclosure provides compositions and methods to increase expression of such a TAA.

As used herein, the term “equal” generally means the same value +/−10%. In some embodiments, a measurement, such as number of cells, etc., can be +/−1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10%. Similarly, as used herein and as related to amino acid position or nucleotide position, the term “approximately” refers to within 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 such residues. With respect to the number of cells, the term “approximately” refers to +/−1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10%.

As used herein, the phrase “ . . . wherein said composition is capable of stimulating a 1.3-fold increase in IFNγ production compared to unmodified cancer cell lines . . . ” means, when compared to a composition of the same cell line or cell lines that has/have not been modified, the composition comprising a modified cell line or modified cell lines is capable of stimulating at least 1.3-fold more IFNγ production. In this example, “at least 1.3” means 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, etc., or higher. This definition is used herein with respect to other values of IFNγ production, including, but not limited to, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.0, 4.0, or 5.0-fold or higher increase in IFNγ production compared to unmodified cancer cell lines (e.g., a modified cell line compared to an modified cell line, a composition of 2 or 3 modified cell lines (e.g., a vaccine composition) compared cell lines to the same composition comprising unmodified cell lines, or a unit dose comprising 6 modified cell lines compared to the same unit dose comprising unmodified cell lines). In other embodiments, the IFNγ production is increased by approximately 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, or 25-fold or higher compared to unmodified cancer cell lines. Similarly, in various embodiments, the present disclosure provides compositions of modified cells or cell lines that are compared to unmodified cells or cell lines on the basis of TAA expression, immunostimulatory factor expression, immunosuppressive factor expression, and/or immune response stimulation using the methods provided herein and the methods known in the art including, but not limited to, ELISA, IFNγ ELISpot, and flow cytometry.

As used herein, the phrase “fold increase” refers to the change in units of expression or units of response relative to a control. By way of example, ELISA fold change refers to the level of secreted protein detected for the modified cell line divided by the level of secreted protein detected, or the lower limit of detection, by the unmodified cell line. In another example, fold change in expression of an antigen by flow cytometry refers to the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of expression of the protein by a modified cell line divided by the MFI of the protein expression by the unmodified cell line. IFNγ ELISpot fold change refers to the average IFNγ spot-forming units (SFU) induced across HLA diverse donors by the test variable divided by the average IFNγ SFU induced by the control variable. For example, the average total antigen specific IFNγ SFU across donors by a composition of three modified cell lines divided by the IFNγ SFU across the same donors by a composition of the same three unmodified cell lines.

In some embodiments, the fold increase in IFNγ production will increase as the number of modifications (e.g., the number of immunostimulatory factors and the number of immunosuppressive factors) is increased in each cell line. In some embodiments, the fold increase in IFNγ production will increase as the number of cell lines (and thus, the number of TAAs), whether modified or unmodified, is increased. The fold increase in IFNγ production, in some embodiments, is therefore attributed to the number of TAAs and the number of modifications.

As used herein, the term “modified” means genetically modified to express, overexpress, increase, decrease, or inhibit the expression of one or more protein or nucleic acid. As described herein, exemplary proteins include, but are not limited to immunostimulatory factors. Exemplary nucleic acids include sequences that can be used to knockdown (KD) (i.e., decrease expression of) or knockout (KO) (i.e., completely inhibit expression of) immunosuppressive factors. As used herein, the term “decrease” is synonymous with “reduce” or “partial reduction” and may be used in association with gene knockdown. Likewise, the term “inhibit” is synonymous with “complete reduction” and may be used in the context of a gene knockout to describe the complete excision of a gene from a cell.

Unless specifically stated or obvious from context, as used herein, the term “or” is understood to be inclusive.

As used herein, the terms “patient”, “subject”, “recipient”, and the like are used interchangeably herein to refer to any mammal, including humans, non-human primates, domestic and farm animals, and other animals, including, but not limited to dogs, horses, cats, cattle, sheep, pigs, mice, rats, and goats. Exemplary subjects are humans, including adults, children, and the elderly. In some embodiments, the subject can be a donor.

The terms “treat”, “treating”, “treatment”, and the like, as used herein, unless otherwise indicated, refers to reversing, alleviating, inhibiting the process of disease, disorder or condition to which such term applies, or one or more symptoms of such disease, disorder or condition and includes the administration of any of the compositions, pharmaceutical compositions, or dosage forms described herein, to prevent the onset of the symptoms or the complications, alleviate the symptoms or the complications, or eliminate the disease, condition, or disorder. As used herein, treatment can be curative or ameliorating.

As used herein, “preventing” means preventing in whole or in part, controlling, reducing, or halting the production or occurrence of the thing or event to which such term applies, for example, a disease, disorder, or condition to be prevented.

Embodiments of the methods and compositions provided herein are useful for preventing a tumor or cancer, meaning the occurrence of the tumor is prevented or the onset of the tumor is significantly delayed. In some embodiments, the methods and compositions are useful for treating a tumor or cancer, meaning that tumor growth is significantly inhibited as demonstrated by various techniques well-known in the art such as, for example, by a reduction in tumor volume. Tumor volume may be determined by various known procedures, (e.g., obtaining two dimensional measurements with a dial caliper). Preventing and/or treating a tumor can result in the prolonged survival of the subject being treated.

As used herein, the term “stimulating”, with respect to an immune response, is synonymous with “promoting”, “generating”, and “eliciting” and refers to the production of one or more indicators of an immune response. Indicators of an immune response are described herein. Immune responses may be determined and measured according to the assays described herein and by methods well-known in the art.

The phrases “therapeutically effective amount”, “effective amount”, “immunologically effective amount”, “anti-tumor effective amount”, and the like, as used herein, indicate an amount necessary to administer to a subject, or to a cell, tissue, or organ of a subject, to achieve a therapeutic effect, such as an ameliorating or a curative effect. The therapeutically effective amount is sufficient to elicit the biological or medical response of a cell, tissue, system, animal, or human that is being sought by a researcher, veterinarian, medical doctor, clinician, or healthcare provider. For example, a therapeutically effective amount of a composition is an amount of cell lines, whether modified or unmodified, sufficient to stimulate an immune response as described herein. In certain embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount of a composition is an amount of cell lines, whether modified or unmodified, sufficient to inhibit the growth of a tumor as described herein. Determination of the effective amount or therapeutically effective amount is, in certain embodiments, based on publications, data or other information such as, for example, dosing regimens and/or the experience of the clinician.

The terms “administering”, “administer”, “administration”, and the like, as used herein, refer to any mode of transferring, delivering, introducing, or transporting a therapeutic agent to a subject in need of treatment with such an agent. Such modes include, but are not limited to, oral, topical, intravenous, intraarterial, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, intratumoral, intradermal, intranasal, and subcutaneous administration.

As used herein, the term “vaccine composition” refers to any of the vaccine compositions described herein containing one or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more) cell lines. As described herein, one or more of the cell lines in the vaccine composition may be modified. In certain embodiments, one or more of the cell lines in the vaccine composition may not be modified. The terms “vaccine”, “tumor cell vaccine”, “cancer vaccine”, “cancer cell vaccine”, “whole cancer cell vaccine”, “vaccine composition”, “composition”, “cocktail”, “vaccine cocktail”, and the like are used interchangeably herein. In some embodiments, the vaccine compositions described herein are useful to treat or prevent cancer. In some embodiments, the vaccine compositions described herein are useful to stimulate or elicit an immune response. In such embodiments, the term “immunogenic composition” is used. In some embodiments, the vaccine compositions described herein are useful as a component of a therapeutic regimen to increase immunogenicity of said regimen.

The terms “dose” or “unit dose” as used interchangeably herein refer to one or more vaccine compositions that comprise therapeutically effective amounts of one more cell lines. As described herein, a “dose” or “unit dose” of a composition may refer to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or more distinct compositions or cocktails. In some embodiments, a unit dose of a composition refers to 2 distinct compositions administered substantially concurrently (i.e., immediate series). In exemplary embodiments, one dose of a vaccine composition comprises 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 separate vials, where each vial comprises a cell line, and where cell lines, each from a separate vial, are mixed prior to administration. In some embodiments, a dose or unit dose includes 6 vials, each comprising a cell line, where 3 cell lines are mixed and administered at one site, and the other 3 cell lines are mixed and administered at a second site. Subsequent “doses” may be administered similarly. In still other embodiments, administering 2 vaccine cocktails at 2 sites on the body of a subject for a total of 4 concurrent injections is contemplated.

As used herein, the term “cancer” refers to diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues. Thus, as used herein, the phrase “ . . . associated with a cancer of a subject” refers to the expression of tumor associated antigens, neoantigens, or other genotypic or phenotypic properties of a subject's cancer or cancers. TAAs associated with a cancer are TAAs that expressed at detectable levels in a majority of the cells of the cancer. Expression level can be detected and determined by methods described herein. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start; for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer that begins in melanocytes of the skin is called melanoma. Cancer types can be grouped into broader categories. In some embodiments, cancers may be grouped as solid (i.e., tumor-forming) cancers and liquid (e.g., cancers of the blood such as leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma) cancers. Other categories of cancer include: carcinoma (meaning a cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs, and its subtypes, including adenocarcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and transitional cell carcinoma); sarcoma (meaning a cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue); leukemia (meaning a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue (e.g., bone marrow) and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood; lymphoma and myeloma (meaning cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system); and central nervous system cancers (meaning cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord). The term myelodysplastic syndrome refers to a type of cancer in which the bone marrow does not make enough healthy blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and there are abnormal cells in the blood and/or bone marrow. Myelodysplastic syndrome may become acute myeloid leukemia (AML). By way of non-limiting examples, the compositions and methods described herein are used to treat and/or prevent the cancer described herein, including in various embodiments, lung cancer (e.g., non-small cell lung cancer or small cell lung cancer), prostate cancer, breast cancer, triple negative breast cancer, metastatic breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ, invasive breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer, Paget disease, breast angiosarcoma, phyllodes tumor, testicular cancer, colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer, glioma, gliosarcoma, astrocytoma, ovarian cancer, neuroendocrine cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, endometrial cancer, melanoma, mesothelioma, and/or hepatocellular cancers.

Examples of carcinomas include, without limitation, giant and spindle cell carcinoma; small cell carcinoma; papillary carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; lymphoepithelial carcinoma; basal cell carcinoma; pilomatrix carcinoma; transitional cell carcinoma; papillary transitional cell carcinoma; adenocarcinoma; gastrinoma; cholangiocarcinoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma; trabecular adenocarcinoma; adenoid cystic carcinoma; adenocarcinoma in an adenomatous polyp; adenocarcinoma, familial polyposis coli; solid carcinoma; carcinoid tumor; branchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma; papillary adenocarcinoma; chromophobe carcinoma; acidophil carcinoma; oxyphilic adenocarcinoma; basophil carcinoma; clear cell adenocarcinoma; granular cell carcinoma; follicular adenocarcinoma; non-encapsulating sclerosing carcinoma; adrenal cortical carcinoma; endometroid carcinoma; skin appendage carcinoma; apocrine adenocarcinoma; sebaceous adenocarcinoma; ceruminous adenocarcinoma; mucoepidermoid carcinoma; cystadenocarcinoma; papillary cystadenocarcinoma; papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma; mucinous cystadenocarcinoma; mucinous adenocarcinoma; signet ring cell carcinoma; infiltrating duct carcinoma; medullary carcinoma; lobular carcinoma; inflammatory carcinoma; Paget's disease; mammary acinar cell carcinoma; adenosquamous carcinoma; adenocarcinoma with squamous metaplasia; sertoli cell carcinoma; embryonal carcinoma; and choriocarcinoma.

Examples of sarcomas include, without limitation, glomangiosarcoma; sarcoma; fibrosarcoma; myxosarcoma; liposarcoma; leiomyosarcoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; embryonal rhabdomyo sarcoma; alveolar rhabdomyo sarcoma; stromal sarcoma; carcinosarcoma; synovial sarcoma; hemangiosarcoma; kaposi's sarcoma; lymphangiosarcoma; osteosarcoma; juxtacortical osteosarcoma; chondrosarcoma; mesenchymal chondrosarcoma; giant cell tumor of bone; ewing's sarcoma; odontogenic tumor, malignant; ameloblastic odontosarcoma; ameloblastoma, malignant; ameloblastic fibrosarcoma; myeloid sarcoma; and mast cell sarcoma.

Examples of leukemias include, without limitation, leukemia; lymphoid leukemia; plasma cell leukemia; erythroleukemia; lymphosarcoma cell leukemia; myeloid leukemia; basophilic leukemia; eosinophilic leukemia; monocytic leukemia; mast cell leukemia; megakaryoblastic leukemia; and hairy cell leukemia.

Examples of lymphomas and myelomas include, without limitation, malignant lymphoma; hodgkin's disease; hodgkin's; paragranuloma; malignant lymphoma, small lymphocytic; malignant lymphoma, large cell, diffuse; malignant lymphoma, follicular; mycosis fungoides; other specified non-hodgkin's lymphomas; malignant melanoma; amelanotic melanoma; superficial spreading melanoma; malignant melanoma in giant pigmented nevus; epithelioid cell melanoma; and multiple myeloma.

Examples of brain/spinal cord cancers include, without limitation, pinealoma, malignant; chordoma; glioma, gliosarcoma, malignant; ependymoma; astrocytoma; protoplasmic astrocytoma; fibrillary astrocytoma; astroblastoma; glioblastoma; oligodendroglioma; oligodendroblastoma; primitive neuroectodermal; cerebellar sarcoma; ganglioneuroblastoma; neuroblastoma; retinoblastoma; olfactory neurogenic tumor; meningioma, malignant; neurofibrosarcoma; and neurilemmoma, malignant.

Examples of other cancers include, without limitation, a thymoma; an ovarian stromal tumor; a thecoma; a granulosa cell tumor; an androblastoma; a leydig cell tumor; a lipid cell tumor; a paraganglioma; an extra-mammary paraganglioma; a pheochromocytoma; blue nevus, malignant; fibrous histiocytoma, malignant; mixed tumor, malignant; mullerian mixed tumor; nephroblastoma; hepatoblastoma; mesenchymoma, malignant; brenner tumor, malignant; phyllodes tumor, malignant; mesothelioma, malignant; dysgerminoma; teratoma, malignant; struma ovarii, malignant; mesonephroma, malignant; hemangioendothelioma, malignant; hemangiopericytoma, malignant; chondroblastoma, malignant; granular cell tumor, malignant; malignant histiocytosis; and immunoproliferative small intestinal disease.

All references, patents, and patent applications disclosed herein are incorporated by reference with respect to the subject matter for which each is cited, which in some cases may encompass the entirety of the document.

Vaccine Compositions

The present disclosure is directed to a platform approach to cancer vaccination that provides breadth, with regard to the scope of cancers and tumor types amenable to treatment with the compositions, methods, and regimens disclosed, as well as magnitude, with regard to the level of immune responses elicited by the compositions and regimens disclosed. Embodiments of the present disclosure provide compositions comprising cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the cell lines have been modified as described herein.

The compositions of the disclosure are designed to increase immunogenicity and/or stimulate an immune response. For example, in some embodiments, the vaccines provided herein increase IFNγ production and the breadth of immune responses against multiple TAAs (e.g., the vaccines are capable of targeting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 or more TAAs, indicating the diversity of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of these anti-TAA T cell precursors. In some embodiments, the immune response produced by the vaccines provided herein is a response to more than one epitope associated with a given TAA (e.g., the vaccines are capable of targeting 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 epitopes or more on a given TAA), indicating the diversity of TCR repertoire of these anti-TAA T cell precursors.

This can be accomplished in certain embodiments by selecting cell lines that express numerous TAAs associated with the cancer to be treated; knocking down or knocking out expression of one or more immunosuppressive factors that facilitates tumor cell evasion of immune system surveillance; expressing or increasing expression of one or more immunostimulatory factors to increase immune activation within the vaccine microenvironment (VME); increasing expression of one or more tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) to increase the scope of relevant antigenic targets that are presented to the host immune system, optionally where the TAA or TAAs are designed or enhanced (e.g., modified by mutation) and comprise, for example, non-synonymous mutations (NSMs) and/or neoepitopes; administering a vaccine composition comprising at least 1 cancer stem cell; and/or any combination thereof.

The one or more cell lines of the vaccine composition can be modified to reduce production of more than one immunosuppressive factor (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more immunosuppressive factors). The one or more cell lines of a vaccine can be modified to increase production of more than one immunostimulatory factor (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more immunostimulatory factors). The one or more cell lines of the vaccine composition can naturally express, or be modified to express more than one TAA, e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 or more TAAs.

The vaccine compositions can comprise cells from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more cell lines. Further, as described herein, cell lines can be combined or mixed, e.g., prior to administration. In some embodiments, production of one or more immunosuppressive factors from one or more or the combination of the cell lines can be reduced or eliminated. In some embodiments, production of one or more immunostimulatory factors from one or more or the combination of the cell lines can be added or increased. In certain embodiments, the one or more or the combination of the cell lines can be selected to express a heterogeneity of TAAs. In some embodiments, the cell lines can be modified to increase the production of one or more immunostimulatory factors, TAAs, and/or neoantigens. In some embodiments, the cell line selection provides that a heterogeneity of HLA supertypes are represented in the vaccine composition. In some embodiments, the cells lines are chosen for inclusion in a vaccine composition such that a desired complement of TAAs are represented.

In various embodiments, the vaccine composition comprises a therapeutically effective amount of cells from at least one cancer cell line, wherein the cell line or the combination of cell lines expresses more than one of the TAAs of Tables 7-23. In some embodiments, a vaccine composition is provided comprising a therapeutically effective amount of cells from at least two cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or the combination of cell lines expresses at least three, at least four, at least five, at least six, at least seven, at least eight, at least nine, or at least ten of the TAAs of Tables 7-23. In some embodiments, a vaccine composition is provided comprising a therapeutically effective amount of cells from at least one cancer cell line, wherein the at least one cell line is modified to express at least one of the immunostimulatory factors of Table 4, at least two of the immunostimulatory factors of Table 4, or at least three of the immunostimulatory factors of Table 4. In further embodiments, a vaccine composition is provided comprising a therapeutically effective amount of cells from at least one cancer cell line, wherein each cell line or combination of cell lines is modified to reduce at least one of the immunosuppressive factors of Table 6, or at least two of the immunosuppressive factors of Table 6.

In embodiments where the one or more cell lines are modified to increase the production of one or more TAAs, the expressed TAAs may or may not have the native coding sequence of DNA/protein. That is, expression may be codon optimized or modified. Such optimization or modification may enhance certain effects (e.g., may lead to reduced shedding of a TAA protein from the vaccine cell membrane). As described herein, in some embodiments the expressed TAA protein is a designed antigen comprising one or more nonsynonymous mutations (NSMs) identified in cancer patients. In some embodiments, the NSMs introduces CD4, CD8, or CD4 and CD8 neoepitopes.

Any of the vaccine compositions described herein can be administered to a subject in order to treat cancer, prevent cancer, prolong survival in a subject with cancer, and/or stimulate an immune response in a subject.

Cell Lines

In various embodiments of the disclosure, the cell lines comprising the vaccine compositions and used in the methods described herein originate from parental cancer cell lines.

Cell lines are available from numerous sources as described herein and are readily known in the art. For example, cancer cell lines can be obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, Va.), Japanese Collection of Research Bioresources cell bank (JCRB, Kansas City, Mo.), Cell Line Service (CLS, Eppelheim, Germany), German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany), RI KEN BioResource Research Center (RCB, Tsukuba, Japan), Korean Cell Line Bank (KCLB, Seoul, South Korea), NIH AIDS Reagent Program (NIH-ARP/Fisher BioServices, Rockland, Md.), Bioresearch Collection and Research Center (BCRC, Hsinchu, Taiwan), Interlab Cell Line Collection (ICLC, Genova, Italy), European Collection of Authenticated Cell Cultures (ECACC, Salisbury, United Kingdom), Kunming Cell Bank (KCB, Yunnan, China), National Cancer Institute Development Therapeutics Program (NCI-DTP, Bethesda, Md.), Rio de Janeiro Cell Bank (BCRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Lombardy and Emilia Romagna (IZSLER, Milan, Italy), Tohoku University cell line catalog (TKG, Miyagi, Japan), and National Cell Bank of Iran (NCBI, Tehran, Iran). In some embodiments, cell lines are identified through an examination of RNA-seq data with respect to TAAs, immunosuppressive factor expression, and/or other information readily available to those skilled in the art.

In various embodiments, the cell lines in the compositions and methods described herein are from parental cell lines of solid tumors originating from the lung, prostate, testis, breast, urinary tract, colon, rectum, stomach, head and neck, liver, kidney, nervous system, endocrine system, mesothelium, ovaries, pancreas, esophagus, uterus or skin. In certain embodiments, the parental cell lines comprise cells of the same or different histology selected from the group consisting of squamous cells, adenocarcinoma cells, adenosquamous cells, large cell cells, small cell cells, sarcoma cells, carcinosarcoma cells, mixed mesodermal cells, and teratocarcinoma cells. In related embodiments, the sarcoma cells comprise osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, mesothelioma, fibrosarcoma, angiosarcoma, liposarcoma, glioma, gliosarcoma, astrocytoma, myxosarcoma, mesenchymous or mixed mesodermal cells.

In certain embodiments, the cell lines comprise cancer cells originating from lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), small cell lung cancer (SCLC), prostate cancer, glioblastoma, colorectal cancer, breast cancer including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), bladder or urinary tract cancer, squamous cell head and neck cancer (SCCHN), liver hepatocellular (HCC) cancer, kidney or renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cancer, gastric or stomach cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, testicular cancer, pancreatic cancer, central nervous system cancers, endometrial cancer, melanoma, and mesothelium cancer.

According to various embodiments, the cell lines are allogeneic cell lines (i.e., cells that are genetically dissimilar and hence immunologically incompatible, although from individuals of the same species.) In certain embodiments, the cell lines are genetically heterogeneous allogeneic. In other embodiments, the cell lines are genetically homogeneous allogeneic.

Allogeneic cell-based vaccines differ from autologous vaccines in that they do not contain patient-specific tumor antigens. Embodiments of the allogeneic vaccine compositions disclosed herein comprise laboratory-grown cancer cell lines known to express TAAs of a specific tumor type. Embodiments of the allogeneic cell lines of the present disclosure are strategically selected, sourced, and modified prior to use in a vaccine composition. Vaccine compositions of embodiments of the present disclosure can be readily mass-produced. This efficiency in development, manufacturing, storage, and other areas can result in cost reductions and economic benefits relative to autologous-based therapies.

Tumors are typically made up of a highly heterogeneous population of cancer cells that evolve and change over time. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that a vaccine composition comprising only autologous cell lines that do not target this cancer evolution and progression may be insufficient in the elicitation of a broad immune response required for effective vaccination. As described in embodiments of the vaccine composition disclosed herein, use of one or more strategically selected allogeneic cell lines with certain genetic modification(s) addresses this disparity.

In some embodiments, the allogeneic cell-based vaccines are from cancer cell lines of the same type (e.g., breast, prostate, lung) of the cancer sought to be treated. In other embodiments, various types of cell lines (i.e., cell lines from different primary tumor origins) are combined (e.g., stem cell, prostate, testes). In some embodiments, the cell lines in the vaccine compositions are a mixture of cell lines of the same type of the cancer sought to be treated and cell lines from different primary tumor origins.

Exemplary cancer cell lines, including, but not limited to those provided in Table 1, below, are contemplated for use in the compositions and methods described herein. The Cell Line Sources identified herein are for exemplary purposes only. The cell lines described in various embodiments herein may be available from multiple sources.

TABLE 1 Exemplary vaccine composition cell lines per indication Anatomical Site of Cell Line Cell Line Cell Line Source Primary Tumor Common Name Source Identification Lung (Small Cell and ABC-1 JCRB JCRB0815 Non-Small Cell) Calu-1 ATCC HTB-54 LOU-NH91 DSMZ ACC-393 NCI-H1581 ATCC CRL-5878 NCI-H1703 ATCC CRL-5889 NCI-H460 ATCC HTB-177 NCI-H520 ATCC HTB-182 A549 ATCC CCL-185 LK-2 JCRB JCRB0829 NCI-H23 ATCC CRL-5800 NCI-H2066 ATCC CRL-5917 NCI-H2009 ATCC CRL-5911 NCI-H2023 ATCC CRL-5912 RERF-LC-Ad1 JCRB JCRB1020 SK-LU-1 ATCC HTB-57 NCI-H2172 ATCC CRL-5930 NCI-H292 ATCC CRL-1848 NCI-H661 ATCC HTB-183 SQ-1 RCB RCB1905 RERF-LC-KJ JCRB JCRB0137 SW900 ATCC HTB-59 NCI-H838 ATCC CRL-5844 NCI-H1693 ATCC CRL-5887 HCC2935 ATCC CRL-2869 NCI-H226 ATCC CRL-5826 HCC4006 ATCC CRL-2871 DMS 53 ATCC CRL-2062 DMS 114 ATCC CRL-2066 NCI-H196 ATCC CRL-5823 NCI-H1092 ATCC CRL-5855 SBC-5 JCRB JCRB0819 NCI-H510A ATCC HTB-184 NCI-H889 ATCC CRL-5817 NCI-H1341 ATCC CRL-5864 NCIH-1876 ATCC CRL-5902 NCI-H2029 ATCC CRL-5913 NCI-H841 ATCC CRL-5845 NCI-H1694 ATCC CRL-5888 DMS 79 ATCC CRL-20496 HCC33 DSMZ ACC-487 NCI-H1048 ATCC CRL-5853 NCI-H1105 ATCC CRL-5856 NCI-H1184 ATCC CRL-5858 NCI-H128 ATCC HTB-120 NCI-H1436 ATCC CRL-5871 DMS 153 ATCC CRL-2064 NCI-H1836 ATCC CRL-5898 NCI-H1963 ATCC CRL-5982 NCI-H2081 ATCC CRL-5920 NCI-H209 ATCC HTB-172 NCI-H211 ATCC CRL-524 NCI-H2171 ATCC CRL-5929 NCI-H2196 ATCC CRL-5932 NCI-H2227 ATCC CRL-5934 NCI-H446 ATCC HTB-171 NCI-H524 ATCC CRL-5831 NCI-H526 ATCC CRL-5811 NCI-H69 ATCC HTB-119 NCI-H82 ATCC HTB-175 SHP-77 ATCC CRL-2195 SW1271 ATCC CRL-2177 Prostate or Testis PC3 ATCC CRL-1435 DU145 ATCC HTB-81 LNCaP clone ATCC CRL-2023 FGC NCCIT ATCC CRL-2073 NEC-8 JCRB JCRB0250 NTERA-2cl-D1 ATCC CRL-1973 NCI-H660 ATCC CRL-5813 VCaP ATCC CRL-2876 MDA-PCa-2b ATCC CRL-2422 22Rv1 ATCC CRL-2505 E006AA Millipore SCC102 NEC14 JCRB JCRB0162 SuSa DSMZ ACC-747 833K-E ECACC 06072611 Colorectal LS123 ATCC CCL-255 HCT15 ATCC CCL-225 SW1463 ATCC CCL-234 RKO ATCC CRL-2577 HUTU80 ATCC HTB-40 HCT116 ATCC CCL-247 LOVO ATCC CCL-229 T84 ATCC CCL-248 LS411N ATCC CRL-2159 SW48 ATCC CCL-231 C2BBe1 ATCC CRL-2102 Caco-2 ATCC HTB-37 SNU-1033 KCLB 01033 COLO 201 ATCC CCL-224 GP2d ECACC 95090714 CL-14 DSMZ ACC-504 SW403 ATCC CCL-230 SW1116 ATCC CCL-233 SW837 ATCC CCL-235 SK-CO-1 ATCC HTB-39 CL-34 DSMZ ACC-520 NCI-H508 ATCC CCL-253 CCK-81 JCRB JCRB0208 SNU-C2A ATCC CCL-250.1 GP2d ECACC 95090714 HT-55 ECACC 85061105 MDST8 ECACC 99011801 RCM-1 JCRB JCRB0256 CL-40 DSMZ ACC-535 COLO 678 DSMZ ACC-194 LS180 ATCC CL-187 Breast BT20 ATCC HTB-19 BT549 ATCC HTB-122 MDA-MB-231 ATCC HTB-26 HS578T ATCC HTB-126 AU565 ATCC CRL-2351 CAMA1 ATCC HTB-21 MCF7 ATCC HTB-22 T-47D ATCC HTB-133 ZR-75-1 ATCC CRL-1500 MDA-MB-415 ATCC HTB-128 CAL-51 DSMZ ACC-302 CAL-120 DSMZ ACC-459 HCC1187 ATCC CRL-2322 HCC1395 ATCC CRL-2324 SK-BR-3 ATCC HTB-30 HDQ-P1 DSMZ ACC-494 HCC70 ATCC CRL-2315 HCC1937 ATCC CRL-2336 MDA-MB-436 ATCC HTB-130 MDA-MB-468 ATCC HTB-132 MDA-MB-157 ATCC HTB-24 HMC-1-8 JCRB JCRB0166 Hs 274.T ATCC CRL-7222 Hs 281.T ATCC CRL-7227 JIMT-1 ATCC ACC-589 Hs 343.T ATCC CRL-7245 Hs 606.T ATCC CRL-7368 UACC-812 ATCC CRL-1897 UACC-893 ATCC CRL-1902 Urinary Tract UM-UC-3 ATCC CRL-1749 5637 ATCC HTB-9 J82 ATCC HTB-1 T24 ATCC HTB-4 HT-1197 ATCC CRL-1473 TCCSUP ATCC HTB-5 HT-1376 ATCC CRL-1472 SCaBER ATCC HTB-3 RT4 ATCC HTB-2 CAL-29 DSMZ ACC-515 AGS ATCC CRL-1739 KMBC-2 JCRB JCRB1148 253J KCLB 080001 253J-BV KCLB 080002 SW780 ATCC CRL-2169 SW1710 DSMZ ACC-426 VM-CUB-1 DSMZ ACC-400 BC-3C DSMZ ACC-450 U-BLC1 ECACC U-BLC1 KMBC-2 JCRB JCRB1148 RT112/84 ECACC 85061106 UM-UC-1 ECACC 06080301 RT-112 DSMZ ACC-418 KU-19-19 DSMZ ACC-395 639V DSMZ ACC-413 647V DSMZ ACC-414 Kidney A-498 ATCC HTB-44 A-704 ATCC HTB-45 769-P ATCC CRL-1933 786-O ATCC CRL-1932 ACHN ATCC CRL-1611 KMRC-1 JCRB JCRB1010 KMRC-2 JCRB JCRB1011 VMRC-RCZ JCRB JCRB0827 VMRC-RCW JCRB JCRB0813 UO-31 NCI-DTP UO-31 Caki-1 ATCC HTB-46 Caki-2 ATCC HTB-47 OS-RC-2 RCB RCB0735 TUHR-4TKB RCB RCB1198 RCC-10RGB RCB RCB1151 SNU-1272 KCLB 01272 SNU-349 KCLB 00349 TUHR-14TKB RCB RCB1383 TUHR-10TKB RCB RCB1275 BFTC-909 DSMZ ACC-367 CAL-54 DSMZ ACC-365 KMRC-3 JCRB JCRB1012 KMRC-20 JCRB JCRB1071 Upper Aerodigestive HSC-4 JCRB JCRB0624 Tract (Head and Neck) DETROIT 562 ATCC CCL-138 SCC-9 ATCC CRL-1629 SCC-4 ATCC CRL-1624 OSC-19 JCRB JCRB0198 KON JCRB JCRB0194 HO-1-N-1 JCRB JCRB0831 OSC-20 JCRB JCRB0197 HSC-3 JCRB JCRB0623 SNU-1066 KCLB 01066 SNU-1041 KCLB 01041 SNU-1076 KCLB 01076 BICR 18 ECACC 06051601 CAL-33 DSMZ ACC-447 YD-8 KCLB 60501 FaDu ATCC HTB-43 2A3 ATCC CRL-3212 CAL-27 ATCC CRL-2095 SCC-25 ATCC CRL-1628 SCC-15 ATCC CRL-1623 HO-1-u-1 JCRB JCRB0828 KOSC-2 JCRB JCRB0126.1 RPMI-2650 ATCC CCL-30 SCC-90 ATCC CRL-3239 SKN-3 JCRB JCRB1039 HSC-2 JCRB JCRB0622 Hs 840.T ATCC CRL-7573 SAS JCRB JCRB0260 SAT JCRB JCRB1027 SNU-46 KCLB 00046 YD-38 KCLB 60508 SNU-899 KCLB 00899 HN DSMZ ACC-417 BICR 10 ECACC 04072103 BICR 78 ECACC 04072111 Ovaries OVCAR-3 ATCC HTB-161 TOV-112D ATCC CRL-11731 ES-2 ATCC CRL-1978 TOV-21G ATCC CRL-11730 OVTOKO JCRB JCRB1048 KURAMOCHI JCRB JCRB0098 MCAS JCRB JCRB0240 TYK-nu JCRB JCRB0234.0 OVSAHO JCRB JCRB1046 OVMANA JCRB JCRB1045 JHOM-2B RCB RCB1682 OV56 ECACC 96020759 JHOS-4 RCB RCB1678 JHOC-5 RCB RCB1520 OVCAR-4 NCI-DTP OVCAR-4 JHOS-2 RCB RCB1521 EFO-21 DSMZ ACC-235 OV-90 ATCC CRL-11732 OVKATE JCRB JCRB1044 SK-OV-3 ATCC HTB-77 Caov-4 ATCC HTB-76 Coav-3 ATCC HTB-75 JHOM-1 RCB RCB1676 COV318 ECACC 07071903 OVK-18 RCB RCB1903 SNU-119 KCLB 00119 SNU-840 KCLB 00840 SNU-8 KCLB 0008 COV362 ECACC 07071910 COV434 ECACC 07071909 COV644 ECACC 07071908 OV7 ECACC 96020764 OAW-28 ECACC 85101601 OVCAR-8 NCI-DTP OVCAR-8 59M ECACC 89081802 EFO-27 DSMZ ACC-191 Pancreas PANC-1 ATCC CRL-1469 HPAC ATCC CRL-2119 KP-2 JCRB JCRB0181 KP-3 JCRB JCRB0178.0 KP-4 JCRB JCRB0182 HPAF-II ATCC CRL-1997 SUIT-2 JCRB JCRB1094 AsPC-1 ATCC CRL-1682 PSN1 ATCC CRL-3211 CFPAC-1 ATCC CRL-1918 Capan-1 ATCC HTB-79 Panc 02.13 ATCC CRL-2554 Panc 03.27 ATCC CRL-2549 BxPC-3 ATCC CRL-1687 SU.86.86 ATCC CRL-1837 Hs 766T ATCC HTB-134 Panc 10.05 ATCC CRL-2547 Panc 04.03 ATCC CRL-2555 PaTu 8988s DSMZ ACC-204 PaTu 8988t DSMZ ACC-162 SW1990 ATCC CRL-2172 SNU-324 KCLB 00324 SNU-213 KCLB 00213 DAN-G DSMZ ACC-249 Panc 02.03 ATCC CRL-2553 PaTu 8902 DSMZ ACC-179 Capan-2 ATCC HTB-80 MIA PaCa-2 ATCC CRL-1420 YAPC DSMZ ACC-382 HuP-T3 DSMZ ACC-259 T3M-4 RCB RCB1021 PK-45H RCB RCB1973 Panc 08.13 ATCC CRL-2551 PK-1 RCB RCB1972 PK-59 RCB RCB1901 HuP-T4 DSMZ ACC-223 Panc 05.04 ATCC CRL-2557 Stomach RERF-GC-1B JCRB JCRB1009 Fu97 JCRB JCRB1074 MKN74 JCRB JCRB0255 NCI-N87 ATCC CRL-5822 NUGC-2 JCRB JCRB0821 MKN45 JCRB JCRB0254 OCUM-1 JCRB JCRB0192 MKN7 JCRB JCRB1025 MKN1 JCRB JCRB0252 ECC10 RCB RCB0983 TGBC-11-TKB RCB RCB1148 SNU-620 KCLB 00620 GSU RCB RCB2278 KE-39 RCB RCB1434 HuG1-N RCB RCB1179 NUGC-4 JCRB JCRB0834 SNU-16 ATCC CRL-5974 SJSA-1 ATCC CRL-2098 RD-ES ATCC HTB-166 U2OS ATCC HTB-96 SaOS-2 ATCC HTB-85 Hs 746.T ATCC HTP-135 LMSU RCB RCB1062 SNU-520 KCLB 00520 GSS RCB RCB2277 ECC12 RCB RCB1009 GCIY RCB RCB0555 SH-10-TC RCB RCB1940 HGC-27 BCRJ 0310 HuG1-N RCB RCB1179 SNU-601 KCLB KCLB00601 SNU-668 KCLB 00668 NCC-StC-K140 JCRB JCRB1228 SNU-719 KCLB 00719 SNU-216 KCLB 00216 NUGC-3 JCRB JCRB0822 Liver Hep-G2 ATCC HB-8065 JHH-2 JCRB JCRB1028 JHH-4 JCRB JCRB0435 JHH-6 JCRB JCRB1030 Li7 RCB RCB1941 HLF JCRB JCRB0405 HuH-6 RCB BRC1367 JHH-5 JCRB JCRB1029 HuH-7 JCRB JCRB0403 SNU-182 ATCC CRL-2235 JHH-7 JCRB JCRB1031 SK-HEP-1 ATCC HTB-52 Hep 3B2.1-7 ATCC HB-8064 SNU-449 ATCC CRL-2234 SNU-761 KCLB KCLB JHH-1 JCRB JCRB1062 SNU-398 ATCC CRL-2233 SNU-423 ATCC CRL-2238 SNU-387 ATCC CRL-2237 SNU-475 ATCC CRL-2236 SNU-886 KCLB KCLB 00886 SNU-878 KCLB KCLB 00878 NCI-H684 KCLB KCLB 90684 PLC/PRF/5 ATCC CRL-8024 HuH-1 JCRB JCRB0199 HLE JCRB JCRB0404 C3A ATCC HB-8065 Central Nervous DBTRG-05MG ATCC CRL-2020 System LN-229 ATCC CRL-2611 SF-126 JCRB IFO50286 M059K ATCC CRL-2365 M059KJ ATCC CRL-2366 U-251 MG JCRB IFO50288 A-172 ATCC CRL-1620 YKG-1 ATCC JCRB0746 GB-1 ATCC IFO50489 KNS-60 ATCC IFO50357 KNS-81 JCRB IFO50359 TM-31 RCB RCB1731 NMC-G1 JCRB IFO50467 SNU-201 KCLB 00201 SW1783 ATCC HTB-13 GOS-3 DSMZ ACC-408 KNS-81 JCRB IFO50359 KG-1-C JCRB JCRB0236 AM-38 JCRB IFO50492 CAS-1 ILCL HTL97009 H4 ATCC HTB-148 D283 Med ATCC HTB-185 DK-MG DSMZ ACC-277 U-118MG ATCC HTB-15 SNU-489 KCLB 00489 SNU-466 KCLB 00426 SNU-1105 KCLB 01105 SNU-738 KCLB 00738 SNU-626 KCLB 00626 Daoy ATCC HTB-186 D341 Med ATCC HTB-187 SW1088 ATCC HTB-12 Hs 683 ATCC HTB-138 ONS-76 JCRB IFO50355 LN-18 ATCC CRL-2610 T98G ATCC CRL-1690 GMS-10 DSMZ ACC-405 42-MG-BA DSMZ ACC-431 GaMG DSMZ ACC-242 8-MG-BA DSMZ ACC-432 IOMM-Lee ATCC CRL-3370 SF268 NCI-DTP SF-268 SF539 NCI-DTP SF-539 SNB75 NCI-DTP SNB-75 Esophagus TE-10 RCB RCB2099 TE-6 RCB RCB1950 TE-4 RCB RCB2097 EC-GI-10 RCB RCB0774 OE33 ECACC 96070808 TE-9 RCB RCB1988 TT JCRB JCRB0262 TE-11 RCB RCB2100 OE19 ECACC 96071721 OE21 ECACC 96062201 KYSE-450 JCRB JCRB1430 TE-14 RCB RCB2101 TE-8 RCB RCB2098 KYSE-410 JCRB JCRB1419 KYSE-140 DSMZ ACC-348 KYSE-180 JCRB JCRB1083 KYSE-520 JCRB JCRB1439 KYSE-270 JCRB JCRB1087 KYSE-70 JCRB JCRB0190 TE-1 RCB RCB1894 TE-5 RCB RCB1949 TE-15 RCB RCB1951 KYSE-510 JCRB JCRB1436 KYSE-30 ECACC 94072011 KYSE-150 DSMZ ACC-375 COLO 680N DSMZ ACC-182 KYSE-450 JCRB JCRB1430 TE-10 RCB RCB2099 ESO-26 ECACC 11012009 ESO-51 ECACC 11012010 FLO-1 ECACC 11012001 KYAE-1 ECACC 11012002 KYSE-220 JCRB JCRB1086 KYSE-50 JCRB JCRB0189 OACM5.1 C ECACC 11012006 OACP4 C ECACC 11012005 Endometrium SNG-M JCRB IFO50313 HEC-1-B ATCC HTB-113 JHUEM-3 Riken RCB1552 RCB RL95-2 ATCC CRL-1671 MFE-280 ECACC 98050131 MFE-296 ECACC 98031101 TEN Riken RCB1433 RCB JHUEM-2 Riken RCB1551 RCB AN3-CA ATCC HTB-111 KLE ATCC CRL-1622 Ishikawa ECACC 99040201 HEC-151 JCRB JCRB1122 SNU-1077 KCLB 01077 MFE-319 DSMZ ACC-423 EFE-184 DSMZ ACC-230 HEC-108 JCRB JCRB1123 HEC-265 JCRB JCRB1142 HEC-6 JCRB JCRB1118 HEC-50B JCRB JCRB1145 JHUEM-1 RCB RCB1548 HEC-251 JCRB JCRB1141 COLO 684 ECACC 87061203 SNU-685 KCLB 00685 HEC-59 JCRB JCRB1120 EN DSMZ ACC-564 ESS-1 DSMZ ACC-461 HEC-1A ATCC HTB-112 JHUEM-7 RCB RCB1677 HEC-1 JCRB JCRB0042 Skin RPMI-7951 ATCC HTB-66 MeWo ATCC HTB-65 Hs 688(A).T ATCC CRL-7425 COLO 829 ATCC CRL-1974 C32 ATCC CRL-1585 A-375 ATCC CRL-1619 Hs 294T ATCC HTB-140 Hs 695T ATCC HTB-137 Hs 852T ATCC CRL-7585 A2058 ATCC CRL-11147 RVH-421 DSMZ ACC-127 Hs 895.T ATCC CRL-7637 Hs 940.T ATCC CRL-7691 SK-MEL-1 ATCC HTB-67 SK-MEL-28 ATCC HTB-72 SH-4 ATCC CRL-7724 COLO 800 ECACC 93051123 COLO 783 DSMZ ACC-257 MDA-MB-435S ATCC HTB-129 IGR-1 CLS 300219/ p483_IGR-1 IGR-39 DSMZ ACC-239 HT-144 ATCC HTB-63 SK-MEL-31 ATCC HTB-73 Hs 839.T ATCC CRL-7572 Hs 600.T ATCC CRL-7360 A101D ATCC CRL-7898 IPC-298 DSMZ ACC-251 SK-MEL-24 ATCC HTB-71 SK-MEL-3 ATCC HTB-69 HMCB ATCC CRL-9607 Malme-3M ATCC HTB-64 Mel JuSo DSMZ ACC-74 COLO 679 RCB RCB0989 COLO 741 ECACC 93052621 SK-MEL-5 ATCC HTB-70 WM266-4 ATCC CRL-1676 IGR-37 DSMZ ACC-237 Hs 934.T ATCC CRL-7684 UACC-257 NCI-DTP UACC-257 Mesothelium NCI-H28 ATCC CRL-5820 MSTO-211H ATCC CRL-2081 IST-Mes1 ICLC HTL01005 ACC-MESO-1 RCB RCB2292 NCI-H2052 ATCC CRL-5951 NCI-H2452 ATCC CRL-2081 MPP 89 ICLC HTL00012 IST-Mes2 ICLC HTL01007 RS-5 DSMZ ACC-604 DM-3 DSMZ ACC-595 JL-1 DSMZ ACC-596 COR-L321 ECACC 96020756

In addition to the cell lines identified in Table 1, the following cell lines are also contemplated in various embodiments.

In various embodiments, one or more non-small cell lung (NSCLC) cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following NSCLC cell lines are contemplated: NCI-H460, NCIH520, A549, DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23. Additional NSCLC cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising NSCLC cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more prostate cancer cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following prostate cancer cell lines are contemplated: PC3, DU-145, LNCAP, NEC8, and NTERA-2c1-D1. Additional prostate cancer cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising prostate cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following colorectal cancer cell lines are contemplated: HCT-15, RKO, HuTu-80, HCT-116, and LS411N. Additional colorectal cancer cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising CRC cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more breast cancer or triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following TNBC cell lines are contemplated: Hs 578T, AU565, CAMA-1, MCF-7, and T-47D. Additional breast cancer cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising breast and/or TNBC cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more bladder or urinary tract cancer cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following urinary tract or bladder cancer cell lines are contemplated: UM-UC-3, J82, TCCSUP, HT-1376, and SCaBER. Additional bladder cancer cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising bladder or urinary tract cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more stomach or gastric cancer cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following stomach or gastric cancer cell lines are contemplated: Fu97, MKN74, MKN45, OCUM-1, and MKN1. Additional stomach cancer cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising stomach or gastric cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more squamous cell head and neck cancer (SCCHN) cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following SCCHN cell lines are contemplated: HSC-4, Detroit 562, KON, HO-1-N-1, and OSC-20. Additional SCCHN cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising SCCHN cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following SCLC cell lines are contemplated: DMS 114, NCI-H196, NCI-H1092, SBC-5, NCI-H510A, NCI-H889, NCI-H1341, NCIH-1876, NCI-H2029, NCI-H841, and NCI-H1694. Additional SCLC cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising SCLC cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more liver or hepatocellular cancer (HCC) cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following HCC cell lines are contemplated: Hep-G2, JHH-2, JHH-4, JHH-6, Li7, HLF, HuH-6, JHH-5, and HuH-7. Additional HCC cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising liver or HCC cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more kidney cancer such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following RCC cell lines are contemplated: A-498, A-704, 769-P, 786-O, ACHN, KMRC-1, KMRC-2, VMRC-RCZ, and VMRC-RCW. Additional RCC cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising kidney or RCC cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more glioblastoma (GBM) cancer cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following GBM cell lines are contemplated: DBTRG-05MG, LN-229, SF-126, GB-1, and KNS-60. Additional GBM cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising GBM cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more ovarian cancer cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following ovarian cell lines are contemplated: TOV-112D, ES-2, TOV-21G, OVTOKO, and MCAS. Additional ovarian cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising ovarian cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more esophageal cancer cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following esophageal cell lines are contemplated: TE-10, TE-6, TE-4, EC-GI-10, OE33, TE-9, TT, TE-11, OE19, OE21. Additional esophageal cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising esophageal cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more pancreatic cancer cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following pancreatic cell lines are contemplated: PANC-1, KP-3, KP-4, SUIT-2, and PSN1. Additional pancreatic cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising pancreatic cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more endometrial cancer cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following endometrial cell lines are contemplated: SNG-M, HEC-1-B, JHUEM-3, RL95-2, MFE-280, MFE-296, TEN, JHUEM-2, AN3-CA, and Ishikawa. Additional endometrial cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising endometrial cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more melanoma cancer cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following melanoma cell lines are contemplated: RPMI-7951, MeWo, Hs 688(A).T, COLO 829, C32, A-375, Hs 294T, Hs 695T, Hs 852T, and A2058. Additional melanoma cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising melanoma cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

In some embodiments, one or more mesothelioma cancer cell lines are prepared and used according to the disclosure. By way of example, the following mesothelioma cell lines are contemplated: NCI-H28, MSTO-211H, IST-Mes1, ACC-MESO-1, NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452, MPP 89, and IST-Mes2. Additional mesothelioma cell lines are also contemplated by the present disclosure. As described herein, inclusion of a cancer stem cell line such as DMS 53 in a vaccine comprising mesothelioma cancer cell lines is also contemplated.

Embodiments of vaccine compositions according to the disclosure are used to treat and/or prevent various types of cancer. In some embodiments, a vaccine composition may comprise cancer cell lines that originated from the same type of cancer. For example, a vaccine composition may comprise 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more NSCLC cell lines, and such a composition may be useful to treat or prevent NSCLC. According to certain embodiments, the vaccine composition comprising NCSLC cell lines may be used to treat or prevent cancers other than NSCLC, examples of which are described herein.

In some embodiments, a vaccine composition may comprise cancer cell lines that originated from different types of cancer. For example, a vaccine composition may comprise 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more NSCLC cell lines, plus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more SCLC cancer cell lines, optionally plus one or other cancer cell lines, such as cancer stem cell lines, and so on, and such a composition may be useful to treat or prevent NSCLC, and/or prostate cancer, and/or breast cancer, and so on. According to some embodiments, the vaccine composition comprising different cancer cell lines as described herein may be used to treat or prevent various cancers. In some embodiments, the targeting of a TAA or multiple TAAs in a particular tumor is optimized by using cell lines derived from different tissues or organs within a biological system to target a cancer of primary origin within the same system. By way of non-limiting examples, cell lines derived from tumors of the reproductive system (e.g., ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate) may be combined; cell lines derived from tumors of the digestive system (e.g., salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, rectum, and anus) may be combined; cell lines from tumors of the respiratory system (e.g., pharynx, larynx, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm) may be combined; and cell lines derived from tumors of the urinary system (e.g., kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra) may be combined.

According to various embodiments of the vaccine compositions, the disclosure provides compositions comprising a combination of cell lines. By way of non-limiting examples, cell line combinations are provided below. In each of the following examples, cell line DMS 53, whether modified or unmodified, is combined with 5 other cancer cell lines in the associated list. One or more of the cell lines within each recited combination may be modified as described herein. In some embodiments, none of the cell lines in the combination of cell lines are modified.

(1) NCI-H460, NCIH520, A549, DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23 for the treatment and/or prevention of NSCLC;

(2) DMS 114, NCI-H196, NCI-H1092, SBC-5, NCI-H510A, NCI-H889, NCI-H1341, NCIH-1876, NCI-H2029, NCI-H841, DMS 53, and NCI-H1694 for the treatment and/or prevention of SCLC;

(3) DMS 53, PC3, DU-145, LNCAP, NCC-IT, and NTERA-2c1-D1 for the treatment and/or prevention of prostate cancer;

(4) DMS 53, HCT-15, RKO, HuTu-80, HCT-116, and LS411N for the treatment and/or prevention of colorectal cancer;

(5) DMS 53, Hs 578T, AU565, CAMA-1, MCF-7, and T-47D for the treatment and/or prevention of breast cancer including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC);

(6) DMS 53, UM-UC-3, J82, TCCSUP, HT-1376, and SCaBER for the treatment and/or prevention of bladder cancer;

(7) DMS 53, HSC-4, Detroit 562, KON, HO-1-N-1, and OSC-20 for the treatment and/or prevention of head and/or neck cancer;

(8) DMS 53, Fu97, MKN74, MKN45, OCUM-1, and MKN1 for the treatment and/or prevention of stomach cancer;

(9) DMS 53, Hep-G2, JHH-2, JHH-4, JHH-6, Li7, HLF, HuH-6, JHH-5, and HuH-7 for the treatment and/or prevention of liver cancer;

(10) DMS 53, DBTRG-05MG, LN-229, SF-126, GB-1, and KNS-60 for the treatment and/or prevention of glioblastoma;

(11) DMS 53, TOV-112D, ES-2, TOV-21G, OVTOKO, and MCAS for the treatment and/or prevention of ovarian cancer;

(12) DMS 53, TE-10, TE-6, TE-4, EC-GI-10, OE33, TE-9, TT, TE-11, OE19, and OE21 for the treatment and/or prevention of esophageal cancer;

(13) DMS 53, A-498, A-704, 769-P, 786-O, ACHN, KMRC-1, KMRC-2, VMRC-RCZ, and VMRC-RCW for the treatment and/or prevention of kidney cancer;

(14) DMS 53, PANC-1, KP-3, KP-4, SUIT-2, and PSN1 for the treatment and/or prevention of pancreatic cancer;

(15) DMS 53, SNG-M, HEC-1-B, JHUEM-3, RL95-2, MFE-280, MFE-296, TEN, JHUEM-2, AN3-CA, and Ishikawa for the treatment and/or prevention of endometrial cancer;

(16) DMS 53, RPMI-7951, MeWo, Hs 688(A).T, COLO 829, C32, A-375, Hs 294T, Hs 695T, Hs 852T, and A2058 for the treatment and/or prevention of skin cancer; and

(17) DMS 53, NCI-H28, MSTO-211H, IST-Mes1, ACC-MESO-1, NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452, MPP 89, and IST-Mes2 for the treatment and/or prevention of mesothelioma.

In some embodiments, the cell lines in the vaccine compositions and methods described herein include one or more cancer stem cell (CSC) cell lines, whether modified or unmodified. One example of a CSC cell line is small cell lung cancer cell line DMS 53, whether modified or unmodified. CSCs display unique markers that differ depending on the anatomical origin of the tumor. Exemplary CSC markers include: prominin-1 (CD133), A2B5, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1), polycomb protein (Bmi-1), integrin-81 (CD29), hyaluronan receptor (CD44), Thy-1 (CD90), SCF receptor (CD117), TRA-1-60, nestin, Oct-4, stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (CD15), GD3 (CD60a), stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) or (CD15), stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4), stage-specific embryonic antigen-5 (SSEA-5), and Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (CD176).

Expression markers that identify cancer cell lines with greater potential to have stem cell-like properties differ depending on various factors including anatomical origin, organ, or tissue of the primary tumor. Exemplary cancer stem cell markers identified by primary tumor site are provided in Table 2 and are disclosed across various references (e.g., Gilbert, C A & Ross, A H. J Cell Biochem. (2009); Karsten, U & Goletz, S. SpringerPlus (2013); Zhao, W et al. Cancer Transl Med. (2017)).

Exemplary cell lines expressing one or more markers of cancer stem cell-like properties specific for the anatomical site of the primary tumor from which the cell line was derived are listed in Table 2. Exemplary cancer stem cell lines are provided in Table 3. Expression of CSC markers was determined using RNA-seq data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) (retrieved from www.broadinstitute.org/ccle on Nov. 23, 2019; Barretina, J et al. Nature. (2012)). The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee gene symbol was entered into the CCLE search and mRNA expression downloaded for each CSC marker. The expression of a CSC marker was considered positive if the RNA-seq value (FPKM) was greater than 0.

TABLE 2 Exemplary CSC markers by primary tumor anatomical origin Anatomical Site of CSC Marker CSC Marker Primary Tumor Common Name Gene Symbol Ovaries Endoglin, CD105 ENG CD117, cKIT KIT CD44 CD44 CD133 PROM1 SALL4 SAL4 Nanog NANOG Oct-4 POU5F1 Pancreas ALDH1A1 ALDH1A1 c-Myc MYC EpCAM, TROP1 EPCAM CD44 CD44 Cd133 PROM1 CXCR4 CXCR4 Oct-4 POU5F1 Nestin NES BMI-1 BMI1 Skin CD27 CD27 ABCB5 ABCB5 ABCG2 ABCG2 CD166 ALCAM Nestin NES CD133 PROM1 CD20 MS4A1 NGFR NGFR Lung ALDH1A1 ALDH1A1 EpCAM, TROP1 EPCAM CD90 THY1 CD117, cKIT KIT CD133 PROM1 ABCG2 ABCG2 SOX2 SOX2 Liver Nanog NANOG CD90/thy1 THY1 CD133 PROM1 CD13 ANPEP EpCAM, TROP1 EPCAM CD117, cKIT KIT SALL4 SAL4 SOX2 SOX2 Upper Aerodigestive ABCG2 ABCG2 Tract (Head and Neck) ALDH1A1 ALDH1A1 Lgr5, GPR49 LGR5 BMI-1 BMI1 CD44 CD44 cMET MET Central Nervous System ALDH1A1 ALDH1A1 ABCG2 ABCG2 BMI-1 BMI1 CD15 FUT4 CD44 CD44 CD49f, Integrin α6 ITGA6 CD90 THY1 CD133 PROM1 CXCR4 CXCR4 CX3CR1 CX3CR1 SOX2 SOX2 c-Myc MYC Musashi-1 MSI1 Nestin NES Stomach ALDH1A1 ALDH1A1 ABCB1 ABCB1 ABCG2 ABCG2 CD133 PROM1 CD164 CD164 CD15 FUT4 Lgr5, GPR49 LGR5 CD44 CD44 MUC1 MUC1 DLL4 DLL4 Colon (Large and Small ALDH1A1 ALDH1A1 Intestines) c-myc MYC CD44 CD44 CD133 PROM1 Nanog NANOG Musashi-1 MSI1 EpCAM, TROP1 EPCAM Lgr5, GPR49 LGR5 SALL4 SAL4 Breast ABCG2 ABCG2 ALDH1A1 ALDH1A1 BMI-1 BMI1 CD133 PROM1 CD44 CD44 CD49f, Integrin α6 ITGA6 CD90 THY1 c-myc MYC CXCR1 CXCR1 CXCR4 CXCR4 EpCAM, TROP1 EPCAM KLF4 KLF4 MUC1 MUC1 Nanog NANOG SALL4 SAL4 SOX2 SOX2 Urinary Tract ALDH1A1 ALDH1A1 CEACAM6, CD66c CEACAM6 Oct4 OCT4 CD44 CD44 YAP1 YAP1 Hematopoietic and BMI-1 BMI1 Lymphoid Tissue CD117, c-kit KIT CD20 MS4A1 CD27, TNFRSF7 CD27 CD34 CD34 CD38 CD38 CD44 CD44 CD96 CD96 GLI-1 GLI1 GLI-2 GLI2 IL-3Rα IL3RA MICL CLEC12A Syndecan-1, CD138 SDC1 TIM-3 HAVCR2 Bone ABCG2 ABCG2 CD44 CD44 Endoglin, CD105 ENG Nestin NES

TABLE 3 Cell lines expressing CSC markers Anatomical Site of Cell Line Cell Line Cell Line Source Primary Tumor Common Name Source Identification Ovaries JHOM-2B RCB RCB1682 OVCAR-3 ATCC HTB-161 OV56 ECACC 96020759 JHOS-4 RCB RCB1678 JHOC-5 RCB RCB1520 OVCAR-4 NCI-DTP OVCAR-4 JHOS-2 RCB RCB1521 EFO-21 DSMZ ACC-235 Pancreas CFPAC-1 ATCC CRL-1918 Capan-1 ATCC HTB-79 Panc 02.13 ATCC CRL-2554 SUIT-2 JCRB JCRB1094 Panc 03.27 ATCC CRL-2549 Skin SK-MEL-28 ATCC HTB-72 RVH-421 DSMZ ACC-127 Hs 895.T ATCC CRL-7637 Hs 940.T ATCC CRL-7691 SK-MEL-1 ATCC HTB-67 Hs 936.T ATCC CRL-7686 SH-4 ATCC CRL-7724 COLO 800 DSMZ ACC-193 UACC-62 NCI-DTP UACC-62 Lung NCI-H2066 ATCC CRL-5917 NCI-H1963 ATCC CRL-5982 NCI-H209 ATCC HTB-172 NCI-H889 ATCC CRL-5817 COR-L47 ECACC 92031915 NCI-H1092 ATCC CRL-5855 NCI-H1436 ATCC CRL-5871 COR-L95 ECACC 96020733 COR-L279 ECACC 96020724 NCI-H1048 ATCC CRL-5853 NCI-H69 ATCC HTB-119 DMS 53 ATCC CRL-2062 Liver HuH-6 RCB RCB1367 Li7 RCB RCB1941 SNU-182 ATCC CRL-2235 JHH-7 JCRB JCRB1031 SK-HEP-1 ATCC HTB-52 Hep 3B2.1-7 ATCC HB-8064 Upper Aerodigestive SNU-1066 KCLB 01066 Tract (Head and Neck) SNU-1041 KCLB 01041 SNU-1076 KCLB 01076 BICR 18 ECACC 06051601 CAL-33 DSMZ ACC-447 DETROIT 562 ATCC CCL-138 HSC-3 JCRB JCRB0623 HSC-4 JCRB JCRB0624 SCC-9 ATCC CRL-1629 YD-8 KCLB 60501 Urinary Tract CAL-29 DSMZ ACC-515 KMBC-2 JCRB JCRB1148 253J KCLB 80001 253J-BV KCLB 80002 SW780 ATCC CRL-2169 SW1710 DSMZ ACC-426 VM-CUB-1 DSMZ ACC-400 BC-3C DSMZ ACC-450 Central Nervous System KNS-81 JCRB IFO50359 TM-31 RCB RCB1731 NMC-G1 JCRB IFO50467 GB-1 JCRB IFO50489 SNU-201 KCLB 00201 DBTRG-05MG ATCC CRL-2020 YKG-1 JCRB JCRB0746 Stomach ECC10 RCB RCB0983 RERF-GC-1B JCRB JCRB1009 TGBC-11-TKB RCB RCB1148 SNU-620 KCLB 00620 GSU RCB RCB2278 KE-39 RCB RCB1434 HuG1-N RCB RCB1179 NUGC-4 JCRB JCRB0834 MKN-45 JCRB JCRB0254 SNU-16 ATCC CRL-5974 OCUM-1 JCRB JCRB0192 Colon (Large and Small C2BBe1 ATCC CRL-2102 Intestines) Caco-2 ATCC HTB-37 SNU-1033 KCLB 01033 SW1463 ATCC CCL-234 COLO 201 ATCC CCL-224 GP2d ECACC 95090714 LoVo ATCC CCL-229 SW403 ATCC CCL-230 CL-14 DSMZ ACC-504 Breast HCC2157 ATCC CRL-2340 HCC38 ATCC CRL-2314 HCC1954 ATCC CRL-2338 HCC1143 ATCC CRL-2321 HCC1806 ATCC CRL-2335 HCC1599 ATCC CRL-2331 MDA-MB-415 ATCC HTB-128 CAL-51 DSMZ ACC-302 Hematopoietic and KO52 JCRB JCRB0123 Lymphoid Tissue SKNO-1 JCRB JCRB1170 Kasumi-1 ATCC CRL-2724 Kasumi-6 ATCC CRL-2775 MHH-CALL-3 DSMZ ACC-339 MHH-CALL-2 DSMZ ACC-341 JVM-2 ATCC CRL-3002 HNT-34 DSMZ ACC-600 Bone HOS ATCC CRL-1543 OUMS-27 JCRB IFO50488 T1-73 ATCC CRL-7943 Hs 870.T ATCC CRL-7606 Hs 706.T ATCC CRL-7447 SJSA-1 ATCC CRL-2098 RD-ES ATCC HTB-166 U2OS ATCC HTB-96 SaOS-2 ATCC HTB-85 SK-ES-1 ATCC HTB-86

In certain embodiments, the vaccine compositions comprising a combination of cell lines are capable of stimulating an immune response and/or preventing cancer and/or treating cancer. The present disclosure provides compositions and methods of using one or more vaccine compositions comprising therapeutically effective amounts of cell lines.

The amount (e.g., number) of cells from the various individual cell lines in a cocktail or vaccine compositions can be equal (as defined herein) or different. In various embodiments, the number of cells from a cell line or from each cell line (in the case where multiple cell lines are administered) in a vaccine composition, is approximately 1.0×106, 2.0×106, 3.0×106, 4.0×106, 5.0×106, 6.0×106, 7.0×106, 8×106, 9.0×106, 1.0×107, 2.0×107, 3.0×107, 4.0×107, 5.0×107, 6.0×107, 8.0×107, or 9.0×107 cells.

The total number of cells administered to a subject, e.g., per administration site, can range from 1.0×106 to 9.0×107. For example, 2.0×106, 3.0×106, 4.0×106, 5.0×106, 6.0×106, 7.0×106, 8×106, 9.0×106, 1.0×107, 2.0×107, 3.0×107, 4.0×107, 5.0×107, 6.0×107, 8.0×107, 8.6×107, 8.8×107, or 9.0×107 cells are administered.

In certain embodiments, the number of cell lines included in each administration of the vaccine composition can range from 1 to 10 cell lines. In some embodiments, the number of cells from each cell line are not equal and different ratios of cell lines are used. For example, if one cocktail contains 5.0×107 total cells from 3 different cell lines, there could be 3.33×107 cells of one cell line and 8.33×106 of the remaining 2 cell lines.

HLA Diversity

HLA mismatch occurs when the subject's HLA molecules are different from those expressed by the cells of the administered vaccine compositions. The process of HLA matching involves characterizing 5 major HLA loci, which include the HLA alleles at three Class I loci HLA-A, -B and -C and two class II loci HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1. As every individual expresses two alleles at each loci, the degree of match or mismatch is calculated on a scale of 10, with 10/10 being a perfect match at all 10 alleles.

The response to mismatched HLA loci is mediated by both innate and adaptive cells of the immune system. Within the cells of the innate immune system, recognition of mismatches in HLA alleles is mediated to some extent by monocytes. Without being bound to any theory or mechanism, the sensing of “non-self” by monocytes triggers infiltration of monocyte-derived DCs, followed by their maturation, resulting in efficient antigen presentation to naïve T cells. Alloantigen-activated DCs produce increased amounts of IL-12 as compared to DCs activated by matched syngeneic antigens, and this increased IL-12 production results in the skewing of responses to Th1 T cells and increased IFN gamma production. HLA mismatch recognition by the adaptive immune system is driven to some extent by T cells. Without being bound to any theory or mechanism, 1-10% of all circulating T cells are alloreactive and respond to HLA molecules that are not present in self. This is several orders of magnitude greater than the frequency of endogenous T cells that are reactive to a conventional foreign antigen. The ability of the immune system to recognize these differences in HLA alleles and generate an immune response is a barrier to successful transplantation between donors and patients and has been viewed an obstacle in the development of cancer vaccines.

As many as 945 different HLA-A and -B alleles can be assigned to one of the nine supertypes based on the binding affinity of the HLA molecule to epitope anchor residues. In some embodiments, the vaccine compositions provided herein exhibit a heterogeneity of HLA supertypes, e.g., mixtures of HLA-A supertypes, and HLA-B supertypes. As described herein, various features and criteria may be considered to ensure the desired heterogeneity of the vaccine composition including, but not limited to, an individual's ethnicity (with regard to both cell donor and subject receiving the vaccine). Additional criteria are described herein (e.g., Example 22). In certain embodiments, a vaccine composition expresses a heterogeneity of HLA supertypes, wherein at least two different HLA-A and at least two HLA-B supertypes are represented.

In some embodiments, a composition comprising therapeutically effective amounts of multiple cell lines are provided to ensure a broad degree of HLA mismatch on multiple class I and class II HLA molecules between the tumor cell vaccine and the recipient.

In some embodiments, the vaccine composition expresses a heterogeneity of HLA supertypes, wherein the composition expresses a heterogeneity of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules such that two of HLA-A24, HLA-A03, HLA-A01, and two of HLA-B07, HLA-B08, HLA-B27, and HLA-B44 supertypes are represented. In some embodiments, the vaccine composition expresses a heterogeneity HLA supertypes, wherein the composition expresses a heterogeneity of MHC molecules and at least the HLA-A24 is represented. In some exemplary embodiments, the composition expresses a heterogeneity of MHC molecules such that HLA-A24, HLA-A03, HLA-A01, HLA-B07, HLA-B27, and HLA-B44 supertypes are represented. In other exemplary embodiments, the composition expresses a genetic heterogeneity of MHC molecules such that HLA-A01, HLA-A03, HLA-B07, HLA-B08, and HLA-B44 supertypes are represented.

Patients display a wide breadth of HLA types that act as markers of self. A localized inflammatory response that promotes the release of cytokines, such as IFNγ and IL-2, is initiated upon encountering a non-self cell. In some embodiments, increasing the heterogeneity of HLA-supertypes within the vaccine cocktail has the potential to augment the localized inflammatory response when the vaccine is delivered conferring an adjuvant effect. As described herein, in some embodiments, increasing the breadth, magnitude, and immunogenicity of tumor reactive T cells primed by the cancer vaccine composition is accomplished by including multiple cell lines chosen to have mismatches in HLA types, chosen, for example, based on expression of certain TAAs. Embodiments of the vaccine compositions provided herein enable effective priming of a broad and effective anti-cancer response in the subject with the additional adjuvant effect generated by the HLA mismatch. Various embodiments of the cell line combinations in a vaccine composition express the HLA-A supertypes and HLA-B supertypes. Non-limiting examples are provided in Example 22 herein.

Cell Line Modifications

In certain embodiments, the vaccine compositions comprise cells that have been modified. Modified cell lines can be clonally derived from a single modified cell, i.e., genetically homogenous, or derived from a genetically heterogenous population.

Cell lines can be modified to express or increase expression of one or more immunostimulatory factors, to inhibit or decrease expression of one or more immunosuppressive factors, and/or to express or increase expression of one or more TAAs, including optionally TAAs that have been mutated in order to present neoepitopes (e.g., designed or enhanced antigens with NSMs) as described herein. Additionally, cell lines can be modified to express or increase expression of factors that can modulate pathways indirectly, such expression or inhibition of microRNAs. Further, cell lines can be modified to secrete non-endogenous or altered exosomes.

In addition to modifying cell lines to express a TAA or immunostimulatory factor, the present disclosure also contemplates co-administering one or more TAAs (e.g., an isolated TAA or purified and/or recombinant TAA) or immunostimulatory factors (e.g., recombinantly produced therapeutic protein) with the vaccines described herein.

Thus, in various embodiments, the present disclosure provides a unit dose of a vaccine comprising (i) a first composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 cancer cell lines, wherein the cell line or a combination of the cell lines comprises cells that express at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, or 40 tumor associated antigens (TAAs) associated with a cancer of a subject intended to receive said composition, and wherein the composition is capable of eliciting an immune response specific to the at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, or 40 TAAs, and (ii) a second composition comprising one or more isolated TAAs. In other embodiments, the first composition comprises a cell line or cell lines that is further modified to (a) express or increase expression of at least 1 immunostimulatory factor, and/or (ii) inhibit or decrease expression of at least 1 immunosuppressive factor.

Immunostimulatory Factors

An immunostimulatory protein is one that is membrane bound, secreted, or both that enhances and/or increases the effectiveness of effector T cell responses and/or humoral immune responses. Without being bound to any theory, immunostimulatory factors can potentiate antitumor immunity and increase cancer vaccine immunogenicity. There are many factors that potentiate the immune response. For example, these factors may impact the antigen-presentation mechanism or the T cell mechanism. Insertion of the genes for these factors may enhance the responses to the vaccine composition by making the vaccine more immunostimulatory of anti-tumor response.

Without being bound to any theory or mechanism, expression of immunostimulatory factors by the combination of cell lines included in the vaccine in the vaccine microenvironment (VME) can modulate multiple facets of the adaptive immune response. Expression of secreted cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-15 by the cell lines can induce the differentiation of monocytes, recruited to the inflammatory environment of the vaccine delivery site, into dendritic cells (DCs), thereby enriching the pool of antigen presenting cells in the VME. Expression of certain cytokines can also mature and activate DCs and Langerhans cells (LCs) already present. Expression of certain cytokines can promote DCs and LCs to prime T cells towards an effector phenotype. DCs that encounter vaccine cells expressing IL-12 in the VME should prime effector T cells in the draining lymph node and mount a more efficient anti-tumor response. In addition to enhancing DC maturation, engagement of certain immunostimulatory factors with their receptors on DCs can promote the priming of T cells with an effector phenotype while suppressing the priming of T regulatory cells (Tregs). Engagement of certain immunostimulatory factors with their receptors on DCs can promote migration of DCs and T cell mediated acquired immunity.

In some embodiments of the vaccine compositions provided herein, modifications to express the immunostimulatory factors are not made to certain cell lines or, in other embodiments, all of the cell lines present in the vaccine composition.

Provided herein are embodiments of vaccine compositions comprising a therapeutically effective amount of cells from at least one cancer cell line (e.g., GBM cell line), wherein the cell line is modified to increase production of at least one (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more) immunostimulatory factors. In some embodiments, the immunostimulatory factors are selected from those presented in Table 4. Also provided are exemplary NCBI Gene IDs that can be utilized by a skilled artisan to determine the sequences to be introduced in the vaccine compositions of the disclosure. These NCBI Gene IDs are exemplary only.

TABLE 4 Exemplary immunostimulatory factors Factor NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) CCL5 CCL5 (6352) XCL1 XCL1 (6375) Soluble CD40L (CD154) CD40LG (959) Membrane-bound CD40L CD40LG (959) CD36 CD36 (948) GITR TNFRSF18 (8784) GM-CSF CSF2 (1437) OX-40 TNFRSF4 (7293) OX-40L TNFSF4 (7292) CD137 (41BB) TNFRSF9 (13604) CD80 (B7-1) CD80 (941) IFNγ IFNG (3458) IL-1β IL1B (3553) IL-2 IL2 (3558) IL-6 IL6 (3569) IL-7 IL7 (3574) IL-9 IL9 (3578) IL-12 IL12A (3592) IL12B (3593) IL-15 IL15 (3600) IL-18 IL-18 (3606) IL-21 IL21 (59067) IL-23 IL23A (51561) IL12B (3593) TNFα TNF (7124)

In some embodiments, the cell lines of the vaccine composition can be modified (e.g., genetically modified) to express, overexpress, or increase the expression of one or more immunostimulatory factors selected from Table 4. In certain embodiments, the immunostimulatory sequence can be a native human sequence. In some embodiments, the immunostimulatory sequence can be a genetically engineered sequence. The genetically engineered sequence may be modified to increase expression of the protein through codon optimization, or to modify the cellular location of the protein (e.g., through mutation of protease cleavage sites).

For example, at least one (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more) of the cancer cell lines in any of the vaccine compositions described herein may be genetically modified to express or increase expression of one or more immunostimulatory factors. The immunostimulatory factors expressed by the cells within the composition may all be the same, may all be different, or any combination thereof.

In some embodiments, a vaccine composition comprises a therapeutically effective amount of cells from at least one cancer cell line, wherein the at least one cell line is modified to express 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more of the immunostimulatory factors of Table 4. In some embodiments, the composition comprises a therapeutically effective amount of cells from 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 cancer cell lines. In some embodiments, the at least one cell line is modified to increase the production of at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 immunostimulatory factors of Table 5. In some embodiments, the composition comprises a therapeutically effective amount of cells from 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 cancer cell lines, and each cell line is modified to increase the production of at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 immunostimulatory factors of Table 4.

In some embodiments, the composition comprises a therapeutically effective amount of cells from 3 cancer cells lines wherein 1, 2, or all 3 of the cell lines have been modified to express or increase expression of GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L, and IL-12.

Exemplary combinations of modifications, e.g., where a cell line or cell lines have been modified to express or increase expression of more than one immunostimulatory factor include but are not limited to: GM-CSF+IL-12; CD40L+IL-12; GM-CSF+CD40L; GM-CSF+IL-12+CD40L; GM-CSF+IL-15; CD40L+IL-15; GM-CSF+CD40L; and GM-CSF+IL-15+CD40L, among other possible combinations.

In certain instances, tumor cells express immunostimulatory factors including the IL-12A (p35 component of IL-12), GM-CSF (kidney cell lines), and CD40L (leukemia cell lines). Thus, in some embodiments, cell lines may also be modified to increase expression of one or more immunostimulatory factors.

In some embodiments, the cell line combination of or cell lines that have been modified as described herein to express or increase expression of one or more immunostimulatory factors will express the immunostimulatory factor or factors at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10-fold or more relative to the same cell line or combination of cell lines that have not been modified to express or increase expression of the one or more immunostimulatory factors.

Methods to increase immunostimulatory factors in the vaccine compositions described herein include, but are not limited to, introduction of the nucleotide sequence to be expressed by way of a viral vector or DNA plasmid. The expression or increase in expression of the immunostimulatory factors can be stable expression or transient expression.

In some embodiments, the cancer cells in any of the vaccine compositions described herein are genetically modified to express CD40 ligand (CD40L). In some embodiments, the CD40L is membrane bound. In some embodiments, the CD40L is not membrane bound. Unless stated otherwise, as used herein CD40L refers to membrane bound CD40L. In some embodiments, the cancer cells in any of the vaccine compositions described herein are genetically modified to express GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L, GITR, IL-12, and/or IL-15. Exemplary amino acid and nucleotide sequences useful for expression of the one or more of the immunostimulatory factors provided herein are presented in Table 5.

TABLE 5 Sequences of exemplary immunostimulatory factors Factor Sequence CD154 atgatcgaaacatacaaccaaacttctccccgatctgc (CD40L) ggccactggactgcccatcagcatgaaaatttttatgt (membrane atttacttactgtttttcttatcacccagatgattggg bound) tcagcactttttgctgtgtatcttcatagaaggttgga caagatagaagatgaaaggaatcttcatgaagattttg tattcatgaaaacgatacagagatgcaacacaggagaa agatccttatccttactgaactgtgaggagattaaaag ccagtttgaaggctttgtgaaggatataatgttaaaca aagaggagacgaagaaagaaaacagctttgaaatgcct cgtggtgaagaggatagtcaaattgcggcacatgtcat aagtgaggccagcagtaaaacaacatctgtgttacagt gggctgaaaaaggatactacaccatgagcaacaacttg gtaaccctggaaaatgggaaacagctgaccgttaaaag acaaggactctattatatctatgcccaagtcaccttct gttccaatcgggaagcttcgagtcaagctccatttata gccagcctctgcctaaagtcccccggtagattcgagag aatcttactcagagctgcaaatacccacagttccgcca aaccttgcgggcaacaatccattcacttgggaggagta tttgaattgcaaccaggtgcttcggtgtttgtcaatgt gactgatccaagccaagtgagccatggcactggcttca cgtcctttggcttactcaaactctga (SEQ ID NO: 1) CD154 Atgatcgaaacctacaaccagacctcaccacgaagtgc (CD40L) cgccaccggactgcctattagtatgaaaatctttatgt (membrane acctgctgacagtgttcctgatcacccagatgatcggc bound) tccgccctgtttgccgtgtacctgcaccggagactgga (codon- caagatcgaggatgagcggaacctgcacgaggacttcg optimized) tgtttatgaagaccatccagcggtgcaacacaggcgag agaagcctgtccctgctgaattgtgaggagatcaagag ccagttcgagggctttgtgaaggacatcatgctgaaca aggaggagacaaagaaggagaacagcttcgagatgccc agaggcgaggaggattcccagatcgccgcccacgtgat ctctgaggccagctccaagaccacaagcgtgctgcagt gggccgagaagggctactataccatgtctaacaatctg gtgacactggagaacggcaagcagctgaccgtgaagag gcagggcctgtactatatctatgcccaggtgacattct gcagcaatcgcgaggcctctagccaggccccctttatc gccagcctgtgcctgaagagccctggcaggttcgagcg catcctgctgagagccgccaacacccactcctctgcca agccatgcggacagcagtcaatccacctgggaggcgtg ttcgagctgcagccaggagcaagcgtgttcgtgaatgt gactgacccatcacaggtgtctcacggcactggattca catcatttggactgctgaaactgtga (SEQ ID NO: 2) CD154 MIETYNQTSPRSAATGLPISMKIFMYLLTVFLITQMIG (CD40L) SALFAVYLHRRLDKIEDERNLHEDFVFMKTIQRCNTGE (membrane RSLSLLNCEEIKSQFEGFVKDIMLNKEETKKENSFEMP bound) RGEEDSQIAAHVISEASSKTTSVLQWAEKGYYTMSNNL VTLENGKQLTVKRQGLYYIYAQVTFCSNREASSQAPFI ASLCLKSPGRFERILLRAANTHSSAKPCGQQSIHLGGV FELQPGASVFVNVTDPSQVSHGTGFTSFGLLKL (SEQ ID NO: 3) GITR Atggctcagcatggggctatgggggccttcagggctct gtgcggactggctctgctgtgcgctctgtcactggggc agagaccaacaggaggaccaggatgcggacctggcagg ctgctgctgggcaccggcacagacgcaaggtgctgtag agtgcacaccacaaggtgctgtcgcgactaccctggcg aggagtgctgttctgagtgggattgcatgtgcgtgcag ccagagtttcactgtggcgatccctgctgtaccacatg ccgccaccacccatgtccacctggacagggagtgcagt ctcagggcaagttcagctttggcttccagtgcatcgac tgtgcaagcggcaccttttccggaggacacgagggaca ctgcaagccctggaccgattgtacacagtttggcttcc tgaccgtgttccctggcaacaagacacacaatgccgtg tgcgtgcctggctccccaccagcagagcccctgggctg gctgaccgtggtgctgctggccgtggcagcatgcgtgc tgctgctgacaagcgcccagctgggactgcacatctgg cagctgcggtcccagtgtatgtggccaagagagaccca gctgctgctggaggtgcctccatccacagaggacgccc ggtcttgccagttccccgaagaggagaggggggaaaga agtgccgaagaaaagggaaggctgggagacctgtgggt g (SEQ ID NO: 4) GITR MAQHGAMGAFRALCGLALLCALSLGQRPTGGPGCGPGR LLLGTGTDARCCRVHTTRCCRDYPGEECCSEWDCMCVQ PEFHCGDPCCTTCRHHPCPPGQGVQSQGKFSFGFQCID CASGTFSGGHEGHCKPWTDCTQFGFLTVFPGNKTHNAV CVPGSPPAEPLGWLTVVLLAVAACVLLLTSAQLGLHIW QLRSQCMWPRETQLLLEVPPSTEDARSCQFPEEERGER SAEEKGRLGDLWV (SEQ ID NO: 5) GM-CSF atgtggctgcagagcctgctgctcttgggcactgtggc ctgcagcatctctgcacccgcccgctcgcccagcccca gcacgcagccctgggagcatgtgaatgccatccaggag gcccggcgtctcctgaacctgagtagagacactgctgc tgagatgaatgaaacagtagaagtcatctcagaaatgt ttgacctccaggagccgacctgcctacagacccgcctg gagctgtacaagcagggcctgcggggcagcctcaccaa gctcaagggccccttgaccatgatggccagccactaca agcagcactgccctccaaccccggaaacttcctgtgca acccagattatcacctttgaaagtttcaaagagaacct gaaggactttctgcttgtcatcccctttgactgctgg gagccagtccaggagtga (SEQ ID NO: 6) GM-CSF atgtggctgcagtctctgctgctgctgggcaccgtcgc (codon- ctgttctatttccgcacccgctcgctccccttctccct optimized) caactcagccttgggagcacgtgaacgccatccaggag gcccggagactgctgaatctgtcccgggacaccgccgc cgagatgaacgagacagtggaagtgatctctgagatgt tcgatctgcaggagcccacctgcctgcagacaaggctg gagctgtacaagcagggcctgcgcggctctctgaccaa gctgaagggcccactgacaatgatggccagccactata agcagcactgcccccctacccccgagacaagctgtgcc acccagatcatcacattcgagtcctttaaggagaacct gaaggactttctgctggtcattccatttgattgttggg agcccgtgcaggagtga (SEQ ID NO: 7) GM-CSF MWLQSLLLLGTVACSISAPARSPSPSTQPWEHVNAIQE ARRLLNLSRDTAAEMNETVEVISEMFDLQEPTCLQTRL ELYKQGLRGSLTKLKGPLTMMASHYKQHCPPTPETSCA TQIITFESFKENLKDFLLVIPFDCWEPVQE (SEQ ID NO: 8) IL-12 atgtgccatcagcaactggttatatcttggttcagtct cgtctttctcgcgtcacccttggtcgctatctgggagc ttaaaaaagatgtctacgtcgttgaacttgattggtac cctgatgctccgggggaaatggtggttttgacttgcga tacgccagaagaggatggcataacgtggacactggacc agtcttcagaggttctcgggtctggtaagacactcact atacaggtgaaggagtttggtgacgcaggacaatatac ttgccataaaggcggcgaggtgctctcccatagccttc tgctccttcataaaaaagaggacgggatatggtcaact gacattctgaaggatcagaaagaaccgaagaacaaaac tttcctcagatgcgaggcaaagaactattcaggccgct ttacttgctggtggctcactaccatcagcactgacctc actttcagcgtcaagagcagtagaggctcaagtgaccc acaaggggttacatgcggggccgctacgttgtctgccg agcgagtcaggggagataataaggaatatgagtatagc gttgaatgccaagaagattcagcctgcccagccgcaga agagagtcttcccatagaagttatggtggacgcagttc ataaactgaagtatgagaactatacatcttccttcttt attcgcgatatcataaagcctgatcctccgaaaaactt gcaactcaagccgttgaagaatagccgacaggtcgagg tctcttgggagtatccagatacgtggtctaccccgcac tcctatttcagtctcaccttctgtgtgcaggtgcaggg gaaaagtaagcgggaaaaaaaggaccgggtatttactg ataagacctccgctacagtgatttgtagaaagaacgcc tctatcagcgtgagagcccaggatagatattattctag tagttggtctgagtgggcctccgtcccttgttccggaa gcggagccacgaacttctctctgttaaagcaagcagga gatgttgaagaaaaccccgggcctatgtgtccagcgcg cagcctcctccttgtggctaccctggtcctcctggacc acctcagtttggcccgaaacctgccggtcgctacaccc gatcctggaatgtttccctgccttcatcacagccagaa tctgctgagggcagtcagtaacatgctgcagaaggcgc ggcaaactctggagttctatccatgtacctccgaggaa attgatcacgaggacattactaaggataaaacaagtac agtagaagcctgtttgcctcttgagctcactaaaaatg agtcatgcttgaacagtcgagagacgagttttatcact aacggttcatgcttggcgtccaggaagacaagctttat gatggcgctctgcctgtcttctatatatgaagacctta aaatgtaccaagttgagtttaagaccatgaacgccaaa cttttgatggaccccaagaggcagatcttccttgatca gaatatgttggcggtgatcgatgaacttatgcaagctt tgaacttcaacagtgagacagtgcctcagaaaagttcc ttggaggaaccggacttctataagaccaagatcaaact gtgcattttgctgcatgcatttagaattcgagccgtta caatcgaccgggtgatgtcatatttgaatgcatcataa (SEQ ID NO: 9) IL-12 MCHQQLVISWFSLVFLASPLVAIWELKKDVYVVELDWY PDAPGEMVVLTCDTPEEDGITWILDQSSEVLGSGKTLT IQVKEFGDAGQYTCHKGGEVLSHSLLLLHKKEDGIWST DILKDQKEPKNKTFLRCEAKNYSGRFTCWWLTTISTDL TFSVKSSRGSSDPQGVTCGAATLSAERVRGDNKEYEYS VECQEDSACPAAEESLPIEVMVDAVHKLKYENYTSSFF IRDIIKPDPPKNLQLKPLKNSRQVEVSWEYPDTWSTPH SYFSLTFCVQVQGKSKREKKDRVFTDKTSATVICRKNA SISVRAQDRYYSSSWSEWASVPCSGSGATNFSLLKQAG DVEENPGPMCPARSLLLVATLVLLDHLSLARNLPVATP DPGMFPCLHHSQNLLRAVSNMLQKARQTLEFYPCTSEE IDHEDITKDKTSTVEACLPLELTKNESCLNSRETSFIT NGSCLASRKTSFMMALCLSSIYEDLKMYQVEFKTMNAK LLMDPKRQIFLDQNMLAVIDELMQALNFNSETVPQKSS LEEPDFYKTKIKLCILLHAFRIRAVTIDRVMSYLNAS (SEQ ID NO: 10) IL-15 Atgtataggatgcagctgctgtcatgtatcgcactgtc cctggcactggtgactaactctaactgggtgaatgtga tctccgacctgaagaagatcgaggacctgatccagtct atgcacatcgatgccaccctgtacacagagtccgacgt gcacccctcttgcaaggtgaccgccatgaagtgtttcc tgctggagctgcaggtcatcagcctggagagcggcgac gcatccatccacgataccgtggagaacctgatcatcct ggccaacaatagcctgagctccaacggcaatgtgacag agtccggctgcaaggagtgtgaggagctggaggagaag aatatcaaagagttcctgcagtcattcgtccatatcgt ccagatgtttatcaataccagt (SEQ ID NO: 11) IL-15 MYRMQLLSCIALSLALVTNSNWVNVISDLKKIEDLIQS MHIDATLYTESDVHPSCKVTAMKCFLLELQVISLESGD ASIHDTVENLIILANNSLSSNGNVTESGCKECEELEEK NIKEFLQSFVHIVQMFINTS(SEQ ID NO: 12) IL-23 atgtgccatcagcagctggtcattagttggtttagcct ggtctttctggcctcacccctggtcgcaatctgggaac tgaagaaggacgtgtacgtggtggagctggactggtat ccagatgcaccaggagagatggtggtgctgacctgcga cacacctgaggaggatggcatcacctggacactggatc agagctccgaggtgctgggcagcggcaagaccctgaca atccaggtgaaggagttcggcgacgccggccagtacac atgtcacaagggcggcgaggtgctgtcccactctctgc tgctgctgcacaagaaggaggacggcatctggtccaca gacatcctgaaggatcagaaggagccaaagaacaagac cttcctgcggtgcgaggccaagaattatagcggccggt tcacctgttggtggctgaccacaatctccaccgatctg acattttctgtgaagtctagcaggggctcctctgaccc ccagggagtgacatgcggagcagccaccctgagcgccg agcgggtgagaggcgataacaaggagtacgagtattct gtggagtgccaggaggacagcgcctgtccagcagcaga ggagtccctgcctatcgaagtgatggtggatgccgtgc acaagctgaagtacgagaattatacaagctccttcttt atcagggacatcatcaagccagatccccctaagaacct gcagctgaagcccctgaagaatagccgccaggtggagg tgtcctgggagtaccctgacacctggtccacaccacac tcttatttcagcctgaccttttgcgtgcaggtgcaggg caagagcaagagggagaagaaggaccgcgtgttcaccg ataagacatccgccaccgtgatctgtcggaagaacgcc agcatctccgtgagggcccaggatcgctactattctag ctcctggagcgagtgggcctccgtgccatgctctggag gaggaggcagcggcggaggaggctccggaggcggcggc tctggcggcggcggctccctgggctctcgggccgtgat gctgctgctgctgctgccctggaccgcacagggaagag ccgtgccaggaggctctagcccagcatggacacagtgc cagcagctgtcccagaagctgtgcaccctggcatggtc tgcccaccctctggtgggccacatggacctgagagagg agggcgatgaggagaccacaaacgacgtgcctcacatc cagtgcggcgacggctgtgatccacagggcctgaggga caattctcagttctgtctgcagcgcatccaccagggcc tgatcttctacgagaagctgctgggcagcgatatcttt acaggagagcccagcctgctgcctgactccccagtggg acagctgcacgcctctctgctgggcctgagccagctgc tgcagccagagggacaccactgggagacccagcagatc ccttctctgagcccatcccagccttggcagcggctgct gctgcggttcaagatcctgagaagcctgcaggcattcg tcgcagtcgcagccagggtgttcgcccacggagccgc tactctgagccca (SEQ ID NO: 13) IL-23 MCHQQLVISWFSLVFLASPLVAIWELKKDVYVVELDWY PDAPGEMVVLTCDTPEEDGITWTLDQSSEVLGSGKTLT IQVKEFGDAGQYTCHKGGEVLSHSLLLLHKKEDGIWST DILKDQKEPKNKTFLRCEAKNYSGRFTCWWLTTISTDL TFSVKSSRGSSDPQGVTCGAATLSAERVRGDNKEYEYS VECQEDSACPAAEESLPIEVMVDAVHKLKYENYTSSFF IRDIIKPDPPKNLQLKPLKNSRQVEVSWEYPDTWSTPH SYFSLTFCVQVQGKSKREKKDRVFTDKTSATVICRKNA SISVRAQDRYYSSSWSEWASVPCSGGGGSGGGGSGGGG SGGGGSLGSRAVMLLLLLPWTAQGRAVPGGSSPAWTQC QQLSQKLCTLAWSAHPLVGHMDLREEGDEETTNDVPHI QCGDGCDPQGLRDNSQFCLQRIHQGLIFYEKLLGSDIF TGEPSLLPDSPVGQLHASLLGLSQLLQPEGHHWETQQI PSLSPSQPWQRLLLRFKILRSLQAFVAVAARVFAHGAA TLSP (SEQ ID NO: 14) XCL1 atgaggctgctgattctggcactgctgggcatctgctc tctgaccgcttacatcgtggaaggagtcggctctgaag tctctgacaagcgcacatgcgtgtctctgaccacacag cgcctgcccgtgagccggatcaagacctacacaatcac cgagggcagcctgagagccgtgatcttcatcacaaaga ggggcctgaaggtgtgcgccgaccctcaggcaacctgg gtgcgggacgtggtgagaagcatggataggaagtccaa cacccggaacaatatgatccagacaaaacccacaggaa cccagcagagcactaatacagccgtgacactgaccggg (SEQ ID NO: 15) XCL1 MRLLILALLGICSLTAYIVEGVGSEVSDKRTCVSLTTQ RLPVSRIKTYTITEGSLRAVIFITKRGLKVCADPQATW VRDVVRSMDRKSNTRNNMIQTKPTGTQQSTNTAVTLTG (SEQ ID NO: 16)

Provided herein is a GITR protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 4, or a nucleic acid sequence encoding the same, e.g., SEQ ID NO: 5. Provided herein is a vaccine composition comprising one or more cell lines expressing the same.

Provided herein is a GM-CSF protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 8, or a nucleic acid sequence encoding the same, e.g., SEQ ID NO: 6 or SEQ ID NO: 7. Provided herein is a vaccine composition comprising one or more cell lines expressing the same.

Provided herein is an IL-12 protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10, or a nucleic acid sequence encoding the same, e.g., SEQ ID NO: 9. Provided herein is a vaccine composition comprising one or more cell lines expressing the same.

Provided herein is an IL-15 protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 12, or a nucleic acid sequence encoding the same, e.g., SEQ ID NO: 11. Provided herein is a vaccine composition comprising one or more cell lines expressing the same.

Provided herein is an IL-23 protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 14, or a nucleic acid sequence encoding the same, e.g., SEQ ID NO: 13. Provided herein is a vaccine composition comprising one or more cell lines expressing the same.

Provided herein is a XCL1 protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 16, or a nucleic acid sequence encoding the same, e.g., SEQ ID NO: 15. Provided herein is a vaccine composition comprising one or more cell lines expressing the same.

In some embodiments, the cancer cells in any of the vaccine compositions described herein are genetically modified to express one or more of CD28, B7-H2 (ICOS LG), CD70, CX3CL1, CXCL10(IP10), CXCL9, LFA-1(ITGB2), SELP, ICAM-1, ICOS, CD40, CD27(TNFRSF7), TNFRSF14(HVEM), BTN3A1, BTN3A2, ENTPD1, GZMA, and PERF1.

In some embodiments, vectors contain polynucleotide sequences that encode immunostimulatory molecules. Exemplary immunostimulatory molecules may include any of a variety of cytokines. The term “cytokine” as used herein refers to a protein released by one cell population that acts on one or more other cells as an intercellular mediator. Examples of such cytokines are lymphokines, monokines, and traditional polypeptide hormones. Included among the cytokines are growth hormones such as human growth hormone, N-methionyl human growth hormone, and bovine growth hormone; parathyroid hormone; thyroxine; insulin; proinsulin; relaxin; prorelaxin; glycoprotein hormones such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH); hepatic growth factor; fibroblast growth factor; prolactin; placental lactogen; tumor necrosis factor-alpha and -beta; mullerian-inhibiting substance; mouse gonadotropin-associated peptide; inhibin; activin; vascular endothelial growth factor; integrin; thrombopoietin (TPO); nerve growth factors such as NGF-beta; platelet-growth factor; transforming growth factors (TGFs) such as TGF-alpha and TGF-beta; insulin-like growth factor-I and —II; erythropoietin (EPO); osteoinductive factors; interferons such as interferon-alpha, beta, and -gamma; colony stimulating factors (CSFs) such as macrophage-CSF (M-CSF); granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF); and granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF); interleukins (ILs) such as IL-1 through IL-36, including, IL-1, IL-1alpha, IL-2, IL-3, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-11, IL-12; IL-15, IL-18, IL-21, IL-23, IL-27, TNF; and other polypeptide factors including LIF and kit ligand (KL). Other immunomodulatory molecules contemplated for use herein include IRF3, B7.1, B7.2, 4-1BB, CD40 ligand (CD40L), drug-inducible CD40 (iCD40), and the like.

In certain embodiments, polynucleotides encoding the immunostimulatory factors are under the control of one or more regulatory elements that direct the expression of the coding sequences. In various embodiments, more than one (i.e., 2, 3, or 4) immunostimulatory factors are encoded on one expression vector. In some embodiments, more than one (i.e., 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) immunostimulatory factors are encoded on separate expression vectors. Lentivirus containing a gene or genes of interest (e.g., GM-CSF, CD40L, or IL-12 and other immunostimulatory molecules as described herein) are produced in various embodiments by transient co-transfection of 293T cells with lentiviral transfer vectors and packaging plasmids (OriGene) using LipoD293™. In Vitro DNA Transfection Reagent (SignaGen Laboratories).

For lentivirus infection, in some embodiments, cell lines are seeded in a well plate (e.g., 6-well, 12-well) at a density of 1-10×105 cells per well to achieve 50-80% cell confluency on the day of infection. Eighteen-24 hours after seeding, cells are infected with lentiviruses in the presence of 10 μg/mL of polybrene. Eighteen-24 hours after lentivirus infection, cells are detached and transferred to larger vessel. After 24-120 hours, medium is removed and replaced with fresh medium supplemented with antibiotics.

Immunosuppressive Factors

An immunosuppressive factor is a protein that is membrane bound, secreted, or both and capable of contributing to defective and reduced cellular responses. Various immunosuppressive factors have been characterized in the context of the tumor microenvironment (TME). In addition, certain immunosuppressive factors can negatively regulate migration of LCs and DCs from the dermis to the draining lymph node.

TGFβ1 is a suppressive cytokine that exerts its effects on multiple immune cell subsets in the periphery as well as in the TME. In the VME, TGFβ1 negatively regulates migration of LCs and DCs from the dermis to the draining lymph node. Similarly, TGFβ2 is secreted by most tumor cells and exerts immunosuppressive effects similar to TGFβ1. Modification of the vaccine cell lines to reduce TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 secretion in the VME ensures the vaccine does not further TGFβ-mediated suppression of LC or DC migration.

Within the TME, CD47 expression is increased on tumor cells as a mode of tumor escape by preventing macrophage phagocytosis and tumor clearance. DCs also express SIRPa, and ligation of SIRPa on DCs can suppress DC survival and activation. Additional immunosuppressive factors in the vaccine that could play a role in the TME and VME include CD276 (B7-H3) and CTLA4. DC contact with a tumor cell expressing CD276 or CTLA4 in the TME dampens DC stimulatory capabilities resulting in decreased T cell priming, proliferation, and/or promotes proliferation of T cells. Expression of CTLA4 and/or CD276 on the vaccine cell lines could confer the similar suppressive effects on DCs or LCs in the VME.

In certain embodiments of the vaccine compositions, production of one or more immunosuppressive factors can be inhibited or decreased in the cells of the cell lines contained therein. In some embodiments, production (i.e., expression) of one or more immunosuppressive factors is inhibited (i.e., knocked out or completely eliminated) in the cells of the cell lines contained in the vaccine compositions. In some embodiments, the cell lines can be genetically modified to decrease (i.e., reduce) or inhibit expression of the immunosuppressive factors. In some embodiments, the immunosuppressive factor is excised from the cells completely. In some embodiments, one or more of the cell lines are modified such that one or more immunosuppressive factor is produced (i.e., expressed) at levels decreased or reduced by at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% (i.e., at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or 100%). In some embodiments, the one or more immunosuppressive factors is selected from the group presented in Table 6.

Simultaneously, production of one or more immunostimulatory factors, TAAs, and/or neoantigens can be increased in the vaccine compositions as described herein. In some embodiments of the vaccine compositions, in addition to the partial reduction or complete (e.g., excision and/or expression at undetectable levels) inhibition of expression of one or more immunosuppressive factors by the cell, one or more (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more) of the cell types within the compositions also can be genetically modified to increase the immunogenicity of the vaccine, e.g., by ensuring the expression of certain immunostimulatory factors, and/or TAAs.

Any combinations of these actions, modifications, and/or factors can be used to generate the vaccine compositions described herein. By way of non-limiting example, the combination of decreasing or reducing expression of immunosuppressive factors by at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% and increasing expression of immunostimulatory factors at least 2-fold higher than an unmodified cell line may be effective to improve the anti-tumor response of tumor cell vaccines. By way of another non-limiting example, the combination of reducing immunosuppressive factors by at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% and modifying cells to express certain TAAs in the vaccine composition, may be effective to improve the anti-tumor response of tumor cell vaccines.

In some embodiments, a cancer vaccine comprises a therapeutically effective amount of cells from at least one cancer cell line, wherein the cell line is modified to reduce production of at least one immunosuppressive factor by the cell line, and wherein the at least one immunosuppressive factor is CD47 or CD276. In some embodiments, expression of CTLA4, HLA-E, HLA-G, TGFβ1, and/or TGFβ2 are also reduced. In some embodiments, one or more, or all, cell lines in a vaccine composition are modified to inhibit or reduce expression of CD276, TGFβ1, and TGFβ2. In another embodiment, a vaccine composition is provided comprising three cell lines that have each been modified to inhibit (e.g., knockout) expression of CD276, and reduce expression of (e.g., knockdown) TGFβ1 and TGFβ2.

In some embodiments, a cancer vaccine composition comprises a therapeutically effective amount of cells from a cancer cell line wherein the cell line is modified to reduce expression of at least CD47. In some embodiments, the CD47 is excised from the cells or is produced at levels reduced by at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% (i.e., at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or 100%). In some embodiments, CD47 is excised from the cells or is produced at levels reduced by at least 90%. Production of additional immunosuppressive factors can be reduced in one or more cell lines. In some embodiments, expression of CD276, CTLA4, HLA-E, HLA-G, TGFβ1, and/or TGFβ2 are also reduced or inhibited. Production of one or more immunostimulatory factors, TAAs, or neoantigens can be increased in one or more cell lines in these vaccine compositions.

In some embodiments, provided herein is a cancer vaccine composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of cells from a cancer cell line wherein the cell line is modified to reduce production of at least CD276. In some embodiments, the CD276 is excised from the cells or is produced at levels reduced by at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% (i.e., at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or 100%). In some embodiments, CD276 is excised from the cells or is produced at levels reduced by at least 90%. Production of additional immunosuppressive factors can be reduced in one or more cell lines. In some embodiments, expression of CD47, CTLA4, HLA-E, HLA-G, TGFβ1, and/or TGFβ2 are also reduced or inhibited. Production of one or more immunostimulatory factors, TAAs, or neoantigens can be increased in one or more cell lines in these vaccine compositions.

In some embodiments, provided herein is a cancer vaccine composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of cells from a cancer cell line wherein the cell line is modified to reduce production of at least HLA-G. In some embodiments, the HLA-G is excised from the cells or is produced at levels reduced by at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% (i.e., at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or 100%). In some embodiments, HLA-G is excised from the cells or is produced at levels reduced by at least 90%. Production of additional immunosuppressive factors can be reduced in one or more cell lines. In some embodiments, expression of CD47, CD276, CTLA4, HLA-E, TGFβ1, and/or TGFβ2 are also reduced or inhibited. Production of one or more immunostimulatory factors, TAAs, or neoantigens can be increased in one or more cell lines in these vaccine compositions.

In some embodiments, provided herein is a cancer vaccine composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of cells from a cancer cell line wherein the cell line is modified to reduce production of at least CTLA4. In some embodiments, the CTLA4 is excised from the cells or is produced at levels reduced by at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% (i.e., at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or 100%). In some embodiments, CTLA4 is excised from the cells or is produced at levels reduced by at least 90%. Production of additional immunosuppressive factors can be reduced in one or more cell lines. In some embodiments, expression of CD47, CD276, HLA-E, TGFβ1, and/or TGFβ2 are also reduced or inhibited. Production of one or more immunostimulatory factors, TAAs, or neoantigens can be increased in one or more cell lines in these vaccine compositions.

In some embodiments, provided herein is a cancer vaccine composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of cells from a cancer cell line wherein the cell line is modified to reduce production of at least HLA-E. In some embodiments, the HLA-E is excised from the cells or is produced at levels reduced by at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% (i.e., at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or 100%). In some embodiments, HLA-E is excised from the cells or is produced at levels reduced by at least 90%. Production of additional immunosuppressive factors can be reduced in one or more cell lines. In some embodiments, expression of CD47, CD276, CTLA4, TGFβ1, and/or TGFβ2 are also reduced or inhibited. Production of one or more immunostimulatory factors, TAAs, or neoantigens can be increased in one or more cell lines in these vaccine compositions.

In some embodiments, provided herein is a cancer vaccine composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of cells from a cancer cell line wherein the cell line is modified to reduce production of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, or both TGFβ1 and TGFβ2. In some embodiments, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, or both TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 is excised from the cells or is produced at levels reduced by at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% (i.e., at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or 100%). In some embodiments of the vaccine composition, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, or both TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 is excised from the cells or is produced at levels reduced by at least 90%.

In some embodiments, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, or both TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 expression is reduced via a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) delivered to the cells using a lentiviral vector. Production of additional immunosuppressive factors can be reduced. In some embodiments, expression of CD47, CD276, CTLA4, HLA-E, and/or HLA-G are also reduced in one or more cell lines where TGFβ1, TGFβ2, or both TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 expression is reduced. Production of one or more immunostimulatory factors, TAAs, or neoantigens can also be increased in one or more cell lines in embodiments of these vaccine compositions.

In some embodiments, the immunosuppressive factor selected for knockdown or knockout may be encoded by multiple native sequence variants. Accordingly, the reduction or inhibition of immunosuppressive factors can be accomplished using multiple gene editing/knockdown approaches known to those skilled in the art. As described herein, in some embodiments complete knockout of one or more immunosuppressive factors may be less desirable than knockdown. For example, TGFβ1 contributes to the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, so complete lack of TGFβ1 (e.g., via knockout) may induce a less immunogenic phenotype in tumor cells.

Table 6 provides exemplary immunosuppressive factors that can be incorporated or modified as described herein, and combinations of the same. Also provided are exemplary NCBI Gene IDs that can be utilized for a skilled artisan to determine the sequence to be targeted for knockdown strategies. These NCBI Gene IDs are exemplary only.

TABLE 6 Exemplary immunosuppressive factors Factor NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) B7-H3 (CD276) CD276 (80381) BST2 (CD317) BST2 (684) CD200 CD200 (4345) CD39 (ENTPD1) ENTPD1 (953) CD47 CD47 (961) CD73 (NT5E) NT5E (4907) COX-2 PTGS2 (5743) CTLA4 CTLA4 (1493) HLA-E HLA-E (3133) HLA-G HLA-G (3135) IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) IDO1 (3620) IL-10 IL10 (3586) PD-L1 (CD274) CD274 (29126) TGFβ1 TGFB1 (7040) TGFβ2 TGFB2 (7042) TGFβ3 TGFB3 (7043) VISTA (VSIR) VSIR (64115) M-CSF CSF1 (1435) B7S1 (B7H4) VTCN1 (79679) PTPN2 PTPN2 (5771)

In exemplary embodiments, the production of the following combination of immunosuppressive factors is reduced or inhibited in the vaccine composition: CD47+TGFβ1, CD47+TGFβ2, or CD47+TGFβ1+TGFβ2. In exemplary embodiments, the production of the following combination of immunosuppressive factors is reduced or inhibited in the vaccine composition: CD276+TGFβ1, CD276+TGFβ2, or CD276+TGFβ1+TGFβ2. In exemplary embodiments, the production of the following combination of immunosuppressive factors is reduced or inhibited in the vaccine composition: CD47+TGFβ1+CD276, CD47+TGFβ2+CD276, or CD47+TGFβ1+TGFβ2+CD276. In exemplary embodiments, the production of the following combination of immunosuppressive factors is reduced or inhibited in the vaccine composition: CD47+TGFβ1+B7-H3, CD47+TGFβ2+CD276, or CD47+TGFβ1+TGFβ2+CD276. In exemplary embodiments, the production of the following combination of immunosuppressive factors is reduced or inhibited in the vaccine composition: CD47+TGFβ1+CD276+BST2, CD47+TGFβ2+CD276+BST2, or CD47+TGFβ1+TGFβ2+CD276+BST2. In exemplary embodiments, the production of the following combination of immunosuppressive factors is reduced or inhibited in the vaccine composition: CD47+TGFβ1+CD276+CTLA4, CD47+TGFβ2+CD276+CTLA4, or CD47+TGFβ1+TGFβ2+CD276+CTLA4. In exemplary embodiments, the production of the following combination of immunosuppressive factors is reduced or inhibited in the vaccine composition: CD47+TGFβ1+CD276+CTLA4, CD47+TGFβ2+CD276+CTLA4, or CD47+TGFβ1+TGFβ2+CD276+CTLA4.

In exemplary embodiments, the production of the following combination of immunosuppressive factors is reduced or inhibited in the vaccine composition: CD47+TGFβ1+CD276+CTLA4, CD47+TGFβ2+CD276+CTLA4, or CD47+TGFβ1+TGFβ2+CD276+CTLA4, CD47+TGFβ2 or TGFβ1+CTLA4, or CD47+TGFβ1+TGFβ2+CD276+HLA-E or CD47+TGFβ1+TGFβ2+CD276+HLA-G, or CD47+TGFβ1+TGFβ2+CD276+HLA-G+CTLA-4, or CD47+TGFβ1+TGFβ2+CD276+HLA-E+CTLA-4.

Those skilled in the art will recognize that in embodiments of the vaccine compositions described herein, at least one (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more) of the cell lines within the composition has a knockdown or knockout of at least one immunosuppressive factor (e.g., one or more of the factors listed in Table 6). The cell lines within the composition may have a knockdown or knockout of the same immunosuppressive factor, or a different immunosuppressive factor for each cell line, or of some combination thereof.

Optionally, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more of the cell lines within the composition may be further genetically modified to have a knockdown or knockout of one or more additional immunosuppressive factors (e.g., one or more of the factors listed in Table 6). For example, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more of the cell lines within the composition may be further genetically modified to have a knockdown or knockout of the same additional immunosuppressive factor, of a different additional immunosuppressive factor for each cell line, or of some combination thereof.

In some embodiments, provided herein is a cancer vaccine composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of cells from a cancer cell line wherein the cell line is modified to reduce production of SLAMF7, BTLA, EDNRB, TIGIT, KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3, TIM3(HAVCR2), LAG3, ADORA2A and ARG1.

At least one of the cells within any of the vaccine compositions described herein may undergo one or more (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more) genetic modifications in order to achieve the partial or complete knockdown of immunosuppressive factor(s) described herein and/or the expression (or increased expression) of immunostimulatory factors described herein, TAAs, and/or neoantigens. In some embodiments, at least one cell line in the vaccine composition undergoes less than 5 (i.e., less than 4, less than 3, less than 2, 1, or 0) genetic modifications. In some embodiments, at least one cell in the vaccine composition undergoes no less than 5 genetic modifications.

Numerous methods of reducing or inhibiting expression of one or more immunosuppressive factors are known and available to those of ordinary skill in the art, embodiments of which are described herein.

Cancer cell lines are modified according to some embodiments to inhibit or reduce production of immunosuppressive factors. Provided herein are methods and techniques for selection of the appropriate technique(s) to be employed in order to inhibit production of an immunosuppressive factor and/or to reduce production of an immunosuppressive factor. Partial inhibition or reduction of the expression levels of an immunosuppressive factor may be accomplished using techniques known in the art.

In some embodiments, the cells of the cancer lines are genetically engineered in vitro using recombinant DNA techniques to introduce the genetic constructs into the cells. These DNA techniques include, but are not limited to, transduction (e.g., using viral vectors) or transfection procedures (e.g., using plasmids, cosmids, yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), electroporation, liposomes). Any suitable method(s) known in the art to partially (e.g., reduce expression levels by at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30%) or completely inhibit any immunosuppressive factor production by the cells can be employed.

In some embodiments, genome editing is used to inhibit or reduce production of an immunosuppressive factor by the cells in the vaccine. Non-limiting examples of genome editing techniques include meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector-based nucleases (TALEN), and the CRISPR-Cas system. In certain embodiments, the reduction of gene expression and subsequently of biological active protein expression can be achieved by insertion/deletion of nucleotides via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or the insertion of appropriate donor cassettes via homology directed repair (HDR) that lead to premature stop codons and the expression of non-functional proteins or by insertion of nucleotides.

In some embodiments, spontaneous site-specific homologous recombination techniques that may or may not include the Cre-Lox and FLP-FRT recombination systems are used. In some embodiments, methods applying transposons that integrate appropriate donor cassettes into genomic DNA with higher frequency, but with little site/gene-specificity are used in combination with required selection and identification techniques. Non-limiting examples are the piggyBac and Sleeping Beauty transposon systems that use TTAA and TA nucleotide sequences for integration, respectively.

Furthermore, combinatorial approaches of gene editing methods consisting of meganucleases and transposons can be used.

In certain embodiments, techniques for inhibition or reduction of immunosuppressive factor expression may include using antisense or ribozyme approaches to reduce or inhibit translation of mRNA transcripts of an immunosuppressive factor; triple helix approaches to inhibit transcription of the gene of an immunosuppressive factor; or targeted homologous recombination.

Antisense approaches involve the design of oligonucleotides (either DNA or RNA) that are complementary to mRNA of an immunosuppressive factor. The antisense oligonucleotides bind to the complementary mRNA transcripts of an immunosuppressive factor and prevent translation. Absolute complementarity may be preferred but is not required. A sequence “complementary” to a portion of an RNA, as referred to herein, means a sequence having sufficient complementarity to be able to hybridize with the RNA, forming a stable duplex. In the case of double-stranded antisense nucleic acids, a single strand of the duplex DNA may be tested, or triplex formation may be assayed. The ability to hybridize depends on both the degree of complementarity and the length of the antisense nucleic acid. In some embodiments, oligonucleotides complementary to either the 5′ or 3-non-translated, non-coding regions of an immunosuppressive factor could be used in an antisense approach to inhibit translation of endogenous mRNA of an immunosuppressive factor. In some embodiments, inhibition or reduction of an immunosuppressive factor is carried out using an antisense oligonucleotide sequence within a short-hairpin RNA.

In some embodiments, lentivirus-mediated shRNA interference is used to silence the gene expressing the immunosuppressive factor. (See Wei et al., J. Immunother. 2012 35(3)267-275 (2012), incorporated by reference herein.)

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are stably expressed RNAi hairpins that may also be used for knocking down gene expression. In some embodiments, ribozyme molecules-designed to catalytically cleave mRNA transcripts are used to prevent translation of an immunosuppressive factor mRNA and expression. In certain embodiments, ribozymes that cleave mRNA at site specific recognition sequences can be used to destroy mRNAs. In some embodiments, the use of hammerhead ribozymes that cleave mRNAs at locations dictated by flanking regions that form complementary base pairs with the target mRNA are used. RNA endoribonucleases can also be used.

In some embodiments, endogenous gene expression of an immunosuppressive factor is reduced by inactivating or “knocking out” the gene or its promoter, for example, by using targeted homologous recombination. In some embodiments, endogenous gene expression is reduced by targeting deoxyribonucleotide sequences complementary to the regulatory region of the promoter and/or enhancer genes of an immunosuppressive factor to form triple helical structures that prevent transcription of the immunosuppressive factor gene in target cells. In some embodiments, promoter activity is inhibited by a nuclease dead version of Cas9 (dCas9) and its fusions with KRAB, VP64 and p65 that cannot cleave target DNA. The dCas9 molecule retains the ability to bind to target DNA based on the targeting sequence. This targeting of dCas9 to transcriptional start sites is sufficient to reduce or knockdown transcription by blocking transcription initiation.

In some embodiments, the activity of an immunosuppressive factor is reduced using a “dominant negative” approach in which genetic constructs that encode defective immunosuppressive factors are used to diminish the immunosuppressive activity on neighboring cells.

In some embodiments, the administration of genetic constructs encoding soluble peptides, proteins, fusion proteins, or antibodies that bind to and “neutralize” intracellularly any other immunosuppressive factors are used. To this end, genetic constructs encoding peptides corresponding to domains of immunosuppressive factor receptors, deletion mutants of immunosuppressive factor receptors, or either of these immunosuppressive factor receptor domains or mutants fused to another polypeptide (e.g., an IgFc polypeptide) can be utilized. In some embodiments, genetic constructs encoding anti-idiotypic antibodies or Fab fragments of anti-idiotypic antibodies that mimic the immunosuppressive factor receptors and neutralize the immunosuppressive factor are used. Genetic constructs encoding these immunosuppressive factor receptor peptides, proteins, fusion proteins, anti-idiotypic antibodies or Fabs can be administered to neutralize the immunosuppressive factor.

Likewise, genetic constructs encoding antibodies that specifically recognize one or more epitopes of an immunosuppressive factor, or epitopes of conserved variants of an immunosuppressive factor, or peptide fragments of an immunosuppressive factor can also be used. Such antibodies include but are not limited to polyclonal antibodies, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), humanized or chimeric antibodies, single chain antibodies, Fab fragments, F(ab′)2 fragments, fragments produced by a Fab expression library, and epitope binding fragments of any of the above. Any technique(s) known in the art can be used to produce genetic constructs encoding suitable antibodies.

In some embodiments, the enzymes that cleave an immunosuppressive factor precursor to the active isoforms are inhibited to block activation of the immunosuppressive factor. Transcription or translation of these enzymes may be blocked by a means known in the art.

In further embodiments, pharmacological inhibitors can be used to reduce enzyme activities including, but not limited to COX-2 and IDO to reduce the amounts of certain immunosuppressive factors.

Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs)

Vector-based and protein-based vaccine approaches are limited in the number of TAAs that can be targeted in a single formulation. In contrast, embodiments of the allogenic whole cell vaccine platform as described herein allow for the targeting of numerous, diverse TAAs. The breadth of responses can be expanded and/or optimized by selecting allogenic cell line(s) that express a range of TAAs and optionally genetically modifying the cell lines to express additional antigens, including neoantigens or nonsynonymous mutations (NSMs), of interest for a desired therapeutic target (e.g., cancer type).

As used herein, the term “TAA” refers to tumor-associated antigen(s) and can refer to “wildtype” antigens as naturally expressed from a tumor cell or can optionally refer to a mutant antigen, e.g., a design antigen or designed antigen or enhanced antigen or engineered antigen, comprising one or more mutations such as a neoepitope or one or more NSMs as described herein.

TAAs are proteins that can be expressed in normal tissue and tumor tissue, but the expression of the TAA protein is significantly higher in tumor tissue relative to healthy tissue. TAAs may include cancer testis antigens (CTs), which are important for embryonic development but restricted to expression in male germ cells in healthy adults. CTs are often expressed in tumor cells.

Neoantigens or neoepitopes are aberrantly mutated genes expressed in cancer cells. In many cases, a neoantigen can be considered a TAA because it is expressed by tumor tissue and not by normal tissue. Targeting neoepitopes has many advantages since these neoepitopes are truly tumor specific and not subject to central tolerance in thymus. A cancer vaccine encoding full length TAAs with neoepitopes arising from nonsynonymous mutations (NSMs) has potential to elicit a more potent immune response with improved breadth and magnitude.

As used herein, a nonsynonymous mutation (NSM) is a nucleotide mutation that alters the amino acid sequence of a protein. In some embodiments, a missense mutation is a change in one amino acid in a protein, arising from a point mutation in a single nucleotide. A missense mutation is a type of nonsynonymous substitution in a DNA sequence. Additional mutations are also contemplated, including but limited to truncations, frameshifts, or any other mutation that change the amino acid sequence to be different than the native antigen protein.

As described herein, in some embodiments, an antigen is designed by (i) referencing one or more publicly-available databases to identify NSMs in a selected TAA; (ii) identifying NSMs that occur in greater than 2 patients; (iii) introducing each NSM identified in step (ii) into the related TAA sequence; (iv) identifying HLA-A and HLA-B supertype-restricted MHC class I epitopes in the TAA that now includes the NSM; and and (v) including the NSMs that create new epitopes (SB and/or WB) or increases peptide-MHC affinity into a final TAA sequence. Exemplary NSMs predicted to create HLA-A and HLA-B supertype-restricted neoepitopes are provided herein (Table 135).

In some embodiments, an NSM identified in one patient tumor sample is included in the designed antigen (i.e., the mutant antigen arising from the introduction of the one or more NSMs). In various embodiments, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 or more NSMs are introduced into a TAA to generate the designed antigen. In some embodiments, target antigens could have a lower number NSMs and may need to use NSMs occurring only 1 time to reach the targeted homology to native antigen protein range (94-97%). In other embodiments, target antigens could have a high number of NSMs occurring at the 2 occurrence cut-off and may need to use NSMs occurring 3 times to reach the targeted homology to native antigen protein range (94-97%). Including a high number NSMs in the designed antigen would decrease the homology of the designed antigen to the native antigen below the target homology range (94-98%).

In some embodiments, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 cell lines of a tumor cell vaccine according to the present disclosure comprise 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 or more NSMs (and thus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 or more designed antigens) in at least one TAA.

In various embodiments, the sequence homology of the mutant (e.g., designed antigen) to the native full-length protein is 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% over the full length of the antigen.

In some embodiments, the designed antigen is incorporated into a therapeutic allogenic whole cell cancer vaccine to induce antigen-specific immune responses to the designed TAAs and existing TAAs.

In some embodiments, the vaccine can be comprised of a therapeutically effective amount of at least one cancer cell line, wherein the cell line or the combination of the cell lines express at least one designed TAA. In other embodiments, the vaccine comprises a therapeutically effective amount of at least one cancer cell line, wherein the cell line or the combination of the cell lines expresses at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 10 or more designed TAAs.

Provided herein are embodiments of vaccine compositions comprising a therapeutically effective amount of cells from at least one cancer cell line, wherein the at least one cancer cell line expresses (either natively, or is designed to express) one or more TAAs, neoantigens (including TAAs comprising one or more NSMs), CTs, and/or TAAs. In some embodiments, the cells are transduced with a recombinant lentivector encoding one or more TAAs, including TAAs comprising one or more NSMs, to be expressed by the cells in the vaccine composition.

In some embodiments, the TAAs, including TAAs comprising one or more NSMs or neoepitopes, and/or other antigens may endogenously be expressed on the cells selected for inclusion in the vaccine composition. In some embodiments, the cell lines may be modified (e.g., genetically modified) to express selected TAAs, including TAAs comprising one or more NSMs, and/or other antigens (e.g., CTs, TSAs, neoantigens).

Any of the tumor cell vaccine compositions described herein may present one or more TAAs, including TAAs comprising one or more NSMs or neoepitopes, and induce a broad antitumor response in the subject. Ensuring such a heterogeneous immune response may obviate some issues, such as antigen escape, that are commonly associated with certain cancer monotherapies.

According to various embodiments of the vaccine composition provided herein, at least one cell line of the vaccine composition may be modified to express one or more neoantigens, e.g., neoantigens implicated in lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), small cell lung cancer (SCLC), prostate cancer, glioblastoma, colorectal cancer, breast cancer including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), bladder or urinary tract cancer, squamous cell head and neck cancer (SCCHN), liver hepatocellular (HCC) cancer, kidney or renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cancer, gastric or stomach cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, testicular cancer, pancreatic cancer, central nervous system cancers, endometrial cancer, melanoma, and mesothelium cancer. In some embodiments, one or more of the cell lines expresses an unmutated portion of a neoantigen protein. In some embodiments, one or more of the cell lines expresses a mutated portion of a neoantigen protein.

In some embodiments, at least one of the cancer cells in any of the vaccine compositions described herein may naturally express, or be modified to express one or more TAAs, including TAAs comprising one or more NSMs, CTs, or TSAs/neoantigens. In certain embodiments, more than one (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more) of the cancer cell lines in the vaccine composition may express, or may be genetically modified to express one or more of the TAAs, including TAAs comprising one or more NSMs, CTs, or TSAs/neoantigens. The TAAs, including TAAs comprising one or more NSMs, CTs, or TSAs/neoantigens expressed by the cell lines within the composition may all be the same, may all be different, or any combination thereof.

Because the vaccine compositions may contain multiple (i.e., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more) cancer cell lines of different types and histology, a wide range and variety of TAAs, including TAAs comprising one or more NSMs, and/or neoantigens may be present in the composition (Table 7-23). The number of TAAs that can be targeted using a combination of cell lines (e.g., 5-cell line combination, 6-cell line combination, 7-cell line combination, 8-cell line combination, 9-cell line combination, or 10-cell line combination) and expression levels of the TAAs is higher for the cell line combination compared to individual cell lines in the combination.

In embodiments of the vaccine compositions provided herein, at least one (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more) of the cancer cells in any of the vaccine compositions described herein may express, or be modified to express one or more TAAs, including TAAs comprising one or more NSMs or neoepitopes. The TAAs, including TAAs comprising one or more NSMs, expressed by the cells within the composition may all be the same, may all be different, or any combination thereof. Table 7 below lists exemplary non-small cell lung cancer TAAs, and exemplary subsets of lung cancer TAAs. In some embodiments, the TAAs are specific to NSCLC. In some embodiments, the TAAs are specific to GBM. In other embodiments, the TAAs are specific to prostate cancer.

In some embodiments, presented herein is a vaccine composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of engineered cells from least one cancer cell line, wherein the cell lines or combination of cell lines express at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 or more of the TAAs in Tables 7-23. In other embodiments, the TAAs in Tables 7-23 are modified to include one or more NSM as described herein.

In some embodiments, a vaccine composition is provided comprising a therapeutically effective amount of engineered cells from at least one cancer cell line, wherein the cell lines express at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 of the TAAs in Tables 7-23 (or the TAAs in Tables 7-23 that have been modified to include one or more NSM). As provided herein, in various embodiments the cell lines express at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 of the TAAs in Tables 7-23 (or the TAAs in Tables 7-23 that have been modified to include one or more NSM) and are optionally modified to express or increase expression of one or more immunostimulatory factors of Table 4, and/or inhibit or decrease expression of one or more immunosuppressive factors in Table 6.

TABLE 7 Exemplary TAAs expressed in non-small cell lung cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) Survivin BIRC5 (332) CD44 CD44 (960) CD44v6 CD44 (960) CEA CEACAM5 (1048) CT83 CT83 (203413) DEPDC1 DEPDC1 (55635) DLL3 DLL3 (10683) NYESO1 CTAG1 (1485) BORIS CTCFL (140690) EGFR EGFR (1956) Her2 ERBB2 (2064) PSMA FOLH1 (2346) KOC1 IGF2BP3 (10643) VEGFR KDR (3791) FLT1 (2321) KIF20A KIF20A (10112) MPHOSPH1 KIF20B (9585) KRAS KRAS (3845) LY6K LY6K (54742) MAGE-A1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGE-A3 MAGEA3 (4102) MAGE-A4 MAGEA4 (4103) MAGE-A6 MAGEA6 (4105) Mesothelin MSLN (10232) MUC1 MUC1 (4582) c-Myc MYC (4609) NUF2 NUF2 (83540) PRAME PRAME (23532) CD133 (Prominin-1) PROM1 (8842) PTK7 PTK7 (5754) Securin PTTG1 (9232) STEAP1 STEAP1 (26872) hTERT TERT (7015) p53 TP53 (7157) 5T4 TPBG (7162) TTK (CT96) TTK (7272) Brachyury/TBXT T (6862) WT1 WT1 (7490 XAGE1B XAGE1B (653067)

TABLE 8 Exemplary TAAs expressed in prostate cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) PAP ACP3 (55) Androgen Receptor AR (367) Survivin BIRC5 (332) NYESO1 CTAG1B (1485) CXCL12 CXCL12 (6387) CXCR4 CXCR4 (7852) EGFR EGFR (1956) Her2 ERBB2 (2064) PSMA FOLH1 (2346) GCNT1 GCNT1 (2650) IDH1 IDH1 (3417) FAP FAP (2191) c-KIT/CD117 KIT (3815) PSA KLK3 (354) Galectin 8 LGALS8 (3964) MAGE-A1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGE-A3 MAGEA3 (4102) MAGE-A4 MAGEA4 (4103) MAGE-C2 MAGEC2 (51438) Midkine MDK (4192) MUC1 MUC1 (4582) PDGF-B PDGFB (5155) PDGF-D PDGFD (80310) PDGFRβ PDGFRB (5159) PLAT (T-PA) PLAT (5327) uPA PLAU (5328) uPAR (CD87) PLAUR (5329) CD133 (Prominin-1) PROM1 (8842) PSCA PSCA (8000) SART3 SART3 (9733) Prostein SLC45A3 (85414) CD147 SLC7A11 (23657) SSX2 SSX2 (6757) STEAP1 STEAP1 (26872) Brachyury/TBXT T (6862) hTERT TERT (7015) 5T4 TPBG (7162) VEGF-A VEGFA (7422)

TABLE 9 Exemplary TAAs expressed in glioblastoma cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) AIM2 AIM2 (9447) B4GALNT1 B4GALNT1 (2583) Survivin BIRC5 (4582) Basigin (BSG) BSG (682) Cyclin B1 CCNB1 (891) CDH5 CDH5 (1003) GP39 CHI3L1 (1116) Trp2 DCT (1638) DLL3 DLL3 (10683) DRD2 DRD2 (1813) EGFRvIII EGFR (1956) Epha2 EPHA2 (1969) Epha3 EPHA3 (2042) Her2 ERBB2 (2064) EZH2 EZH2 (2146) PSMA FOLH1 (2346) FOSL1 FOSL1 (8061) GSK3B GSK3B (2932) IDH1 IDH1 (3417) IDH2 IDH2 (3418) IL13RA2 IL13RA2 (3598) IL4R IL4R (3566) LRP1 LRP1 (4035) KOC1 IGF2BP3 (10643) MAGE-A1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGE-A4 MAGEA4 (4103) MUC1 MUC1 (4582) MUL1 MUL1 (79594) GP100 (PMEL) PMEL (6490) PRAME PRAME (23532) hCMV pp65 ABQ23593 (UniProtKB - P06725 (PP65_HCMVA) PROM1 PROM1 (8842) PTHLH PTHLH (4744) SART1 SART1 (9092) SART3 SART3 (9733) CD147 SLC7A11 (23657) SOX-2 SOX2 (6657) SOX-11 SOX11 (6664) STEAP1 STEAP1 (26872) hTERT TERT (7015) Tenascin-C (TNC) TNC (3371) TYR TYR (7299) Trp1 (TYRP1) TYRP1 (7306) WT1 WT1 (7490) XPO1 XPO1 (7514) pp65* ABQ23593 *Viral antigen, no Gene ID is available. Accession number is used instead.

TABLE 10 Exemplary TAAs expressed in ovarian cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) OY-TES-1 ACRBP (84519) A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 3 AKAP3 (10566) Anti-Mullerian Hormone Receptor AMHR2 (269) Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL (558) Survivin BIRC5 (332) Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase BTK (695) CD44 CD44 (960) Cell Cycle Checkpoint Kinase 1 CHEK1 (1111) (CHK1) Claudin 6 CLDN6 ((074) NY-ESO-1 CTAG1B (1485) LAGE1 CTAG2 (30848) BORIS CTCFL (140690) Dickkopf-1 DKK1 (22943) DLL4 DLL4 (54567) Her2 ERBB2 (2064) HER3 ERBB3 (2065) FOLR1/FBP FOLR1 (2348) GAGE1 GAGE1 (2543) GAGE2 GAGE2A (729447) IGFBP2 IGFBP2 (3485) FSHR FSHR (3969) PLU-1 KDM5B (10765) Luteinizing Hormone Receptor LHCGR (3973) MAGE-A1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGE-A10 MAGEA10 (4109) MAGE-A4 MAGEA4 (4103) MAGE-A9 MAGEA9 (4108) MAGE-C1 MAGEC1 (9947) Mesothelin MSLN (10232) Muc1 MUC1 (4582) Muc16 MUC16 (94025) Glucocorticoid Receptor II NR3C1 (2908) PARP1 PARP1 (142) PIWIL1 PIWIL1 (9271) PIWIL2 PIWIL2 (55124) PIWIL3 PIWIL3 (440822) PIWIL4 PIWIL4 (143689) PRAME PRAME (23532) SP17 SPA17 (53340) SPAG-9 SPAG9 (9043) STEAP1 STEAP1 (26872) hTERT TERT (7015) WT1 WT1 (7490)

TABLE 11 Exemplary TAAs expressed in colorectal cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) Survivin BIRC5 (332) B-RAF BRAF (673) CEA CEACAM5 (1048) βHCG CGB3 (1082) NYESO1 CTAG1B (1485) EPCAM EPCAM (4072) EPH receptor A2 EPHA2 (1969) Her2 ERBB2 (2064) GUCY2C GUCY2C (2984) PSMA FOLH1 (2346) KRAS KRAS (3845) MAGE-A1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGE-A3 MAGEA3 (4102) MAGE-A4 MAGEA4 (4103) MAGE-A6 MAGEA6 (4105) Mesothelin MSLN (10232) MUC1 MUC1 (4582) PRAME PRAME (23532) CD133 PROM1 (8842) RNF43 RNF43 (54894) SART3 SART3 (9733) STEAP1 STEAP1 (26872) Brachyury/TBXT T (6862) TROP2 TACSTD2 (4070) hTERT TERT (7015) TOMM34 TOMM34 (10953) 5T4 TPBG (7162) WT1 WT1 (7490)

TABLE 12 Exemplary TAAs expressed in breast cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) Survivin BIRC5 (332) Cyclin B1 CCNB1 (891) Cadherin-3 CDH3 (1001) CEA CEACAM5 (1048) CREB binding protein CREBBP (1387) CS1 CSH1 (1442) CT83 CT83 (203413) NYESO1 CTAG1B (1485) BORIS CTCFL (140690) Endoglin ENG (2022) PSMA FOLH1 (2346) FOS like 1 FOSL1 (8061) FOXM1 FOXM1 (2305) GPNMB GPNMB (10457) MAGE A1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGE A3 MAGEA3 (4102) MAGE A4 MAGEA4 (4103) MAGE A6 MAGEA6 (4105) Mesothelin MSLN (10232) MMP11 MMP11 (4320) MUC1 MUC1 (4582) PRAME PRAME (23532) CD133 PROM1 (8842) PTK7 PTK7 (5754) ROR1 ROR1 (4919) Mammaglobin A SCGB2A2 (4250) Syndecan-1 SDC1 (6382) SOX2 SOX2 (6657) SPAG9 SPAG9 (9043) STEAP1 STEAP1 (26872) Brachyury/TBXT T (6862) TROP2 TACSTD2 (4070) hTERT TERT (7015) WT1 WT1 (7490) YB-1 YBX1 (4904)

TABLE 13 Exemplary TAAs expressed in bladder cancer Androgen Receptor AR (367) ATG7 ATG7 (10533) AXL Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL (558) Survivin BIRC5 (332) BTK BTK (695) CEACAM1 CEACAM1 (634) CEA CEACAM5 (1048) βHCG CGB3 (1082) NYESO1 CTAG1B (1495) LAGE1 CTAG2 (30848) DEPDC1 DEPDC1 (55635) EPH receptor B4 EPHB4 (2050) HER2 ERBB2 (2064) FGFR3 FGFR3 (2261) VEGFR FLT3 (2322) PSMA FOLH1 (2346) FOLR1α (FBP) FOLR1 (2348) IGF2BP3 IGF2BP3 (10643) MPHOSPH1 KIF20B (9585) LY6K LY6K (54742) MAGEA1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGEA3 MAGEA3 (4102) MAGEA6 MAGEA6 (4105) MAGEC2 MAGEC2 (51438) c-Met MET (4233) MUC1 MUC1 (4582) Nectin-4 NECTIN4 (81607) NUF2 NUF2 (83540) RET RET (5979) STEAP1 STEAP1 (26872) TDGF1 (Cripto 1) TDGF1 (6997) hTERT TERT (7015) TROP2 TACSTD2 (4070) WEE1 WEE1 (7465) WT1 WT1 (7490)

TABLE 14 Exemplary TAAs expressed in head and/or neck cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) Survivin BIRC5 (332) BTK BTK (695) cyclin D1 CCND1 (595) CDK4 CDK4 (1019) CDK6 CDK6 (1021) P16 CDKN2A (1029) CEA CEACAM5 (1048) EGFR EGFR (1956) EPH receptor B4 EPHB4 (2050) Her2 ERBB2 (2064) HER3 ERBB3 (2065) FGFR1 FGFR1 (2260) FGFR2 FGFR2 (2263) FGFR3 FGFR3 (2261) PSMA FOLH1 (2346) IGF2BP3 IGF2BP3 (10643) IMP3 IMP3 (55272) MPHOSPH1 KIF20B (9585) LY6K LY6K (54742) MAGE-A10 MAGEA10 (4109) MAGE-A3 MAGEA3 (4102) MAGE-A4 MAGE-A4 (4103) MAGE-A6 MAGE-A6 (4105) MUC1 MUC1 (4582) NUF2 NUF2 (83540) PRAME PRAME (23532) STEAP1 STEAP1 (26872) Brachyury/TBXT T (6862) hTERT TERT (7015) p53 TP53 (7157) HPV16 E6* AVN72023 HPV16 E7* AVN80203 HPV18 E6* ALA62736 HPV18 E7* ABP99745 *Viral antigen, no Gene ID is available; GenBank accession number is provided.

TABLE 15 Exemplary TAAs expressed in gastric cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) TEM-8 (ANTXR1) ANTXR1 (84168) Annexin A2 (ANXA2) ANXA2 (302) Survivin BIRC5 (332) CCKBR CCKBR (887) Cadherin 17 CDH17 (1015) CDKN2A CDKN2A (1029) CEA CEACAM5 (1048) Claudin 18 CLDN18 (51208) CT83 CT83 (203413) EPCAM EPCAM (4072) Her2 ERBB2 (2064) Her3 ERBB3 (2065) PSMA FOLH1 (2346) FOLR1 FOLR1 (2348) FOXM1 FOXM1 (2305) FUT3 FUT3 (2525) Gastrin GAST (2520) KIF20A KIF20A (10112) LY6K LY6K (54742) MAGE-A1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGE-A3 MAGEA3 (4102) MMP9 MMP9 (4318) Mesothelin MSLN (10232) MUC1 MUC1 (4582) MUC3A MUC3A (4584) PRAME PRAME (23532) PTPN11 PTPN11 (5781) SART3 SART3 (9733) SATB1 SATB1 (6304) STEAP1 STEAP1 (26872) hTERT TERT (7015) 5T4 (TPBG) TPBG (7162) VEGFR1 FLT1 (2321) WEE1 WEE1 (7465) WT1 WT1 (7490)

TABLE 16 Exemplary TAAs expressed in liver cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) AKR1C3 AKR1C3 (8644) MRP3 (ABCC3) ABCC3 (8714) AFP AFP (174) Annexin A2 (ANXA2) ANXA2 (302) Survivin BIRC5 (4582) Basigin (BSG) BSG (682) CEA CEACAM5 (1048) NYESO1 CTAG1B (1485) DKK-1 DKK1 (22943) SART-2 (DSE) DSE (29940) EpCAM EPCAM (4072) Glypican-3 GPC3 (2719) MAGE-A1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGE-A3 MAGEA3 (4102) MAGE-A4 MAGEA4 (4103) MAGE-A10 MAGEA10 (4109) MAGE-C1 MAGEC1 (9947) MAGE-C2 MAGEC2 (51438) Midkine (MDK) MDK (4192) MUC-1 MUC1 (4582) PRAME PRAME (23532) SALL-4 SALL4 (57167) Spa17 SPA17 (53340) SPHK2 SPHK2 (56848) SSX-2 SSX2 (6757) STAT3 STAT3 (6774) hTERT TERT (7015) HCA661 (TFDP3) TFDP3 (51270) WT1 WT1 (7490)

TABLE 17 Exemplary TAAs expressed in esophageal cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) ABCA1 ABCA1 (19) NYESO1 CTAG1B (1485) LAGE1 CTAG2 (30848) DKK1 DKK1 (22943) EGFR EGFR (1956) EpCAM EPCAM (4072) Her2 ERBB2 (2065) Her3 ERBB3 (2064) FOLR1 FOLR1 (2348) Gastrin (GAST) GAST (2520) IGF2BP3 IGF2BP3 (10643) IMP3 IMP3 (55272) LY6K LY6K (54742) MAGE-A1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGE-A3 MAGEA3 (4102) MAGE-A4 MAGEA4 (4103) MAGE-A11 MAGEA11 (4110) Mesothelin (MSLN) MSLN (10232) NUF2 NUF2 (83540) PRAME PRAME (23532) PTPN11 PTPN11 (5781) hTERT TERT (7015) TTK TTK (7272)

TABLE 18 Exemplary TAAs expressed in kidney cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) apolipoprotein L1 APOL1 (8542) Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL (558) Survivin BIRC5 (332) G250 CA9 (768) cyclin D1 CCND1 (595) CXCR4 CXCR4 (7852) EPH receptor B4 EPHB4 (2050) FAP FAP (2191) VEGFR FLT3 (2322) GUCY2C GUCY2C (2984) INTS1 INTS1 (26173) c-KIT/CD117 KIT (3815) c-Met MET (4233) MMP7 MMP7 (4316) RAGE1 MOK (5891) Muc1 MUC1 (4582) PDGFRα PDGFRA (5156) PDGFRβ PDGFRB (5159) M2PK PKM (5315) perilipin 2 PLIN2 (123) PRAME PRAME (23532) PRUNE2 PRUNE2 (158471) RET RET (5979) RGS5 RGS5 (8490) ROR2 ROR2 (4920) STEAP1 STEAP1 (26872) Tie-1 TIE1 (7075) 5T4 TPBG (7162) gp75 TYRP1 (7306)

TABLE 19 Exemplary TAAs expressed in pancreatic cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) Survivin BIRC5 (332) BTK BTK (695) Connective Tissue Growth Factor CCN2 (1490) CEA CEACAM5 (1048) Claudin 18 CLDN18 (51208) NYESO1 CTAG1B (1495) CXCR4 CXCR4 (7852) EGFR EGFR (1956) FAP FAP (2191) PSMA FOLH1 (2346) MAGE-A4 MAGEA4 (4103) Perlecan HSPG2 (3339) Mesothelin MSLN (10232) MUC1 MUC1 (4582) Muc16 MUC16 (94025) Mucin 5AC MUC5AC (4586) CD73 NT5E (4907) G17 (gastrin1-17) PBX2 (5089) uPA PLAU (5328) uPAR (CD87) PLAUR (5329) PRAME PRAME (23532) PSCA PSCA (8000) Focal adhesion kinase PTK2 (5747) SSX2 SSX2 (6757) STEAP1 STEAP1 (26872) hTERT TERT (7015) Neurotensin Receptor 1 TFIP11 (24144) WT1 WT1 (7490)

TABLE 20 Exemplary TAAs expressed in endometrial cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) OY-TES-1 ACRBP (84519) ARMC3 ARMC3 (219681) Survivin BIRC5 (332) BMI1 BMI1 (648) BST2 BST2 (684) BORIS CTCFL (140690) DKK1 DKK1 (22943) DRD2 DRD2 (1813) EpCam EPCAM (4072) EphA2 EphA2 (1969) HER2/neu ERBB2 (2064) HER3 ERBB3 (2065 ESR2 ESR2 (2100) MAGE-A3 MAGEA3 (4102) MAGE-A4 MAGEA4 (4103) MAGE-C1 MAGEC1 (9947) MUC-1 MUC1 (4582) MUC-16 MUC16 (94025) SPA17 SPA17 (53340) SSX-4 SSX4 (6757) hTERT TERT (7015) HE4 (WFDC2) WFDC2 (10406) WT1 WT1 (7490) XPO1 XPO1 (7514)

TABLE 21 Exemplary TAAs expressed in skin cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) B4GALNT1 B4GALNT1 (2583) Survivin BIRC5 (332) Endosialin (CD248) CD248 (57124) CDKN2A CDKN2A (1029) CSAG2 CSAG2 (102423547) CSPG4 CSPG4 (1464) NYESO1 CTAG1B (1485) Trp2 (DCT) DCT (1638) MAGE-A1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGE-A2 MAGEA2 (4101) MAGE-A3 MAGEA3 (4102) MAGE-A4 MAGEA4 (4103) MAGE-A6 MAGEA6 (4105) MAGE-A10 MAGEA10 (4109) MITF MITF (4286) MART-1 MLANA (2315) NFE2L2 NFE2L2 (4780) PMEL PMEL (6490) PRAME PRAME (23532) NY-MEL-1 RAB38 (23682) NEF S100B (6285) SEMA4D SEMA4D (10507) SSX2 SSX2 (6757) SSX4 SSX4 (6759) ST8SIA1 ST8SIA1 (6489) hTERT TERT (7015) TYR TYR (7299) Trp1 TYRP1 (7306)

TABLE 22 Exemplary TAAs expressed in mesothelial cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) APEX1 APEX1 (328) CHEK1 CHEK1 (1111) NYESO1 CTAG1B (1485) DHFR DHFR (1719) DKK3 DKK3 (27122) EGFR EGFR (1956) ESR2 ESR2 (2100) EZH1 EZH1 (2145) EZH2 EZH2 (2146) MAGE-A1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGE-A3 MAGEA3 (4102) MAGE-A4 MAGEA4 (4103) MCAM MCAM (4162) Mesothelin MSLN (10232) MUC1 MUC1 (4582) PTK2 PTK2 (5747) SSX-2 SSX2 (6757) STAT3 STAT3 (6774) THBS2 THBS2 (7058) 5T4 (TPBG) TPBG (7162) WT1 WT1 (7490)

TABLE 23 Exemplary TAAs expressed in small cell lung cancer TAA Name NCBI Gene Symbol (Gene ID) AIM2 AIM2 (9447) AKR1C3 AKR1C3 (8644) ASCL1 ASCL1 (429) B4GALNT1 B4GALNT1 (2583) Survivin BIRC5 (332) Cyclin B1 CCNB1 (891) CEA CEACAM5 (1048) CKB CKB (1152) DDC DDC (1644) DLL3 DLL3 (10863) Enolase 2 ENO2 (2026) Her2 ERBB2 (2064) EZH2 EZH2 (2146) Bombesin GRP (2922) KDM1A KDM1A (23028) MAGE-A1 MAGEA1 (4100) MAGE-A3 MAGEA3 (4102) MAGE-A4 MAGA4 (4103) MAGE-A10 MAGEA10 (4109) MDM2 MDM2 (4193) MUC1 MUC1 (4582) NCAM-1 NCAM1 (4684) GP100 PMEL (6490) SART-1 SART1 (9092) SART-3 SART3 (9733) SFRP1 SFRP1 (6422) SOX-2 SOX2 (6657) SSTR2 SSTR2 (6752) Trp1 (TYRP1) TYRP1 (7306)

In some embodiments of the vaccine compositions provided herein, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or more of the cell lines within the composition may be genetically modified to express or increase expression of the same immunostimulatory factor, TAA, including TAAs comprising one or more NSMs, and/or neoantigen; of a different immunostimulatory factor, TAA, and/or neoantigen; or some combination thereof. In some embodiments, the TAA sequence can be the native, endogenous, human TAA sequence. In some embodiments, the TAA sequence can be a genetically engineered sequence of the native endogenous, human TAA sequence. The genetically engineered sequence may be modified to increase expression of the TAA through codon optimization or the genetically engineered sequence may be modified to change the cellular location of the TAA (e.g., through mutation of protease cleavage sites).

Exemplary NCBI Gene IDs are presented in Table 7-23. As provided herein, these Gene IDs can be used to express (or overexpress) certain TAAs in one or more cell lines of the vaccine compositions of the disclosure.

In various embodiments, one or more of the cell lines in a composition described herein is modified to express mesothelin (MSLN), CT83 (kita-kyushu lung cancer antigen 1) TERT, PSMA, MAGEA1, EGFRvIII, hCMV pp65, TBXT, BORIS, FSHR, MAGEA10, MAGEC2, WT1, FBP, TDGF1, Claudin 18, LY6K, PRAME, HPV16/18 E6/E7, FAP, or mutated versions thereof (Table 24). The phrase “or mutated versions thereof” refers to sequences of the aforementioned TAAs, or other TAAs provided herein, that comprise one or more mutations (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 or more substitution mutations), including neopepitopes or NSMs, as described herein. Thus, in various embodiments, one or more of the cell lines in a composition described herein is modified to express modMesothelin (modMSLN), modTERT, modPSMA, modMAGEA1, modEGFRvIII, modhCMV pp65, modTBXT, modBORIS, modFSHR, modMAGEA10, modMAGEC2, modWT1, modKRAS, modFBP, modTDGF1, modClaudin 18, modLY6K, modFAP, modPRAME, KRAS G12D mutation, KRAS G12V mutation, and/or modHPV16/18 E6/E7. In other embodiments, the TAA or “mutated version thereof” may comprise fusions of 1, 2, or 3 or more of the TAAs or mutated versions provided herein. In some embodiments, the fusions comprises a native or wild-type sequence fused with a mutated TAA. In some embodiments, the individual TAAs in the fusion construct are separated by a cleavage site, such as a furin cleavage site. Thus the present disclosure provides TAA fusion proteins such as CT83-MSLN or modCT83-MSLN, modMAGEA1-EGFRvIII-pp65, modTBXT-modBORIS, modFSHR-modMAGEA10, modTBXT-modMAGEC2, modTBXT-modWT1, modTBXT-modWT1 (KRAS), modWT1-modFBP, modPSMA-modTDGF1, modWT1-modClaudin 18, modPSMA-modLY6K, modFAP-modClaudin 18, and modPRAME-modTBXT, Sequences for native TAAs can be readily obtained from the NCBI database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein). Sequences for the aforementioned TAAs, mutated versions, and fusions are provided in Table 24.

TABLE 24 Sequences for MSLN, CT83 and Exemplary Design Antigens TAA Sequence Mesothelin atggctctgcctaccgcaagacccctgctgggctcctgtgggactcctgctctgggatcactgctgt ttctgctgttttcactgggctgggtgcagccttcccgcaccctggcaggagagacaggacaggaggc agcaccactggacggcgtgctggccaacccccctaatatcagctccctgtctcctcggcagctgctg ggcttcccatgtgcagaggtgagcggactgtccaccgagagggtgcgcgagctggcagtggccctgg cacagaagaacgtgaagctgagcacagagcagctgaggtgcctggcacacaggctgtccgagccacc agaggacctggatgcactgccactggacctgctgctgttcctgaacccagatgccttttccggcccc caggcctgtaccaggttcttttctcgcatcacaaaggccaatgtggatctgctgcccagaggcgcac ctgagaggcagagactgctgccagccgccctggcatgctggggcgtgaggggctctctgctgagcga ggcagacgtgcgcgccctgggaggactggcctgtgatctgccaggccgctttgtggcagagagcgcc gaggtgctgctgccacggctggtgtcctgccctggcccactggaccaggatcagcaggaggcagccc gggccgccctgcagggcggcggccctccctacggccccccttccacctggtctgtgagcacaatgga cgcactgagaggactgctgcctgtgctgggacagccaatcatcaggtctatcccccagggcatcgtg gcagcatggaggcagcggagcagccgggaccccagctggcggcagcctgagagaaccatcctgcggc ctagattccggagagaggtggagaagacagcctgtccatctggcaagaaggccagagagatcgacga gagcctgatcttttacaagaagtgggagctggaggcctgcgtggacgccgccctgctggctacccag atggacagggtgaatgccatccccttcacctacgagcagctggacgtgctgaagcacaagctggatg agctgtacccacagggctatcccgagtccgtgatccagcacctgggctacctgtttctgaagatgtc ccccgaggatatcagaaagtggaacgtgacctctctggagacactgaaggccctgctggaggtcaat aagggccacgagatgagccctcaggtggccaccctgatcgaccggttcgtgaagggcagaggccagc tggacaaggatacactggataccctgacagccttttaccccggctacctgtgctccctgtctcctga ggagctgtcctctgtgccacccagctccatctgggccgtgcggccacaggacctggatacctgcgac ccccggcagctggacgtgctgtaccctaaggccaggctggccttccagaacatgaatggctctgagt atttcgtgaagatccagagctttctgggaggagcacctaccgaggacctgaaggccctgagccagca gaacgtgagcatggacctggccacctttatgaagctgcgcacagatgccgtgctgccactgaccgtg gcagaggtgcagaagctgctgggacctcacgtggagggcctgaaggcagaggagaggcacaggccag tgcgggactggattctgcggcagagacaggacgatctggataccctgggactgggactgcagggagg catcccaaatggaggcagcacatccggctctggcaagccaggctccggagagggctctaccaaggga atgcaggaggccctgagcggcacaccttgcctgctgggacctggacctgtgctgactgtgctggctc tgctgctggcatctactctggct (SEQ ID NO: 17) Mesothelin MALPTARPLLGSCGTPALGSLLFLLFSLGWVQPSRTLAGETGQEAAPLDGVLANPPNISSLSPRQL LGFPCAEVSGLSTERVRELAVALAQKNVKLSTEQLRCLAHRLSEPPEDLDALPLDLLLFLNPDAFS GPQACTRFFSRITKANVDLLPRGAPERQRLLPAALACWGVRGSLLSEADVRALGGLACDLPGRFV AESAEVLLPRLVSCPGPLDQDQQEAARAALQGGGPPYGPPSTWSVSTMDALRGLLPVLGQPIIRS IPQGIVAAWRQRSSRDPSWRQPERTILRPRFRREVEKTACPSGKKAREIDESLIFYKKWELEACV DAALLATQMDRVNAIPFTYEQLDVLKHKLDELYPQGYPESVIQHLGYLFLKMSPEDIRKWNVTSLE TLKALLEVNKGHEMSPQVATLIDRFVKGRGQLDKDTLDTLTAFYPGYLCSLSPEELSSVPPSSIWA VRPQDLDTCDPRQLDVLYPKARLAFQNMNGSEYFVKIQSFLGGAPTEDLKALSQQNVSMDLATF MKLRTDAVLPLTVAEVQKLLGPHVEGLKAEERHRPVRDWILRQRQDDLDTLGLGLQGGIPNGGST SGSGKPGSGEGSTKGMQEALSGTPCLLGPGPVLTVLALLLASTLA SEQ ID NO: 18) CT83 atgaacttttacctgctgctggcatcctcaatcctgtgcgccctgatcgtgttttggaaataccgac gctttcagagaaatactggcgagatgagcagcaacagcaccgccctggccctggtgcggccctctag ctccggcctgatcaactctaatacagacaacaatctggccgtgtacgacctgtctcgggatatcctg aacaatttccctcacagcatcgcccggcagaagagaatcctggtgaacctgagcatggtggagaata agctggtggagctggaacatacactgctgagtaagggctttaggggggcttcaccacatcgcaagtc aaca (SEQ ID NO: 19) CT83 MNFYLLLASSILCALIVFWKYRRFQRNTGEMSSNSTALALVRPSSSGLINSNTDNNLAVYDLSRDIL NNFPHSIARQKRILVNLSMVENKLVELEHTLLSKGFRGASPHRKST (SEQ ID NO: 20) CT83- atgaatttctacctgctgctggcatcttcaatcctgtgcgccctgatcgtcttttggaagtatcgcc Mesothelin gctttcagaggaacactggcgagatgagcagcaacagcaccgccctggccctggtgcggccttctag ctccggcctgatcaactctaatacagacaacaatctggccgtgtatgacctgtcccgggatatcctg aacaatttcccacactctatcgccaggcagaagcgcatcctggtgaacctgagcatggtggagaata agctggtggagctggagcacaccctgctgagcaagggcttccggggagcatccccacacagaaagtc taccggcagcggcgccacaaacttttctctgctgaagcaggcaggcgacgtggaggagaatcctgga ccagccctgccaaccgccagacccctgctgggcagctgtggcacacccgccctgggctctctgctgt tcctgctgtttagcctgggatgggtgcagccatcaaggaccctggcaggagagacaggacaggaggc agcacccctggatggcgtgctggccaacccccctaatatctctagcctgagcccaagacagctgctg ggcttcccatgtgcagaggtgtccggactgtctaccgagagggtgcgcgagctggcagtggccctgg cacagaagaatgtgaagctgtctacagagcagctgaggtgcctggcacacagactgagcgagccacc agaggacctggatgcactgcctctggacctgctgctgttcctgaaccccgatgcctttagcggacct caggcctgcacccggttcttttccagaatcacaaaggccaatgtggatctgctgcctaggggcgcac cagagaggcagagactgctgccagccgccctggcctgctggggcgtgaggggcagcctgctgtccga ggcagacgtgcgcgccctgggaggactggcctgtgatctgccaggccgctttgtggcagagtctgcc gaggtgctgctgcctaggctggtgagctgcccaggacctctggaccaggatcagcaggaggcagccc gggccgccctgcagggcggcggccctccatacggccccccttccacctggtccgtgtctacaatgga cgcactgagaggactgctgccagtgctgggacagccaatcatcaggagcatcccccagggcatcgtg gcagcatggaggcagcggagcagccgggacccctcctggaggcagccagagaggaccatcctgcggc caagattccggagagaggtggagaagacagcatgtccatccggcaagaaggcccgcgagatcgacga gtctctgatcttttacaagaagtgggagctggaggcctgcgtggacgccgccctgctggctacccag atggaccgggtgaacgccatccccttcacctacgagcagctggacgtgctgaagcacaagctggatg agctgtacccccagggctatcctgagtccgtgatccagcacctgggctacctgtttctgaagatgag ccccgaggatatccggaagtggaacgtgacctccctggagacactgaaggccctgctggaggtcaat aagggccacgagatgagccctcaggtggccaccctgatcgacaggttcgtgaagggccgcggccagc tggacaaggatacactggataccctgacagccttttaccctggctacctgtgcagcctgtccccaga ggagctgagctccgtgccaccctctagcatctgggccgtgcggccccaggacctggatacctgcgac cctagacagctggatgtgctgtacccaaaggccaggctggccttccagaacatgaatggctctgagt atttcgtgaagatccagagctttctgggaggagcaccaaccgaggacctgaaggccctgtcccagca gaacgtgtctatggacctggccacctttatgaagctgagaacagatgccgtgctgcctctgaccgtg gcagaggtgcagaagctgctgggaccacacgtggagggcctgaaggcagaggagaggcacaggcctg tgagggactggattctgcggcagagacaggacgatctggataccctgggactgggactgcagggagg catccccaatggcggctctacaagcggctccggcaagcctggctctggagagggcagcaccaaggga atgcaggaggccctgagcggcacaccctgtctgctgggacctggacccgtgctgactgtgctggctc tgctgctggcttcaaccctggca (SEQ ID NO: 21) CT83- MNFYLLLASSILCALIVFWKYRRFQRNTGEMSSNSTALALVRPSSSGLINSNTDNNLAVYDLSRDIL Mesothelin NNFPHSIARQKRILVNLSMVENKLVELEHTLLSKGFRGASPHRKSTGSGATNFSLLKQAGDVEEN PGPALPTARPLLGSCGTPALGSLLFLLFSLGWVQPSRTLAGETGQEAAPLDGVLANPPNISSLSPR QLLGFPCAEVSGLSTERVRELAVALAQKNVKLSTEQLRCLAHRLSEPPEDLDALPLDLLLFLNPDA FSGPQACTRFFSRITKANVDLLPRGAPERQRLLPAALACWGVRGSLLSEADVRALGGLACDLPGR FVAESAEVLLPRLVSCPGPLDQDQQEAARAALQGGGPPYGPPSTWSVSTMDALRGLLPVLGQPII RSIPQGIVAAWRQRSSRDPSWRQPERTILRPRFRREVEKTACPSGKKAREIDESLIFYKKWELEA CVDAALLATQMDRVNAIPFTYEQLDVLKHKLDELYPQGYPESVIQHLGYLFLKMSPEDIRKWNVTS LETLKALLEVNKGHEMSPQVATLIDRFVKGRGQLDKDTLDTLTAFYPGYLCSLSPEELSSVPPSSI WAVRPQDLDTCDPRQLDVLYPKARLAFQNMNGSEYFVKIQSFLGGAPTEDLK5ALSQQNVSMDL ATFMKLRTDAVLPLTVAEVQKLLGPHVEGLKAEERHRPVRDWILRQRQDDLDTLGLGLQGGIPNG GSTSGSGKPGSGEGSTKGMQEALSGTPCLLGPGPVLTVLALLLASTLA (SEQ ID NO: 22) modTERT atgcctagagcacctagatgtagagctgtgcggagcctgctgcggagccactatagagaagttctgc ccctggccaccttcgtgcgtagacttggacctcaaggatggcggctggtgcagagaggcgatcctgc tgcttttagagccctggtggcccagtgtctcgtgtgcgttccatgggatgctagacctccaccagct gctcccagcttcagacaggtgtcctgcctgaaagaactggtggccagagtgctgcagcggctgtgtg aaaggggcgccaaaaatgtgctggccttcggctttgccctgctggatgaagctagaggcggacctcc tgaggcctttacaacaagcgtgcggagctacctgcctaacaccgtgacagatgccctgagaggatct ggcgcttggggactgctgctgagaagagtgggagatgacgtgctggtgcatctgctggcccactgtg ctctgtttgtgctggtggctcctagctgcgcctaccaagtttgcggccctctgctgtatcagctggg cgctgctacacaggctagaccacctccacatgccagcggacctagaagaaggctgggctgcgaaaga gcctggaaccactctgttagagaagccggcgtgccactgggattgcctgcacctggtgctcggagaa gagatggcagcgcctctagatctctgcctctgcctaagaggcccagaagaggcgcagcacctgagcc tgagagaacccctatcggccaaggatcttgggcccatcctggcagaacaagaggccctagcgataga ggcttctgcgtggtgtctcctgccagacctgccgaggaagctacatctcttgacggcgccctgagcg gcacaagacactctcatccatctgtgggctgccagcaccatgccggacctccatctacaagcagacc acctagaccttgggacaccccttgtcctccagtgtacgccgagacaaagcacttcctgtacagcagc ggcgacaaagagcagctgaggcctagcttcctgctgagctttctgaggccaagcctgacaggcgcca gacggctgctggaaacaatcttcctgggcagcagaccctggatgcctggcacacttagaaggctgcc tagactgccccagcggtactggcaaatgaggcccctgtttctggaactgctgggcaaccacgctcag tgcccttatggcgtgctgctgaaaacccactgtccactgagagccgtggttactccagctgctggcg tgtgtgccagagagaagccacagggatctgtggtggcccctgaggaagaggacaccgatcctagaag gctcgtgcagctgctgaggcagcatagctctccatggcaggtctacggattcgtgcgggcctgtctg catagactggttccacctggactgtggggctccagacacaacgagcggcggtttctgcggaacacca agaagttcatcagcctgggaaagcacgccaagctgagcctgcaagagctgacctggaagatgagcgt gtgggattgtgcttggctgcggagaagtcctggcgtgggatgtgttcctgccgccgaacacagactg cgggaagagatcctggccaagttcctgcactggctgatgtccgtgtacgtggtcgaactgctgcggt ccctgttctgcgtgaccgagacaaccttccagaagaaccggctgttcttctaccggaagtccgtgtg gtccaagctgcagagcatcggcatccggcagcatctgaagagagtgcagctgagagagctgctcgaa gccgaagttcggcagcacagaaaagccagactggccctgctgaccagcaggctgagattcatcccca agcacgatggcctgcggcctattgtgaacatggactacgttgtgggcgccagaaccttccaccggga aaagagagccgagcggctgacctctagagtgaaggccctgtttagcgtgctgaactacgagcgggcc agaaggccatctctgctgggagcctttgtgctcggcctggacgatattcatagagcctggcggacat tcgtgctgagagtcagagcccaggatagccctcctgagctgtacttcgtgaaggccgatgtgatggg cgcctacaacacaatccctcaggaccggctgaccgagatcattgccagcatcatcaagccccagaac atgtactgtgtgcggagatacgccgtggtgcagaaagccacacatggccacgtgcgcaaggccttca agagccatgtgtctaccctgaccgacctgcagccttacatgagacagttcgtggcctatctgcaaga gacaagccctctgagggacgccgtgatcatcgaacagagcagcagcctgaatgaggccagctccggc ctgtttgacgtgttcctcagattcatgtgccaccacgccgtgcggatcagaggcaagagctacatcc agtgccagggcattccacagggctccatcctgagcacactgctgtgcagcctgtgctacggcgacat ggaaaacaagctgttcgccggcattcggcgcgacggactgcttcttagactggtggacgacttcctg ctcgtgacccctcatctgacccacgccaagacctttctgaaaacactcgtgcggggcgtgcccgagt atggctgtgtggtcaatctgagaaagaccgtggtcaacttccccgtcgaggatgaagccctcggcgg cacagcttttgtgcagatgcctgctcacggactgttcccttggtgctccctgctgctggacactaga accctggaagtgcagagcgactacagcagctatgcccggacctctatcagagccagcctgaccttca accggggctttaaggccggcagaaacatgcggagaaagctgtttggagtgctgcggctgaagtgcca cagcctgttcctcgacctgcaagtgaacagcctgcagaccgtgtgcaccaatatctacaagattctg ctgctgcaagcctaccggttccacgcctgtgttctgcagctgcccttccaccagcaagtgtggaaga accctacattcttcctgcggatcatcagcgacaccgccagcctgtgttacagcatcctgaaggccaa gaacgccggcatgtctctgggagctaaaggcgctgcaggacccctgccttttgaagctgttcagtgg ctgtgtcaccaggcctttctgctgaagctgacccggcacagagtgacatatgtgcccctgctgggct ccctgagaacagctcagatgcagctgtccagaaagctgccaggcacaaccctgacagccctggaagc tgctgctaaccctgctctgcccagcgacttcaagaccatcctggactgatga (SEQ ID NO: 35) modTERT MPRAPRCRAVRSLLRSHYREVLPLATFVRRLGPQGWRLVQRGDPAAFRALVAQCLVCVPWDAR PPPAAPSFRQVSCLKELVARVLQRLCERGAKNVLAFGFALLDEARGGPPEAFTTSVRSYLPNTVT DALRGSGAWGLLLRRVGDDVLVHLLAHCALFVLVAPSCAYQVCGPLLYQLGAATQARPPPHASG PRRRLGCERAWNHSVREAGVPLGLPAPGARRRDGSASRSLPLPKRPRRGAAPEPERTPIGQGS WAHPGRTRGPSDRGFCVVSPARPAEEATSLDGALSGTRHSHPSVGCQHHAGPPSTSRPPRPW DTPCPPVYAETKHFLYSSGDKEQLRPSFLLSFLRPSLTGARRLLETIFLGSRPWMPGTLRRLPRLP QRYWQMRPLFLELLGNHAQCPYGVLLKTHCPLRAVVTPAAGVCAREKPQGSVVAPEEEDTDPR RLVQLLRQHSSPWQVYGFVRACLHRLVPPGLWGSRHNERRFLRNTKKFISLGKHAKLSLQELTW KMSVWDCAWLRRSPGVGCVPAAEHRLREEILAKFLHWLMSVYVVELLRSLFCVTETTFQKNRLF FYRKSVWSKLQSIGIRQHLKRVQLRELLEAEVRQHRKARLALLTSRLRFIPKHDGLRPIVNMDYVV GARTFHREKRAERLTSRVKALFSVLNYERARRPSLLGAFVLGLDDIHRAWRTFVLRVRAQDSPPE LYFVKADVMGAYNTIPQDRLTEIIASIIKPQNMYCVRRYAVVQKATHGHVRKAFKSHVSTLTDLQPY MRQFVAYLQETSPLRDAVIIEQSSSLNEASSGLFDVFLRFMCHHAVRIRGKSYIQCQGIPQGSILST LLCSLCYGDMENKLFAGIRRDGLLLRLVDDFLLVTPHLTHAKTFLKTLVRGVPEYGCVVNLRKTVV NFPVEDEALGGTAFVQMPAHGLFPWCSLLLDTRTLEVQSDYSSYARTSIRASLTFNRGFKAGRN MRRKLFGVLRLKCHSLFLDLQVNSLQTVCTNIYKILLLQAYRFHACVLQLPFHQQVWKNPTFFLRII SDTASLCYSILKAKNAGMSLGAKGAAGPLPFEAVQWLCHQAFLLKLTRHRVTYVPLLGSLRTAQM QLSRKLPGTTLTALEAAANPALPSDFKTILD (SEQ ID NO: 36) modPSMA atgtggaatctgctgcacgagacagatagcgccgtggctaccgttagaaggcccagatggctttgtg ctggcgctctggttctggctggcggcttttttctgctgggcttcctgttcggctggttcatcaagag cagcaacgaggccaccaacatcacccctaagcacaacatgaaggcctttctggacgagctgaaggcc gagaatatcaagaagttcctgtacaacttcacgcacatccctcacctggccggcaccgagcagaatt ttcagctggccaagcagatccagagccagtggaaagagttcggcctggactctgtggaactggccca ctacgatgtgctgctgagctaccccaacaagacacaccccaactacatcagcatcatcaacgaggac ggcaacgagatcttcaacaccagcctgttcgagcctccacctcctggctacgagaacgtgtccgata tcgtgcctccattcagcgctttcagcccacagcggatgcctgagggctacctggtgtacgtgaacta cgccagaaccgaggacttcttcaagctggaatgggacatgaagatcagctgcagcggcaagatcgtg atcgcccggtacagaaaggtgttccgcgagaacaaagtgaagaacgcccagctggcaggcgccaaag gcgtgatcctgtatagcgaccccgccgactattttgcccctggcgtgaagtcttaccccgacggctg gaattttcctggcggcggagtgcagcggcggaacatccttaatcttaacggcgctggcgaccctctg acacctggctatcctgccaatgagtacgcctacagacacggaattgccgaggctgtgggcctgcctt ctattcctgtgcaccctgtgcggtactacgacgcccagaaactgctggaaaagatgggcggaagcgc ccctcctgactcttcttggagaggctctctgaaggtgccctacaatgtcggcccaggcttcaccggc aacttcagcacccagaaagtgaaaatgcacatccacagcaccaacgaagtgacccggatctacaacg tgatcggcacactgagaggcgccgtggaacccgacaaatacgtgatcctcggcggccacagagacag ctgggtgttcggaggaatcgaccctcaatctggcgccgctgtggtgtatgagatcgtgcggtctttc ggcaccctgaagaaagaaggatggcggcccagacggaccatcctgtttgcctcttgggacgccgagg aatttggcctgctgggatctacagagtgggccgaagagaacagcagactgctgcaagaaagaggcgt ggcctacatcaacgccgacagcagcatcgagggcaactacaccctgcggatcgattgcacccctctg atgtacagcctggtgcacaacctgaccaaagagctgaagtcccctgacgagggctttgagggcaaga gcctgtacaagagctggaccaagaagtccccatctcctgagttcagcggcatgcccagaatctctaa gctggaaagcggcaacaacttcgaggtgttcttccagcggctgggaatcgcctctggaatcgccaga tacaccaagaactgggagacaaacaagttctccggctatcccctgtaccacagcgtgtacgagacat acgagctggtggaaaagttctacgaccccatgttcaagtaccacctgacagtggcccaagtgcgcgg aggcatggtgttcgaactggccaatagcatcgtgctgcccttcaactgcagagactacgccgtggtg ctgcggaagtacgccgacaagatctacagcatcagcatgaagcacccgcaagagatgaagacctaca gcgtgtccttcgactccctgttcttcgccgtgaagaacttcaccaagatcgccagcaagttcagcga gcggctgcaggacttcgacaagagcaaccctatcgtgctgaggatgatgaacgaccagctgatgttc ctggaacgggccttcatcaaccctctgggactgcccgacagacccttctacaggcacgtgatctgtg cccctagcagccacaacaaatacgccggcgagagcttccccggcatctacgatgccctgttcgacat cgagagcaacgtgaaccctagcaaggcctggggcgaagtgaagagacagatctacgtggccgcattc acagtgcaggccgctgccgaaacactgtctgaggtggcctgatga (SEQ ID NO: 37) modPSMA MWNLLHETDSAVATVRRPRWLCAGALVLAGGFFLLGFLFGWFIKSSNEATNITPKHNMKAFLDEL KAENIKKFLYNFTHIPHLAGTEQNFQLAKQIQSQWKEFGLDSVELAHYDVLLSYPNKTHPNYISIIN EDGNEIFNTSLFEPPPPGYENVSDIVPPFSAFSPQRMPEGYLVYVNYARTEDFFKLEWDMKISCSG KIVIARYRKVFRENKVKNAQLAGAKGVILYSDPADYFAPGVKSYPDGWNFPGGGVQRRNILNLNG AGDPLTPGYPANEYAYRHGIAEAVGLPSIPVHPVRYYDAQKLLEKMGGSAPPDSSWRGSLKVPY NVGPGFTGNFSTQKVKMHIHSTNEVTRIYNVIGTLRGAVEPDKYVILGGHRDSWVFGGIDPQSGA AVVYEIVRSFGTLKKEGWRPRRTILFASWDAEEFGLLGSTEWAEENSRLLQERGVAYINADSSIEG NYTLRIDCTPLMYSLVHNLTKELKSPDEGFEGKSLYKSWTKKSPSPEFSGMPRISKLESGNNFEVF FQRLGIASGIARYTKNWETNKFSGYPLYHSVYETYELVEKFYDPMFKYHLTVAQVRGGMVFELAN SIVLPFNCRDYAVVLRKYADKIYSISMKHPQEMKTYSVSFDSLFFAVKNFTKIASKFSERLQDFDKS NPIVLRMMNDQLMFLERAFINPLGLPDRPFYRHVICAPSSHNKYAGESFPGIYDALFDIESNVNPSK AWGEVKRQIYVAAFTVQAAAETLSEVA (SEQ ID NO: 38) modMAGEA1- atgtctctcgaacagagaagcctgcactgcaagcccgaggaagctctggaagctcagcaagaggctc EGFRvIII- tgggccttgtgtgtgttcaggccgctgccagcagcttttctcctctggtgctgggcacactggaaga pp65 ggtgccaacagccggctctaccgatcctcctcaatctcctcaaggcgccagcgcctttcctaccacc atcaacttcacccggcagagacagcctagcgagggctctagctctcacgaggaaaagggccctagca ccagctgcatcctggaaagcctgttccgggccgtgatcacaaagaaagtggccgacctcgtgggctt cctgctgctgaagtacagagccagagaacccgtgaccaaggccgagatgctggaaagcgtgatcaag aactacaagcactgcttcagcgagatcttcggcaaggccagcgagtctctgcagctcgtgtttggca tcgacgtgaaagaggccgatcctaccggccacagctacgtgttcgtgacatgtctgggcctgagcta cgatggcctgctgggcgacaatcagattatgctgaaaaccggcttcctgatcatcgtgctggtcatg atcgccatggaaggctctcacgcccctaaagaggaaatctgggaagaactgagcgtgatggaagtgt acgacggcagagagcatagcgcctacggcgagcctagaaaactgctgacccaggacctggtgcaaga gaagtacctcgagtacagacaggtgcccgacagcgaccctgccagatacgaatttctgtggggccct agagcactggccgagacaagctatgtgaaggtgctggaatacgtcatcaaggtgtccgccagagtgt gcttcttcttcccatctctgcgggaagccgctctgcgcgaagaggaagaaggcgtcagaggccggaa gagaagaagcctggaagagaaaaagggcaactacgtggtcaccgaccactgcagaggcagaaagcgg agaagcgagtctagaggcagacggtgccctgagatgattagcgtgctgggccctatctctggccacg tgctgaaggccgtgttcagcagaggcgatacacctgtgctgccccacgagacaagactgctgcagac aggcatccatgtgcgggtgtcacagccaagcctgatcctggtgtctcagtacacccctgacagcacc ccttgtcacagaggcgacaaccagctccaggtgcagcacacctactttaccggcagcgaggtggaaa acgtgtccgtgaacgtgcacaatcccaccggcagatccatctgtcccagccaagagcctatgagcat ctacgtgtacgccctgcctctgaagatgctgaacatccccagcatcaatgtgcatcactacccctct gccgccgagcggaaacacagacatctgcctgtggccgatgccgtgattcacgcctctggaaagcaga tgtggcaggccagactgacagtgtccggactggcttggaccagacagcagaaccagtggaaagaacc cgacgtgtactacacctccgccttcgtgttccccacaaaggacgtggccctgagacacgttgtgtgc gcccatgaactcgtgtgcagcatggaaaacacccgggccaccaagatgcaagtgatcggcgaccagt acgtgaaggtgtacctggaatccttctgcgaggacgtgccaagcggcaagctgttcatgcacgtgac cctgggctccgatgtggaagaggacctgaccatgaccagaaatccccagcctttcatgcggcctcac gagagaaatggcttcaccgtgctgtgccccaagaacatgatcatcaagcccggcaagatcagccaca tcatgctggatgtggccttcaccagccacgagcacttcggactgctgtgtcctaagagcatccccgg cctgagcatcagcggcaacctgctgatgaatggccagcagatcttcctggaagtgcaggccattcgg gaaaccgtggaactgagacagtacgaccctgtggctgccctgttcttcttcgacatcgatctgctgc tccagagaggccctcagtacagcgagcacccaacctttaccagccagtacagaatccagggcaagct ggaatatcggcacacctgggatagacacgatgagggtgctgcacagggcgacgatgatgtgtggaca agcggcagcgatagcgacgaggaactggtcaccaccgagagaaagacccctagagttacaggcggag gcgcaatggctggcgcttctacatctgccggacgcaagagaaagagcgcctcttctgccaccgcctg tacaagcggcgtgatgacaagaggcaggctgaaagccgagagcacagtggcccctgaggaagataca gacgaggacagcgacaacgagattcacaaccccgccgtgtttacctggcctccttggcaggctggca ttctggctagaaacctggtgcctatggtggccacagtgcagggccagaacctgaagtaccaagagtt cttctgggacgccaacgacatctaccggatcttcgccgaactggaaggcgtgtggcaaccagccgct cagcccaaaagacgcagacacagacaggacgctctgcccggaccttgtattgccagcacacccaaga aacaccggggctgataa (SEQ ID NO: 39) modMAGEA1- MSLEQRSLHCKPEEALEAQQEALGLVCVQAAASSFSPLVLGTLEEVPTAGSTDPPQSPQGASAF EGFRvIII- PTTINFTRQRQPSEGSSSHEEKGPSTSCILESLFRAVITKKVADLVGFLLLKYRAREPVTKAEMLES pp65 VIKNYKHCFSEIFGKASESLQLVFGIDVKEADPTGHSYVFVTCLGLSYDGLLGDNQIMLKTGFLIIV LVMIAMEGSHAPKEEIWEELSVMEVYDGREHSAYGEPRKLLTQDLVQEKYLEYRQVPDSDPARYE FLWGPRALAETSYVKVLEYVIKVSARVCFFFPSLREAALREEEEGVRGRKRRSLEEKKGNYVVTD HCRGRKRRSESRGRRCPEMISVLGPISGHVLKAVFSRGDTPVLPHETRLLQTGIHVRVSQPSLILV SQYTPDSTPCHRGDNQLQVQHTYFTGSEVENVSVNVHNPTGRSICPSQEPMSIYVYALPLKMLNI PSINVHHYPSAAERKHRHLPVADAVIHASGKQMWQARLTVSGLAWTRQQNQWKEPDVYYTSAF VFPTKDVALRHVVCAHELVCSMENTRATKMQVIGDQYVKVYLESFCEDVPSGKLFMHVTLGSDV EEDLTMTRNPQPFMRPHERNGFTVLCPKNMIIKPGKISHIMLDVAFTSHEHFGLLCPKSIPGLSISG NLLMNGQQIFLEVQAIRETVELRQYDPVAALFFFDIDLLLQRGPQYSEHPTFTSQYRIQGKLEYRHT WDRHDEGAAQGDDDVWTSGSDSDEELVTTERKTPRVTGGGAMAGASTSAGRKRKSASSATAC TSGVMTRGRLKAESTVAPEEDTDEDSDNEIHNPAVFTWPPWQAGILARNLVPMVATVQGQNLKY QEFFWDANDIYRIFAELEGVWQPAAQPKRRRHRQDALPGPCIASTPKKHRG (SEQ ID NO: 40) modTBXT- atgtctagccctggaacagagtctgccggcaagagcctgcagtacagagtggaccatctgctgagcg modBORIS ccgtggaaaatgaactgcaggccggaagcgagaagggcgatcctacagagcacgagctgagagtcgg cctggaagagtctgagctgtggctgcggttcaaagaactgaccaacgagatgatcgtgaccaagaac ggcagacggatgttccccgtgctgaaagtgaacgtgtccggactggaccccaacgccatgtacagct ttctgctggacttcgtggtggccgacaaccacagatggaaatacgtgaacggcgagtgggtgccagg cggaaaacctcaactgcaagcccctagctgcgtgtacattcaccctgacagccccaatttcggcgcc cactggatgaaggcccctgtgtccttcagcaaagtgaagctgaccaacaagctgaacggcggaggcc agatcatgctgaacagcctgcacaaatacgagcccagaatccacatcgtcagagtcggcggacccca gagaatgatcaccagccactgcttccccgagacacagtttatcgccgtgaccgcctaccagaacgag gaaatcaccacactgaagatcaagtacaaccccttcgccaaggccttcctggacgccaaagagcgga gcgaccacaaagagatgatcaaagagcccggcgacagccagcagccaggctattctcaatggggatg gctgctgccaggcaccagcacattgtgccctccagccaatcctcacagccagtttggaggcgccctg agcctgtctagcacccacagctacgacagataccccacactgcggagccacagaagcagcccctatc cttctccttacgctcaccggaacaacagccccacctacagcgataatagccccgcctgtctgagcat gctgcagtcccacgataactggtccagcctgagaatgcctgctcacccttccatgctgcccgtgtct cacaatgcctctccacctaccagcagctctcagtaccctagcctttggagcgtgtccaatggcgccg tgacactgggatctcaggcagccgctgtgtctaatggactgggagcccagttcttcagaggcagccc tgctcactacacccctctgacacatcctgtgtctgcccctagcagcagcggcttccctatgtataag ggcgctgccgccgctaccgacatcgtggattctcagtatgatgccgccgcacagggacacctgatcg cctcttggacacctgtgtctccaccttccatgagaggcagaaagagaagatccgccgccaccgagat cagcgtgctgagcgagcagttcaccaagatcaaagaattgaagctgatgctcgagaaggggctgaag aaagaagagaaggacggcgtctgccgcgagaagaatcacagaagccctagcgagctggaagcccaga gaacatctggcgccttccaggacagcatcctggaagaagaggtggaactggttctggcccctctgga agagagcaagaagtacatcctgacactgcagaccgtgcacttcacctctgaagccgtgcagctccag gacatgagcctgctgtctatccagcagcaagagggcgtgcaggttgtggttcagcaacctggacctg gactgctctggctgcaagagggacctagacagtccctgcagcagtgtgtggccatcagcatccagca agagctgtatagccctcaagagatggaagtgctgcagtttcacgccctcgaagagaacgtgatggtg gccatcgaggacagcaagctggctgtgtctctggccgaaacaaccggcctgatcaagctggaagagg aacaagagaagaaccagctgctggccgagaaaacaaaaaagcaactgttcttcgtggaaaccatgag cggcgacgagagaagcgacgagatcgtgctgacagtgtccaacagcaacgtggaagaacaagaggac cagcctaccgcctgtcaggccgatgccgagaaagccaagtttaccaagaaccagagaaagaccaagg gcgccaagggcaccttccactgcaacgtgtgcatgttcaccagcagccggatgagcagcttcaactg ccacatgaagacccacaccagcgagaagccccatctgtgtcacctgtgcctgaaaaccttccggaca gtgacactgctgtggaactatgtgaacacccacacaggcacccggccttacaagtgcaacgactgca acatggccttcgtgaccagcggagaactcgtgcggcacagaagatacaagcacacccacgagaaacc cttcaagtgcagcatgtgcaaatacgcatccatggaagcctccaagctgaagtgccacgtgcgctct cacacaggcgagcaccctttccagtgctgtcagtgtagctacgccagccgggacacctataagctga agcggcacatgagaacccactctggcgaaaagccctacgagtgccacatctgccacaccagattcac ccagagcggcaccatgaagattcacatcctgcagaaacacggcaagaacgtgcccaagtaccagtgt cctcactgcgccaccattatcgccagaaagtccgacctgcgggtgcacatgaggaatctgcacgcct attctgccgccgagctgaaatgcagatactgcagcgccgtgttccacaagagatacgccctgatcca gcaccagaaaacccacaagaacgagaagcggtttaagtgcaagcactgcagctacgcctgcaagcaa gagcgccacatgatcgcccacatccacacacacaccggggagaagccttttacctgcctgagctgca acaagtgcttccggcagaaacagctgctcaacgcccacttcagaaagtaccacgacgccaacttcat ccccaccgtgtacaagtgctccaagtgcggcaagggcttcagccggtggatcaatctgcaccggcac ctggaaaagtgcgagtctggcgaagccaagtctgccgcctctggcaagggcagaagaacccggaaga gaaagcagaccatcctgaaagaggccaccaagagccagaaagaagccgccaagcgctggaaagaggc tgccaacggcgacgaagctgctgccgaagaagccagcacaacaaagggcgaacagttccccgaagag atgttccctgtggcctgcagagaaaccacagccagagtgaagcaagaggtcgaccagggcgtgacct gcgagatgctgctgaacaccatggacaagtgatga (SEQ ID NO: 41) modTBXT- MSSPGTESAGKSLQYRVDHLLSAVENELQAGSEKGDPTEHELRVGLEESELWLRFKELTNEMIVT modBORIS KNGRRMFPVLKVNVSGLDPNAMYSFLLDFVVADNHRWKYVNGEWVPGGKPQLQAPSCVYIHPD SPNFGAHWMKAPVSFSKVKLTNKLNGGGQIMLNSLHKYEPRIHIVRVGGPQRMITSHCFPETQFIA VTAYQNEEITTLKIKYNPFAKAFLDAKERSDHKEMIKEPGDSQQPGYSQWGWLLPGTSTLCPPAN PHSQFGGALSLSSTHSYDRYPTLRSHRSSPYPSPYAHRNNSPTYSDNSPACLSMLQSHDNWSSL RMPAHPSMLPVSHNASPPTSSSQYPSLWSVSNGAVTLGSQAAAVSNGLGAQFFRGSPAHYTPL THPVSAPSSSGFPMYKGAAAATDIVDSQYDAAAQGHLIASWTPVSPPSMRGRKRRSAATEISVLS EQFTKIKELKLMLEKGLKKEEKDGVCREKNHRSPSELEAQRTSGAFQDSILEEEVELVLAPLEESK KYILTLQTVHFTSEAVQLQDMSLLSIQQQEGVQVVVQQPGPGLLWLQEGPRQSLQQCVAISIQQE LYSPQEMEVLQFHALEENVMVAIEDSKLAVSLAETTGLIKLEEEQEKNQLLAEKTKKQLFFVETMS GDERSDEIVLTVSNSNVEEQEDQPTACQADAEKAKFTKNQRKTKGAKGTFHCNVCMFTSSRMSS FNCHMKTHTSEKPHLCHLCLKTFRTVTLLWNYVNTHTGTRPYKCNDCNMAFVTSGELVRHRRYK HTHEKPFKCSMCKYASMEASKLKCHVRSHTGEHPFQCCQCSYASRDTYKLKRHMRTHSGEKPY ECHICHTRFTQSGTMKIHILQKHGKNVPKYQCPHCATIIARKSDLRVHMRNLHAYSAAELKCRYCS AVFHKRYALIQHQKTHKNEKRFKCKHCSYACKQERHMIAHIHTHTGEKPFTCLSCNKCFRQKQLL NAHFRKYHDANFIPTVYKCSKCGKGFSRWINLHRHLEKCESGEAKSAASGKGRRTRKRKQTILKE ATKSQKEAAKRWKEAANGDEAAAEEASTTKGEQFPEEMFPVACRETTARVKQEVDQGVTCEML LNTMDK (SEQ ID NO: 42) modFSHR- atggctctgctgctggtttctctgctggccctgctgtctctcggctctggatgtcaccacagaatct modMAGEA10 gccactgcagcaaccgggtgttcctgtgccagaaaagcaaagtgaccgagatcctgagcgacctgca gcggaatgccatcgagctgagattcgtgctgaccaagctgcaagtgatccagaagggcgccttcagc ggcttcggcgacctggaaaagatcgagatcagccagaacaacgtgctggaagtgatcgaggcccacg tgttcagcaacctgcctaagctgcacgagatcagaatcgagaaggccaacaacctgctgtacatcaa ccccgaggccttccagaacttccccaacctgcagtacctgctgatctccaacaccggcatcaaacat ctgcccgacgtgcacaagatccacagcctgcagaaggtgctgctggacatccaggacaacatcaaca tccacacaatcgagcggaactacttcctgggcctgagcttcgagagcgtgatcctgtggctgaacaa gaacggcatccaagagatccacaactgcgccttcaatggcacccagctggacgagctgaacctgtcc gacaacaacaatctggaagaactgcccaacgacgtgttccacagagccagcggacctgtgatcctgg acatcagcagaaccagaatccactctctgcccagctacggcctggaaaacctgaagaagctgcgggc cagaagcacctacaatctgaaaaagctgcctacgctggaaaccctggtggccctgatggaagccagc ctgacataccctagccactgctgcgcctttgccaactggcggagacagatctctgagctgcacccca tctgcaacaagagcatcctgcggcaagaggtggactacatgacacaggccagaggccagagattcag cctggccgaggataacgagagcagctacagcagaggcttcgacatgacctacaccgagttcgactac gacctgtgcaacaaggtggtggacgtgacatgcagccccaagcctgatgccttcaatccctgcgagg acatcatgggctacaacatcctgagagtgctgatctggttcatcagcatcctggccatcaccgagaa catcatcgtgctggtcatcctgaccaccagccagtacaagctgaccgtgcctatgttcctgatgtgc aacctggccttcgccgatctgtgcatcggcatctacctgctgctgatcgccagcgtggacattcaca ccaagagccagtaccacaactacgccatcgactggcagacaggcgccggatgtgatgccgccggatt ctttacagtgttcgccagcgagctgtccgtgtacaccctgacagctatcaccctggaacggtggcac accatcacacacgctatgcagctggactgcaaagtgcacctgagacacagcgcctccgtgatggtta tgggctggatcttcgccttcgctgccgctctgttccccatctttggcatcagctcctacatgaaggt gtccatctatctgcccatggacatcgacagccctctgagccagctgtacgtgatgagtctgctggtg ctgaatgtgctggcctttgtggtcatctgcggctgctacatctatatctacctgacagtgcggaacc ccaacatcgtgtccagctccagcgacacccggatcgctaagagaatggccatgctgatcttcaccga ctttctgtgcatggcccctatcagcctgttcgccattagcgctagcctgaaggtgcccctgatcacc gtgtccaaggccaagattctgctggtcctgttctaccccatcaacagctgcgccaatcctttcctgt acgccatcttcaccaagaacttcaggcggaacttcttcatcctgctgagcaagcggggctgttacaa gatgcaggcccagatctaccggaccgagacactgtccaccgtgcacaacacacaccccagaaacggc cactgtagcagcgcccctagagtgacaaatggctccacctacatcctggtgccactgagccatctgg cccagaacagaggccggaagagaagaagccccagggctcccaagagacagagatgcatgcccgaaga ggacctgcagagccagagcgaaacacagggactcgaaggtgctcaggctcctctggccgtggaagaa gatgccagcagctctaccagcacctccagcagcttccctagcagctttccattcagctcctctagct ctagcagcagctgttaccctctgatccccagcacacccgagaaggtgttcgccgacgacgagacacc taatccactgcagtctgcccagatcgcctgcagcagtacactggtggttgctagcctgcctctggac cagtctgatgagggaagcagcagccagaaagaggaaagccctagcacactccaggtgctgcccgata gcgagagcctgcctagaagcgagatctacaagaaaatgaccgacctggtgcagttcctcctgttcaa gtaccagatgaaggaacccatcaccaaggccgaaatcctggaaagcgtgatcagaaactacgaggac cactttccactgctgttcagcgaggccagcgagtgcatgctgctcgtgtttagcatcgacgtgaaga aggtggaccccaccggccacagctttgtgctggttacaagcctgggactgacctacgacggcatgct gtccgatgtgcagagcatgcctaagaccggcatcctgatcctgattctgagcatcgtgttcatcgag ggctactgcacccctgaggaagtgatttgggaagccctgaacatgatgggcctgtacgatggcatgg aacacctgatctacggcgagcccagaaaactgctgacccaggactgggtgcaagagaactacctgga ataccggcagatgcccggcagcgatcctgccagatatgagtttctgtggggccctagagcacatgcc gagatccggaagatgagcctgctgaagttcctggccaaagtgaacggcagcgacccaatcagcttcc cactttggtacgaagaggccctgaaggacgaggaagagagagcccaggatagaatcgccaccaccga cgacacaacagccatggcctctgcctcttctagcgccaccggcagctttagctaccccgagtgataa (SEQ ID NO: 43) modFSHR- MALLLVSLLALLSLGSGCHHRICHCSNRVFLCQKSKVTEILSDLQRNAIELRFVLTKLQVIQKGAFS modMAGEA10 GFGDLEKIEISQNNVLEVIEAHVFSNLPKLHEIRIEKANNLLYINPEAFQNFPNLQYLLISNTGIKH LPDVHKIHSLQKVLLDIQDNINIHTIERNYFLGLSFESVILWLNKNGIQEIHNCAFNGTQLDELNLS DNNNLEELPNDVFHRASGPVILDISRTRIHSLPSYGLENLKKLRARSTYNLKKLPTLETLVALMEAS LTYPSHCCAFANWRRQISELHPICNKSILRQEVDYMTQARGQRFSLAEDNESSYSRGFDMTYTEFDY DLCNKVVDVTCSPKPDAFNPCEDIMGYNILRVLIWFISILAITENIIVLVILTTSQYKLTVPMFLMC NLAFADLCIGIYLLLIASVDIHTKSQYHNYAIDWQTGAGCDAAGFFTVFASELSVYTLTAITLERWH TITHAMQLDCKVHLRHSASVMVMGWIFAFAAALFPIFGISSYMKVSIYLPMDIDSPLSQLYVMSLLV LNVLAFVVICGCYIYIYLTVRNPNIVSSSSDTRIAKRMAMLIFTDFLCMAPISLFAISASLKVPLIT VSKAKILLVLFYPINSCANPFLYAIFTKNFRRNFFILLSKRGCYKMQAQIYRTETLSTVHNTHPRNG HCSSAPRVTNGSTYILVPLSHLAQNRGRKRRSPRAPKRQRCMPEEDLQSQSETQGLEGAQAPLAVEE DASSSTSTSSSFPSSFPFSSSSSSSSCYPLIPSTPEKVFADDETPNPLQSAQIACSSTLVVASLPLD QSDEGSSSQKEESPSTLQVLPDSESLPRSEIYKKMTDLVQFLLFKYQMKEITKAEILESVIRNYEDH FPLLFSEASECMLLVFSIDVKKVDPTGHSFVLVTSLGLTYDGMLSDVQSMPKTGILILILSIVFIEG YCTPEEVIWEALNMMGLYDGMEHLIYGEPRKLLTQDWVQENYLEYRQMPGSDPARYEFLWGPRAHAE IRKMSLLKFLAKVNGSDPISFPLWYEEALKDEEERAQDRIATTDDTTAMASASSSATGSFSYPE (SEQ ID NO: 44) modTBXT- atggctctgctgctggtttctctgctggccctgctgtctctcggctctggatgtcaccacagaatct modMAGEC2 gccactgcagcaaccgggtgttcctgtgccagaaaagcaaagtgaccgagatcctgagcgacctgca gcggaatgccatcgagctgagattcgtgctgaccaagctgcaagtgatccagaagggcgccttcagc ggcttcggcgacctggaaaagatcgagatcagccagaacaacgtgctggaagtgatcgaggcccacg tgttcagcaacctgcctaagctgcacgagatcagaatcgagaaggccaacaacctgctgtacatcaa ccccgaggccttccagaacttccccaacctgcagtacctgctgatctccaacaccggcatcaaacat ctgcccgacgtgcacaagatccacagcctgcagaaggtgctgctggacatccaggacaacatcaaca tccacacaatcgagcggaactacttcctgggcctgagcttcgagagcgtgatcctgtggctgaacaa gaacggcatccaagagatccacaactgcgccttcaatggcacccagctggacgagctgaacctgtcc gacaacaacaatctggaagaactgcccaacgacgtgttccacagagccagcggacctgtgatcctgg acatcagcagaaccagaatccactctctgcccagctacggcctggaaaacctgaagaagctgcgggc cagaagcacctacaatctgaaaaagctgcctacgctggaaaccctggtggccctgatggaagccagc ctgacataccctagccactgctgcgcctttgccaactggcggagacagatctctgagctgcacccca tctgcaacaagagcatcctgcggcaagaggtggactacatgacacaggccagaggccagagattcag cctggccgaggataacgagagcagctacagcagaggcttcgacatgacctacaccgagttcgactac gacctgtgcaacaaggtggtggacgtgacatgcagccccaagcctgatgccttcaatccctgcgagg acatcatgggctacaacatcctgagagtgctgatctggttcatcagcatcctggccatcaccgagaa catcatcgtgctggtcatcctgaccaccagccagtacaagctgaccgtgcctatgttcctgatgtgc aacctggccttcgccgatctgtgcatcggcatctacctgctgctgatcgccagcgtggacattcaca ccaagagccagtaccacaactacgccatcgactggcagacaggcgccggatgtgatgccgccggatt ctttacagtgttcgccagcgagctgtccgtgtacaccctgacagctatcaccctggaacggtggcac accatcacacacgctatgcagctggactgcaaagtgcacctgagacacagcgcctccgtgatggtta tgggctggatcttcgccttcgctgccgctctgttccccatctttggcatcagctcctacatgaaggt gtccatctatctgcccatggacatcgacagccctctgagccagctgtacgtgatgagtctgctggtg ctgaatgtgctggcctttgtggtcatctgcggctgctacatctatatctacctgacagtgcggaacc ccaacatcgtgtccagctccagcgacacccggatcgctaagagaatggccatgctgatcttcaccga ctttctgtgcatggcccctatcagcctgttcgccattagcgctagcctgaaggtgcccctgatcacc gtgtccaaggccaagattctgctggtcctgttctaccccatcaacagctgcgccaatcctttcctgt acgccatcttcaccaagaacttcaggcggaacttcttcatcctgctgagcaagcggggctgttacaa gatgcaggcccagatctaccggaccgagacactgtccaccgtgcacaacacacaccccagaaacggc cactgtagcagcgcccctagagtgacaaatggctccacctacatcctggtgccactgagccatctgg cccagaacagaggccggaagagaagaagccccagggctcccaagagacagagatgcatgcccgaaga ggacctgcagagccagagcgaaacacagggactcgaaggtgctcaggctcctctggccgtggaagaa gatgccagcagctctaccagcacctccagcagcttccctagcagctttccattcagctcctctagct ctagcagcagctgttaccctctgatccccagcacacccgagaaggtgttcgccgacgacgagacacc taatccactgcagtctgcccagatcgcctgcagcagtacactggtggttgctagcctgcctctggac cagtctgatgagggaagcagcagccagaaagaggaaagccctagcacactccaggtgctgcccgata gcgagagcctgcctagaagcgagatctacaagaaaatgaccgacctggtgcagttcctcctgttcaa gtaccagatgaaggaacccatcaccaaggccgaaatcctggaaagcgtgatcagaaactacgaggac cactttccactgctgttcagcgaggccagcgagtgcatgctgctcgtgtttagcatcgacgtgaaga aggtggaccccaccggccacagctttgtgctggttacaagcctgggactgacctacgacggcatgct gtccgatgtgcagagcatgcctaagaccggcatcctgatcctgattctgagcatcgtgttcatcgag ggctactgcacccctgaggaagtgatttgggaagccctgaacatgatgggcctgtacgatggcatgg aacacctgatctacggcgagcccagaaaactgctgacccaggactgggtgcaagagaactacctgga ataccggcagatgcccggcagcgatcctgccagatatgagtttctgtggggccctagagcacatgcc gagatccggaagatgagcctgctgaagttcctggccaaagtgaacggcagcgacccaatcagcttcc cactttggtacgaagaggccctgaaggacgaggaagagagagcccaggatagaatcgccaccaccga cgacacaacagccatggcctctgcctcttctagcgccaccggcagctttagctaccccgagtgataa (SEQ ID NO: 45) modTBXT- MSSPGTESAGKSLQYRVDHLLSAVENELQAGSEKGDPTEHELRVGLEESELWLRFKELTNEMIVT modMAGEC2 KNGRRMFPVLKVNVSGLDPNAMYSFLLDFVVADNHRWKYVNGEWVPGGKPQLQAPSCVYIHPD SPNFGAHWMKAPVSFSKVKLTNKLNGGGQIMLNSLHKYEPRIHIVRVGGPQRMITSHCFPETQFIA VTAYQNEEITTLKIKYNPFAKAFLDAKERSDHKEMIKEPGDSQQPGYSQWGWLLPGTSTLCPPAN PHSQFGGALSLSSTHSYDRYPTLRSHRSSPYPSPYAHRNNSPTYSDNSPACLSMLQSHDNWSSL RMPAHPSMLPVSHNASPPTSSSQYPSLWSVSNGAVTLGSQAAAVSNGLGAQFFRGSPAHYTPL THPVSAPSSSGFPMYKGAAAATDIVDSQYDAAAQGHLIASWTPVSPPSMRGRKRRSPPVPGVPF RNVDNDSLTSVELEDWVDAQHPTDEEEEEASSASSTLYLVFSPSSFSTSSSLILGGPEEEEVPSG VIPNLTESIPSSPPQGPPQGPSQSPLSSCCSSFLWSSFSEESSSQKGEDTGTCQGLPDSESSFTY TLDEKVAKLVEFLLLKYEAEEPVTEAEMLMIVIKYKDYFPVILKRAREFMELLFGLALIEVGPDHFC VFANTVGLTDEGSDDEGMPENSLLIIILSVIFIKGNCASEEVIWEVLNAVGVYAGREHFVYGKPREL LTNVWVQGHYLEYWEVPHSSPLYYEFLWGPRAHSESIKKKVLEFLAKLNNTVPSFFPSWYKDALK DVEERVQATIDTADDATVMASESLSVMSSNVSFSE (SEQ ID NO: 46) modTBXT- atgtctagccctggaacagagtctgccggcaagagcctgcagtacagagtggaccatctgctgagcg modWT1 ccgtggaaaatgaactgcaggccggaagcgagaagggcgatcctacagagcacgagctgagagtcgg cctggaagagtctgagctgtggctgcggttcaaagaactgaccaacgagatgatcgtgaccaagaac ggcagacggatgttccccgtgctgaaagtgaacgtgtccggactggaccccaacgccatgtacagct ttctgctggacttcgtggtggccgacaaccacagatggaaatacgtgaacggcgagtgggtgccagg cggaaaacctcaactgcaagcccctagctgcgtgtacattcaccctgacagccccaatttcggcgcc cactggatgaaggcccctgtgtccttcagcaaagtgaagctgaccaacaagctgaacggcggaggcc agatcatgctgaacagcctgcacaaatacgagcccagaatccacatcgtcagagtcggcggacccca gagaatgatcaccagccactgcttccccgagacacagtttatcgccgtgaccgcctaccagaacgag gaaatcaccacactgaagatcaagtacaaccccttcgccaaggccttcctggacgccaaagagcgga gcgaccacaaagagatgatcaaagagcccggcgacagccagcagccaggctattctcaatggggatg gctgctgccaggcaccagcacattgtgccctccagccaatcctcacagccagtttggaggcgccctg agcctgtctagcacccacagctacgacagataccccacactgcggagccacagaagcagcccctatc cttctccttacgctcaccggaacaacagccccacctacagcgataatagccccgcctgtctgagcat gctgcagtcccacgataactggtccagcctgagaatgcctgctcacccttccatgctgcccgtgtct cacaatgcctctccacctaccagcagctctcagtaccctagcctttggagcgtgtccaatggcgccg tgacactgggatctcaggcagccgctgtgtctaatggactgggagcccagttcttcagaggcagccc tgctcactacacccctctgacacatcctgtgtctgcccctagcagcagcggcttccctatgtataag ggcgctgccgccgctaccgacatcgtggattctcagtatgatgccgccgcacagggacacctgatcg cctcttggacacctgtgtctccaccttccatgagaggcagaaagcggagaagcgacttcctgctgct gcagaaccctgcctctacctgtgtgcctgaaccagcctctcagcacaccctgagatctggccctgga tgtctccagcagcctgaacagcagggcgttagagatcctggcggaatctgggccaaactgggagctg ccgaagcctctgccgaatgtctgcagggcagaagaagcagaggcgccagcggatctgaacctcacca gatgggaagcgacgtgcacgacctgaatgctctgttgcctgccgtgccatctcttggcggaggcgga ggatgtgctttgcctgtttctggtgctgcccagtgggctcccgtgctggattttgctcctcctggcg cttctgcctatggctctcttggaggacctgctcctccaccagctccacctccaccgccgcctccacc acctcacagctttatcaagcaagagccctcctggggcggagccgagcctcacgaaaaacagtgtctg agcgccttcaccgtgcactttttcggccagtttaccggcaccgtgggcgcctgtagatacggccctt ttggaccaccaccacctagccaggcttctagcggacaggccagaatgttccccaacgctccttacct gcctagctgcctggaaagccagcctaccatcagaaaccagggcttcagcaccgtgaccttcgacggc atgcctagctatggccacacaccatctcaccacgccgctcagttccccaatcacagcttcaagcacg aggaccctatgggccagcagggatctctgggagagcagcagtatagcgtgccacctcctgtgtacgg ctgtcacacccctaccgatagctgcacaggcaatcaggctctgctgctgaggatgcctttcagcagc gacaacctgtaccagatgacaagccagctggaatgcatgatttggaaccagatgaacctgggcgcca ctctgaaaggcgtggccgctggatctagcagctccgtgaaatggacagccggccagagcaatcactc caccggctacgagagcgacaatcacaccatgcctatcctgtgtggggcccagtaccggattcacaca cacggcgtgttcaggggcattcaggatgtgcgaagagtgcctggcgtggcccctacacttgtgggat ctgccagcgaaaccagcgagaagcaccccttcatgtgcgcctatccaggctgcaacaagcggtactt caagctgagccacctgaagatgcacagccggaagcacacaggcgagaagctgtaccagtgcgacttc aaggactgcgagcggagattcagctgcagcgaccagctgaagagacaccagagaaggcacaccggcg tgaagccctttcagtgcaagacctgccagcggaccttctcctggtccaaccacctgaaaacccacac aagaacccacaccggcaagaccatcgagaagcccttcagctgtagatggcccagctgccagaagaag ttcgcccggtctaacgagctggtgcatcaccacaacatgcaccagaggaacatgaccaaactgcagc tggtgctgtgatga (SEQ ID NO: 47) modTBXT_WT1 MSSPGTESAGKSLQYRVDHLLSAVENELQAGSEKGDPTEHELRVGLEESELWLRFKELTNEMIVT KNGRRMFPVLKVNVSGLDPNAMYSFLLDFVVADNHRWKYVNGEWVPGGKPQLQAPSCVYIHPD SPNFGAHWMKAPVSFSKVKLTNKLNGGGQIMLNSLHKYEPRIHIVRVGGPQRMITSHCFPETQFIA VTAYQNEEITTLKIKYNPFAKAFLDAKERSDHKEMIKEPGDSQQPGYSQWGWLLPGTSTLCPPAN PHSQFGGALSLSSTHSYDRYPTLRSHRSSPYPSPYAHRNNSPTYSDNSPACLSMLQSHDNWSSL RMPAHPSMLPVSHNASPPTSSSQYPSLWSVSNGAVTLGSQAAAVSNGLGAQFFRGSPAHYTPL THPVSAPSSSGFPMYKGAAAATDIVDSQYDAAAQGHLIASWTPVSPPSMRGRKRRSDFLLLQNP ASTCVPEPASQHTLRSGPGCLQQPEQQGVRDPGGIWAKLGAAEASAECLQGRRSRGASGSEPH QMGSDVHDLNALLPAVPSLGGGGGCALPVSGAAQWAPVLDFAPPGASAYGSLGGPAPPPAPPP PPPPPPHSFIKQEPSWGGAEPHEKQCLSAFTVHFFGQFTGTVGACRYGPFGPPPPSQASSGQA RMFPNAPYLPSCLESQPTIRNQGFSTVTFDGMPSYGHTPSHHAAQFPNHSFKHEDPMGQQGSL GEQQYSVPPPVYGCHTPTDSCTGNQALLLRMPFSSDNLYQMTSQLECMIWNQMNLGATLKGVA AGSSSSVKWTAGQSNHSTGYESDNHTMPILCGAQYRIHTHGVFRGIQDVRRVPGVAPTLVGSAS ETSEKHPFMCAYPGCNKRYFKLSHLKMHSRKHTGEKLYQCDFKDCERRFSCSDQLKRHQRRHT GVKPFQCKTCQRTFSWSNHLKTHTRTHTGKTIEKPFSCRWPSCQKKFARSNELVHHHNMHQRN MTKLQLVL (SEQ ID NO: 48) modTBXT_ agagtctgagctgtggctgcggttcaaagaactgaccaacgagatgatcgtgaccaagaacggcaga WT1_ cggatgttccccgtgctgaaagtgaacgtgtccggactggaccccaacgccatgtacagctttctgc (KRAS tggacttcgtggtggccgacaaccacagatggaaatacgtgaacggcgagtgggtgccaggcggaaa Mutations) acctcaactgcaagcccctagctgcgtgtacattcaccctgacagccccaatttcggcgcccactgg atgaaggcccctgtgtccttcagcaaagtgaagctgaccaacaagctgaacggcggaggccagatca tgctgaacagcctgcacaaatacgagcccagaatccacatcgtcagagtcggcggaccccagagaat gatcaccagccactgcttccccgagacacagtttatcgccgtgaccgcctaccagaacgaggaaatc accacactgaagatcaagtacaaccccttcgccaaggccttcctggacgccaaagagcggagcgacc acaaagagatgatcaaagagcccggcgacagccagcagccaggctattctcaatggggatggctgct gccaggcaccagcacattgtgccctccagccaatcctcacagccagtttggaggcgccctgagcctg tctagcacccacagctacgacagataccccacactgcggagccacagaagcagcccctatccttctc cttacgctcaccggaacaacagccccacctacagcgataatagccccgcctgtctgagcatgctgca gtcccacgataactggtccagcctgagaatgcctgctcacccttccatgctgcccgtgtctcacaat gcctctccacctaccagcagctctcagtaccctagcctttggagcgtgtccaatggcgccgtgacac tgggatctcaggcagccgctgtgtctaatggactgggagcccagttcttcagaggcagccctgctca ctacacccctctgacacatcctgtgtctgcccctagcagcagcggcttccctatgtataagggcgct gccgccgctaccgacatcgtggattctcagtatgatgccgccgcacagggacacctgatcgcctctt ggacacctgtgtctccaccttccatgagaggcagaaagcggagaagcgacttcctgctgctgcagaa ccctgcctctacctgtgtgcctgaaccagcctctcagcacaccctgagatctggccctggatgtctc cagcagcctgaacagcagggcgttagagatcctggcggaatctgggccaaactgggagctgccgaag cctctgccgaatgtctgcagggcagaagaagcagaggcgccagcggatctgaacctcaccagatggg aagcgacgtgcacgacctgaatgctctgttgcctgccgtgccatctcttggcggaggcggaggatgt gctttgcctgtttctggtgctgcccagtgggctcccgtgctggattttgctcctcctggcgcttctg cctatggctctcttggaggacctgctcctccaccagctccacctccaccgccgcctccaccacctca cagctttatcaagcaagagccctcctggggcggagccgagcctcacgaaaaacagtgtctgagcgcc ttcaccgtgcactttttcggccagtttaccggcaccgtgggcgcctgtagatacggcccttttggac caccaccacctagccaggcttctagcggacaggccagaatgttccccaacgctccttacctgcctag ctgcctggaaagccagcctaccatcagaaaccagggcttcagcaccgtgaccttcgacggcatgcct agctatggccacacaccatctcaccacgccgctcagttccccaatcacagcttcaagcacgaggacc ctatgggccagcagggatctctgggagagcagcagtatagcgtgccacctcctgtgtacggctgtca cacccctaccgatagctgcacaggcaatcaggctctgctgctgaggatgcctttcagcagcgacaac ctgtaccagatgacaagccagctggaatgcatgatttggaaccagatgaacctgggcgccactctga aaggcgtggccgctggatctagcagctccgtgaaatggacagccggccagagcaatcactccaccgg ctacgagagcgacaatcacaccatgcctatcctgtgtggggcccagtaccggattcacacacacggc gtgttcaggggcattcaggatgtgcgaagagtgcctggcgtggcccctacacttgtgggatctgcca gcgaaaccagcgagaagcaccccttcatgtgcgcctatccaggctgcaacaagcggtacttcaagct gagccacctgaagatgcacagccggaagcacacaggcgagaagctgtaccagtgcgacttcaaggac tgcgagcggagattcagctgcagcgaccagctgaagagacaccagagaaggcacaccggcgtgaagc cctttcagtgcaagacctgccagcggaccttctcctggtccaaccacctgaaaacccacacaagaac ccacaccggcaagaccatcgagaagcccttcagctgtagatggcccagctgccagaagaagttcgcc cggtctaacgagctggtgcatcaccacaacatgcaccagaggaacatgaccaaactgcagctggtgc tgaggggaagaaagaggcggtccaccgagtacaagctggtggttgttggagccgatggcgtgggaaa gagcgccctgacaattcagctgatccagaaccacttcgtgcgcggcagaaagagaagatctacagag tataagctcgtggtcgtgggcgctgtcggagtgggaaaatctgccctgaccatccaactcattcaga atcactttgtgtgatga (SEQ ID NO: 49) modTBXT_ MSSPGTESAGKSLQYRVDHLLSAVENELQAGSEKGDPTEHELRVGLEESELWLRFKELTNEMIVT WT1_ KNGRRMFPVLKVNVSGLDPNAMYSFLLDFVVADNHRWKYVNGEWVPGGKPQLQAPSCVYIHPD (KRAS SPNFGAHWMKAPVSFSKVKLTNKLNGGGQIMLNSLHKYEPRIHIVRVGGPQRMITSHCFPETQFIA Mutations) VTAYQNEEITTLKIKYNPFAKAFLDAKERSDHKEMIKEPGDSQQPGYSQWGWLLPGTSTLCPPAN PHSQFGGALSLSSTHSYDRYPTLRSHRSSPYPSPYAHRNNSPTYSDNSPACLSMLQSHDNWSSL RMPAHPSMLPVSHNASPPTSSSQYPSLWSVSNGAVTLGSQAAAVSNGLGAQFFRGSPAHYTPL THPVSAPSSSGFPMYKGAAAATDIVDSQYDAAAQGHLIASWTPVSPPSMRGRKRRSDFLLLQNP ASTCVPEPASQHTLRSGPGCLQQPEQQGVRDPGGIWAKLGAAEASAECLQGRRSRGASGSEPH QMGSDVHDLNALLPAVPSLGGGGGCALPVSGAAQWAPVLDFAPPGASAYGSLGGPAPPPAPPP PPPPPPHSFIKQEPSWGGAEPHEKQCLSAFTVHFFGQFTGTVGACRYGPFGPPPPSQASSGQA RMFPNAPYLPSCLESQPTIRNQGFSTVTFDGMPSYGHTPSHHAAQFPNHSFKHEDPMGQQGSL GEQQYSVPPPVYGCHTPTDSCTGNQALLLRMPFSSDNLYQMTSQLECMIWNQMNLGATLKGVA AGSSSSVKWTAGQSNHSTGYESDNHTMPILCGAQYRIHTHGVFRGIQDVRRVPGVAPTLVGSAS ETSEKHPFMCAYPGCNKRYFKLSHLKMHSRKHTGEKLYQCDFKDCERRFSCSDQLKRHQRRHT GVKPFQCKTCQRTFSWSNHLKTHTRTHTGKTIEKPFSCRWPSCQKKFARSNELVHHHNMHQRN MTKLQLVLRGRKRRSTEYKLVVVGADGVGKSALTIQLIQNHFVRGRKRRSTEYKLVVVGAVGVGK SALTIQLIQNHFV (SEQ ID NO: 50) modWT1- atggactttctgctgctgcagaaccctgccagcacctgtgttccagaacctgcctctcagcacaccc modFBP tgagatctggccctggatgtctccagcagcctgaacagcagggcgttagagatcctggcggaatctg ggccaaactgggagccgctgaagcctctgccgaatgtctgcagggcagaagaagcagaggcgccagc ggatctgaacctcaccagatgggaagcgacgtgcacgacctgaatgctctgctgcctgccgtgccat ctcttggcggaggcggaggatgtgctttgcctgtttctggtgctgcccagtgggctcccgtgctgga ttttgctcctcctggcgcttctgcctatggctctcttggaggacctgctcctccaccagctccacct ccaccgccgcctccaccacctcacagctttatcaagcaagagccctcctggggcggagccgagcctc acgaaaaacagtgtctgagcgccttcaccgtgcactttttcggccagtttaccggcacagtgggcgc ctgtagatacggcccttttggaccaccaccacctagccaggctagctctggacaggccagaatgttc cccaacgctccctacctgcctagctgcctggaaagccagcctaccatcagaaaccagggcttcagca ccgtgaccttcgacggcatgcctagctatggccacacaccatctcaccacgccgctcagttccccaa tcacagcttcaagcacgaggaccctatgggccagcagggatctctgggagagcagcagtatagcgtg ccacctcctgtgtacggctgtcacacccctaccgatagctgcacaggcaatcaggccctgctgctga ggatgcccttcagcagcgacaacctgtaccagatgacaagccagctggaatgcatgatctggaacca gatgaacctgggcgccacactgaaaggcgtggccgctggatctagcagcagcgtgaaatggacagcc ggccagagcaatcactccaccggctacgagtccgacaaccacaccatgcctattctgtgcggagccc agtacagaatccacacacacggcgtgttccggggcattcaggatgtgcgaagagtgcctggcgtggc ccctacacttgtgggatctgcctctgagacaagcgagaagcaccccttcatgtgcgcctatcctggc tgcaacaagcggtacttcaagctgagccacctgaagatgcacagccggaagcacacaggcgagaagc tgtaccagtgcgacttcaaggactgcgagcggagattcagctgcagcgaccagctgaagagacacca gagaaggcacaccggcgtgaagcccttccagtgcaagacctgccagcggacctttagctggtccaac cacctgaaaacccacacaagaacccacaccggcaagaccatcgagaagcctttcagctgtagatggc ccagctgccagaagaagttcgcccggtctaacgagctggtgcatcaccacaacatgcaccagaggaa catgaccaaactgcagctggtgctgaggggaagaaagcggagaagcgcccagagaatgaccacacag ttgctgctgctcctcgtgtgggttgccgttgtgggagaagtgcagaccagaatcgcctgggccagaa ccgagctgctgaacgtgtgcatgaacgccaagcaccacaagaagaagcccgatcctgaggacaagct gcacgagcagtgtcggccttggagaaagaacgcctgctgtagcaccaacaccagccaagaggcccac aagaacgtgtcctacctgtaccggttcaactggaaccactgcggcgagatgacacccgcctgcaaga gacacttcatccaggatacctgcctgtacgagtgcagccccaatctcggcccctggattcagcaagt ggaccagagctggcggaaagaactggtcctgaatgtgcccctgtgcaaagaggattgcgagcagtgg tgggaagattgcagaaccagctacacatgcaagagcaactggcacaaaggctggaactggaccagcg gcttcaacaagtgtgccgtgggagctgcctgtcagcctttccacttctactttcacacacccaccgt gctgtgcaacaagatctggacccacagctacaaggtgtccaactacagcagaggcagcggccggtgt atccagatgtggttcgatcccgccaagggcaaccccaatgaggaagtggccagattctacgccgctg ccatgtctggtgcaggaccttgggctgcttggccctttctgctttcactggccctgatgctgctgtg gctgctgagctgataa (SEQ ID NO: 51) modWT1- MDFLLLQNPASTCVPEPASQHTLRSGPGCLQQPEQQGVRDPGGIWAKLGAAEASAECLQGRRS modFBP RGASGSEPHQMGSDVHDLNALLPAVPSLGGGGGCALPVSGAAQWAPVLDFAPPGASAYGSLG GPAPPPAPPPPPPPPPHSFIKQEPSWGGAEPHEKQCLSAFTVHFFGQFTGTVGACRYGPFGPPP PSQASSGQARMFPNAPYLPSCLESQPTIRNQGFSTVTFDGMPSYGHTPSHHAAQFPNHSFKHED PMGQQGSLGEQQYSVPPPVYGCHTPTDSCTGNQALLLRMPFSSDNLYQMTSQLECMIWNQMN LGATLKGVAAGSSSSVKWTAGQSNHSTGYESDNHTMPILCGAQYRIHTHGVFRGIQDVRRVPGV APTLVGSASETSEKHPFMCAYPGCNKRYFKLSHLKMHSRKHTGEKLYQCDFKDCERRFSCSDQL KRHQRRHTGVKPFQCKTCQRTFSWSNHLKTHTRTHTGKTIEKPFSCRWPSCQKKFARSNELVH HHNMHQRNMTKLQLVLRGRKRRSAQRMTTQLLLLLVWVAVVGEVQTRIAWARTELLNVCMNAK HHKKKPDPEDKLHEQCRPWRKNACCSTNTSQEAHKNVSYLYRFNWNHCGEMTPACKRHFIQDT CLYECSPNLGPWIQQVDQSWRKELVLNVPLCKEDCEQWWEDCRTSYTCKSNWHKGWNWTSG FNKCAVGAACQPFHFYFHTPTVLCNKIWTHSYKVSNYSRGSGRCIQMWFDPAKGNPNEEVARFY AAAMSGAGPWAAWPFLLSLALMLLWLL (SEQ ID NO: 52) modPSMA- atgtggaatctgctgcacgagacagatagcgccgtggctaccgttagaaggcccagatggctttgtg modTDGF1 ctggcgctctggttctggctggcggcttttttctgctgggcttcctgttcggctggttcatcaagag cagcaacgaggccaccaacatcacccctaagcacaacatgaaggcctttctggacgagctgaaggcc gagaatatcaagaagttcctgtacaacttcacgcacatccctcacctggccggcaccgagcagaatt ttcagctggccaagcagatccagagccagtggaaagagttcggcctggactctgtggaactggccca ctacgatgtgctgctgagctaccccaacaagacacaccccaactacatcagcatcatcaacgaggac ggcaacgagatcttcaacaccagcctgttcgagcctccacctcctggctacgagaacgtgtccgata tcgtgcctccattcagcgctttcagcccacagcggatgcctgagggctacctggtgtacgtgaacta cgccagaaccgaggacttcttcaagctggaatgggacatgaagatcagctgcagcggcaagatcgtg atcgcccggtacagaaaggtgttccgcgagaacaaagtgaagaacgcccagctggcaggcgccaaag gcgtgatcctgtatagcgaccccgccgactattttgcccctggcgtgaagtcttaccccgacggctg gaattttcctggcggcggagtgcagcggcggaacatccttaatcttaacggcgctggcgaccctctg acacctggctatcctgccaatgagtacgcctacagacacggaattgccgaggctgtgggcctgcctt ctattcctgtgcaccctgtgcggtactacgacgcccagaaactgctggaaaagatgggcggaagcgc ccctcctgactcttcttggagaggctctctgaaggtgccctacaatgtcggcccaggcttcaccggc aacttcagcacccagaaagtgaaaatgcacatccacagcaccaacgaagtgacccggatctacaacg tgatcggcacactgagaggcgccgtggaacccgacaaatacgtgatcctcggcggccacagagacag ctgggtgttcggaggaatcgaccctcaatctggcgccgctgtggtgtatgagatcgtgcggtctttc ggcaccctgaagaaagaaggatggcggcccagacggaccatcctgtttgcctcttgggacgccgagg aatttggcctgctgggatctacagagtgggccgaagagaacagcagactgctgcaagaaagaggcgt ggcctacatcaacgccgacagcagcatcgagggcaactacaccctgcggatcgattgcacccctctg atgtacagcctggtgcacaacctgaccaaagagctgaagtcccctgacgagggctttgagggcaaga gcctgtacaagagctggaccaagaagtccccatctcctgagttcagcggcatgcccagaatctctaa gctggaaagcggcaacaacttcgaggtgttcttccagcggctgggaatcgcctctggaatcgccaga tacaccaagaactgggagacaaacaagttctccggctatcccctgtaccacagcgtgtacgagacat acgagctggtggaaaagttctacgaccccatgttcaagtaccacctgacagtggcccaagtgcgcgg aggcatggtgttcgaactggccaatagcatcgtgctgcccttcaactgcagagactacgccgtggtg ctgcggaagtacgccgacaagatctacagcatcagcatgaagcacccgcaagagatgaagacctaca gcgtgtccttcgactccctgttcttcgccgtgaagaacttcaccaagatcgccagcaagttcagcga gcggctgcaggacttcgacaagagcaaccctatcgtgctgaggatgatgaacgaccagctgatgttc ctggaacgggccttcatcaaccctctgggactgcccgacagacccttctacaggcacgtgatctgtg cccctagcagccacaacaaatacgccggcgagagcttccccggcatctacgatgccctgttcgacat cgagagcaacgtgaaccctagcaaggcctggggcgaagtgaagagacagatctacgtggccgcattc acagtgcaggccgctgccgaaacactgtctgaagtggccagaggccggaagagaagatccgactgca gaaagatggcccggttcagctactccgtgatctggatcatggccatctccaaggccttcgagctgag actggttgccggactgggccaccaagagtttgccagacctagctggggctatctggccttccgggac gatagcatctggccccaagaggaacctgccatcagacccagatctagccagcgggtgccacctatgg aaatccagcacagcaaagaactgaaccggacctgctgcctgaacggcagaacctgtatgctgggcag cttctgcgcctgtcctcctagcttctacggccggaattgcgagcacgacgtgcggaaagaaaactgc ggcagcgtgccacacgatacctggctgcctaagaaatgcagcctgtgcaagtgttggcacggccagc tgcggtgtttccccagagcttttctgcccgtgtgtgacggcctggtcatggatgaacacctggtggc cagcagaacccctgagcttcctccaagcgccaggaccaccacctttatgctcgtgggcatctgcctg agcatccagagctactactgatga (SEQ ID NO: 53) modPSMA- MWNLLHETDSAVATVRRPRWLCAGALVLAGGFFLLGFLFGWFIKSSNEATNITPKHNMKAFLDEL modTDGF1 KAENIKKFLYNFTHIPHLAGTEQNFQLAKQIQSQWKEFGLDSVELAHYDVLLSYPNKTHPNYISIIN EDGNEIFNTSLFEPPPPGYENVSDIVPPFSAFSPQRMPEGYLVYVNYARTEDFFKLEWDMKISCSG KIVIARYRKVFRENKVKNAQLAGAKGVILYSDPADYFAPGVKSYPDGWNFPGGGVQRRNILNLNG AGDPLTPGYPANEYAYRHGIAEAVGLPSIPVHPVRYYDAQKLLEKMGGSAPPDSSWRGSLKVPY NVGPGFTGNFSTQKVKMHIHSTNEVTRIYNVIGTLRGAVEPDKYVILGGHRDSWVFGGIDPQSGA AVVYEIVRSFGTLKKEGWRPRRTILFASWDAEEFGLLGSTEWAEENSRLLQERGVAYINADSSIEG NYTLRIDCTPLMYSLVHNLTKELKSPDEGFEGKSLYKSWTKKSPSPEFSGMPRISKLESGNNFEVF FQRLGIASGIARYTKNWETNKFSGYPLYHSVYETYELVEKFYDPMFKYHLTVAQVRGGMVFELAN SIVLPFNCRDYAVVLRKYADKIYSISMKHPQEMKTYSVSFDSLFFAVKNFTKIASKFSERLQDFDKS NPIVLRMMNDQLMFLERAFINPLGLPDRPFYRHVICAPSSHNKYAGESFPGIYDALFDIESNVNPSK AWGEVKRQIYVAAFTVQAAAETLSEVARGRKRRSDCRKMARFSYSVIWIMAISKAFELRLVAGLG HQEFARPSWGYLAFRDDSIWPQEEPAIRPRSSQRVPPMEIQHSKELNRTCCLNGRTCMLGSFCA CPPSFYGRNCEHDVRKENCGSVPHDTWLPKKCSLCKCWHGQLRCFPRAFLPVCDGLVMDEHLV ASRTPELPPSARTTTFMLVGICLSIQSYY (SEQ ID NO: 54) modWT1- atggactttctgctgctgcagaaccctgccagcacctgtgttccagaacctgcctctcagcacaccc modClaudin tgagatctggccctggatgtctccagcagcctgaacagcagggcgttagagatcctggcggaatctg 18 ggccaaactgggagccgctgaagcctctgccgaatgtctgcagggcagaagaagcagaggcgccagc ggatctgaacctcaccagatgggaagcgacgtgcacgacctgaatgctctgctgcctgccgtgccat ctcttggcggaggcggaggatgtgctttgcctgtttctggtgctgcccagtgggctcccgtgctgga ttttgctcctcctggcgcttctgcctatggctctcttggaggacctgctcctccaccagctccacct ccaccgccgcctccaccacctcacagctttatcaagcaagagccctcctggggcggagccgagcctc acgaaaaacagtgtctgagcgccttcaccgtgcactttttcggccagtttaccggcacagtgggcgc ctgtagatacggcccttttggaccaccaccacctagccaggctagctctggacaggccagaatgttc cccaacgctccctacctgcctagctgcctggaaagccagcctaccatcagaaaccagggcttcagca ccgtgaccttcgacggcatgcctagctatggccacacaccatctcaccacgccgctcagttccccaa tcacagcttcaagcacgaggaccctatgggccagcagggatctctgggagagcagcagtatagcgtg ccacctcctgtgtacggctgtcacacccctaccgatagctgcacaggcaatcaggccctgctgctga ggatgcccttcagcagcgacaacctgtaccagatgacaagccagctggaatgcatgatctggaacca gatgaacctgggcgccacactgaaaggcgtggccgctggatctagcagcagcgtgaaatggacagcc ggccagagcaatcactccaccggctacgagtccgacaaccacaccatgcctattctgtgcggagccc agtacagaatccacacacacggcgtgttccggggcattcaggatgtgcgaagagtgcctggcgtggc ccctacacttgtgggatctgcctctgagacaagcgagaagcaccccttcatgtgcgcctatcctggc tgcaacaagcggtacttcaagctgagccacctgaagatgcacagccggaagcacacaggcgagaagc tgtaccagtgcgacttcaaggactgcgagcggagattcagctgcagcgaccagctgaagagacacca gagaaggcacaccggcgtgaagcccttccagtgcaagacctgccagcggacctttagctggtccaac cacctgaaaacccacacaagaacccacaccggcaagaccatcgagaagcctttcagctgtagatggc ccagctgccagaagaagttcgcccggtctaacgagctggtgcatcaccacaacatgcaccagaggaa catgaccaaactgcagctggtgctgaggggaagaaagcggagatctgccgtgacagcctgtcagagc ctgggctttgtggtgtccctgatcgagatcgtgggcatcattgccgctacctgcatggaccagtggt ctacccaggacctgtacaacaaccctgtgaccgccgtgttcaactaccaaggcctgtggcacagctg catgagagagagcagcggcttcaccgagtgcagaggctacttcaccctgctggaactgcctgccatg ctgcaggctgtgcaggcccttatgatcgtgggaattgtgctgggagccatcggcctgctggtgtcca ttttcgccctgaagtgcatccggatcggcagcatggaagatagcgccaaggccaacatgaccctgac cagcggcatcatgttcatcgtgtccggcctgtgcgccattgctggcgtgtccgtgtttgccaatatg ctcgtgaccaacttctggctgagcaccgccaacatgtacaccggcatgggcgagatggtgcagaccg tgcagacacggtacacatttggcgccgctctgtttgtcggatgggttgcaggcggactgacactgat tggcggcgtgatgatgtgtatcgcctgcagaggactggcccctgaggaaacaaactacaaggccgtg tactaccacgcctccggacacagcgtggcatacaaacctggcggctttaaggccagcaccggcttcg gcagcaacaccaagaacaagaagatctacgacggcggagcacacaccgaggatgaggtgcagagcta ccccagcaagcacgactacgtgtgatga (SEQ ID NO: 55) modWT1- MDFLLLQNPASTCVPEPASQHTLRSGPGCLQQPEQQGVRDPGGIWAKLGAAEASAECLQGRRS modClaudin RGASGSEPHQMGSDVHDLNALLPAVPSLGGGGGCALPVSGAAQWAPVLDFAPPGASAYGSLG 18 GPAPPPAPPPPPPPPPHSFIKQEPSWGGAEPHEKQCLSAFTVHFFGQFTGTVGACRYGPFGPPP PSQASSGQARMFPNAPYLPSCLESQPTIRNQGFSTVTFDGMPSYGHTPSHHAAQFPNHSFKHED PMGQQGSLGEQQYSVPPPVYGCHTPTDSCTGNQALLLRMPFSSDNLYQMTSQLECMIWNQMN LGATLKGVAAGSSSSVKWTAGQSNHSTGYESDNHTMPILCGAQYRIHTHGVFRGIQDVRRVPGV APTLVGSASETSEKHPFMCAYPGCNKRYFKLSHLKMHSRKHTGEKLYQCDFKDCERRFSCSDQL KRHQRRHTGVKPFQCKTCQRTFSWSNHLKTHTRTHTGKTIEKPFSCRWPSCQKKFARSNELVH HHNMHQRNMTKLQLVLRGRKRRSAVTACQSLGFVVSLIEIVGIIAATCMDQWSTQDLYNNPVTAV FNYQGLWHSCMRESSGFTECRGYFTLLELPAMLQAVQALMIVGIVLGAIGLLVSIFALKCIRIGSME DSAKANMTLTSGIMFIVSGLCAIAGVSVFANMLVTNFWLSTANMYTGMGEMVQTVQTRYTFGAAL FVGWVAGGLTLIGGVMMCIACRGLAPEETNYKAVYYHASGHSVAYKPGGFKASTGFGSNTKNKK IYDGGAHTEDEVQSYPSKHDYV (SEQ ID NO: 56) modPSMA- atgtggaatctgctgcacgagacagatagcgccgtggctaccgttagaaggcccagatggctttgtg modLY6K ctggcgctctggttctggctggcggcttttttctgctgggcttcctgttcggctggttcatcaagag cagcaacgaggccaccaacatcacccctaagcacaacatgaaggcctttctggacgagctgaaggcc gagaatatcaagaagttcctgtacaacttcacgcacatccctcacctggccggcaccgagcagaatt ttcagctggccaagcagatccagagccagtggaaagagttcggcctggactctgtggaactggccca ctacgatgtgctgctgagctaccccaacaagacacaccccaactacatcagcatcatcaacgaggac ggcaacgagatcttcaacaccagcctgttcgagcctccacctcctggctacgagaacgtgtccgata tcgtgcctccattcagcgctttcagcccacagcggatgcctgagggctacctggtgtacgtgaacta cgccagaaccgaggacttcttcaagctggaatgggacatgaagatcagctgcagcggcaagatcgtg atcgcccggtacagaaaggtgttccgcgagaacaaagtgaagaacgcccagctggcaggcgccaaag gcgtgatcctgtatagcgaccccgccgactattttgcccctggcgtgaagtcttaccccgacggctg gaattttcctggcggcggagtgcagcggcggaacatccttaatcttaacggcgctggcgaccctctg acacctggctatcctgccaatgagtacgcctacagacacggaattgccgaggctgtgggcctgcctt ctattcctgtgcaccctgtgcggtactacgacgcccagaaactgctggaaaagatgggcggaagcgc ccctcctgactcttcttggagaggctctctgaaggtgccctacaatgtcggcccaggcttcaccggc aacttcagcacccagaaagtgaaaatgcacatccacagcaccaacgaagtgacccggatctacaacg tgatcggcacactgagaggcgccgtggaacccgacaaatacgtgatcctcggcggccacagagacag ctgggtgttcggaggaatcgaccctcaatctggcgccgctgtggtgtatgagatcgtgcggtctttc ggcaccctgaagaaagaaggatggcggcccagacggaccatcctgtttgcctcttgggacgccgagg aatttggcctgctgggatctacagagtgggccgaagagaacagcagactgctgcaagaaagaggcgt ggcctacatcaacgccgacagcagcatcgagggcaactacaccctgcggatcgattgcacccctctg atgtacagcctggtgcacaacctgaccaaagagctgaagtcccctgacgagggctttgagggcaaga gcctgtacaagagctggaccaagaagtccccatctcctgagttcagcggcatgcccagaatctctaa gctggaaagcggcaacaacttcgaggtgttcttccagcggctgggaatcgcctctggaatcgccaga tacaccaagaactgggagacaaacaagttctccggctatcccctgtaccacagcgtgtacgagacat acgagctggtggaaaagttctacgaccccatgttcaagtaccacctgacagtggcccaagtgcgcgg aggcatggtgttcgaactggccaatagcatcgtgctgcccttcaactgcagagactacgccgtggtg ctgcggaagtacgccgacaagatctacagcatcagcatgaagcacccgcaagagatgaagacctaca gcgtgtccttcgactccctgttcttcgccgtgaagaacttcaccaagatcgccagcaagttcagcga gcggctgcaggacttcgacaagagcaaccctatcgtgctgaggatgatgaacgaccagctgatgttc ctggaacgggccttcatcaaccctctgggactgcccgacagacccttctacaggcacgtgatctgtg cccctagcagccacaacaaatacgccggcgagagcttccccggcatctacgatgccctgttcgacat cgagagcaacgtgaaccctagcaaggcctggggcgaagtgaagagacagatctacgtggccgcattc acagtgcaggccgctgccgaaacactgtctgaagtggccagaggccggaagagaagaagtgctctgc tggcactgctgctggtggtggctttgcctagagtgtggaccgacgccaatctgacagtgcggcagag agatcctgaggacagccagagaaccgacgacggcgataacagagtgtggtgccacgtgtgcgagcgc gagaataccttcgagtgtcagaaccccagacggtgcaagtggaccgagccttactgtgtgatcgccg ccgtgaaaatcttcccacggttcttcatggtggtcaagcagtgcagcgctggctgtgccgctatgga aagacccaagcctgaggaaaagcggttcctgctcgaggaacccatgctgttcttctacctgaagtgc tgcaaaatctgctactgcaacctggaaggccctcctatcaacagcagcgtcctgaaagaatatgccg gcagcatgggcgagtcttgtggtggactgtggctggccattctgctgctgcttgcctctattgccgc ctctctgagcctgagctgatga (SEQ ID NO: 57) modPSMA- MWNLLHETDSAVATVRRPRWLCAGALVLAGGFFLLGFLFGWFIKSSNEATNITPKHNMKAFLDEL modLY6K KAENIKKFLYNFTHIPHLAGTEQNFQLAKQIQSQWKEFGLDSVELAHYDVLLSYPNKTHPNYISIIN EDGNEIFNTSLFEPPPPGYENVSDIVPPFSAFSPQRMPEGYLVYVNYARTEDFFKLEWDMKISCSG KIVIARYRKVFRENKVKNAQLAGAKGVILYSDPADYFAPGVKSYPDGWNFPGGGVQRRNILNLNG AGDPLTPGYPANEYAYRHGIAEAVGLPSIPVHPVRYYDAQKLLEKMGGSAPPDSSWRGSLKVPY NVGPGFTGNFSTQKVKMHIHSTNEVTRIYNVIGTLRGAVEPDKYVILGGHRDSWVFGGIDPQSGA AVVYEIVRSFGTLKKEGWRPRRTILFASWDAEEFGLLGSTEWAEENSRLLQERGVAYINADSSIEG NYTLRIDCTPLMYSLVHNLTKELKSPDEGFEGKSLYKSWTKKSPSPEFSGMPRISKLESGNNFEVF FQRLGIASGIARYTKNWETNKFSGYPLYHSVYETYELVEKFYDPMFKYHLTVAQVRGGMVFELAN SIVLPFNCRDYAVVLRKYADKIYSISMKHPQEMKTYSVSFDSLFFAVKNFTKIASKFSERLQDFDKS NPIVLRMMNDQLMFLERAFINPLGLPDRPFYRHVICAPSSHNKYAGESFPGIYDALFDIESNVNPSK AWGEVKRQIYVAAFTVQAAAETLSEVARGRKRRSALLALLLVVALPRVWTDANLTVRQRDPEDSQ RTDDGDNRVWCHVCERENTFECQNPRRCKWTEPYCVIAAVKIFPRFFMVVKQCSAGCAAMERP KPEEKRFLLEEPMLFFYLKCCKICYCNLEGPPINSSVLKEYAGSMGESCGGLWLAILLLLASIAASL SLS (SEQ ID NO: 58) modBORIS atggccgctacagagattagcgtgctgagcgagcagttcaccaagatcaaagaactgaagctgatgc tcgagaagggcctgaagaaagaagagaaggacggcgtctgccgcgagaagaaccacagaagcccatc tgagctggaagcccagagaacctctggcgccttccaggacagcatcctggaagaggaagtggaactg gttctggcccctctggaagagagcaagaagtacatcctgacactgcagaccgtgcacttcacctctg aagccgtgcagctccaggacatgagcctgctgtctatccagcagcaagagggcgtgcaggttgtggt tcagcaacctggacctggactgctgtggctgcaagagggacctagacagagcctgcagcagtgtgtg gccatcagcatccagcaagagctgtactcccctcaagagatggaagtgctgcagtttcacgccctgg aagaaaacgtgatggtggccatcgaggacagcaagctggctgtgtctctggccgaaaccaccggcct gatcaagctggaagaagaacaagagaagaatcagctgctcgccgaaaagaccaaaaagcaactgttc ttcgtggaaaccatgagcggcgacgagcggagcgacgaaatcgtgctgaccgtgtccaacagcaacg tcgaggaacaagaggaccagcctacagcctgtcaggccgatgccgagaaagccaagtttaccaagaa ccagagaaagaccaagggcgccaagggcaccttccactgcaacgtgtgcatgttcaccagcagccgg atgagcagcttcaactgccacatgaagacccacaccagcgagaagccccacctgtgccatctgtgcc tgaaaaccttccggaccgtgactctgctgtggaactacgtgaacacccacacaggcacccggcctta caagtgcaacgactgcaacatggccttcgtgaccagcggagaactcgtgcggcacagaagatacaag cacacccacgagaaacccttcaagtgcagcatgtgcaaatacgccagcatggaagcctccaagctga agtgtcacgtgcggagccatacaggcgagcaccctttccagtgctgccagtgtagctacgcctccag ggacacctataagctgaagcggcacatgagaacccactctggggagaagccttacgagtgccacatc tgccacaccagattcacccagagcggcaccatgaagattcacatcctgcagaaacacggcaagaacg tgcccaagtaccagtgtcctcactgcgccaccattatcgccagaaagtccgacctgcgggtgcacat gaggaatctgcacgcctattctgccgccgagctgaaatgcagatactgcagcgccgtgttccacaag agatacgccctgatccagcaccagaaaacccacaagaacgagaagcggtttaagtgcaagcactgct cctacgcctgcaagcaagagcgccacatgatcgcccacatccacacacacaccggcgaaaagccttt cacctgtctgagctgcaacaagtgcttccggcagaaacagctgctgaacgcccacttcagaaagtac cacgacgccaacttcatccccaccgtgtacaagtgctccaagtgcggcaagggcttcagccggtgga tcaatctgcaccggcacctggaaaagtgcgagtctggcgaagccaagtctgccgcctctggcaaggg cagaagaacccggaagagaaagcagaccattctgaaagaggccaccaagagccagaaagaagccgcc aagcgctggaaagaggctgccaacggcgacgaagctgccgctgaagaagccagcacaacaaagggcg aacagttccccgaagagatgttccccgtggcctgcagagaaaccacagccagagtgaagcaagaggt ggaccagggcgtcacatgcgagatgctgctgaataccatggacaagtgatga (SEQ ID NO: 59) modBORIS MAATEISVLSEQFTKIKELKLMLEKGLKKEEKDGVCREKNHRSPSELEAQRTSGAFQDSILEEEVE LVLAPLEESKKYILTLQTVHFTSEAVQLQDMSLLSIQQQEGVQVVVQQPGPGLLWLQEGPRQSLQ QCVAISIQQELYSPQEMEVLQFHALEENVMVAIEDSKLAVSLAETTGLIKLEEEQEKNQLLAEKTKK QLFFVETMSGDERSDEIVLTVSNSNVEEQEDQPTACQADAEKAKFTKNORKTKGAKGTFHCNVC MFTSSRMSSFNCHMKTHTSEKPHLCHLCLKTFRTVTLLWNYVNTHTGTRPYKCNDCNMAFVTSG ELVRHRRYKHTHEKPFKCSMCKYASMEASKLKCHVRSHTGEHPFQCCQCSYASRDTYKLKRHM RTHSGEKPYECHICHTRFTQSGTMKIHILQKHGKNVPKYQCPHCATIIARKSDLRVHMRNLHAYSA AELKCRYCSAVFHKRYALIQHQKTHKNEKRFKCKHCSYACKQERHMIAHIHTHTGEKPFTCLSCN KCFRQKQLLNAHFRKYHDANFIPTVYKCSKCGKGFSRWINLHRHLEKCESGEAKSAASGKGRRT RKRKQTILKEATKSQKEAAKRWKEAANGDEAAAEEASTTKGEQFPEEMFPVACRETTARVKQEV DQGVTCEMLLNTMDK (SEQ ID NO: 60) mod- atggcattgcctacagctagacctctgctgggcagctgtggaacaccagctctgggaagcctgctgt Mesothelin ttctgctgttcagcctcggatgggtgcagccttctagaacactggccggcgagacaggacaagaagc tgctcctcttgacggcgtgctggccaatcctcctaatatcagctctctgagccccagacagctgctc ggctttccttgtgccgaagtgtctggcctgagcaccgagagagtgtgggaacttgctgtggccctgg ctcagaaaaacgtgaagctgagcacagagcagctgagatgtctggcccaccagctgagtgaacctcc agaggatctggatgccctgcctctggacctgctgctgttcctgaatcctgacgcctttagcggccct caggcctgcaccagattcttcagcagaatcaccaaggccaatgtggatctgctgcccagaggcgccc ctgagagacaaagacttctgcctgctgctctggcctgttggggcgttagaggatctctgctgtctga ggccgatgtgctggctcttggaggcctggcttgtaacctgcctggcagatttgtggccgagtctgct gaggtgctgctgcctagactggtgtcctgtcctggacctctggatcaggaccagcaagaagccgcta gagctgcacttcaaggcggcggacctccttatggacctcctctgacttggagcgtgtccaccatgga cgctctgagaggactgctgcctgttctgggccagcctatcatccggtctatccctcagggaattgtg gccgcttggcggcagagaagcttcagagatccctcttggagacagcccaagcagaccatcctgtggc ctcggttcagatgggaagtcgagaaaaccgcctgtcctagcggcaagaaggccagagagatcgacga gagcctgatcttctacaagaagtgggaactcgaggcctgcgtggacgctgctctgctggctacacag atggacagagtgaacgctatccccttcacctatgagcagctggacgtgctgaagcacaagctggatg agctgtaccctcagggctaccccgagtctgtgattcagcacctgggctacctgtttctgaagatgag ccccgaggacatccggaagtggaacgtgaccagcctggaaaccctgaaggccctgctggaagtgaac aagggccacgagatgtccccacaggctcctagaaggcctctgcctcaagtggccacactgatcgaca gattcgtgaaaggcaggggccagctggacaaggacaccctggatacactgaccgccttctatcccgg ctatctgtgcagcctgtctcctgaggaactgtcctctgtgcctcctagctctatttgggctgtgcgg cctcaggacctggatacctgtgatcctagacagctggatgtcctgtatcctaaggctcggctggcct tccagaacatgaacggcagcgagtacttcgtgaagatccagttcttccttggcggcgctcccaccga ggatctgaaagctctgtcccagcagaatgtgtctatggacctggccacctttatgaagctgcggacc gatgctgtgctgcctctgacagtggccgaggtgcaaaaactgctgggccctcatgtggaaggactga aggccgaagaacggcacagacccgtcagagactggattctgagacagcggcaggacgacctggacac actggaacttggactgcaaggcggcatccccaatggctacctggtgctggatctgagcgtgcaagag gccctctctggcacaccttgtttgctcggacctggaccagtgctgacagtgttggctctgctgctgg cctctacactggcctgataa (SEQ ID NO: 61) mod- MALPTARPLLGSCGTPALGSLLFLLFSLGWVQPSRTLAGETGQEAAPLDGVLANPPNISSLSPRQL Mesothelin LGFPCAEVSGLSTERVWELAVALAQKNVKLSTEQLRCLAHQLSEPPEDLDALPLDLLLFLNPDAFS GPQACTRFFSRITKANVDLLPRGAPERQRLLPAALACWGVRGSLLSEADVLALGGLACNLPGRFV AESAEVLLPRLVSCPGPLDQDQQEAARAALQGGGPPYGPPLTWSVSTMDALRGLLPVLGQPIIRS IPQGIVAAWRQRSFRDPSWRQPKQTILWPRFRWEVEKTACPSGKKAREIDESLIFYKKWELEACV DAALLATQMDRVNAIPFTYEQLDVLKHKLDELYPQGYPESVIQHLGYLFLKMSPEDIRKWNVTSLE TLKALLEVNKGHEMSPQAPRRPLPQVATLIDRFVKGRGQLDKDTLDTLTAFYPGYLCSLSPEELSS VPPSSIWAVRPQDLDTCDPRQLDVLYPKARLAFQNMNGSEYFVKIQFFLGGAPTEDLKALSQQNV SMDLATFMKLRTDAVLPLTVAEVQKLLGPHVEGLKAEERHRPVRDWILRQRQDDLDTLELGLQG GIPNGYLVLDLSVQEALSGTPCLLGPGPVLTVLALLLASTLA (SEQ ID NO: 62) modFAP- cctgaacgtgaccttcagctacaagatattcttccccaactggatctccggccaagagtacctgcac modClaudin cagagcgccgacaacaacatcgtgctgtacaacatcgagacaggccagagctacaccatcatgagca 18 accggaccatgaagtccgtgaacgccagcaactacggactgagccccgattggcagttcgtgtacct ggaaagcgactacagcaagctgtggcggtacagctacaccgccacctactacatctacgacctgagc aacggcgagttcgtgaagggcaacgagctgccccatcctatccagtacctgtgttggagccctgtgg gctccaagctggcctacgtgtaccagaacaacatctacctgaagcagcggcctggcgaccctccatt ccagatcaccttcaacggcagagagaacaagatctttaacggcatccccgactgggtgtacgaggaa gagatgctggccaccaaatacgccctgtggtggtcccctaacggcaagtttctggcctatgccgact tcaacgacacagacatccccgtgatcgcctacagctactacggcaatgagcagtaccccaggaccat caacatcagctaccccaaagccggcgctaagaaccctgtcgtgcggatcttcatcatcgacaccacc tatcctgtgtacgtgggccctcaagaggtgccagtgcctgccatgattgccagcagcgactactact tcagctggctgacctgggtcaccgacgagcgagtttgtctgcagtggctgaagcgggtgcagaacat cagcgtgctgagcatctgcgacttcagaaaggactggcagacatgggactgccccaacacacagcag cacatcgaggaaagcagaaccggctgggctggcggcttctttgtgtctacccctgtgttcagctacg acgccatcctgtactataagatcttcagcgacaaggacggctacaagcacatccactacatcaagta caccgtcgagaacgtgatccagattaccagcggcaagtgggaagccatcaatatcttcagagtgatc cagtacagcctgttctacagcagcaacgagttcgaggaataccccggcagacggaacatctacagaa tcagcatcggcagctacccgcctagcaagaaatgcgtgacctgccacctgagaaaagagcggtgcca gtactacacagccagcttctccaactacgccaagtactacgccctcgtgtgttacggccctggcatc cctatcagcacactgcacgatggcagaaccgaccaagagatcaagatcctggaagaaaacaaagagc tggaaaacgccctgaagaacatccagctgcctaaagaggaaatcaagaagctggaagtcgacgagat caccctgtggtacaagatgatcctgcctcctcagttcgaccggtccaagaagtaccctctgctgatc caggtgtacggcggaccttgttctcagtctgtgcgctccgtgttcgccgtgaattggatcagctatc tggccagcaaagaaggcatggttatcgccctggtggacggcagaggcacagcttttcaaggcgacaa gctgctgtacgccgtgtatcagaaactgggcgtgtacgaagtggaagatcagatcaccgccgtgcgg aagttcatcgagatgggcttcatcgacgagaagcggatcgccatctggggctggtcttacggcggct atattagctctctggccctggcctctggcaccggcctgtttaagtgtggaattgccgtggctcccgt gtccagctgggagtactataccagcgtgtacaccgagcggttcatgggcctgcctaccaaggacgac aacctggaacactacaagaactctaccgtgatggccagagccgagtacttccggaacgtggactacc tgctgattcacggcaccgccgacgacaacgtgcacttccaaaacagcgcccagatcgctaaggccct cgtgaatgcccaggtggactttcaggccatgtggtacagcgaccagaaccacggactgtctggcctg agcaccaaccacctgtacacccacatgacccactttctgaaacagtgcttcagcctgagcgaccggg gcagaaagagaagatctgccgtcacagcctgtcagagcctgggctttgtggtgtccctgatcgagat cgtgggcatcattgccgctacctgcatggaccagtggtctacccaggacctgtataacaaccccgtg accgccgtgttcaactaccaaggcctgtggcacagctgcatgagagagagcagcggcttcaccgagt gcaggggctactttaccctgctggaactgccagccatgctgcaggctgtgcaggcccttatgatcgt gggaattgtgctgggcgccatcggcctgctggtgtctatttttgccctgaagtgcatccggatcggc agcatggaagatagcgccaaggccaacatgaccctgacctccggcatcatgttcatcgtgtccggcc tgtgtgccattgcaggcgtgtccgtgtttgccaatatgctcgtgaccaacttctggctgtccaccgc caacatgtacaccggcatgggcgagatggtgcagaccgtgcagacacggtacacatttggcgccgct ctgtttgtcggatgggttgcaggcggactgactctgattggcggcgtgatgatgtgtatcgcctgca gaggactggcccctgaggaaacaaactacaaggccgtgtactaccacgccagcggacacagcgtggc atacaaaccaggcggctttaaggccagcacaggcttcggcagcaacaccaagaacaagaagatctac gacggcggagcccataccgaggatgaggtgcagagctaccctagcaagcacgactacgtgtgatga (SEQ ID NO: 63) modFAP- MKTLVKIVFGVATSAVLALLVMCIVLHPSRVHNSEENTMRALTLKDILNVTFSYKIFFPNWISGQEY modClaudin LHQSADNNIVLYNIETGQSYTIMSNRTMKSVNASNYGLSPDWQFVYLESDYSKLWRYSYTATYYIY 18 DLSNGEFVKGNELPHPIQYLCWSPVGSKLAYVYQNNIYLKQRPGDPPFQITFNGRENKIFNGIPDW VYEEEMLATKYAWMNSPNGKFLAYADFNDTDIPVIAYSYYGNEQYPRTINISYPKAGAKNPVVRIFI IDTTYPVYVGPQEVPVPAMIASSDYYFSWLTWVTDERVCLQWLKRVQNISVLSICDFRKDWQTWD CPNTQQHIEESRTGWAGGFFVSTPVFSYDAILYYKIFSDKDGYKHIHYIKYTVENVIQITSGKWEAI NIFRVIQYSLFYSSNEFEEYPGRRNIYRISIGSYPPSKKCVTCHLRKERCQYYTASFSNYAKYYALV CYGPGIPISTLHDGRTDQEIKILEENKELENALKNIQLPKEEIKKLEVDEITLWYKMILPPQFDRSK KYPLLIQVYGGPCSQSVRSVFAVNWISYLASKEGMVIALVDGRGTAFQGDKLLYAVYQKLGVYEVED QITAVRKFIEMGFIDEKRIAIWGWSYGGYISSLALASGTGLFKCGIAVAPVSSWEYYTSVYTERFMG LPTKDDNLEHYKNSTVMARAEYFRNVDYLLIHGTADDNVHFQNSAQIAKALVNAQVDFQAMWYSD QNHGLSGLSTNHLYTHMTHFLKQCFSLSDRGRKRRSAVTACQSLGFWSLIEIVGIIAATCMDQWS TQDLYNNPVTAVFNYQGLWHSCMRESSGFTECRGYFTLLELPAMLQAVQALMIVGIVLGAIGLLV SIFALKCIRIGSMEDSAKANMTLTSGIMFIVSGLCAIAGVSVFANMLVTNFWLSTANMYTGMGEMV QTVQTRYTFGAALFVGWVAGGLTLIGGVMMCIACRGLAPEETNYKAVYYHASGHSVAYKPGGFK ASTGFGSNTKNKKIYDGGAHTEDEVQSYPSKHDYV (SEQ ID NO: 64) modPRAME- atggaaagaagaaggctctggggcagcatccagagccggtacatcagcatgagcgtgtggacaagcc modTBXT ctcggagactggtggaactggctggacagagcctgctgaaggatgaggccctggccattgctgctct ggaactgctgcctagagagctgttccctcctctgttcatggccgccttcgacggcagacacagccag acactgaaagccatggtgcaggcctggcctttcacctgtctgcctctgggagtgctgatgaagggcc agcatctgcacctggaaaccttcaaggccgtgctggatggcctggatgtgctgctggctcaagaagt gcggcctcggcgttggaaactgcaggttctggatctgctgaagaacagccaccaggatttctggacc gtttggagcggcaacagagccagcctgtacagctttcctgagcctgaagccgctcagcccatgacca agaaaagaaaggtggacggcctgagcaccgaggccgagcagccttttattcccgtggaagtgctggt ggacctgttcctgaaagaaggcgcctgcgacgagctgttcagctacctgaccgagaaagtgaagcag aagaagaacgtcctgcacctgtgctgcaagaagctgaagatctttgccatgcctatgcaggacatca agatgatcctgaagatggtgcagctggacagcatcgaggacctggaagtgacctgtacctggaagct gcccacactggccaagttctttagctacctgggccagatgatcaacctgcggagactgctgctgagc cacatccacgccagctcctacatcagccccgagaaagaggaacagtacatctcccagttcacctctc agtttctgagcctgcagtgtctgcaggccctgtacgtggacagcctgttcttcctgagaggcaggct ggaccagctgctgagacacgtgatgaaccctctggaaaccctgagcatcaccaactgcagactgctg gaaggcgacgtgatgcacctgtctcagagcccatctgtgtcccagctgagcgtgctgtctctgtctg gcgtgatgctgaccgatgtgtcccctgaacctctgcaggcactgctgaaaaaggccagcgccactct gcaggacctggtgtttgatgagtgcggcatcatggacgaccagctgtttgccctgctgccaagcctg agccactgtagccaactgaccacactgagcttctacggcaacagcatctacatctctgccctgcaga gcctcctgcagcacctgatcggactgagcaatctgacccacgtgctgtacccagtgctgctcgagag ctacgaggacatccacgtgaccctgcaccaagagagactggcctatctgcatgcccggctgagagaa ctgctgtgcgaactgggcagacccagcatggtttggctgagcgctaatctgtgccctcactgcggcg acagaaccttctacgaccccaagctgatcatgtgcccctgcttcatgcccaaccggggcagaaagag aagaagctctagccctggcacagagagcgccggaaagtccctgcagtacagagtggatcatctgctg agcgccgtggaaaacgaactgcaggccggatctgagaagggcgatcctacagagcacgagctgagag tcggcctggaagagtctgagctgtggctgcggttcaaagaactgaccaacgagatgatcgtcaccaa gaacggcagacggatgttccccgtgctgaaagtgaacgtgtccggactggaccccaacgccatgtat agctttctgctggacttcgtggtggccgacaaccacagatggaaatacgtgaacggcgagtgggtgc caggcggaaaacctcaactgcaagcccctagctgcgtgtacattcaccctgacagccccaatttcgg cgcccactggatgaaggcccctgtgtcctttagcaaagtcaagctgaccaacaagctgaacggcgga ggccagatcatgctgaactccctgcacaaatacgagcccagaatccacatcgtcagagtcggcggac cccagagaatgatcaccagccactgcttccccgagacacagtttatcgccgtgaccgcctaccagaa cgaggaaatcacaaccctgaagatcaagtacaaccccttcgccaaggccttcctggacgccaaagag cggagcgaccacaaagaaatgatcaaagagcccggcgactcccagcagccaggctattctcaatggg gatggctgctgccaggcaccagcacattgtgccctccagccaatcctcacagccagtttggaggcgc tctgtccctgagcagcacacacagctacgacagataccccacactgcggagccacagaagcagcccc tatccttctccttacgctcaccggaacaacagccccacctacagcgataatagccccgcctgtctga gcatgctgcagtcccacgataattggagcagcctgcggatgcctgctcacccttctatgctgcccgt gtctcacaacgcctctccacctacaagcagctctcagtaccccagcctttggagcgtgtccaatggc gctgtgacactgggatctcaggccgctgctgtgtctaatggactgggagcccagttcttcagaggca gccctgctcactacacccctctgacacatcctgtgtcagccccttctagcagcggcttccctatgta caaaggcgccgctgccgccaccgatatcgtggattctcagtacgatgccgccgctcagggccacctg attgcatcttggacacctgtgtctccaccttccatgtgatga (SEQ ID NO: 65) modPRAME- MERRRLWGSIQSRYISMSVWTSPRRLVELAGQSLLKDEALAIAALELLPRELFPPLFMAAFDGRHS modTBXT QTLKAMVQAWPFTCLPLGVLMKGQHLHLETFKAVLDGLDVLLAQEVRPRRWKLQVLDLLKNSHQ DFWTVWSGNRASLYSFPEPEAAQPMTKKRKVDGLSTEAEQPFIPVEVLVDLFLKEGACDELFSYL TEKVKQKKNVLHLCCKKLKIFAMPMQDIKMILKMVQLDSIEDLEVTCTWKLPTLAKFFSYLGQMINL RRLLLSHIHASSYISPEKEEQYISQFTSQFLSLQCLQALYVDSLFFLRGRLDQLLRHVMNPLETLSI TNCRLLEGDVMHLSQSPSVSQLSVLSLSGVMLTDVSPEPLQALLKKASATLQDLVFDECGIMDDQL FALLPSLSHCSQLTTLSFYGNSIYISALQSLLQHLIGLSNLTHVLYPVLLESYEDIHVTLHQERLAY LHARLRELLCELGRPSMVWLSANLCPHCGDRTFYDPKLIMCPCFMPNRGRKRRSSSPGTESAGKSL QYRVDHLLSAVENELQAGSEKGDPTEHELRVGLEESELWLRFKELTNEMIVTKNGRRMFPVLKVN VSGLDPNAMYSFLLDFVVADNHRWKYVNGEWVPGGKPQLQAPSCVYIHPDSPNFGAHWMKAPV SFSKVKLTNKLNGGGQIMLNSLHKYEPRIHIVRVGGPQRMITSHCFPETQFIAVTAYQNEEITTLKI KYNPFAKAFLDAKERSDHKEMIKEPGDSQQPGYSQWGWLLPGTSTLCPPANPHSQFGGALSLSST HSYDRYPTLRSHRSSPYPSPYAHRNNSPTYSDNSPACLSMLQSHDNWSSLRMPAHPSMLPVSH NASPPTSSSQYPSLWSVSNGAVTLGSQAAAVSNGLGAQFFRGSPAHYTPLTHPVSAPSSSGFPM YKGAAAATDIVDSQYDAAAQGHLIASWTPVSPPSM (SEQ ID NO: 66) HPV16/18 atgcaccagaaacggaccgccatgtttcaggaccctcaagagaggcccagaaagctgcctcacctgt E6/E7 gtaccgagctgcagaccaccatccacgacatcatcctggaatgcgtgtactgcaagcagcagctcct gcggagagaggtgtacgatttcgccttccgggacctgtgcatcgtgtacagagatggcaacccctac gccgtgtgcaacaagtgcctgaagttctacagcaagatcagcgagtaccgctactactgctacagcg tgtacggcaccacactggaacagcagtacaacaagcccctgtgcgacctgctgatccggtgcatcaa ctgccagaaacctctgtgccccgaggaaaagcagcggcacctggacaagaagcagcggttccacaac atcagaggccggtggaccggcagatgcatgagctgttgtcggagcagccggaccagaagagagacac agctgagaggccggaagagaagaagccacggcgatacccctacactgcacgagtacatgctggacct gcagcctgagacaaccgacctgtactgctacgagcagctgaacgacagcagcgaggaagaggacgag attgacggacctgccggacaggccgaacctgatagagcccactacaatatcgtgaccttctgctgca agtgcaacagcaccctgagactgtgcgtgcagagcacccacgtggacatcagaaccctggaagatct gctgatgggcaccctgggaatcgtgtgccctatctgcagccagaagcctagaggcagaaagcggaga agcgccagattcgacgaccccaccagaaggccttacaagctgcctgatctgtgcactgaactgaaca ccagcctgcaggacatcgagattacctgtgtgtattgcaagaccgtgctggaactgaccgaggtgtt cgagtttgcctttaaggacctgttcgtggtgtaccgggacagcattcctcacgccgcctgccacaag tgcatcgacttctacagccggatcagagagctgcggcactacagcgattctgtgtacggggacaccc tggaaaagctgaccaacaccggcctgtacaacctgctcatcagatgcctgcggtgtcagaagcccct gaatcctgccgagaagctgagacacctgaacgagaagcggagattccacaatatcgccggccactac agaggccagtgccacagctgttgcaaccgggccagacaagagagactgcagagaaggcgggaaaccc aagtgcggggcagaaagagaagatctcacggccctaaggccacactgcaggatatcgtgctgcacct ggaacctcagaacgagatccccgtggatctgctgtgccatgagcagctgtccgactccaaagaggaa aacgacgaaatcgacggcgtgaaccaccagcatctgcctgccagaagggccgaaccacagagacaca ccatgctgtgcatgtgttgcaagtgcgaggcccggattgagctggtggtggaaagctctgccgacga cctgagagccttccagcagctgttcctgaacaccctgagcttcgtgtgtccttggtgcgccagccag cagtgataa (SEQ ID NO: 67) HPV16/18 MHQKRTAMFQDPQERPRKLPHLCTELQTTIHDIILECVYCKQQLLRREVYDFAFRDLCIVYRDGNP E6/E7 YAVCNKCLKFYSKISEYRYYCYSVYGTTLEQQYNKPLCDLLIRCINCQKPLCPEEKQRHLDKKQRF HNIRGRWTGRCMSCCRSSRTRRETQLRGRKRRSHGDTPTLHEYMLDLQPETTDLYCYEQLNDS SEEEDEIDGPAGQAEPDRAHYNIVTFCCKCNSTLRLCVQSTHVDIRTLEDLLMGTLGIVCPICSQKP RGRKRRSARFDDPTRRPYKLPDLCTELNTSLQDIEITCVYCKTVLELTEVFEFAFKDLFVVYRDSIP HAACHKCIDFYSRIRELRHYSDSVYGDTLEKLTNTGLYNLLIRCLRCQKPLNPAEKLRHLNEKRRF HNIAGHYRGQCHSCCNRARQERLQRRRETQVRGRKRRSHGPKATLQDIVLHLEPQNEIPVDLLC HEQLSDSKEENDEIDGVNHQHLPARRAEPQRHTMLCMCCKCEARIELVVESSADDLRAFQQLFL NTLSFVCPWCASQQ (SEQ ID NO: 68) huPSMA atgtggaatctccttcacgaaaccgactcggctgtggccaccgcgcgccgcccgcgctggctgtgcg ctggggcgctggtgctggcgggtggcttctttctcctcggcttcctcttcgggtggtttataaaatc ctccaatgaagctactaacattactccaaagcataatatgaaagcatttttggatgaattgaaagct gagaacatcaagaagttcttatataattttacacagataccacatttagcaggaacagaacaaaact ttcagcttgcaaagcaaattcaatcccagtggaaagaatttggcctggattctgttgagctagcaca ttatgatgtcctgttgtcctacccaaataagactcatcccaactacatctcaataattaatgaagat ggaaatgagattttcaacacatcattatttgaaccacctcctccaggatatgaaaatgtttcggata ttgtaccacctttcagtgctttctctcctcaaggaatgccagagggcgatctagtgtatgttaacta tgcacgaactgaagacttctttaaattggaacgggacatgaaaatcaattgctctgggaaaattgta attgccagatatgggaaagttttcagaggaaataaggttaaaaatgcccagctggcaggggccaaag gagtcattctctactccgaccctgctgactactttgctcctggggtgaagtcctatccagatggttg gaatcttcctggaggtggtgtccagcgtggaaatatcctaaatctgaatggtgcaggagaccctctc acaccaggttacccagcaaatgaatatgcttataggcgtggaattgcagaggctgttggtcttccaa gtattcctgttcatccaattggatactatgatgcacagaagctcctagaaaaaatgggtggctcagc accaccagatagcagctggagaggaagtctcaaagtgccctacaatgttggacctggctttactgga aacttttctacacaaaaagtcaagatgcacatccactctaccaatgaagtgacaagaatttacaatg tgataggtactctcagaggagcagtggaaccagacagatatgtcattctgggaggtcaccgggactc atgggtgtttggtggtattgaccctcagagtggagcagctgttgttcatgaaattgtgaggagcttt ggaacactgaaaaaggaagggtggagacctagaagaacaattttgtttgcaagctgggatgcagaag aatttggtcttcttggttctactgagtgggcagaggagaattcaagactccttcaagagcgtggcgt ggcttatattaatgctgactcatctatagaaggaaactacactctgagagttgattgtacaccgctg atgtacagcttggtacacaacctaacaaaagagctgaaaagccctgatgaaggctttgaaggcaaat ctctttatgaaagttggactaaaaaaagtccttccccagagttcagtggcatgcccaggataagcaa attgggatctggaaatgattttgaggtgttcttccaacgacttggaattgcttcaggcagagcacgg tatactaaaaattgggaaacaaacaaattcagcggctatccactgtatcacagtgtctatgaaacat atgagttggtggaaaagttttatgatccaatgtttaaatatcacctcactgtggcccaggttcgagg agggatggtgtttgagctagccaattccatagtgctcccttttgattgtcgagattatgctgtagtt ttaagaaagtatgctgacaaaatctacagtatttctatgaaacatccacaggaaatgaagacataca gtgtatcatttgattcactthttctgcagtaaagaattttacagaaattgcttccaagttcagtgag agactccaggactttgacaaaagcaacccaatagtattaagaatgatgaatgatcaactcatgtttc tggaaagagcatttattgatccattagggttaccagacaggcctttttataggcatgtcatctatgc tccaagcagccacaacaagtatgcaggggagtcattcccaggaatttatgatgctctgtttgatatt gaaagcaaagtggacccttccaaggcctggggagaagtgaagagacagatttatgttgcagccttca cagtgcaggcagctgcagagactttgagtgaagtagcctaa (SEQ ID NO: 69) huPSMA MWNLLHETDSAVATARRPRWLCAGALVLAGGFFLLGFLFGWFIKSSNEATNITPKHNMKAFLDEL KAENIKKFLYNFTQIPHLAGTEQNFQLAKQIQSQWKEFGLDSVELAHYDVLLSYPNKTHPNYISIIN EDGNEIFNTSLFEPPPPGYENVSDIVPPFSAFSPQGMPEGDLVYVNYARTEDFFKLERDMKINCSG KIVIARYGKVFRGNKVKNAQLAGAKGVILYSDPADYFAPGVKSYPDGWNLPGGGVQRGNILNLNG AGDPLTPGYPANEYAYRRGIAEAVGLPSIPVHPIGYYDAQKLLEKMGGSAPPDSSWRGSLKVPYN VGPGFTGNFSTQKVKMHIHSTNEVTRIYNVIGTLRGAVEPDRYVILGGHRDSWVFGGIDPQSGAA VVHEIVRSFGTLKKEGWRPRRTILFASWDAEEFGLLGSTEWAEENSRLLQERGVAYINADSSIEG NYTLRVDCTPLMYSLVHNLTKELKSPDEGFEGKSLYESWTKKSPSPEFSGMPRISKLGSGNDFEV FFQRLGIASGRARYTKNWETNKFSGYPLYHSVYETYELVEKFYDPMFKYHLTVAQVRGGMVFEL ANSIVLPFDCRDYAVVLRKYADKIYSISMKHPQEMKTYSVSFDSLFSAVKNFTEIASKFSERLQDFD KSNPIVLRMMNDQLMFLERAFIDPLGLPDRPFYRHVIYAPSSHNKYAGESFPGIYDALFDIESKVDP SKAWGEVKRQIYVAAFTVQAAAETLSEVA (SEQ ID NO: 70) CD276 shRNA ccggtgctggagaaagatcaaacagctcgagctgtttgatctttctccagcatttttt (SEQ ID NO: 71) modMAGEA1 atgtctctcgaacagagaagcctgcactgcaagcccgaggaagctctggaagctcagcaagaggctc tgggccttgtgtgtgttcaggccgctgccagcagcttttctcctctggtgctgggcacactggaaga ggtgccaacagccggctctaccgatcctcctcaatctcctcaaggcgccagcgcctttcctaccacc atcaacttcacccggcagagacagcctagcgagggctctagctctcacgaggaaaagggccctagca ccagctgcatcctggaaagcctgttccgggccgtgatcacaaagaaagtggccgacctcgtgggctt cctgctgctgaagtacagagccagagaacccgtgaccaaggccgagatgctggaaagcgtgatcaag aactacaagcactgcttcagcgagatcttcggcaaggccagcgagtctctgcagctcgtgtttggca tcgacgtgaaagaggccgatcctaccggccacagctacgtgttcgtgacatgtctgggcctgagcta cgatggcctgctgggcgacaatcagattatgctgaaaaccggcttcctgatcatcgtgctggtcatg atcgccatggaaggctctcacgcccctaaagaggaaatctgggaagaactgagcgtgatggaagtgt acgacggcagagagcatagcgcctacggcgagcctagaaaactgctgacccaggacctggtgcaaga gaagtacctcgagtacagacaggtgcccgacagcgaccctgccagatacgaatttctgtggggccct agagcactggccgagacaagctatgtgaaggtgctggaatacgtcatcaaggtgtccgccagagtgt gcttcttcttcccatctctgcgggaagccgctctgcgcgaagaggaagaaggcgtc (SEQ ID NO: 72) modMAGEA1 MSLEQRSLHCKPEEALEAQQEALGLVCVQAAASSFSPLVLGTLEEVPTAGSTDPPQSPQGASAF PTTINFTRQRQPSEGSSSHEEKGPSTSCILESLFRAVITKKVADLVGFLLLKYRAREPVTKAEMLES VIKNYKHCFSEIFGKASESLQLVFGIDVKEADPTGHSYVFVTCLGLSYDGLLGDNQIMLKTGFLIIV LVMIAMEGSHAPKEEIWEELSVMEVYDGREHSAYGEPRKLLTQDLVQEKYLEYRQVPDSDPARYE FLWGPRALAETSYVKVLEYVIKVSARVCFFFPSLREAALREEEEGV (SEQ ID NO: 73) EGFRvIII ctggaagagaaaaagggcaactacgtggtcaccgaccactgc (SEQ ID NO: 74) EGFRvIII LEEKKGNYVVTDHC (SEQ ID NO: 75) hCMV gagtctagaggcagacggtgccctgagatgattagcgtgctgggccctatctctggccacgtgctga pp65 aggccgtgttcagcagaggcgatacacctgtgctgccccacgagacaagactgctgcagacaggcat ccatgtgcgggtgtcacagccaagcctgatcctggtgtctcagtacacccctgacagcaccccttgt cacagaggcgacaaccagctccaggtgcagcacacctactttaccggcagcgaggtggaaaacgtgt ccgtgaacgtgcacaatcccaccggcagatccatctgtcccagccaagagcctatgagcatctacgt gtacgccctgcctctgaagatgctgaacatccccagcatcaatgtgcatcactacccctctgccgcc gagcggaaacacagacatctgcctgtggccgatgccgtgattcacgcctctggaaagcagatgtggc aggccagactgacagtgtccggactggcttggaccagacagcagaaccagtggaaagaacccgacgt gtactacacctccgccttcgtgttccccacaaaggacgtggccctgagacacgttgtgtgcgcccat gaactcgtgtgcagcatggaaaacacccgggccaccaagatgcaagtgatcggcgaccagtacgtga aggtgtacctggaatccttctgcgaggacgtgccaagcggcaagctgttcatgcacgtgaccctggg ctccgatgtggaagaggacctgaccatgaccagaaatccccagcctttcatgcggcctcacgagaga aatggcttcaccgtgctgtgccccaagaacatgatcatcaagcccggcaagatcagccacatcatgc tggatgtggccttcaccagccacgagcacttcggactgctgtgtcctaagagcatccccggcctgag catcagcggcaacctgctgatgaatggccagcagatcttcctggaagtgcaggccattcgggaaacc gtggaactgagacagtacgaccctgtggctgccctgttcttcttcgacatcgatctgctgctccaga gaggccctcagtacagcgagcacccaacctttaccagccagtacagaatccagggcaagctggaata tcggcacacctgggatagacacgatgagggtgctgcacagggcgacgatgatgtgtggacaagcggc agcgatagcgacgaggaactggtcaccaccgagagaaagacccctagagttacaggcggaggcgcaa tggctggcgcttctacatctgccggacgcaagagaaagagcgcctcttctgccaccgcctgtacaag cggcgtgatgacaagaggcaggctgaaagccgagagcacagtggcccctgaggaagatacagacgag gacagcgacaacgagattcacaaccccgccgtgtttacctggcctccttggcaggctggcattctgg ctagaaacctggtgcctatggtggccacagtgcagggccagaacctgaagtaccaagagttcttctg ggacgccaacgacatctaccggatcttcgccgaactggaaggcgtgtggcaaccagccgctcagccc aaaagacgcagacacagacaggacgctctgcccggaccttgtattgccagcacacccaagaaacacc ggggc (SEQ ID NO: 76) hCMV ESRGRRCPEMISVLGPISGHVLKAVFSRGDTPVLPHETRLLQTGIHVRVSQPSLILVSQYTPDSTP pp65 CHRGDNQLQVQHTYFTGSEVENVSVNVHNPTGRSICPSQEPMSIYVYALPLKMLNIPSINVHHYP SAAERKHRHLPVADAVIHASGKQMWQARLTVSGLAWTRQQNQWKEPDVYYTSAFVFPTKDVAL RHVVCAHELVCSMENTRATKMQVIGDQYVKVYLESFCEDVPSGKLFMHVTLGSDVEEDLTMTRN PQPFMRPHERNGFTVLCPKNMIIKPGKISHIMLDVAFTSHEHFGLLCPKSIPGLSISGNLLMNGQQI FLEVQAIRETVELRQYDPVAALFFFDIDLLLQRGPQYSEHPTFTSQYRIQGKLEYRHTWDRHDEGA AQGDDDVWTSGSDSDEELVTTERKTPRVTGGGAMAGASTSAGRKRKSASSATACTSGVMTRG RLKAESTVAPEEDTDEDSDNEIHNPAVFTWPPWQAGILARNLVPMVATVQGQNLKYQEFFWDAN DIYRIFAELEGVWQPAAQPKRRRHRQDALPGPCIASTPKKHRG (SEQ ID NO: 77) modTBXT atgtctagccctggaacagagtctgccggcaagagcctgcagtacagagtggaccatctgctgagcg ccgtggaaaatgaactgcaggccggaagcgagaagggcgatcctacagagcacgagctgagagtcgg cctggaagagtctgagctgtggctgcggttcaaagaactgaccaacgagatgatcgtgaccaagaac ggcagacggatgttccccgtgctgaaagtgaacgtgtccggactggaccccaacgccatgtacagct ttctgctggacttcgtggtggccgacaaccacagatggaaatacgtgaacggcgagtgggtgccagg cggaaaacctcaactgcaagcccctagctgcgtgtacattcaccctgacagccccaatttcggcgcc cactggatgaaggcccctgtgtccttcagcaaagtgaagctgaccaacaagctgaacggcggaggcc agatcatgctgaacagcctgcacaaatacgagcccagaatccacatcgtcagagtcggcggacccca gagaatgatcaccagccactgcttccccgagacacagtttatcgccgtgaccgcctaccagaacgag gaaatcaccacactgaagatcaagtacaaccccttcgccaaggccttcctggacgccaaagagcgga gcgaccacaaagagatgatcaaagagcccggcgacagccagcagccaggctattctcaatggggatg gctgctgccaggcaccagcacattgtgccctccagccaatcctcacagccagtttggaggcgccctg agcctgtctagcacccacagctacgacagataccccacactgcggagccacagaagcagcccctatc cttctccttacgctcaccggaacaacagccccacctacagcgataatagccccgcctgtctgagcat gctgcagtcccacgataactggtccagcctgagaatgcctgctcacccttccatgctgcccgtgtct cacaatgcctctccacctaccagcagctctcagtaccctagcctttggagcgtgtccaatggcgccg tgacactgggatctcaggcagccgctgtgtctaatggactgggagcccagttcttcagaggcagccc tgctcactacacccctctgacacatcctgtgtctgcccctagcagcagcggcttccctatgtataag ggcgctgccgccgctaccgacatcgtggattctcagtatgatgccgccgcacagggacacctgatcg cctcttggacacctgtgtctccaccttccatg (SEQ ID NO: 78) modTBXT MSSPGTESAGKSLQYRVDHLLSAVENELQAGSEKGDPTEHELRVGLEESELWLRFKELTNEMIVT KNGRRMFPVLKVNVSGLDPNAMYSFLLDFVVADNHRWKYVNGEWVPGGKPQLQAPSCVYIHPD SPNFGAHWMKAPVSFSKVKLTNKLNGGGQIMLNSLHKYEPRIHIVRVGGPQRMITSHCFPETQFIA VTAYQNEEITTLKIKYNPFAKAFLDAKERSDHKEMIKEPGDSQQPGYSQWGWLLPGTSTLCPPAN PHSQFGGALSLSSTHSYDRYPTLRSHRSSPYPSPYAHRNNSPTYSDNSPACLSMLQSHDNWSSL RMPAHPSMLPVSHNASPPTSSSQYPSLWSVSNGAVTLGSQAAAVSNGLGAQFFRGSPAHYTPL THPVSAPSSSGFPMYKGAAAATDIVDSQYDAAAQGHLIASWTPVSPPSM (SEQ ID NO: 79) modWT1 gacttcctgctgctgcagaaccctgcctctacctgtgtgcctgaaccagcctctcagcacaccctga gatctggccctggatgtctccagcagcctgaacagcagggcgttagagatcctggcggaatctgggc caaactgggagctgccgaagcctctgccgaatgtctgcagggcagaagaagcagaggcgccagcgga tctgaacctcaccagatgggaagcgacgtgcacgacctgaatgctctgttgcctgccgtgccatctc ttggcggaggcggaggatgtgctttgcctgtttctggtgctgcccagtgggctcccgtgctggattt tgctcctcctggcgcttctgcctatggctctcttggaggacctgctcctccaccagctccacctcca ccgccgcctccaccacctcacagctttatcaagcaagagccctcctggggcggagccgagcctcacg aaaaacagtgtctgagcgccttcaccgtgcactttttcggccagtttaccggcaccgtgggcgcctg tagatacggcccttttggaccaccaccacctagccaggcttctagcggacaggccagaatgttcccc aacgctccttacctgcctagctgcctggaaagccagcctaccatcagaaaccagggcttcagcaccg tgaccttcgacggcatgcctagctatggccacacaccatctcaccacgccgctcagttccccaatca cagcttcaagcacgaggaccctatgggccagcagggatctctgggagagcagcagtatagcgtgcca cctcctgtgtacggctgtcacacccctaccgatagctgcacaggcaatcaggctctgctgctgagga tgcctttcagcagcgacaacctgtaccagatgacaagccagctggaatgcatgatttggaaccagat gaacctgggcgccactctgaaaggcgtggccgctggatctagcagctccgtgaaatggacagccggc cagagcaatcactccaccggctacgagagcgacaatcacaccatgcctatcctgtgtggggcccagt accggattcacacacacggcgtgttcaggggcattcaggatgtgcgaagagtgcctggcgtggcccc tacacttgtgggatctgccagcgaaaccagcgagaagcaccccttcatgtgcgcctatccaggctgc aacaagcggtacttcaagctgagccacctgaagatgcacagccggaagcacacaggcgagaagctgt accagtgcgacttcaaggactgcgagcggagattcagctgcagcgaccagctgaagagacaccagag aaggcacaccggcgtgaagccctttcagtgcaagacctgccagcggaccttctcctggtccaaccac ctgaaaacccacacaagaacccacaccggcaagaccatcgagaagcccttcagctgtagatggccca gctgccagaagaagttcgcccggtctaacgagctggtgcatcaccacaacatgcaccagaggaacat gaccaaactgcagctggtgctg (SEQ ID NO: 80) modWT1 DFLLLQNPASTCVPEPASQHTLRSGPGCLQQPEQQGVRDPGGIWAKLGAAEASAECLQGRRSR GASGSEPHQMGSDVHDLNALLPAVPSLGGGGGCALPVSGAAQWAPVLDFAPPGASAYGSLGGP APPPAPPPPPPPPPHSFIKQEPSWGGAEPHEKQCLSAFTVHFFGQFTGTVGACRYGPFGPPPPS QASSGQARMFPNAPYLPSCLESQPTIRNQGFSTVTFDGMPSYGHTPSHHAAQFPNHSFKHEDP MGQQGSLGEQQYSVPPPVYGCHTPTDSCTGNQALLLRMPFSSDNLYQMTSQLECMIWNQMNL GATLKGVAAGSSSSVKWTAGQSNHSTGYESDNHTMPILCGAQYRIHTHGVFRGIQDVRRVPGVA PTLVGSASETSEKHPFMCAYPGCNKRYFKLSHLKMHSRKHTGEKLYQCDFKDCERRFSCSDQLK RHQRRHTGVKPFQCKTCQRTFSWSNHLKTHTRTHTGKTIEKPFSCRWPSCQKKFARSNELVHH HNMHQRNMTKLQLVL (SEQ ID NO: 81) KRAS G12D accgagtacaagctggtggttgttggagccgatggcgtgggaaagagcgccctgacaattcagctga mutation tccagaaccacttcgtg (SEQ ID NO: 82) KRAS G12D TEYKLVVVGADGVGKSALTIQLIQNHFV (SEQ ID NO: 83) mutation KRAS G12V acagagtataagctcgtggtcgtgggcgctgtcggagtgggaaaatctgccctgaccatccaactca mutation ttcagaatcactttgtg (SEQ ID NO: 84) KRAS G12V TEYKLVVVGAVGVGKSALTIQLIQNHFV (SEQ ID NO: 85) mutation modMAGEC2 cctcctgtgcctggcgtgcccttcagaaacgtggacaacgatagcctgaccagcgtggaactggaag attgggtcgacgcccagcatcctaccgacgaggaagaggaagaagccagctctgccagcagcaccct gtacctggtgtttagccccagcagcttctccaccagctctagcctgattctcggaggccccgaagaa gaagaggtcccaagcggcgtgatccccaatctgacagagagcatcccaagcagccctccacagggac caccacaaggaccttctcagagccctctgagcagctgttgcagcagtttcctgtggtccagcttcag cgaggaaagcagctcccagaaaggcgaggataccggcacttgtcagggcctgccagatagcgagagc agcttcacctacacactggacgagaaggtggccaagctggtcgagttcctgctgctgaagtacgagg ccgaggaacctgtgacagaggccgagatgctgatgatcgtcatcaagtataaggactacttccccgt gatcctgaagcgggccagagaattcatggaactgctgttcggactggccctgatcgaagtgggcccc gatcacttctgcgtgttcgctaacacagtgggcctgaccgatgagggctccgatgatgagggaatgc ccgagaactccctgctgatcatcatcctgagcgtcatcttcatcaagggcaactgcgcctccgagga agtgatctgggaagtcctgaatgccgtgggcgtttacgccggcagagaacactttgtgtacggcaag ccccgcgagctgctgaccaatgtttgggtgcagggccactacctggaatactgggaagtgcctcact ctagccctctgtactacgagtttctgtggggccctagagcacacagcgagtccatcaagaaaaaggt gctggaattcctggccaaactgaacaataccgtgcctagcttcttcccgtcctggtacaaggatgcc ctgaaggacgtggaagagagagtgcaggccaccatcgacaccgccgatgatgctacagtgatggcca gcgagagcctgagcgtgatgagcagcaacgtgtcctttagcgag (SEQ ID NO: 86) modMAGEC2 PPVPGVPFRNVDNDSLTSVELEDWVDAQHPTDEEEEEASSASSTLYLVFSPSSFSTSSSLILGGP EEEEVPSGVIPNLTESIPSSPPQGPPQGPSQSPLSSCCSSFLWSSFSEESSSQKGEDTGTCQGLP DSESSFTYTLDEKVAKLVEFLLLKYEAEEPVTEAEMLMIVIKYKDYFPVILKRAREFMELLFGLALI EVGPDHFCVFANTVGLTDEGSDDEGMPENSLLIIILSVIFIKGNCASEEVIWEVLNAVGVYAGREHF VYGKPRELLTNVWVQGHYLEYWEVPHSSPLYYEFLWGPRAHSESIKKKVLEFLAKLNNTVPSFFPS WYKDALKDVEERVQATIDTADDATVMASESLSVMSSNVSFSE (SEQ ID NO: 87) modTDGF1 gactgcagaaagatggcccggttcagctactccgtgatctggatcatggccatctccaaggccttcg agctgagactggttgccggactgggccaccaagagtttgccagacctagctggggctatctggcctt ccgggacgatagcatctggccccaagaggaacctgccatcagacccagatctagccagcgggtgcca cctatggaaatccagcacagcaaagaactgaaccggacctgctgcctgaacggcagaacctgtatgc tgggcagcttctgcgcctgtcctcctagcttctacggccggaattgcgagcacgacgtgcggaaaga aaactgcggcagcgtgccacacgatacctggctgcctaagaaatgcagcctgtgcaagtgttggcac ggccagctgcggtgtttccccagagcttttctgcccgtgtgtgacggcctggtcatggatgaacacc tggtggccagcagaacccctgagcttcctccaagcgccaggaccaccacctttatgctcgtgggcat ctgcctgagcatccagagctactac (SEQ ID NO: 88) modTDGF1 DCRKMARFSYSVIWIMAISKAFELRLVAGLGHQEFARPSWGYLAFRDDSIWPQEEPAIRPRSSQR VPPMEIQHSKELNRTCCLNGRTCMLGSFCACPPSFYGRNCEHDVRKENCGSVPHDTWLPKKCS LCKCWHGQLRCFPRAFLPVCDGLVMDEHLVASRTPELPPSARTTTFMLVGICLSIQSYY (SEQ ID NO: 89) modPSMA ggatccgccaccatgtggaatctgctgcacgagacagatagcgccgtggctaccgttagaaggccca in gatggctttgtgctggcgctctggttctggctggcggcttttttctgctgggcttcctgttcggctg modPSMA_ gttcatcaagagcagcaacgaggccaccaacatcacccctaagcacaacatgaaggcctttctggac TDGF1 gagctgaaggccgagaatatcaagaagttcctgtacaacttcacgcacatccctcacctggccggca ccgagcagaattttcagctggccaagcagatccagagccagtggaaagagttcggcctggactctgt ggaactggcccactacgatgtgctgctgagctaccccaacaagacacaccccaactacatcagcatc atcaacgaggacggcaacgagatcttcaacaccagcctgttcgagcctccacctcctggctacgaga acgtgtccgatatcgtgcctccattcagcgctttcagcccacagcggatgcctgagggctacctggt gtacgtgaactacgccagaaccgaggacttcttcaagctggaatgggacatgaagatcagctgcagc ggcaagatcgtgatcgcccggtacagaaaggtgttccgcgagaacaaagtgaagaacgcccagctgg caggcgccaaaggcgtgatcctgtatagcgaccccgccgactattttgcccctggcgtgaagtctta ccccgacggctggaattttcctggcggcggagtgcagcggcggaacatccttaatcttaacggcgct ggcgaccctctgacacctggctatcctgccaatgagtacgcctacagacacggaattgccgaggctg tgggcctgccttctattcctgtgcaccctgtgcggtactacgacgcccagaaactgctggaaaagat gggcggaagcgcccctcctgactcttcttggagaggctctctgaaggtgccctacaatgtcggccca ggcttcaccggcaacttcagcacccagaaagtgaaaatgcacatccacagcaccaacgaagtgaccc ggatctacaacgtgatcggcacactgagaggcgccgtggaacccgacaaatacgtgatcctcggcgg ccacagagacagctgggtgttcggaggaatcgaccctcaatctggcgccgctgtggtgtatgagatc gtgcggtctttcggcaccctgaagaaagaaggatggcggcccagacggaccatcctgtttgcctctt gggacgccgaggaatttggcctgctgggatctacagagtgggccgaagagaacagcagactgctgca agaaagaggcgtggcctacatcaacgccgacagcagcatcgagggcaactacaccctgcggatcgat tgcacccctctgatgtacagcctggtgcacaacctgaccaaagagctgaagtcccctgacgagggct ttgagggcaagagcctgtacaagagctggaccaagaagtccccatctcctgagttcagcggcatgcc cagaatctctaagctggaaagcggcaacaacttcgaggtgttcttccagcggctgggaatcgcctct ggaatcgccagatacaccaagaactgggagacaaacaagttctccggctatcccctgtaccacagcg tgtacgagacatacgagctggtggaaaagttctacgaccccatgttcaagtaccacctgacagtggc ccaagtgcgcggaggcatggtgttcgaactggccaatagcatcgtgctgcccttcaactgcagagac tacgccgtggtgctgcggaagtacgccgacaagatctacagcatcagcatgaagcacccgcaagaga tgaagacctacagcgtgtccttcgactccctgttcttcgccgtgaagaacttcaccaagatcgccag caagttcagcgagcggctgcaggacttcgacaagagcaaccctatcgtgctgaggatgatgaacgac cagctgatgttcctggaacgggccttcatcaaccctctgggactgcccgacagacccttctacaggc acgtgatctgtgcccctagcagccacaacaaatacgccggcgagagcttccccggcatctacgatgc cctgttcgacatcgagagcaacgtgaaccctagcaaggcctggggcgaagtgaagagacagatctac gtggccgcattcacagtgcaggccgctgccgaaacactgtctgaagtggccagaggc (SEQ ID NO: 90) modWT1 in atggactttctgctgctgcagaaccctgccagcacctgtgttccagaacctgcctctcagcacaccc modWT1_FBP tgagatctggccctggatgtctccagcagcctgaacagcagggcgttagagatcctggcggaatctg ggccaaactgggagccgctgaagcctctgccgaatgtctgcagggcagaagaagcagaggcgccagc ggatctgaacctcaccagatgggaagcgacgtgcacgacctgaatgctctgctgcctgccgtgccat ctcttggcggaggcggaggatgtgctttgcctgtttctggtgctgcccagtgggctcccgtgctgga ttttgctcctcctggcgcttctgcctatggctctcttggaggacctgctcctccaccagctccacct ccaccgccgcctccaccacctcacagctttatcaagcaagagccctcctggggcggagccgagcctc acgaaaaacagtgtctgagcgccttcaccgtgcactttttcggccagtttaccggcacagtgggcgc ctgtagatacggcccttttggaccaccaccacctagccaggctagctctggacaggccagaatgttc cccaacgctccctacctgcctagctgcctggaaagccagcctaccatcagaaaccagggcttcagca ccgtgaccttcgacggcatgcctagctatggccacacaccatctcaccacgccgctcagttccccaa tcacagcttcaagcacgaggaccctatgggccagcagggatctctgggagagcagcagtatagcgtg ccacctcctgtgtacggctgtcacacccctaccgatagctgcacaggcaatcaggccctgctgctga ggatgcccttcagcagcgacaacctgtaccagatgacaagccagctggaatgcatgatctggaacca gatgaacctgggcgccacactgaaaggcgtggccgctggatctagcagcagcgtgaaatggacagcc ggccagagcaatcactccaccggctacgagtccgacaaccacaccatgcctattctgtgcggagccc agtacagaatccacacacacggcgtgttccggggcattcaggatgtgcgaagagtgcctggcgtggc ccctacacttgtgggatctgcctctgagacaagcgagaagcaccccttcatgtgcgcctatcctggc tgcaacaagcggtacttcaagctgagccacctgaagatgcacagccggaagcacacaggcgagaagc tgtaccagtgcgacttcaaggactgcgagcggagattcagctgcagcgaccagctgaagagacacca gagaaggcacaccggcgtgaagcccttccagtgcaagacctgccagcggacctttagctggtccaac cacctgaaaacccacacaagaacccacaccggcaagaccatcgagaagcctttcagctgtagatggc ccagctgccagaagaagttcgcccggtctaacgagctggtgcatcaccacaacatgcaccagaggaa catgaccaaactgcagctggtgctg (SEQ ID NO: 91) modFBP gcccagagaatgaccacacagttgctgctgctcctcgtgtgggttgccgttgtgggagaagtgcaga ccagaatcgcctgggccagaaccgagctgctgaacgtgtgcatgaacgccaagcaccacaagaagaa gcccgatcctgaggacaagctgcacgagcagtgtcggccttggagaaagaacgcctgctgtagcacc aacaccagccaagaggcccacaagaacgtgtcctacctgtaccggttcaactggaaccactgcggcg agatgacacccgcctgcaagagacacttcatccaggatacctgcctgtacgagtgcagccccaatct cggcccctggattcagcaagtggaccagagctggcggaaagaactggtcctgaatgtgcccctgtgc aaagaggattgcgagcagtggtgggaagattgcagaaccagctacacatgcaagagcaactggcaca aaggctggaactggaccagcggcttcaacaagtgtgccgtgggagctgcctgtcagcctttccactt ctactttcacacacccaccgtgctgtgcaacaagatctggacccacagctacaaggtgtccaactac agcagaggcagcggccggtgtatccagatgtggttcgatcccgccaagggcaaccccaatgaggaag tggccagattctacgccgctgccatgtctggtgcaggaccttgggctgcttggccctttctgctttc actggccctgatgctgctgtggctgctgagc (SEQ ID NO: 92) modFBP AQRMTTQLLLLLVWVAVVGEVQTRIAWARTELLNVCMNAKHHKKKPDPEDKLHEQCRPWRKNA CCSTNTSQEAHKNVSYLYRFNWNHCGEMTPACKRHFIQDTCLYECSPNLGPWIQQVDQSWRKE LVLNVPLCKEDCEQWWEDCRTSYTCKSNWHKGWNWTSGFNKCAVGAACQPFHFYFHTPTVLC NKIWTHSYKVSNYSRGSGRCIQMWFDPAKGNPNEEVARFYAAAMSGAGPWAAWPFLLSLALML LWLLS (SEQ ID NO: 93) modFSHR atggctctgctgctggtttctctgctggccctgctgtctctcggctctggatgtcaccacagaatct gccactgcagcaaccgggtgttcctgtgccagaaaagcaaagtgaccgagatcctgagcgacctgca gcggaatgccatcgagctgagattcgtgctgaccaagctgcaagtgatccagaagggcgccttcagc ggcttcggcgacctggaaaagatcgagatcagccagaacaacgtgctggaagtgatcgaggcccacg tgttcagcaacctgcctaagctgcacgagatcagaatcgagaaggccaacaacctgctgtacatcaa ccccgaggccttccagaacttccccaacctgcagtacctgctgatctccaacaccggcatcaaacat ctgcccgacgtgcacaagatccacagcctgcagaaggtgctgctggacatccaggacaacatcaaca tccacacaatcgagcggaactacttcctgggcctgagcttcgagagcgtgatcctgtggctgaacaa gaacggcatccaagagatccacaactgcgccttcaatggcacccagctggacgagctgaacctgtcc gacaacaacaatctggaagaactgcccaacgacgtgttccacagagccagcggacctgtgatcctgg acatcagcagaaccagaatccactctctgcccagctacggcctggaaaacctgaagaagctgcgggc cagaagcacctacaatctgaaaaagctgcctacgctggaaaccctggtggccctgatggaagccagc ctgacataccctagccactgctgcgcctttgccaactggcggagacagatctctgagctgcacccca tctgcaacaagagcatcctgcggcaagaggtggactacatgacacaggccagaggccagagattcag cctggccgaggataacgagagcagctacagcagaggcttcgacatgacctacaccgagttcgactac gacctgtgcaacaaggtggtggacgtgacatgcagccccaagcctgatgccttcaatccctgcgagg acatcatgggctacaacatcctgagagtgctgatctggttcatcagcatcctggccatcaccgagaa catcatcgtgctggtcatcctgaccaccagccagtacaagctgaccgtgcctatgttcctgatgtgc aacctggccttcgccgatctgtgcatcggcatctacctgctgctgatcgccagcgtggacattcaca ccaagagccagtaccacaactacgccatcgactggcagacaggcgccggatgtgatgccgccggatt ctttacagtgttcgccagcgagctgtccgtgtacaccctgacagctatcaccctggaacggtggcac accatcacacacgctatgcagctggactgcaaagtgcacctgagacacagcgcctccgtgatggtta tgggctggatcttcgccttcgctgccgctctgttccccatctttggcatcagctcctacatgaaggt gtccatctatctgcccatggacatcgacagccctctgagccagctgtacgtgatgagtctgctggtg ctgaatgtgctggcctttgtggtcatctgcggctgctacatctatatctacctgacagtgcggaacc ccaacatcgtgtccagctccagcgacacccggatcgctaagagaatggccatgctgatcttcaccga ctttctgtgcatggcccctatcagcctgttcgccattagcgctagcctgaaggtgcccctgatcacc gtgtccaaggccaagattctgctggtcctgttctaccccatcaacagctgcgccaatcctttcctgt acgccatcttcaccaagaacttcaggcggaacttcttcatcctgctgagcaagcggggctgttacaa gatgcaggcccagatctaccggaccgagacactgtccaccgtgcacaacacacaccccagaaacggc cactgtagcagcgcccctagagtgacaaatggctccacctacatcctggtgccactgagccatctgg cccagaac (SEQ ID NO: 94) modFSHR MALLLVSLLALLSLGSGCHHRICHCSNRVFLCQKSKVTEILSDLQRNAIELRFVLTKLQVIQKGAFS GFGDLEKIEISQNNVLEVIEAHVFSNLPKLHEIRIEKANNLLYINPEAFQNFPNLQYLLISNTGIKH LPDVHKIHSLQKVLLDIQDNINIHTIERNYFLGLSFESVILWLNKNGIQEIHNCAFNGTQLDELNLS DNNNLEELPNDVFHRASGPVILDISRTRIHSLPSYGLENLKKLRARSTYNLKKLPTLETLVALMEAS LTYPSHCCAFANWRRQISELHPICNKSILRQEVDYMTQARGQRFSLAEDNESSYSRGFDMTYTEFDY DLCNKVVDVTCSPKPDAFNPCEDIMGYNILRVLIWFISILAITENIIVLVILTTSQYKLTVPMFLMC NLAFADLCIGIYLLLIASVDIHTKSQYHNYAIDWQTGAGCDAAGFFTVFASELSVYTLTAITLERWH TITHAMQLDCKVHLRHSASVMVMGWIFAFAAALFPIFGISSYMKVSIYLPMDIDSPLSQLYVMSLLV LNVLAFVVICGCYIYIYLTVRNPNIVSSSSDTRIAKRMAMLIFTDFLCMAPISLFAISASLKVPLIT VSKAKILLVLFYPINSCANPFLYAIFTKNFRRNFFILLSKRGCYKMQAQIYRTETLSTVHNTHPRNG HCSSAPRVTNGSTYILVPLSHLAQN (SEQ ID NO: 95) modMAGEA10 cccagggctcccaagagacagagatgcatgcccgaagaggacctgcagagccagagcgaaacacagg gactcgaaggtgctcaggctcctctggccgtggaagaagatgccagcagctctaccagcacctccag cagcttccctagcagctttccattcagctcctctagctctagcagcagctgttaccctctgatcccc agcacacccgagaaggtgttcgccgacgacgagacacctaatccactgcagtctgcccagatcgcct gcagcagtacactggtggttgctagcctgcctctggaccagtctgatgagggaagcagcagccagaa agaggaaagccctagcacactccaggtgctgcccgatagcgagagcctgcctagaagcgagatctac aagaaaatgaccgacctggtgcagttcctcctgttcaagtaccagatgaaggaacccatcaccaagg ccgaaatcctggaaagcgtgatcagaaactacgaggaccactttccactgctgttcagcgaggccag cgagtgcatgctgctcgtgtttagcatcgacgtgaagaaggtggaccccaccggccacagctttgtg ctggttacaagcctgggactgacctacgacggcatgctgtccgatgtgcagagcatgcctaagaccg gcatcctgatcctgattctgagcatcgtgttcatcgagggctactgcacccctgaggaagtgatttg ggaagccctgaacatgatgggcctgtacgatggcatggaacacctgatctacggcgagcccagaaaa ctgctgacccaggactgggtgcaagagaactacctggaataccggcagatgcccggcagcgatcctg ccagatatgagtttctgtggggccctagagcacatgccgagatccggaagatgagcctgctgaagtt cctggccaaagtgaacggcagcgacccaatcagcttcccactttggtacgaagaggccctgaaggac gaggaagagagagcccaggatagaatcgccaccaccgacgacacaacagccatggcctctgcctctt ctagcgccaccggcagctttagctaccccgag (SEQ ID NO: 96) modMAGEA10 PRAPKRQRCMPEEDLQSQSETQGLEGAQAPLAVEEDASSSTSTSSSFPSSFPFSSSSSSSSCYP LIPSTPEKVFADDETPNPLQSAQIACSSTLVVASLPLDQSDEGSSSQKEESPSTLQVLPDSESLPR SEIYKKMTDLVQFLLFKYQMKEPITKAEILESVIRNYEDHFPLLFSEASECMLLVFSIDVKKVDPTG HSFVLVTSLGLTYDGMLSDVQSMPKTGILILILSIVFIEGYCTPEEVIWEALNMMGLYDGMEHLIYG EPRKLLTQDWVQENYLEYRQMPGSDPARYEFLWGPRAHAEIRKMSLLKFLAKVNGSDPISFPLWYE EALKDEEERAQDRIATTDDTTAMASASSSATGSFSYPE (SEQ ID NO: 97) modPRAME atggaaagaagaaggctctggggcagcatccagagccggtacatcagcatgagcgtgtggacaagcc ctcggagactggtggaactggctggacagagcctgctgaaggatgaggccctggccattgctgctct ggaactgctgcctagagagctgttccctcctctgttcatggccgccttcgacggcagacacagccag acactgaaagccatggtgcaggcctggcctttcacctgtctgcctctgggagtgctgatgaagggcc agcatctgcacctggaaaccttcaaggccgtgctggatggcctggatgtgctgctggctcaagaagt gcggcctcggcgttggaaactgcaggttctggatctgctgaagaacagccaccaggatttctggacc gtttggagcggcaacagagccagcctgtacagctttcctgagcctgaagccgctcagcccatgacca agaaaagaaaggtggacggcctgagcaccgaggccgagcagccttttattcccgtggaagtgctggt ggacctgttcctgaaagaaggcgcctgcgacgagctgttcagctacctgaccgagaaagtgaagcag aagaagaacgtcctgcacctgtgctgcaagaagctgaagatctttgccatgcctatgcaggacatca agatgatcctgaagatggtgcagctggacagcatcgaggacctggaagtgacctgtacctggaagct gcccacactggccaagttctttagctacctgggccagatgatcaacctgcggagactgctgctgagc cacatccacgccagctcctacatcagccccgagaaagaggaacagtacatctcccagttcacctctc agtttctgagcctgcagtgtctgcaggccctgtacgtggacagcctgttcttcctgagaggcaggct ggaccagctgctgagacacgtgatgaaccctctggaaaccctgagcatcaccaactgcagactgctg gaaggcgacgtgatgcacctgtctcagagcccatctgtgtcccagctgagcgtgctgtctctgtctg gcgtgatgctgaccgatgtgtcccctgaacctctgcaggcactgctgaaaaaggccagcgccactct gcaggacctggtgtttgatgagtgcggcatcatggacgaccagctgtttgccctgctgccaagcctg agccactgtagccaactgaccacactgagcttctacggcaacagcatctacatctctgccctgcaga gcctcctgcagcacctgatcggactgagcaatctgacccacgtgctgtacccagtgctgctcgagag ctacgaggacatccacgtgaccctgcaccaagagagactggcctatctgcatgcccggctgagagaa ctgctgtgcgaactgggcagacccagcatggtttggctgagcgctaatctgtgccctcactgcggcg acagaaccttctacgaccccaagctgatcatgtgcccctgcttcatgcccaac (SEQ ID NO: 98) modPRAME MERRRLWGSIQSRYISMSVWTSPRRLVELAGQSLLKDEALAIAALELLPRELFPPLFMAAFDGRHS QTLKAMVQAWPFTCLPLGVLMKGQHLHLETFKAVLDGLDVLLAQEVRPRRWKLQVLDLLKNSHQ DFWTVWSGNRASLYSFPEPEAAQPMTKKRKVDGLSTEAEQPFIPVEVLVDLFLKEGACDELFSYL TEKVKQKKNVLHLCCKKLKIFAMPMQDIKMILKMVQLDSIEDLEVTCTWKLPTLAKFFSYLGQMINL RRLLLSHIHASSYISPEKEEQYISQFTSQFLSLQCLQALYVDSLFFLRGRLDQLLRHVMNPLETLSI TNCRLLEGDVMHLSQSPSVSQLSVLSLSGVMLTDVSPEPLQALLKKASATLQDLVFDECGIMDDQL FALLPSLSHCSQLTTLSFYGNSIYISALQSLLQHLIGLSNLTHVLYPVLLESYEDIHVTLHQERLAY LHARLRELLCELGRPSMVWLSANLCPHCGDRTFYDPKLIMCPCFMPN (SEQ ID NO: 99) modTBXT tctagccctggcacagagagcgccggaaagtccctgcagtacagagtggatcatctgctgagcgccg in tggaaaacgaactgcaggccggatctgagaagggcgatcctacagagcacgagctgagagtcggcct modPRAME_ ggaagagtctgagctgtggctgcggttcaaagaactgaccaacgagatgatcgtcaccaagaacggc TBXT agacggatgttccccgtgctgaaagtgaacgtgtccggactggaccccaacgccatgtatagctttc tgctggacttcgtggtggccgacaaccacagatggaaatacgtgaacggcgagtgggtgccaggcgg aaaacctcaactgcaagcccctagctgcgtgtacattcaccctgacagccccaatttcggcgcccac tggatgaaggcccctgtgtcctttagcaaagtcaagctgaccaacaagctgaacggcggaggccaga tcatgctgaactccctgcacaaatacgagcccagaatccacatcgtcagagtcggcggaccccagag aatgatcaccagccactgcttccccgagacacagtttatcgccgtgaccgcctaccagaacgaggaa atcacaaccctgaagatcaagtacaaccccttcgccaaggccttcctggacgccaaagagcggagcg accacaaagaaatgatcaaagagcccggcgactcccagcagccaggctattctcaatggggatggct gctgccaggcaccagcacattgtgccctccagccaatcctcacagccagtttggaggcgctctgtcc ctgagcagcacacacagctacgacagataccccacactgcggagccacagaagcagcccctatcctt ctccttacgctcaccggaacaacagccccacctacagcgataatagccccgcctgtctgagcatgct gcagtcccacgataattggagcagcctgcggatgcctgctcacccttctatgctgcccgtgtctcac aacgcctctccacctacaagcagctctcagtaccccagcctttggagcgtgtccaatggcgctgtga cactgggatctcaggccgctgctgtgtctaatggactgggagcccagttcttcagaggcagccctgc tcactacacccctctgacacatcctgtgtcagccccttctagcagcggcttccctatgtacaaaggc gccgctgccgccaccgatatcgtggattctcagtacgatgccgccgctcagggccacctgattgcat cttggacacctgtgtctccaccttccatg (SEQ ID NO: 100) HPV16 E6 atgcaccagaaacggaccgccatgtttcaggaccctcaagagaggcccagaaagctgcctcacctgt gtaccgagctgcagaccaccatccacgacatcatcctggaatgcgtgtactgcaagcagcagctcct gcggagagaggtgtacgatttcgccttccgggacctgtgcatcgtgtacagagatggcaacccctac gccgtgtgcaacaagtgcctgaagttctacagcaagatcagcgagtaccgctactactgctacagcg tgtacggcaccacactggaacagcagtacaacaagcccctgtgcgacctgctgatccggtgcatcaa ctgccagaaacctctgtgccccgaggaaaagcagcggcacctggacaagaagcagcggttccacaac atcagaggccggtggaccggcagatgcatgagctgttgtcggagcagccggaccagaagagagacac agctg (SEQ ID NO: 101) HPV16 E6 MHQKRTAMFQDPQERPRKLPHLCTELQTTIHDIILECVYCKQQLLRREVYDFAFRDLCIVYRDGNP YAVCNKCLKFYSKISEYRYYCYSVYGTTLEQQYNKPLCDLLIRCINCQKPLCPEEKQRHLDKKQRF HNIRGRWTGRCMSCCRSSRTRRETQL (SEQ ID NO: 102) HPV16 E7 cacggcgatacccctacactgcacgagtacatgctggacctgcagcctgagacaaccgacctgtact gctacgagcagctgaacgacagcagcgaggaagaggacgagattgacggacctgccggacaggccga acctgatagagcccactacaatatcgtgaccttctgctgcaagtgcaacagcaccctgagactgtgc gtgcagagcacccacgtggacatcagaaccctggaagatctgctgatgggcaccctgggaatcgtgt gccctatctgcagccagaagcct (SEQ ID NO: 103) HPV16 E7 HGDTPTLHEYMLDLQPETTDLYCYEQLNDSSEEEDEIDGPAGQAEPDRAHYNIVTFCCKCNSTLR LCVQSTHVDIRTLEDLLMGTLGIVCPICSQKP (SEQ ID NO: 104) HPV18 E6 gccagattcgacgaccccaccagaaggccttacaagctgcctgatctgtgcactgaactgaacacca gcctgcaggacatcgagattacctgtgtgtattgcaagaccgtgctggaactgaccgaggtgttcga gtttgcctttaaggacctgttcgtggtgtaccgggacagcattcctcacgccgcctgccacaagtgc atcgacttctacagccggatcagagagctgcggcactacagcgattctgtgtacggggacaccctgg aaaagctgaccaacaccggcctgtacaacctgctcatcagatgcctgcggtgtcagaagcccctgaa tcctgccgagaagctgagacacctgaacgagaagcggagattccacaatatcgccggccactacaga ggccagtgccacagctgttgcaaccgggccagacaagagagactgcagagaaggcgggaaacccaag tg (SEQ ID NO: 105) HPV18 E6 ARFDDPTRRPYKLPDLCTELNTSLQDIEITCVYCKTVLELTEVFEFAFKDLFVVYRDSIPHAACHKC IDFYSRIRELRHYSDSVYGDTLEKLTNTGLYNLLIRCLRCQKPLNPAEKLRHLNEKRRFHNIAGHYR GQCHSCCNRARQERLQRRRETQV (SEQ ID NO: 106) HPV18 E7 cacggccctaaggccacactgcaggatatcgtgctgcacctggaacctcagaacgagatccccgtgg atctgctgtgccatgagcagctgtccgactccaaagaggaaaacgacgaaatcgacggcgtgaacca ccagcatctgcctgccagaagggccgaaccacagagacacaccatgctgtgcatgtgttgcaagtgc gaggcccggattgagctggtggtggaaagctctgccgacgacctgagagccttccagcagctgttcc tgaacaccctgagcttcgtgtgtccttggtgcgccagccagcag (SEQ ID NO: 107) HPV18 E7 HGPKATLQDIVLHLEPQNEIPVDLLCHEQLSDSKEENDEIDGVNHQHLPARRAEPQRHTMLCMCC KCEARIELVVESSADDLRAFQQLFLNTLSFVCPWCASQQ (SEQ ID NO: 108) modClaudin gccgtgacagcctgtcagagcctgggctttgtggtgtccctgatcgagatcgtgggcatcattgccg 18  ctacctgcatggaccagtggtctacccaggacctgtacaacaaccctgtgaccgccgtgttcaacta (CLDN18) ccaaggcctgtggcacagctgcatgagagagagcagcggcttcaccgagtgcagaggctacttcacc ctgctggaactgcctgccatgctgcaggctgtgcaggcccttatgatcgtgggaattgtgctgggag ccatcggcctgctggtgtccattttcgccctgaagtgcatccggatcggcagcatggaagatagcgc caaggccaacatgaccctgaccagcggcatcatgttcatcgtgtccggcctgtgcgccattgctggc gtgtccgtgtttgccaatatgctcgtgaccaacttctggctgagcaccgccaacatgtacaccggca tgggcgagatggtgcagaccgtgcagacacggtacacatttggcgccgctctgtttgtcggatgggt tgcaggcggactgacactgattggcggcgtgatgatgtgtatcgcctgcagaggactggcccctgag gaaacaaactacaaggccgtgtactaccacgcctccggacacagcgtggcatacaaacctggcggct ttaaggccagcaccggcttcggcagcaacaccaagaacaagaagatctacgacggcggagcacacac cgaggatgaggtgcagagctaccccagcaagcacgactacgtg (SEQ ID NO: 109) modClaudin AVTACQSLGFVVSLIEIVGIIAATCMDQWSTQDLYNNPVTAVFNYQGLWHSCMRESSGFTECRGY 18  FTLLELPAMLQAVQALMIVGIVLGAIGLLVSIFALKCIRIGSMEDSAKANMTLTSGIMFIVSGLCAI (CLDN18) AGVSVFANMLVTNFWLSTANMYTGMGEMVQTVQTRYTFGAALFVWVAGGLTLIGGVMMCIACRG LAPEETNYKAVYYHASGHSVAYKPGGFKASTGFGSNTKNKKIYDGGAHTEDEVQSYPSKHDYV (SEQ ID NO: 110) modLY6K gctctgctggcactgctgctggtggtggctttgcctagagtgtggaccgacgccaatctgacagtgc ggcagagagatcctgaggacagccagagaaccgacgacggcgataacagagtgtggtgccacgtgtg cgagcgcgagaataccttcgagtgtcagaaccccagacggtgcaagtggaccgagccttactgtgtg atcgccgccgtgaaaatcttcccacggttcttcatggtggtcaagcagtgcagcgctggctgtgccg ctatggaaagacccaagcctgaggaaaagcggttcctgctcgaggaacccatgctgttcttctacct gaagtgctgcaaaatctgctactgcaacctggaaggccctcctatcaacagcagcgtcctgaaagaa tatgccggcagcatgggcgagtcttgtggtggactgtggctggccattctgctgctgcttgcctcta ttgccgcctctctgagcctgagc (SEQ ID NO: 111) modLY6K ALLALLLVVALPRVWTDANLTVRQRDPEDSQRTDDGDNRVWCHVCERENTFECQNPRRCKWTE PYCVIAAVKIFPRFFMWKQCSAGCAAMERPKPEEKRFLLEEPMLFFYLKCCKICYCNLEGPPINS SVLKEYAGSMGESCGGLWLAILLLLASIAASLSLS (SEQ ID NO: 112) modBORIS gccgccaccgagatcagcgtgctgagcgagcagttcaccaagatcaaagaattgaagctgatgctcg in agaaggggctgaagaaagaagagaaggacggcgtctgccgcgagaagaatcacagaagccctagcga modTBXT_ gctggaagcccagagaacatctggcgccttccaggacagcatcctggaagaagaggtggaactggtt BORIS ctggcccctctggaagagagcaagaagtacatcctgacactgcagaccgtgcacttcacctctgaag ccgtgcagctccaggacatgagcctgctgtctatccagcagcaagagggcgtgcaggttgtggttca gcaacctggacctggactgctctggctgcaagagggacctagacagtccctgcagcagtgtgtggcc atcagcatccagcaagagctgtatagccctcaagagatggaagtgctgcagtttcacgccctcgaag agaacgtgatggtggccatcgaggacagcaagctggctgtgtctctggccgaaacaaccggcctgat caagctggaagaggaacaagagaagaaccagctgctggccgagaaaacaaaaaagcaactgttcttc gtggaaaccatgagcggcgacgagagaagcgacgagatcgtgctgacagtgtccaacagcaacgtgg aagaacaagaggaccagcctaccgcctgtcaggccgatgccgagaaagccaagtttaccaagaacca gagaaagaccaagggcgccaagggcaccttccactgcaacgtgtgcatgttcaccagcagccggatg agcagcttcaactgccacatgaagacccacaccagcgagaagccccatctgtgtcacctgtgcctga aaaccttccggacagtgacactgctgtggaactatgtgaacacccacacaggcacccggccttacaa gtgcaacgactgcaacatggccttcgtgaccagcggagaactcgtgcggcacagaagatacaagcac acccacgagaaacccttcaagtgcagcatgtgcaaatacgcatccatggaagcctccaagctgaagt gccacgtgcgctctcacacaggcgagcaccctttccagtgctgtcagtgtagctacgccagccggga cacctataagctgaagcggcacatgagaacccactctggcgaaaagccctacgagtgccacatctgc cacaccagattcacccagagcggcaccatgaagattcacatcctgcagaaacacggcaagaacgtgc ccaagtaccagtgtcctcactgcgccaccattatcgccagaaagtccgacctgcgggtgcacatgag gaatctgcacgcctattctgccgccgagctgaaatgcagatactgcagcgccgtgttccacaagaga tacgccctgatccagcaccagaaaacccacaagaacgagaagcggtttaagtgcaagcactgcagct acgcctgcaagcaagagcgccacatgatcgcccacatccacacacacaccggggagaagccttttac ctgcctgagctgcaacaagtgcttccggcagaaacagctgctcaacgcccacttcagaaagtaccac gacgccaacttcatccccaccgtgtacaagtgctccaagtgcggcaagggcttcagccggtggatca atctgcaccggcacctggaaaagtgcgagtctggcgaagccaagtctgccgcctctggcaagggcag aagaacccggaagagaaagcagaccatcctgaaagaggccaccaagagccagaaagaagccgccaag cgctggaaagaggctgccaacggcgacgaagctgctgccgaagaagccagcacaacaaagggcgaac agttccccgaagagatgttccctgtggcctgcagagaaaccacagccagagtgaagcaagaggtcga ccagggcgtgacctgcgagatgctgctgaacaccatggacaag (SEQ ID NO: 113) modFAP atgaagaccctggtcaagatcgtgtttggcgtggccacatctgccgtgctggctctgctggtcatgt gcattgtgctgcaccccagcagagtgcacaacagcgaagagaacaccatgcgggccctgacactgaa ggacatcctgaacgtgaccttcagctacaagatattcttccccaactggatctccggccaagagtac ctgcaccagagcgccgacaacaacatcgtgctgtacaacatcgagacaggccagagctacaccatca tgagcaaccggaccatgaagtccgtgaacgccagcaactacggactgagccccgattggcagttcgt gtacctggaaagcgactacagcaagctgtggcggtacagctacaccgccacctactacatctacgac ctgagcaacggcgagttcgtgaagggcaacgagctgccccatcctatccagtacctgtgttggagcc ctgtgggctccaagctggcctacgtgtaccagaacaacatctacctgaagcagcggcctggcgaccc tccattccagatcaccttcaacggcagagagaacaagatctttaacggcatccccgactgggtgtac gaggaagagatgctggccaccaaatacgccctgtggtggtcccctaacggcaagtttctggcctatg ccgacttcaacgacacagacatccccgtgatcgcctacagctactacggcaatgagcagtaccccag gaccatcaacatcagctaccccaaagccggcgctaagaaccctgtcgtgcggatcttcatcatcgac accacctatcctgtgtacgtgggccctcaagaggtgccagtgcctgccatgattgccagcagcgact actacttcagctggctgacctgggtcaccgacgagcgagtttgtctgcagtggctgaagcgggtgca gaacatcagcgtgctgagcatctgcgacttcagaaaggactggcagacatgggactgccccaacaca cagcagcacatcgaggaaagcagaaccggctgggctggcggcttctttgtgtctacccctgtgttca gctacgacgccatcctgtactataagatcttcagcgacaaggacggctacaagcacatccactacat caagtacaccgtcgagaacgtgatccagattaccagcggcaagtgggaagccatcaatatcttcaga gtgatccagtacagcctgttctacagcagcaacgagttcgaggaataccccggcagacggaacatct acagaatcagcatcggcagctacccgcctagcaagaaatgcgtgacctgccacctgagaaaagagcg gtgccagtactacacagccagcttctccaactacgccaagtactacgccctcgtgtgttacggccct ggcatccctatcagcacactgcacgatggcagaaccgaccaagagatcaagatcctggaagaaaaca aagagctggaaaacgccctgaagaacatccagctgcctaaagaggaaatcaagaagctggaagtcga cgagatcaccctgtggtacaagatgatcctgcctcctcagttcgaccggtccaagaagtaccctctg ctgatccaggtgtacggcggaccttgttctcagtctgtgcgctccgtgttcgccgtgaattggatca gctatctggccagcaaagaaggcatggttatcgccctggtggacggcagaggcacagcttttcaagg cgacaagctgctgtacgccgtgtatcagaaactgggcgtgtacgaagtggaagatcagatcaccgcc gtgcggaagttcatcgagatgggcttcatcgacgagaagcggatcgccatctggggctggtcttacg gcggctatattagctctctggccctggcctctggcaccggcctgtttaagtgtggaattgccgtggc tcccgtgtccagctgggagtactataccagcgtgtacaccgagcggttcatgggcctgcctaccaag gacgacaacctggaacactacaagaactctaccgtgatggccagagccgagtacttccggaacgtgg actacctgctgattcacggcaccgccgacgacaacgtgcacttccaaaacagcgcccagatcgctaa ggccctcgtgaatgcccaggtggactttcaggccatgtggtacagcgaccagaaccacggactgtct ggcctgagcaccaaccacctgtacacccacatgacccactttctgaaacagtgcttcagcctgagcg ac (SEQ ID NO: 114) modFAP MKTLVKIVFGVATSAVLALLVMCIVLHPSRVHNSEENTMRALTLKDILNVTFSYKIFFPNWISGQEY LHQSADNNIVLYNIETGQSYTIMSNRTMKSVNASNYGLSPDWQFVYLESDYSKLWRYSYTATYYIY DLSNGEFVKGNELPHPIQYLCWSPVGSKLAYVYQNNIYLKQRPGDPPFQITFNGRENKIFNGIPDW VYEEEMLATKYALWWSPNGKFLAYADFNDTDIPVIAYSYYGNEQYPRTINISYPKAGAKNPVVRIFI IDTTYPVYVGPQEVPVPAMIASSDYYFSWLTWVTDERVCLQWLKRVQNISVLSICDFRKDWQTWD CPNTQQHIEESRTGWAGGFFVSTPVFSYDAILYYKIFSDKDGYKHIHYIKYTVENVIQITSGKWEAI NIFRVIQYSLFYSSNEFEEYPGRRNIYRISIGSYPPSKKCVTCHLRKERCQYYTASFSNYAKYYALV CYGPGIPISTLHDGRTDQEIKILEENKELENALKNIQLPKEEIKKLEVDEITLWYKMILPPQFDRSK KYPLLIQVYGGPCSQSVRSVFAVNWISYLASKEGMVIALVDGRGTAFQGDKLLYAVYQKLGVYEVED QITAVRKFIEMGFIDEKRIAIWGWSYGGYISSLALASGTGLFKCGIAVAPVSSWEYYTSVYTERFMG LPTKDDNLEHYKNSTVMARAEYFRNVDYLLIHGTADDNVHFQNSAQIAKALVNAQVDFQAMWYSD QNHGLSGLSTNHLYTHMTHFLKQCFSLSD (SEQ ID NO: 115) modClaudin  gccgtcacagcctgtcagagcctgggctttgtggtgtccctgatcgagatcgtgggcatcattgccg 18 ctacctgcatggaccagtggtctacccaggacctgtataacaaccccgtgaccgccgtgttcaacta in modFAP_ ccaaggcctgtggcacagctgcatgagagagagcagcggcttcaccgagtgcaggggctactttacc Claudin 18 ctgctggaactgccagccatgctgcaggctgtgcaggcccttatgatcgtgggaattgtgctgggcg ccatcggcctgctggtgtctatttttgccctgaagtgcatccggatcggcagcatggaagatagcgc caaggccaacatgaccctgacctccggcatcatgttcatcgtgtccggcctgtgtgccattgcaggc gtgtccgtgtttgccaatatgctcgtgaccaacttctggctgtccaccgccaacatgtacaccggca tgggcgagatggtgcagaccgtgcagacacggtacacatttggcgccgctctgtttgtcggatgggt tgcaggcggactgactctgattggcggcgtgatgatgtgtatcgcctgcagaggactggcccctgag gaaacaaactacaaggccgtgtactaccacgccagcggacacagcgtggcatacaaaccaggcggct ttaaggccagcacaggcttcggcagcaacaccaagaacaagaagatctacgacggcggagcccatac cgaggatgaggtgcagagctaccctagcaagcacgactacgtg (SEQ ID NO: 116)

In some embodiments, provided herein is a vaccine composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of cells from at least two cancer cell lines, wherein each cell line or a combination of the cell lines expresses at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 of the TAAs of Tables 7-23. In other embodiments, the TAAs in Tables 7-23 are modified to include one or more NSMs as described herein. In some embodiments, at least one cell line is modified to increase production of at least 1, 2, or 3 immunostimulatory factors, e.g., immunostimulatory factors from Table 4. In some embodiments, a vaccine composition is provided comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the cells from at least one cancer cell line, wherein each cell line or combination of cell lines is modified to reduce at least 1, 2, or 3 immunosuppressive factors, e.g., immunosuppressive factors from Table 6. In some embodiments, a vaccine composition is provided comprising two cocktails, wherein each cocktail comprises three cell lines modified to express 1, 2, or 3 immunostimulatory factors and to inhibit or reduce expression of 1, 2, or 3 immunosuppressive factors, and wherein each cell line expresses at least 10 TAAs or TAAs comprising one or more NSMs.

Methods and assays for determining the presence or expression level of a TAA in a cell line according to the disclosure or in a tumor from a subject are known in the art. By way of example, Warburg-Christian method, Lowry Assay, Bradford Assay, spectrometry methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS), immunoblotting and antibody-based techniques such as western blot, ELISA, immunoelectrophoresis, protein immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry, and protein immunostaining are all contemplated by the present disclosure.

The antigen repertoire displayed by a patient's tumor can be evaluated in some embodiments in a biopsy specimen using next generation sequencing and antibody-based approaches. Similarly, in some embodiments, the antigen repertoire of potential metastatic lesions can be evaluated using the same techniques to determine antigens expressed by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Assessment of antigen expression in tumor biopsies and CTCs can be representative of a subset of antigens expressed. In some embodiments, a subset of the antigens expressed by a patient's primary tumor and/or CTCs are identified and, as described herein, informs the selection of cell lines to be included in the vaccine composition in order to provide the best possible match to the antigens expressed in a patient's tumor and/or metastatic lesions.

Embodiments of the present disclosure provides compositions of cell lines that (i) are modified as described herein and (ii) express a sufficient number and amount of TAAs such that, when administered to a patient afflicted with a cancer, cancers, or cancerous tumor(s), a TAA-specific immune response is generated.

Methods of Stimulating an Immune Response and Methods of Treatment

The vaccine compositions described herein may be administered to a subject in need thereof. Provided herein are methods for inducing an immune response in a subject, which involve administering to a subject an immunologically effective amount of the genetically modified cells. Also provided are methods for preventing or treating a tumor in a subject by administering an anti-tumor effective amount of the vaccine compositions described herein. Such compositions and methods may be effective to prolong the survival of the subject.

According to various embodiments, administration of any one of the vaccine compositions provided herein can increase pro-inflammatory cytokine production (e.g., IFNγ secretion) by leukocytes. In some embodiments, administration of any one of the vaccine compositions provided herein can increase pro-inflammatory cytokine production (e.g., IFNγ secretion) by leukocytes by at least 1.5-fold, 1.6-fold, 1.75-fold, 2-fold, 2.5-fold, 3.0-fold, 3.5-fold, 4.0-fold, 4.5-fold, 5.0-fold or more. In other embodiments, the IFNγ production is increased by approximately 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, or 25-fold or higher compared to unmodified cancer cell lines. Without being bound to any theory or mechanism, the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production (e.g., IFNγ secretion) by leukocytes is a result of either indirect or direct interaction with the vaccine composition.

In some embodiments, administration of any one of the vaccine compositions provided herein comprising one or more modified cell lines as described herein can increase the uptake of cells of the vaccine composition by phagocytic cells, e.g., by at least 1.1-fold, 1.2-fold, 1.3-fold, 1.4-fold, 1.5-fold, 2-fold, 2.5-fold or more, as compared to a composition that does not comprise modified cells.

In some embodiments, the vaccine composition is provided to a subject by an intradermal injection. Without being bound to any theory or mechanism, the intradermal injection, in at least some embodiments, generates a localized inflammatory response recruiting immune cells to the injection site. Following administration of the vaccine, antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the skin, such as Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal dendritic cells (DCs), uptake the vaccine cell line components by phagocytosis and then migrate through the dermis to the draining lymph node. At the draining lymph node, DCs or LCs that have phagocytized the vaccine cell line components are expected to prime naïve T cells and B cells. Priming of naïve T and B cells is expected to initiate an adaptive immune response to tumor associated antigens (TAAs) expressed by the vaccine cell line components. Certain TAAs expressed by the vaccine cell line components are also expressed by the patient's tumor. Expansion of antigen specific T cells at the draining lymph node and trafficking of these T cells to the tumor microenvironment (TME) is expected to generate a vaccine-induced anti-tumor response.

According to various embodiments, immunogenicity of the allogenic vaccine composition can be further enhanced through genetic modifications that reduce expression of immunosuppressive factors while increasing the expression or secretion of immunostimulatory signals. Modulation of these factors aims to enhance the uptake vaccine cell line components by LCs and DCs in the dermis, trafficking of DCs and LCs to the draining lymph node, T cell and B cell priming in the draining lymph node, and, thereby resulting in more potent anti-tumor responses.

In some embodiments, the breadth of TAAs targeted in the vaccine composition can be increased through the inclusion of multiple cell lines. For example, different histological subsets within a certain tumor type tend to express different TAA subsets. As a further example, in NSCLC, adenocarcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas express different antigens. The magnitude and breadth of the adaptive immune response induced by the vaccine composition can, according to some embodiments of the disclosure, be enhanced through the inclusion of additional cell lines expressing the same or different immunostimulatory factors. For example, expression of an immunostimulatory factor, such as IL-12, by one cell line within a cocktail of three cell lines can act locally to enhance the immune responses to all cell lines delivered into the same site. The expression of an immunostimulatory factor by more than one cell line within a cocktail, such as GM-CSF, can increase the amount of the immunostimulatory factor in the injection site, thereby enhancing the immune responses induced to all components of the cocktail. The degree of HLA mismatch present within a vaccine cocktail may further enhance the immune responses induced by that cocktail.

As described herein, in various embodiments, a method of stimulating an immune response specific to at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 or more TAAs in a subject is provided comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a vaccine composition comprising modified cancer cell lines.

An “immune response” is a response of a cell of the immune system, such as a B cell, T cell, or monocyte, to a stimulus, such as a cell or antigen (e.g., formulated as an antigenic composition or a vaccine). An immune response can be a B cell response, which results in the production of specific antibodies, such as antigen specific neutralizing antibodies. An immune response can also be a T cell response, such as a CD4+ response or a CD8+ response. B cell and T cell responses are aspects of a “cellular” immune response. An immune response can also be a “humoral” immune response, which is mediated by antibodies. In some cases, the response is specific for a particular antigen (that is, an “antigen specific response”), such as one or more TAAs, and this specificity can include the production of antigen specific antibodies and/or production of a cytokine such as interferon gamma which is a key cytokine involved in the generation of a Th1 T cell response and measurable by ELISpot and flow cytometry.

Vaccine efficacy can be tested by measuring the T cell response CD4+ and CD8+ after immunization, using flow cytometry (FACS) analysis, ELISpot assay, or other method known in the art. Exposure of a subject to an immunogenic stimulus, such as a cell or antigen (e.g., formulated as an antigenic composition or vaccine), elicits a primary immune response specific for the stimulus, that is, the exposure “primes” the immune response. A subsequent exposure, e.g., by immunization, to the stimulus can increase or “boost” the magnitude (or duration, or both) of the specific immune response. Thus, “boosting” a preexisting immune response by administering an antigenic composition increases the magnitude of an antigen (or cell) specific response, (e.g., by increasing antibody titer and/or affinity, by increasing the frequency of antigen specific B or T cells, by inducing maturation effector function, or a combination thereof).

The immune responses that are monitored/assayed or stimulated by the methods described herein include, but not limited to: (a) antigen specific or vaccine specific IgG antibodies; (b) changes in serum cytokine levels that may include and is not limited to: IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-20, IL-22, TNFα, IFNγ, TGFβ, CCLS, CXCL10; (c) IFNγ responses determined by ELISpot for CD4 and CD8 T cell vaccine and antigen specific responses; (d) changes in IFNγ responses to TAA or vaccine cell components; (e) increased T cell production of intracellular cytokines in response to antigen stimulation: IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-2 and indicators of cytolytic potential: Granzyme A, Granzyme B, Perforin, and CD107a; (f) decreased levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs), mononuclear monocyte derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs), and polymorphonuclear derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs); (g) decreased levels of circulating tumor cells (CTCs); (h) neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR); (i) changes in immune infiltrate in the TME; and (j) dendritic cell maturation.

Assays for determining the immune responses are described herein and well known in the art. DC maturation can be assessed, for example, by assaying for the presence of DC maturation markers such as CD80, CD83, CD86, and MHC II. (See Dudek, A., et al., Front. Immunol., 4:438 (2013)). Antigen specific or vaccine specific IgG antibodies can be assessed by ELISA or flow cytometry. Serum cytokine levels can be measured using a multiplex approach such as Luminex or Meso Scale Discovery Electrochemiluminescence (MSD). T cell activation and changes in lymphocyte populations can be measured by flow cytometry. CTCs can be measured in PBMCs using a RT-PCR based approach. The NLR and PLR ratios can be determined using standard complete blood count (CBC) chemistry panels. Changes in immune infiltrate in the TME can be assessed by flow cytometry, tumor biopsy and next-generation sequencing (NGS), or positron emission tomography (PET) scan of a subject.

Given the overlap in TAA expression between cancers and tumors of different types, the present disclosure provides, in certain embodiments, compositions that can treat multiple different cancers. For example, one vaccine composition comprising two cocktails of three cell lines each may be administered to a subject suffering from two or more types of cancers and said vaccine composition is effective at treating both, additional or all types of cancers. In exemplary embodiments, and in consideration of the TAA expression profile, the same vaccine composition comprising modified cancer cell lines is used to treat prostate cancer and testicular cancer, gastric and esophageal cancer, or endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer in the same patient (or different patients). TAA overlap can also occur within subsets of hot tumors or cold tumors. For example, TAA overlap occurs in GBM and SCLC, both considered cold tumors. Exemplary TAAs included in embodiments of the vaccine composition include GP100, MAGE-A1, MAGE-A4, MAGE-A10, Sart-1, Sart-3, Trp-1, and Sox2. In some embodiments, cell lines included in the vaccine composition can be selected from two tumor types of similar immune landscape to treat one or both of the tumor types in the same individual.

As used herein, changes in or “increased production” of, for example a cytokine such as IFNγ, refers to a change or increase above a control or baseline level of production/secretion/expression and that is indicative of an immunostimulatory response to an antigen or vaccine component.

Combination Treatments and Regimens

Formulations, Adjuvants, and Additional Therapeutic Agents

The compositions described herein may be formulated as pharmaceutical compositions. The term “pharmaceutically acceptable” as used herein refers to a pharmaceutically acceptable material, composition, or vehicle, such as a liquid or solid filler, diluent, excipient, solvent, or encapsulating material. Each component must be “pharmaceutically acceptable” in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of a pharmaceutical formulation. It must also be suitable for use in contact with tissue, organs or other human component without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, immunogenicity, or other problems or complications, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio. (See Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 21st Edition; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, Pa., 2005; Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients, 5th Edition; Rowe et al., Eds., The Pharmaceutical Press and the American Pharmaceutical Association: 2005; and Handbook of Pharmaceutical Additives, 3rd Edition; Ash and Ash Eds., Gower Publishing Company: 2007; Pharmaceutical Preformulation and Formulation, Gibson Ed., CRC Press LLC: Boca Raton, Fla., 2004)).

Embodiments of the pharmaceutical composition of the disclosure is formulated to be compatible with its intended route of administration (i.e., parenteral, intravenous, intra-arterial, intradermal, subcutaneous, oral, inhalation, transdermal, topical, intratumoral, transmucosal, intraperitoneal or intra-pleural, and/or rectal administration). Solutions or suspensions used for parenteral, intradermal, or subcutaneous application can include the following components: a sterile diluent such as water, saline solution, fixed oils, polyethylene glycols, glycerine, propylene glycol or other synthetic solvents; dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); antibacterial agents such as benzyl alcohol or methyl parabens; antioxidants such as ascorbic acid or sodium bisulfite; chelating agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); buffers such as acetates, citrates or phosphates, and agents for the adjustment of tonicity such as sodium chloride or dextrose. The pH can be adjusted with acids or bases, such as hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide. The parenteral preparation can be enclosed in ampoules, disposable syringes, or one or more vials comprising glass or polymer (e.g., polypropylene). The term “vial” as used herein means any kind of vessel, container, tube, bottle, or the like that is adapted to store embodiments of the vaccine composition as described herein.

In some embodiments, the composition further comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The term “carrier” as used herein encompasses diluents, excipients, adjuvants, and combinations thereof. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are well known in the art (See Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 21st Edition). Exemplary “diluents” include sterile liquids such as sterile water, saline solutions, and buffers (e.g., phosphate, tris, borate, succinate, or histidine). Exemplary “excipients” are inert substances that may enhance vaccine stability and include but are not limited to polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol), carbohydrates (e.g., starch, glucose, lactose, sucrose, or cellulose), and alcohols (e.g., glycerol, sorbitol, or xylitol).

In various embodiments, the vaccine compositions and cell line components thereof are sterile and fluid to the extent that the compositions and/or cell line components can be loaded into one or more syringes. In various embodiments, the compositions are stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage and preserved against the contaminating action of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. In some embodiments, the carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (e.g., glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyethylene glycol, and the like), and suitable mixtures thereof. The proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of a coating such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersion, by the use of surfactants, and by other means known to one of skill in the art. Prevention of the action of microorganisms can be achieved by various antibacterial and antifungal agents, for example, parabens, chlorobutanol, phenol, ascorbic acid, thimerosal, and the like. In some embodiments, it may be desirable to include isotonic agents, for example, sugars, polyalcohols such as manitol, sorbitol, and/or sodium chloride in the composition. In some embodiments, prolonged absorption of the injectable compositions can be brought about by including in the composition an agent that delays absorption, for example, aluminum monostearate and gelatin.

In some embodiments, sterile injectable solutions can be prepared by incorporating the active compound(s) in the required amount(s) in an appropriate solvent with one or a combination of ingredients enumerated above, as required, followed by filtered sterilization. In certain embodiments, dispersions are prepared by incorporating the active compound into a sterile vehicle that contains a basic dispersion medium and the required other ingredients from those enumerated herein. In the case of sterile powders for the preparation of sterile injectable solutions, embodiments of methods of preparation include vacuum drying and freeze-drying that yield a powder of the active ingredient plus any additional desired ingredient from a previously sterile-filtered solution thereof.

The innate immune system comprises cells that provide defense in a non-specific manner to infection by other organisms. Innate immunity in a subject is an immediate defense, but it is not long-lasting or protective against future challenges. Immune system cells that generally have a role in innate immunity are phagocytic, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. The innate immune system interacts with the adaptive (also called acquired) immune system in a variety of ways.

In some embodiments, the vaccine compositions alone activate an immune response (i.e., an innate immune response, an adaptive immune response, and/or other immune response). In some embodiments, one or more adjuvants are optionally included in the vaccine composition or are administered concurrently or strategically in relation to the vaccine composition, to provide an agent(s) that supports activation of innate immunity in order to enhance the effectiveness of the vaccine composition. An “adjuvant” as used herein is an “agent” or substance incorporated into the vaccine composition or administered simultaneously or at a selected time point or manner relative to the administration of the vaccine composition. In some embodiments, the adjuvant is a small molecule, chemical composition, or therapeutic protein such as a cytokine or checkpoint inhibitor. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain how different agents function (e.g., antigen depots, activators of dendritic cells, macrophages). An agent may act to enhance an acquired immune response in various ways and many types of agents can activate innate immunity. Organisms, like bacteria and viruses, can activate innate immunity, as can components of organisms, chemicals such as 2′-5′ oligo A, bacterial endotoxins, RNA duplexes, single stranded RNA and other compositions. Many of the agents act through a family of molecules referred to herein as “toll-like receptors” (TLRs). Engaging a TLR can also lead to production of cytokines and chemokines and activation and maturation of dendritic cells, components involved in development of acquired immunity. The TLR family can respond to a variety of agents, including lipoprotein, peptidoglycan, flagellin, imidazoquinolines, CpG DNA, lipopolysaccharide and double stranded RNA. These types of agents are sometimes called pathogen (or microbe)-associated molecular patterns. In some embodiments, the adjuvant is a TLR4 agonist.

One adjuvant that in some embodiments may be used in the vaccine compositions is a monoacid lipid A (MALA) type molecule. An exemplary MALA is MPL® adjuvant as described in, e.g., Ulrich J. T. and Myers, K. R., Chapter 21 in Vaccine Design, the Subunit and Adjuvant Approach, Powell, M. F. and Newman, M. J., eds. Plenum Press, NY (1995).

In other embodiments, the adjuvant may be “alum”, where this term refers to aluminum salts, such as aluminum phosphate and aluminum hydroxide.

In some embodiments, the adjuvant may be an emulsion having vaccine adjuvant properties. Such emulsions include oil-in-water emulsions. Incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) is one such adjuvant. Another suitable oil-in-water emulsion is MF-59™ adjuvant which contains squalene, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (also known as Tween® 80 surfactant) and sorbitan trioleate. Other suitable emulsion adjuvants are Montanide™ adjuvants (Seppic Inc., Fairfield N.J.) including Montanide™ ISA 50V which is a mineral oil-based adjuvant, Montanide™ ISA 206, and Montanide™ IMS 1312. While mineral oil may be present in the adjuvant, in one embodiment, the oil component(s) of the compositions of the present disclosure are all metabolizable oils.

In some embodiments, the adjuvant may be AS02™ adjuvant or ASO4™ adjuvant. AS02™ adjuvant is an oil-in-water emulsion that contains both MPL™ adjuvant and QS-21™ adjuvant (a saponin adjuvant discussed elsewhere herein). ASO4™ adjuvant contains MPL™ adjuvant and alum. The adjuvant may be Matrix-M™ adjuvant. The adjuvant may be a saponin such as those derived from the bark of the Quillaja saponaria tree species, or a modified saponin, see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,057,540; 5,273,965; 5,352,449; 5,443,829; and 5,560,398. The product QS-21™ adjuvant sold by Antigenics, Inc. (Lexington, Mass.) is an exemplary saponin-containing co-adjuvant that may be used with embodiments of the composition described herein. In other embodiments, the adjuvant may be one or a combination of agents from the ISCOM™ family of adjuvants, originally developed by Iscotec (Sweden) and typically formed from saponins derived from Quillaja saponaria or synthetic analogs, cholesterol, and phospholipid, all formed into a honeycomb-like structure.

In some embodiments, the adjuvant or agent may be a cytokine that functions as an adjuvant, see, e.g., Lin R. et al. Clin. Infec. Dis. 21(6):1439-1449 (1995); Taylor, C. E., Infect. Immun. 63(9):3241-3244 (1995); and Egilmez, N. K., Chap. 14 in Vaccine Adjuvants and Delivery Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2007). In various embodiments, the cytokine may be, e.g., granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); see, e.g., Change D. Z. et al. Hematology 9(3):207-215 (2004), Dranoff, G. Immunol. Rev. 188:147-154 (2002), and U.S. Pat. No. 5,679,356; or an interferon, such as a type I interferon, e.g., interferon-α (IFN-α) or interferon-p (IFN-β), or a type II interferon, e.g., interferon-y (IFNγ), see, e.g., Boehm, U. et al. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 15:749-795 (1997); and Theofilopoulos, A. N. et al. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 23:307-336 (2005); an interleukin, specifically including interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2); see, e.g., Nelson, B. H., J. Immunol. 172(7): 3983-3988 (2004); interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-7 (IL-7), interleukin-12 (IL-12); see, e.g., Portielje, J. E., et al., Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 52(3): 133-144 (2003) and Trinchieri. G. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3(2):133-146 (2003); interleukin-15 (11-15), interleukin-18 (IL-18); fetal liver tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), or tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα).

In some embodiments, the adjuvant may be unmethylated CpG dinucleotides, optionally conjugated to the antigens described herein.

Examples of immunopotentiators that may be used in the practice of the compositions and methods described herein as adjuvants include: MPL™; MDP and derivatives; oligonucleotides; double-stranded RNA; alternative pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS); saponins; small-molecule immune potentiators (SMIPs); cytokines; and chemokines.

When two or more adjuvants or agents are utilized in combination, the relative amounts of the multiple adjuvants may be selected to achieve the desired performance properties for the composition which contains the adjuvants, relative to the antigen alone. For example, an adjuvant combination may be selected to enhance the antibody response of the antigen, and/or to enhance the subject's innate immune system response. Activating the innate immune system results in the production of chemokines and cytokines, which in turn may activate an adaptive (acquired) immune response. An important consequence of activating the adaptive immune response is the formation of memory immune cells so that when the host re-encounters the antigen, the immune response occurs quicker and generally with better quality. In some embodiments, the adjuvant(s) may be pre-formulated prior to their combination with the compositions described herein.

Embodiments of the vaccine compositions described herein may be administered simultaneously with, prior to, or after administration of one or more other adjuvants or agents, including therapeutic agents. In certain embodiments, such agents may be accepted in the art as a standard treatment or prevention for a particular cancer. Exemplary agents contemplated include cytokines, growth factors, steroids, NSAIDs, DMARDs, anti-inflammatories, immune checkpoint inhibitors, chemotherapeutics, radiotherapeutics, or other active and ancillary agents. In other embodiments, the agent is one or more isolated TAA as described herein.

In some embodiments, a vaccine composition provided herein is administered to a subject that has not previously received certain treatment or treatments for cancer or other disease or disorder. As used herein, the phrase “wherein the subject refrains from treatment with other vaccines or therapeutic agents” refers to a subject that has not received a cancer treatment or other treatment or procedure prior to receiving a vaccine of the present disclosure. In some embodiments, the subject refrains from receiving one or more therapeutic vaccines (e.g. flu vaccine, covid-19 vaccine such as AZD1222, BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and the like) prior to the administration of the therapeutic vaccine as described in various embodiments herein. In some embodiments, the subject refrains from receiving one or more antibiotics prior to the administration of the therapeutic vaccine as described in various embodiments herein. “Immune tolerance” is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances, antigens, or tissues that have the potential to induce an immune response. The vaccine compositions of the present disclosure, in certain embodiments, are administered to avoid the induction of immune tolerance or to reverse immune tolerance.

In various embodiments, the vaccine composition is administered in combination with one or more active agents used in the treatment of cancer, including one or more chemotherapeutic agents. Examples of such active agents include alkylating agents such as thiotepa and cyclophosphamide (CYTOXAN™); alkyl sulfonates such as busulfan, improsulfan and piposulfan; aziridines such as benzodopa, carboquone, meturedopa, and uredopa; ethylenimines and methylamelamines including altretamine, triethylenemelamine, trietylenephosphoramide, triethylenethiophosphaoramide and trimethylolomelamine; nitrogen mustards such as chlorambucil, chlornaphazine, cholophosphamide, estramustine, ifosfamide, mechlorethamine, mechlorethamine oxide hydrochloride, melphalan, novembichin, phenesterine, prednimustine, trofosfamide, uracil mustard; nitrosureas such as carmustine, chlorozotocin, fotemustine, lomustine, nimustine, ranimustine; antibiotics such as aclacinomysins, actinomycin, authramycin, azaserine, bleomycins, cactinomycin, calicheamicin, carabicin, carminomycin, carzinophilin, chromomycins, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, detorubicin, 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine, doxorubicin, epirubicin, esorubicin, idarubicin, marcellomycin, mitomycins, mycophenolic acid, nogalamycin, olivomycins, peplomycin, potfiromycin, puromycin, quelamycin, rodorubicin, streptonigrin, streptozocin, tubercidin, ubenimex, zinostatin, zorubicin; anti-metabolites such as methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); folic acid analogues such as denopterin, methotrexate, pteropterin, trimetrexate; purine analogs such as fludarabine, 6-mercaptopurine, thiamiprine, thioguanine; pyrimidine analogs such as ancitabine, azacitidine, 6-azauridine, carmofur, cytarabine, dideoxyuridine, doxifluridine, enocitabine, floxuridine, 5-FU; androgens such as calusterone, dromostanolone propionate, epitiostanol, mepitiostane, testolactone; anti-adrenals such as aminoglutethimide, mitotane, trilostane; folic acid replenisher such as frolinic acid; aceglatone; aldophosphamide glycoside; aminolevulinic acid; amsacrine; bestrabucil; bisantrene; edatraxate; defofamine; demecolcine; diaziquone; elformithine; elliptinium acetate; etoglucid; gallium nitrate; hydroxyurea; lentinan; lonidamine; mitoguazone; mitoxantrone; mopidamol; nitracrine; pentostatin; phenamet; pirarubicin; podophyllinic acid; 2-ethylhydrazide; procarbazine; PSK®; razoxane; sizofiran; spirogermanium; tenuazonic acid; triaziquone; 2,2′,2″-trichlorotriethylamine; urethan; vindesine; dacarbazine; mannomustine; mitobronitol; mitolactol; pipobroman; gacytosine; arabinoside (“Ara-C”); cyclophosphamide; thiotepa; taxoids, e.g., paclitaxel (TAXOL®, Bristol-Myers Squibb Oncology, Princeton, N.J.) and paclitaxel protein-bound particles (ABRAXANE®) and doxetaxel (TAXOTERE®, Rhne-Poulenc Rorer, Antony, France); chlorambucil; gemcitabine; 6-thioguanine; mercaptopurine; methotrexate; platinum analogs such as cisplatin and carboplatin; vinblastine, docetaxel, platinum; etoposide (VP-16); ifosfamide; mitomycin C; mitoxantrone; vincristine; vinorelbine; navelbine; novantrone; teniposide; daunomycin; aminopterin; xeloda; ibandronate; CPT-11; topoisomerase inhibitor RFS 2000; difluoromethylomithine (DMFO); retinoic acid derivatives such as TARGRETIN™ (bexarotene), PANRETIN™ (alitretinoin); and ONTAK (denileukin diftitox); esperamicins; capecitabine; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, acids or derivatives of any of the above. Also included in this definition are anti-hormonal agents that act to regulate or inhibit hormone action on tumors such as anti-estrogens including for example tamoxifen, raloxifene, aromatase inhibiting 4(5)-imidazoles, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, trioxifene, keoxifene, LY117018, onapristone, and toremifene (Fareston); and anti-androgens such as flutamide, nilutamide, bicalutamide, leuprolide, and goserelin; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, acids or derivatives of any of the above. Further cancer active agents include sorafenib and other protein kinase inhibitors such as afatinib, axitinib, bevacizumab, cetuximab, crizotinib, dasatinib, erlotinib, fostamatinib, gefitinib, imatinib, lapatinib, lenvatinib, mubritinib, nilotinib, panitumumab, pazopanib, pegaptanib, ranibizumab, ruxolitinib, trastuzumab, vandetanib, vemurafenib, and sunitinib; sirolimus (rapamycin), everolimus and other mTOR inhibitors.

In further embodiments, the vaccine composition is administered in combination with a TLR4 agonist, TLR8 agonist, or TLR9 agonist. Such an agonist may be selected from peptidoglycan, polyl:C, CpG, 3M003, flagellin, and Leishmania homolog of eukaryotic ribosomal elongation and initiation factor 4a (LeIF).

In some embodiments, the vaccine composition is administered in combination with a cytokine as described herein. In some embodiments, the compositions disclosed herein may be administered in conjunction with molecules targeting one or more of the following: Adhesion: MAdCAM1, ICAM1, VCAM1, CD103; Inhibitory Mediators: IDO, TDO; MDSCs/Tregs: NOS1, arginase, CSFR1, FOXP3, cyclophosphamide, PI3Kgamma, PI3Kdelta, tasquinimod; Immunosuppression: TGFβ, IL-10; Priming and Presenting: BATF3, XCR1/XCL1, STING, INFalpha; Apoptotic Recycling: IL-6, surviving, IAP, mTOR, MCL1, PI3K; T-Cell Trafficking: CXCL9/10/11, CXCL1/13, CCL2/5, anti-LIGHT, anti-CCR5; Oncogenic Activation: WNT-beta-cat, MEK, PPARgamma, FGFR3, TKIs, MET; Epigenetic Reprogramming: HDAC, HMA, BET; Angiogenesis immune modulation: VEGF(alpha, beta, gamma); Hypoxia: HIF1alpha, adenosine, anitADORA2A, anti-CD73, and anti-CD39.

In certain embodiments, the compositions disclosed herein may be administered in conjunction with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. HDAC inhibitors include hydroxamates, cyclic peptides, aliphatic acids and benzamides. Illustrative HDAC inhibitors contemplated for use herein include, but are not limited to, Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHANorinostat/Zolinza), Trichostatin A (TSA), PXD-101, Depsipeptide (FK228/romidepsin/ISTODAX®), panobinostat (LBH589), MS-275, Mocetinostat (MGCD0103), ACY-738, TMP195, Tucidinostat, valproic acid, sodium phenylbutyrate, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (decitabine). See e.g., Kim and Bae, Am J Transl Res 2011; 3(2):166-179; Odunsi et al., Cancer Immunol Res. 2014 Jan. 1; 2(1): 37-49. Other HDAC inhibitors include Vorinostat (SAHA, MK0683), Entinostat (MS-275), Panobinostat (LBH589), Trichostatin A (TSA), Mocetinostat (MGCD0103), ACY-738, Tucidinostat (Chidamide), TMP195, Citarinostat (ACY-241), Belinostat (PXD101), Romidepsin (FK228, Depsipeptide), MC1568, Tubastatin A HCl, Givinostat (ITF2357), Dacinostat (LAQ824), CUDC-101, Quisinostat (JNJ-26481585) 2HCI, Pracinostat (SB939), PCI-34051, Droxinostat, Abexinostat (PCI-24781), RGFP966, AR-42, Ricolinostat (ACY-1215), Valproic acid sodium salt (Sodium valproate), Tacedinaline (CI994), CUDC-907, Sodium butyrate, Curcumin, M344, Tubacin, RG2833 (RGFP109), Resminostat, Divalproex Sodium, Scriptaid, and Tubastatin A.

In certain embodiments, the vaccine composition is administered in combination with chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent that prevents endosomal acidification and which inhibits autophagy induced by tumor cells to survive accelerated cell growth and nutrient deprivation. More generally, the compositions comprising heterozygous viral vectors as described herein may be administered in combination with active agents that act as autophagy inhibitors, radiosensitizers or chemosensitizers, such as chloroquine, misonidazole, metronidazole, and hypoxic cytotoxins, such as tirapazamine. In this regard, such combinations of a heterozygous viral vector with chloroquine or other radio or chemo sensitizer, or autophagy inhibitor, can be used in further combination with other cancer active agents or with radiation therapy or surgery.

In other embodiments, the vaccine composition is administered in combination with one or more small molecule drugs that are known to result in killing of tumor cells with concomitant activation of immune responses, termed “immunogenic cell death”, such as cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oxaliplatin and mitoxantrone. Furthermore, combinations with drugs known to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells such as patupilone (epothilone B), epidermal-growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting monoclonal antibody 7A7.27, histone deacetylase inhibitors (e.g., vorinostat, romidepsin, panobinostat, belinostat, and entinostat), the n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, furthermore proteasome inhibitors (e.g., bortezomib), shikonin (the major constituent of the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon,) and oncolytic viruses, such as TVec (talimogene laherparepvec). In some embodiments, the compositions comprising heterozygous viral vectors as described herein may be administered in combination with epigenetic therapies, such as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (e.g., decitabine, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine) which may be administered locally or systemically.

In other embodiments, the vaccine composition is administered in combination with one or more antibodies that increase ADCC uptake of tumor by DCs. Thus, embodiments of the present disclosure contemplate combining cancer vaccine compositions with any molecule that induces or enhances the ingestion of a tumor cell or its fragments by an antigen presenting cell and subsequent presentation of tumor antigens to the immune system. These molecules include agents that induce receptor binding (e.g., Fc or mannose receptors) and transport into the antigen presenting cell such as antibodies, antibody-like molecules, multi-specific multivalent molecules and polymers. Such molecules may either be administered intratumorally with the composition comprising heterozygous viral vector or administered by a different route. For example, a composition comprising heterozygous viral vector as described herein may be administered intratumorally in conjunction with intratumoral injection of rituximab, cetuximab, trastuzumab, Campath, panitumumab, ofatumumab, brentuximab, pertuzumab, Ado-trastuzumab emtansine, Obinutuzumab, anti-HER1, -HER2, or -HER3 antibodies (e.g., MEHD7945A; MM-111; MM-151; MM-121; AMG888), anti-EGFR antibodies (e.g., nimotuzumab, ABT-806), or other like antibodies. Any multivalent scaffold that is capable of engaging Fc receptors and other receptors that can induce internalization may be used in the combination therapies described herein (e.g., peptides and/or proteins capable of binding targets that are linked to Fc fragments or polymers capable of engaging receptors).

In certain embodiments, the vaccine composition may be further combined with an inhibitor of ALK, PARP, VEGFRs, EGFR, FGFR1-3, HIF1a, PDGFR1-2, c-Met, c-KIT, Her2, Her3, AR, PR, RET, EPHB4, STAT3, Ras, HDAC1-11, mTOR, and/or CXCR4.

In certain embodiments, a cancer vaccine composition may be further combined with an antibody that promotes a co-stimulatory signal (e.g., by blocking inhibitory pathways), such as anti-CTLA-4, or that activates co-stimulatory pathways such as an anti-CD40, anti-CD28, anti-ICOS, anti-OX40, anti-CD27, anti-ICOS, anti-CD127, anti-GITR, IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, IL-21, GM-CSF, IL-12, and INFα.

Checkpoint Inhibitors

In certain embodiments, a checkpoint inhibitor molecule is administered in combination with the vaccine compositions described herein. Immune checkpoints refer to a variety of inhibitory pathways of the immune system that are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance and for modulating the duration and amplitude of an immune responses. Tumors use certain immune-checkpoint pathways as a major mechanism of immune resistance, particularly against T cells that are specific for tumor antigens. (See Pardoll, 2012 Nature 12:252; Chen and Mellman Immunity 39:1 (2013)). Immune checkpoint inhibitors include any agent that blocks or inhibits in a statistically significant manner, the inhibitory pathways of the immune system. Such inhibitors may include antibodies, or antigen binding fragments thereof, that bind to and block or inhibit immune checkpoint receptors or antibodies that bind to and block or inhibit immune checkpoint receptor ligands. Illustrative immune checkpoint molecules that may be targeted for blocking or inhibition include, but are not limited to, CTLA-4, 4-1BB (CD137), 4-1BBL (CD137L), PDL1, PDL2, PD1, B7-H3, B7-H4, BTLA, HVEM, TIM3, GAL9, LAG3, TIM3, B7H3, B7H4, VISTA, KIR, BTLA, SIGLEC9, 2B4 (belongs to the CD2 family of molecules and is expressed on all NK, γδ, and memory CD8+ (αβ) T cells), CD160 (also referred to as BY55), and CGEN-15049. Immune checkpoint inhibitors include antibodies, or antigen binding fragments thereof, or other binding proteins, that bind to and block or inhibit the activity of one or more of CTLA-4, PDL1, PDL2, PD1, B7-H3, B7-H4, BTLA, HVEM, TIM3, GAL9, LAG3, TIM3, B7H3, B7H4, VISTA, KIR, BTLA, SIGLEC9, 2B4, CD160, and CGEN-15049.

Illustrative immune checkpoint inhibitors include anti-PD1, anti-PDL1, and anti-PDL2 agents such as A167, AB122, ABBV-181, ADG-104, AK-103, AK-105, AK-106, AGEN2034, AM0001, AMG-404, ANB-030, APL-502, APL-501, zimberelimab, atezolizumab, AVA-040, AVA-040-100, avelumab, balstilimab, BAT-1306, BCD-135, BGB-A333, BI-754091, budigalimab, camrelizumab, CB-201, CBT-502, CCX-4503, cemiplimab, cosibelimab, cetrelimab, CS-1001, CS-1003, CX-072, CX-188, dostarlimab, durvalumab, envafolimab, sugemalimab, HBM9167, F-520, FAZ-053, genolimzumab, GLS-010, GS-4224, hAB21, HLX-10, HLX-20, HS-636, HX-008, IMC-001, IMM-25, INCB-86550, JS-003, JTX-4014, JYO-34, KL-A167, LBL-006, lodapolimab, LP-002, LVGN-3616, LYN-00102, LMZ-009, MAX-10181, MEDI-0680, MGA-012 (Retifanlimab), MSB-2311, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, prolgolimab, prololimab, sansalimab, SCT-110A, SG-001, SHR-1316, sintilimab, spartalizumab, RG6084, RG6139, RG6279, CA-170, CA-327, STI-3031, toleracyte, toca 521, Sym-021, TG-1501, tislelizumab, toripalimab, TT-01, ZKAB-001, and the anti-PD-1 antibodies capable of blocking interaction with its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 described in WO/2017/124050.

Illustrative multi-specific immune checkpoint inhibitors, where at least one target is anti-PD1, anti-PDL1, or anti-PDL2, include ABP-160 (CD47×PD-L1), AK-104 (PD-1×CTLA-4), AK-112 (PD-1×VEGF), ALPN-202 (PD-L1×CTLA-4×CD28), AP-201 (PD-L1×OX-40), AP-505 (PD-L1×VEGF), AVA-0017 (PD-L1×LAG-3), AVA-0021 (PD-L1×LAG-3), AUPM-170 (PD-L1×VISTA), BCD-217 (PD-1×CTLA-4), BH-2950 (PD-1×HER2), BH-2996h (PD-1×PD-L1), BH-29xx (PD-L1×CD47), bintrafusp alfa (PD-L1×TGFβ), CB-213 (PD-1×LAG-3), CDX-527 (CD27×PD-L1), CS-4100 (PD-1×PD-L1), DB-001 (PD-L1×HER2), DB-002 (PD-L1×CTLA-4), DSP-105 (PD-1×4-1BBL), DSP-106, (PD-1×CD70), FS-118 (LAG-3×PD-L1), FS-222 (CD137/4-1BB×PD-L1), GEN-1046 (PD-L1×CD137/4-1BB), IBI-318 (PD-1×PD-L1), IBI-322 (PD-L1×CD-47), KD-033 (PD-L1×IL-15), KN-046 (PD-L1×CTLA-4), KY-1043 (PD-L1×IL-2), LY-3434172 (PD-1×PD-L1), MCLA-145 (PD-L1×CD137), MEDI-5752 (PD-1×CTLA-4), MGD-013 (PD-1×LAG-3), MGD-019 (PD-1×CTLA-4), ND-021 (PD-L1×4-1BB×HSA), OSE-279 (PD-1×PD-L1), PRS-332 (PD-1×HER2), PRS-344 (PD-L1×CD137), PSB-205 (PD-1×CTLA-4), R-7015 (PD-L1×TGFβ), RO-7121661 (PD-1×TIM-3), RO-7247669 (PD-1×LAG-3), SHR-1701 (PD-L1×TGFβ2), SL-279252 (PD-1×OX40L), TSR-075 (PD-1×LAG-3), XmAb-20717 (CTLA-4×PD-1), XmAb-23104 (PD-1×ICOS), and Y-111 (PD-L1×CD-3).

Additional illustrative immune checkpoint inhibitors include anti-CTLA4 agents such as: ADG-116, AGEN-2041, BA-3071, BCD-145, BJ-003, BMS-986218, BMS-986249, BPI-002, CBT-509, CG-0161, Olipass-1, HBM-4003, HLX-09, IBI-310, ipilimumab, JS-007, KN-044, MK-1308, ONC-392, REGN-4659, RP-2, tremelimumab, and zalifrelimab. Additional illustrative multi-specific immune checkpoint inhibitors, where at least one target is anti-CTLA4, include: AK-104 (PD-1×CTLA-4), ALPN-202 (PD-L1×CTLA-4×CD28), ATOR-1015 (CTLA-4×OX40), ATOR-1144 (CTLA-4×GITR), BCD-217 (PD-1×CTLA-4), DB-002 (PD-L1×CTLA-4), FPT-155 (CD28×CTLA-4), KN-046 (PD-L1×CTLA-4),), MEDI-5752 (PD-1×CTLA-4), MGD-019 (PD-1×CTLA-4), PSB-205 (PD-1×CTLA-4), XmAb-20717 (CTLA-4×PD-1), and XmAb-22841 (CTLA-4×LAG-3). Additional illustrative immune checkpoint inhibitors include anti-LAG3 agents such as BI-754111, BJ-007, eftilagimod alfa, GSK-2831781, HLX-26, IBI-110, IMP-701, IMP-761, INCAGN-2385, LBL-007, MK-4280, REGN-3767, relatlimab, Sym-022, TJ-A3, and TSR-033. Additional illustrative multi-specific immune checkpoint inhibitors, where at least one target is anti-LAG3, include: CB-213 (PD-1×LAG-3), FS-118 (LAG-3×PD-L1), MGD-013 (PD-1×LAG-3), AVA-0017 (PD-L1×LAG-3), AVA-0021 (PD-L1×LAG-3), RO-7247669 (PD-1×LAG-3), TSR-075 (PD-1×LAG-3), and XmAb-22841 (CTLA-4×LAG-3). Additional illustrative immune checkpoint inhibitors include anti-TIGIT agents such as AB-154, ASP8374, BGB-A1217, BMS-986207, CASC-674, COM-902, EOS-884448, HLX-53, IBI-939, JS-006, MK-7684, NB-6253, RXI-804, tiragolumab, and YH-29143. Additional illustrative multi-specific immune checkpoint inhibitors, where at least one target is anti-TIGIT are contemplated. Additional illustrative immune checkpoint inhibitors include anti-TIM3 agents such as: BGB-A425, BMS-986258, ES-001, HLX-52, INCAGN-2390, LBL-003, LY-3321367, MBG-453, SHR-1702, Sym-023, and TSR-022. Additional illustrative multi-specific immune checkpoint inhibitors, where at least one target is anti-TIM3, include: AUPM-327 (PD-L1×TIM-3), and RO-7121661 (PD-1×TIM-3). Additional illustrative immune checkpoint inhibitors include anti-VISTA agents such as: HMBD-002, and PMC-309. Additional illustrative multi-specific immune checkpoint inhibitors, where at least one target is anti-VISTA, include CA-170 (PD-L1×VISTA). Additional illustrative immune checkpoint inhibitors include anti-BTLA agents such as: JS-004. Additional illustrative multi-specific immune checkpoint inhibitors, where at least one target is anti-BTLA are contemplated. Illustrative stimulatory immune checkpoints include anti-OX40 agents such as ABBV-368, GSK-3174998, HLX-51, IBI-101, INBRX-106, INCAGN-1949, INV-531, JNJ-6892, and KHK-4083. Additional illustrative multi-specific stimulatory immune checkpoints, where at least one target is anti-OX40, include AP-201 (PD-L1×OX-40), APVO-603 (CD138/4-1BB×OX-40), ATOR-1015 (CTLA-4×OX-40), and FS-120 (OX40×CD137/4-1BB). Additional illustrative stimulatory immune checkpoints include anti-GITR agents such as BMS-986256, CK-302, GWN-323, INCAGN-1876, MK-4166, PTZ-522, and TRX-518. Additional illustrative multi-specific stimulatory immune checkpoints, where at least one target is anti-GITR, include ATOR-1144 (CTLA-4×GITR). Additional illustrative stimulatory immune checkpoints include anti-CD137/4-1BB agents such a: ADG-106, AGEN-2373, AP-116, ATOR-1017, BCY-3814, CTX-471, EU-101, LB-001, LVGN-6051, RTX-4-1BBL, SCB-333, urelumab, utomilumab, and WTiNT. Additional illustrative multi-specific stimulatory immune checkpoints, where at least one target is anti-CD137/4-1BB, include ALG.APV-527 (CD137/4-1BB×5T4), APVO-603 (CD137/4-1BB×OX40), BT-7480 (Nectin-4×CD137/4-1BB), CB-307 (CD137/4-1BB×PSMA), CUE-201 (CD80×CD137/4-1BB), DSP-105 (PD-1×CD137/4-1BB), FS-120 (OX40×CD137/4-1BB), FS-222 (PD-L1×CD137/4-1BB), GEN-1042 (CD40×CD137/4-1BB), GEN-1046 (PD-L1×CD137/4-1BB), INBRX-105 (PD-L1×CD137/4-1BB), MCLA-145 (PD-L1×CD137/4-1BB), MP-0310 (CD137/4-1BB×FAP), ND-021 (PD-L1×CD137/4-1BB×HSA), PRS-343 (CD137/4-1BB×HER2), PRS-342 (CD137/4-1BB×GPC3), PRS-344 (CD137/4-1BB×PD-L1), RG-7827 (FAP×4-1BBL), and RO-7227166 (CD-19×4-1BBL).

Additional illustrative stimulatory immune checkpoints include anti-ICOS agents such as BMS-986226, GSK-3359609, KY-1044, and vopratelimab. Additional illustrative multi-specific stimulatory immune checkpoints, where at least one target is anti-ICOS, include XmAb-23104 (PD-1×ICOS). Additional illustrative stimulatory immune checkpoints include anti-CD127 agents such as MD-707 and OSE-703. Additional illustrative multi-specific stimulatory immune checkpoints, where at least one target is anti-CD127 are contemplated. Additional illustrative stimulatory immune checkpoints include anti-CD40 agents such as ABBV-428, ABBV-927, APG-1233, APX-005M, BI-655064, bleselumab, CD-40GEX, CDX-1140, LVGN-7408, MEDI-5083, mitazalimab, and selicrelumab. Additional Illustrative multi-specific stimulatory immune checkpoints, where at least one target is anti-CD40, include GEN-1042 (CD40×CD137/4-1BB). Additional illustrative stimulatory immune checkpoints include anti-CD28 agents such as FR-104 and theralizumab. Additional illustrative multi-specific stimulatory immune checkpoints, where at least one target is anti-CD28, include ALPN-101 (CD28×ICOS), ALPN-202 (PD-L1×CD28), CUE-201 (CD80×CD137/4-1BB), FPT-155 (CD28×CTLA-4), and REGN-5678 (PSMA×CD28). Additional illustrative stimulatory immune checkpoints include anti-CD27 agents such as: HLX-59 and varlilumab. Additional illustrative multi-specific stimulatory immune checkpoints, where at least one target is anti-CD27, include DSP-160 (PD-L1×CD27/CD70) and CDX-256 (PD-L1×CD27). Additional illustrative stimulatory immune checkpoints include anti-IL-2 agents such as ALKS-4230, BNT-151, CUE-103, NL-201, and THOR-707. Additional illustrative multi-specific stimulatory immune checkpoints, where at least one target is anti-IL-2, include CUE-102 (IL-2×WT1). Additional illustrative stimulatory immune checkpoints include anti-IL-7 agents such as BNT-152. Additional illustrative multi-specific stimulatory immune checkpoints, where at least one target is anti-IL-7 are contemplated. Additional illustrative stimulatory immune checkpoints include anti-IL-12 agents such as AK-101, M-9241, and ustekinumab. Additional illustrative multi-specific stimulatory immune checkpoints, where at least one target is antilL-12 are contemplated.

As described herein, the present disclosure provides methods of administering vaccine compositions, cyclophosphamide, checkpoint inhibitors, and/or other therapeutic agents such as Treg inhibitors. Treg inhibitors are known in the art and include, for example, bempegaldesleukin, fludarabine, gemcitabine, mitoxantrone, Cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, paclitaxel, imatinib, dasatinib, bevacizumab, idelalisib, anti-CD25, anti-folate receptor 4, anti-CTLA4, anti-GITR, anti-OX40, anti-CCR4, anti-CCR5, anti-CCR8, or TLR8 ligands.

Dosing

A “dose” or “unit dose” as used herein refers to one or more vaccine compositions that comprise therapeutically effective amounts of one more cell lines. A dose can be a single vaccine composition, two separate vaccine compositions, or two separate vaccine compositions plus one or more compositions comprising one or more therapeutic agents described herein. When in separate compositions, the two or more compositions of the “dose” are meant to be administered “concurrently”. In some embodiments, the two or more compositions are administered at different sites on the subject (e.g., arm, thigh, or back). As used herein, “concurrent” administration of two compositions or therapeutic agents indicates that within about 30 minutes of administration of a first composition or therapeutic agent, the second composition or therapeutic agent is administered. In cases where more than two compositions and/or therapeutic agents are administered concurrently, each composition or agent is administered within 30 minutes, wherein timing of such administration begins with the administration of the first composition or agent and ends with the beginning of administration of the last composition or agent. In some cases, concurrent administration can be completed (i.e., administration of the last composition or agent begins) within about 30 minutes, or within 15 minutes, or within 10 minutes, or within 5 minutes of start of administration of first composition or agent. Administration of a second (or multiple) therapeutic agents or compositions “prior to” or “subsequent to” administration of a first composition means that the administration of the first composition and another therapeutic agent is separated by at least 30 minutes, e.g., at least 1 hour, at least 2 hours, at least 4 hours, at least 6 hours, at least 8 hours, at least 10 hours, at least 12 hours, at least 18 hours, at least 24 hours, or at least 48 hours.

The amount (e.g., number) of cells from the various individual cell lines in the vaccine compositions can be equal (as defined herein), approximately (as defined herein) equal, or different. In various embodiments, each cell line of a vaccine composition is present in an approximately equal amount. In other embodiments, 2 or 3 cell lines of one vaccine composition are present in approximately equal amounts and 2 or 3 different cell lines of a second composition are present in approximately equal amounts.

In some embodiments, the number of cells from each cell line (in the case where multiple cell lines are administered), is approximately 5.0×105, 1.0×106, 2.0×106, 3.0×106, 4.0×106, 5.0×106, 6.0×106, 7.0×106, 8×106, 9.0×106, 1.0×107, 2.0×107, 3.0×107, 4.0×107, 5.0×107, 6.0×107, 8.0×107, 9.0×107, 1.0×108, 2.0×108, 3.0×108, 4.0×108 or 5.0×108 cells. In one embodiment, approximately 10 million (e.g., 1.0×107) cells from one cell line are contemplated. In another embodiment, where 6 separate cell lines are administered, approximately 10 million cells from each cell line, or 60 million (e.g., 6.0×107) total cells are contemplated.

The total number of cells administered in a vaccine composition, e.g., per administration site, can range from 1.0×106 to 3.0×108. For example, in some embodiments, 2.0×106, 3.0×106, 4.0×106, 5.0×106, 6.0×106, 7.0×106, 8×106, 9.0×106, 1.0×107, 2.0×107, 3.0×107, 4.0×107, 5.0×107, 6.0×107, 8.0×107, 9.0×107, 1.0×108, 2.0×108, or 3.0×108 cells are administered.

As described herein, the number of cell lines contained with each administration of a cocktail or vaccine composition can range from 1 to 10 cell lines. In some embodiments, the number of cells from each cell line are not equal, and different ratios of cell lines are included in the cocktail or vaccine composition. For example, if one cocktail contains 5.0×107 total cells from 3 different cell lines, there could be 3.33×107 cells of one cell line and 8.33×106 of the remaining 2 cell lines.

The vaccine compositions and compositions comprising additional therapeutic agents (e.g., chemotherapeutic agents, checkpoint inhibitors, and the like) may be administered orally, parenterally, by inhalation spray, topically, rectally, nasally, buccally, vaginally or via an implanted reservoir. The term “parenteral” as used herein includes subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, intra-articular, intra-synovial, intrasternal, intrathecal, intrahepatic, intralesional, intracranial, transdermal, intradermal, intrapulmonal, intraperitoneal, intracardial, intraarterial and sublingual injection or infusion techniques. Also envisioned are embodiments where the vaccine compositions and compositions comprising additional therapeutic agents (e.g., chemotherapeutic agents, checkpoint inhibitors, and the like) are administered intranodally or intratumorally.

In some embodiments, the vaccine compositions are administered intradermally. In related embodiments, the intradermal injection involves injecting the cocktail or vaccine composition at an angle of administration of 5 to 15 degrees.

The injections (e.g., intradermal or subcutaneous injections), can be provided at a single site (e.g. arm, thigh or back), or at multiple sites (e.g. arms and thighs). In some embodiments, the vaccine composition is administered concurrently at two sites, where each site receives a vaccine composition comprising a different composition (e.g., cocktail). For example, in some embodiments, the subject receives a composition comprising three cell lines in the arm, and three different, or partially overlapping cell lines in the thigh. In some embodiments, the subject receives a composition comprising one or more cell lines concurrently in each arm and in each thigh.

In some embodiments, the subject receives multiple doses of the cocktail or vaccine composition and the doses are administered at different sites on the subject to avoid potential antigen competition at certain (e.g., draining) lymph nodes. In some embodiments, the multiple doses are administered by alternating administration sites (e.g. left arm and right arm, or left thigh and right thigh) on the subject between doses. In some embodiments, the multiple doses are administered as follows: a first dose is administered in one arm, and second dose is administered in the other arm; subsequent doses, if administered, continue to alternate in this manner. In some embodiments, the multiple doses are administered as follows: a first dose is administered in one thigh, and second dose is administered in the other thigh; subsequent doses, if administered, continue to alternate in this manner. In some embodiments, the multiple doses are administered as follows: a first dose is administered in one thigh, and second dose is administered in one arm; subsequent doses if administered can alternate in any combination that is safe and efficacious for the subject. In some embodiments, the multiple doses are administered as follows: a first dose is administered in one thigh and one arm, and second dose is administered in the other arm and the other thigh; subsequent doses if administered can alternate in any combination that is safe and efficacious for the subject.

In some embodiments, the subject receives, via intradermal injection, a vaccine composition comprising a total of six cell lines (e.g., NCI-H460, NCI-H520, DMS 53, LK-2, NCI-H23, and A549 or other 6-cell line combinations described herein) in one, two or more separate cocktails, each cocktail comprising one or a mixture two or more of the 6-cell lines. In some embodiments, the subject receives, via intradermal injection, a vaccine composition comprising a mixture of three cell lines (e.g., three of NCI-H460, NCI-H520, DMS 53, LK-2, NCI-H23, and A549 or three cell lines from other 6-cell line combinations described herein). In some embodiments, the subject receives, via intradermal injection to the arm (e.g., upper arm), a vaccine composition comprising a mixture of three cell lines, comprising NCI-H460, NCI-H520, and A549; and the subject concurrently receives, via intradermal injection to the leg (e.g., thigh), a vaccine composition comprising a mixture of three cell lines, comprising DMS 53, LK-2, and NCI-H23.

Where an additional therapeutic agent is administered, the doses or multiple doses may be administered via the same or different route as the vaccine composition(s). By way of example, a composition comprising a checkpoint inhibitor is administered in some embodiments via intravenous injection, and the vaccine composition is administered via intradermal injection. In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered orally, and the vaccine composition is administered intradermally.

Regimens

The vaccine compositions according to the disclosure may be administered at various administration sites on a subject, at various times, and in various amounts. The efficacy of a tumor cell vaccine may be impacted if the subject's immune system is in a state that is permissible to the activation of antitumor immune responses. The efficacy may also thus impacted if the subject is undergoing or has received radiation therapy, chemotherapy or other prior treatments. In some embodiments, this requires that the immunosuppressive elements of the immune system are inhibited while the activation and effector elements are fully functional. In addition to the immunosuppressive factors described herein, other elements that suppress antitumor immunity include, but are not limited to, T regulatory cells (Tregs) and checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1.

In some embodiments, timing of the administration of the vaccine relative to previous chemotherapy and radiation therapy cycles is set in order to maximize the immune permissive state of the subject's immune system prior to vaccine administration. The present disclosure provides methods for conditioning the immune system with one or low dose administrations of a chemotherapeutic agent such as cyclophosphamide prior to vaccination to increase efficacy of whole cell tumor vaccines. In some embodiments, metronomic chemotherapy (e.g., frequent, low dose administration of chemotherapy drugs with no prolonged drug-free break) is used to condition the immune system. In some embodiments, metronomic chemotherapy allows for a low level of the drug to persist in the blood, without the complications of toxicity and side effects often seen at higher doses. By way of example, administering cyclophosphamide to condition the immune system includes, in some embodiments, administration of the drug at a time before the receipt of a vaccine dose (e.g., 15 days to 1 hour prior to administration of a vaccine composition) in order to maintain the ratio of effector T cells to regulatory T cells at a level less than 1.

In some embodiments, a chemotherapy regimen (e.g., myeloablative chemotherapy, cyclophosphamide, and/or fludarabine regimen) may be administered before some, or all of the administrations of the vaccine composition(s) provided herein. Cyclophosphamide (CYTOXAN™, NEOSAR™) is a well-known cancer medication that interferes with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. Cyclophosphamide may be administered as a pill (oral), liquid, or via intravenous injection. Numerous studies have shown that cyclophosphamide can enhance the efficacy of vaccines. (See, e.g., Machiels et al., Cancer Res., 61:3689, 2001; Greten, T. F., et al., J. Immunother., 2010, 33:211; Ghiringhelli et al., Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 56:641, 2007; Ge et al., Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 61:353, 2011; Laheru et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 14:1455, 2008; and Borch et al., Oncolmmunol, e1207842, 2016). “Low dose” cyclophosphamide as described herein, in some embodiments, is effective in depleting Tregs, attenuating Treg activity, and enhancing effector T cell functions. In some embodiments, intravenous low dose administration of cyclophosphamide includes 40-50 mg/kg in divided doses over 2-5 days. Other low dose regimens include 1-15 mg/kg every 7-10 days or 3-5 mg/kg twice weekly. Low dose oral administration, in accordance with some embodiments of the present disclosure, includes 1-5 mg/kg per day for both initial and maintenance dosing. Dosage forms for the oral tablet are 25 mg and 50 mg. In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered as an oral 50 mg tablet for the 7 days leading up to the first and optionally each subsequent doses of the vaccine compositions described herein.

In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered as an oral 50 mg tablet on each of the 7 days leading up to the first, and optionally on each of the 7 days preceding each subsequent dose(s) of the vaccine compositions. In another embodiment, the patient takes or receives an oral dose of 25 mg of cyclophosphamide twice daily, with one dose being the morning upon rising and the second dose being at night before bed, 7 days prior to each administration of a cancer vaccine cocktail or unit dose. In certain embodiments, the vaccine compositions are administered intradermally multiple times over a period of years. In some embodiments, a checkpoint inhibitor is administered every two weeks or every three weeks following administration of the vaccine composition(s).

In another embodiment, the patient receives a single intravenous dose of cyclophosphamide of 200, 250, 300, 500 or 600 mg/m2 at least one day prior to the administration of a cancer vaccine cocktail or unit dose of the vaccine composition. In another embodiment, the patient receives an intravenous dose of cyclophosphamide of 200, 250, 300, 500 or 600 mg/m2 at least one day prior to the administration vaccine dose number 4, 8, 12 of a cancer vaccine cocktail or unit dose. In another embodiment, the patient receives a single dose of cyclophosphamide at 1000 mg/kg as an intravenous injection at least one hour prior to the administration of a cancer vaccine cocktail or unit dose. In some embodiments, an oral high dose of 200 mg/kg or an IV high dose of 500-1000 mg/m2 of cyclophosphamide is administered.

The administration of cyclophosphamide can be via any of the following: oral (e.g., as a capsule, powder for solution, or a tablet); intravenous (e.g., administered through a vein (IV) by injection or infusion); intramuscular (e.g., via an injection into a muscle (IM)); intraperitoneal (e.g., via an injection into the abdominal lining (IP)); and intrapleural (e.g., via an injection into the lining of the lung).

In some embodiments, immunotherapy checkpoint inhibitors (e.g., anti-CTLA4, anti-PD-1 antibodies such as pembrolizumab, and nivolumab, anti-PDL1 such as durvalumab) may be administered before, concurrently, or after the vaccine composition. In certain embodiments, pembrolizumab is administered 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks as an intravenous infusion over 60 minutes. In some embodiments, pembrolizumab is administered 200 mg every 3 weeks as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes. In some embodiments pembrolizumab is administered 400 mg every 6 weeks as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes. In some embodiments, durvalumab is administered 10 mg/kg every two weeks. In some embodiments, nivolumab is administered 240 mg every 2 weeks (or 480 mg every 4 weeks). In some embodiments, nivolumab is administered 1 mg/kg followed by ipilimumab on the same day, every 3 weeks for 4 doses, then 240 mg every 2 weeks (or 480 mg every 4 weeks). In some embodiments, nivolumab is administered 3 mg/kg followed by ipilimumab 1 mg/kg on the same day every 3 weeks for 4 doses, then 240 mg every 2 weeks (or 480 mg every 4 weeks). In some embodiments, nivolumab is administered or 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks.

In some embodiments, durvalumab or pembrolizumab is administered every 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 weeks for up to 8 administrations and then reduced to every 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 weeks as appropriate.

In other embodiments, the present disclosure provides that PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors are administered with a fixed dosing regimen (i.e., not weight-based). In non-limiting examples, a PD-1 inhibitor is administered weekly or at weeks 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 in an amount between 100-1200 mg. In non-limiting examples, a PD-L1 inhibitor is administered weekly or at weeks 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 in an mount between 250-2000 mg.

In some embodiments, a vaccine composition or compositions as described herein is administered concurrently or in combination with a PD-1 inhibitor dosed either Q1W, Q2W, Q3W, Q4W, Q6W, or Q8W, between 100 mg and 1500 mg fixed or 0.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg based on weight. In another embodiment, a vaccine composition or compositions as described herein is administered concurrently in combination with PD-L1 inhibitor dosed either Q2W, Q3W, or Q4W between 250 mg and 2000 mg fixed or 2 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg based on weight. In other embodiments, the aforementioned regimen is administered but the compositions are administered in short succession or series such that the patient receives the vaccine composition or compositions and the checkpoint inhibitor during the same visit.

The plant Cannabis sativa L. has been used as an herbal remedy for centuries and is an important source of phytocannabinoids. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of receptors, endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) and metabolizing enzymes, and plays a role in different physiological and pathological processes. Phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids can interact with the components of ECS or other cellular pathways and thus may affect the development or progression of diseases, including cancer. In cancer patients, cannabinoids can be used as a part of palliative care to alleviate pain, relieve nausea and stimulate appetite. In addition, numerous cell culture and animal studies have demonstrated antitumor effects of cannabinoids in various cancer types. (For a review, see Daris, B., et al., Bosn. J. Basic. Med. Sci., 19(1):14-23 (2019).) Phytocannabinoids are a group of C21 terpenophenolic compounds predominately produced by the plants from the genus Cannabis. There are several different cannabinoids and related breakdown products. Among these are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC), Δ8-THC, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabidivarin (CBDV), and cannabigerol (CBG).

In certain embodiments of the present disclosure, use of all phytocannabinoids is stopped prior to or concurrent with the administration of a Treg cell inhibitor such as cyclophosphamide, and/or is otherwise stopped prior to or concurrent with the administration of a vaccine composition according to the present disclosure. In some embodiments, where multiple administrations of cyclophosphamide or vaccine compositions occur, the cessation optionally occurs prior to or concurrent with each administration. In certain embodiments, use of phytocannabinoids is not resumed until a period of time after the administration of the vaccine composition(s). For example, abstaining from cannabinoid administration for at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 days prior to administration and at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 days after administration of cyclophosphamide or a vaccine dose is contemplated.

In some embodiments, patients will receive the first dose of the vaccine within 6-12 weeks after completion of chemotherapy. High dose chemotherapy used in cancer treatment ablates proliferating cells and depletes immune cell subsets. Upon completion of chemotherapy, the immune system will begin to reconstitute. The time span for T cells to recur is roughly 2-3 weeks. Because T cells are an immunological cell subset targeted for activation, in some embodiments, the cancer vaccine is administered within a window where there are sufficient T cells to prime, yet the subject remains lymphopenic. This environment, in which there are less cells occupying the niche will allow the primed T cells to rapidly divide, undergoing “homeostatic proliferation” in response to increased availability of cytokines (e.g., IL7 and IL15). Thus, by dosing the vaccine at this window, the potential efficacy of embodiments of the cancer vaccine platform as described herein is maximized to allow for the priming of antigen specific T cells and expansion of the vaccine associated T cell response.

Methods of Selecting Cell Lines and Preparing Vaccines

Cell Line Selection

For a given cancer or in instances where a patient is suffering from more than one cancer, a cell line or combination of cell lines is identified for inclusion in a vaccine composition based on several criteria. In some embodiments, selection of cell lines is performed stepwise as provided below. Not all cancer indications will require all of the selection steps and/or criteria.

Step 1. Cell lines for each indication are selected based on the availability of RNA-seq data such as for example in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) database. RNA-seq data allows for the identification of candidate cell lines that have the potential to display the greatest breadth of antigens specific to a cancer indication of interest and informs on the potential expression of immunosuppressive factors by the cell lines. If the availability of RNA-seq data in the CCLE is limited, RNA-seq data may be sourced from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) database or other sources known in the art. In some embodiments, potential expression of a protein of interest (e.g., a TAA) based on RNA-seq data is considered “positive” when the RNA-seq value is >0.

Step 2. For all indications, cell lines derived from metastatic sites are prioritized to diversify antigenic breadth and to more effectively target later-stage disease in patients with metastases. Cell lines derived from primary tumors are included in some embodiments to further diversify breadth of the vaccine composition. The location of the metastases from which the cell line are derived is also considered in some embodiments. For example, in some embodiments, cell lines can be selected that are derived from lymph node, ascites, and liver metastatic sites instead of all three cell lines derived from liver metastatic sites.

Step 3. Cell lines are selected to cover a broad range of classifications of cancer types. For example, tubular adenocarcinoma is a commonly diagnosed classification of gastric cancer. Thus, numerous cell lines may be chosen matching this classification. For indications where primary tumor sites vary, cell lines can be selected to meet this diversity. For example, for small cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), cell lines were chosen, in some embodiments, to cover tumors originating from the oral cavity, buccal mucosa, and tongue. These selection criteria enable targeting a heterogeneous population of patient tumor types. In some embodiments, cell lines are selected to encompass an ethnically diverse population to generate a cell line candidate pool derived from diverse histological and ethnical backgrounds.

Step 4. In some embodiments, cell lines are selected based on additional factors. For example, in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), cell lines reported as both microsatellite instable high (MSI-H) and microsatellite stable (MSS) may be included. As another example, for indications that are viral driven, cell lines encoding viral genomes may be excluded for safety and/or manufacturing complexity concerns.

Step 5. In some embodiments, cell lines are selected to cover a varying degree of genetic complexity in driver mutations or indication-associated mutations. Heterogeneity of cell line mutations can expand the antigen repertoire to target a larger population within patients with one or more tumor types. By way of example, breast cancer cell lines can be diversified on deletion status of Her2, progesterone receptor, and estrogen receptor such that the final unit dose includes triple negative, double negative, single negative, and wild type combinations. Each cancer type has a complex genomic landscape and, as a result, cell lines are selected for similar gene mutations for specific indications. For example, melanoma tumors most frequently harbor alterations in BRAF, CDKN2A, NRAS and TP53, therefore selected melanoma cell lines, in some embodiments, contain genetic alterations in one or more of these genes.

Step 6. In some embodiments, cell lines are further narrowed based on the TAA, TSA, and/or cancer/testis antigen expression based on RNA-seq data. An antigen or collection of antigens associated with a particular tumor or tumors is identified using search approaches evident to persons skilled in the art (See, e.g., such as www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/, and clinicaltrials.gov). In some embodiments, antigens can be included if associated with a positive clinical outcome or identified as highly-expressed by the specific tumor or tumor types while expressed at lower levels in normal tissues.

Step 7. After Steps 1 through 6 are completed, in some embodiments, the list of remaining cell line candidates are consolidated based on cell culture properties and considerations such as doubling time, adherence, size, and serum requirements. For example, cell lines with a doubling time of less than 80 hours or cell lines requiring media serum (FBS, FCS) <10% can be selected. In some embodiments, adherent or suspension cell lines that do not form aggregates can be selected to ensure proper cell count and viability.

Step 8. In some embodiments, cell lines are selected based on the expression of immunosuppressive factors (e.g., based on RNA-seq data sourced from CCLE or EMBL as described in Step 1).

In some embodiments, a biopsy of a patient's tumor and subsequent TAA expression profile of the biopsied sample will assist in the selection of cell lines. Embodiments of the present disclosure therefore provide a method of preparing a vaccine composition comprising the steps of determining the TAA expression profile of the subject's tumor; selecting cancer cell lines; modifying cancer cell lines; and irradiating cell lines prior to administration to prevent proliferation after administration to patients.

Preparing Vaccine Compositions

In certain embodiments, after expansion in manufacturing, all of the cells in a modified cell line are irradiated, suspended, and cryopreserved. In some embodiments, cells are irradiated 10,000 cGy. According to some embodiments, cells are irradiated at 7,000 to 15,000 cGy. According to some embodiments, cells are irradiated at 7,000 to 15,000 cGy.

In certain embodiments, each vial contains a volume of 120±10 μL (1.2×107 cells). In some embodiments, the total volume injected per site is 300 μL or less. In some embodiments, the total volume injected per site is 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, or 300 μL. Where, for example, the total volume injected is 300 μL, the present disclosure provides, in some embodiments that 3×100 μL volumes, or 2×150 μL, are injected, for a toal of 300 μL.

In some embodiments, the vials of the component cell lines are stored in the liquid nitrogen vapor phase until ready for injection. In some embodiments, each of the component cell lines are packaged in separate vials.

As described herein, prior to administration, in some embodiments the contents of two vials are removed by needle and syringe and are injected into a third vial for mixing. In some embodiments, this mixing is repeated for each cocktail. In other embodiments, the contents of six vials are divided into two groups—A and B, where the contents of three vials are combined or mixed, optionally into a new vial (A), and the contents of the remaining three vials are combined or mixed, optionally into a new vial (B).

In certain embodiments, the cells will be irradiated prior to cryopreservation to prevent proliferation after administration to patients. In some embodiments, cells are irradiated at 7,000 to 15,000 cGy in order to render the cells proliferation incompetent.

In some embodiments, cell lines are grown separately and in the same growth culture media. In some embodiments, cell lines are grown separately and in different cell growth culture media.

Xeno-Free Conversion of Whole Tumor Cell Vaccine Component Cell Lines

Analysis of antibody responses in subjects treated with a whole tumor cell vaccine has suggested a negative correlation between survival and the development of IgG antibody responses to the bovine α-Gal antigen. (See Xia et al., Cell Chem Biol 23(12):1515-1525 (2016)). This is significant because most whole tumor cell vaccines are comprised of tumor cell lines that have been expanded and cryopreserved in media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), which contains the bovine α-Gal antigen.

In some embodiments, to prevent the immune response to foreign antigens that are present in FBS, the cell lines disclosed herein are adapted to xeno-free media composed of growth factors and supplements essential for cell growth that are from human source, prior to large scale cGMP manufacturing. As used herein, the terms “adapting” and “converting” or “conversion” are used interchangeably to refer to transferring/changing cells to a different media as will be appreciated by those of skill in the art. The xeno-free media formulation chosen can be, in some embodiments, the same across all cell lines or, in other embodiments, can be different for different cell lines. In some embodiments, the media composition will not contain any non-human materials and can include human source proteins as a replacement for FBS alone, or a combination of human source proteins and human source recombinant cytokines and growth factors (e.g., EGF). Additionally, the xeno-free media compositions can, in some embodiments, also contain additional supplements (e.g., amino acids, energy sources) that enhance the growth of the tumor cell lines. The xeno-free media formulation will be selected for its ability to maintain cell line morphology and doubling time no greater than twice the doubling time in FBS and the ability to maintain expression of transgenes comparable to that in FBS.

A number of procedures may be instituted to minimize the possibility of inducing IgG, IgA, IgE, IgM and IgD antibodies to bovine antigens. These include but are not limited to: cell lines adapted to growth in xeno-free media; cell lines grown in FBS and placed in xeno-free media for a period of time (e.g., at least three days) prior to harvest; cell lines grown in FBS and washed in xeno-free media prior to harvest and cryopreservation; cell lines cryopreserved in media containing Buminate (a USP-grade pharmaceutical human serum albumin) as a substitute for FBS; and/or cell lines cryopreserved in a medial formulation that is xeno-free, and animal-component free (e.g., CryoStor). In some embodiments, implementation of one or more of these procedures may reduce the risk of inducing anti-bovine antibodies by removing the bovine antigens from the vaccine compositions.

According to one embodiment, the vaccine compositions described herein do not comprise non-human materials. In some embodiments, the cell lines described herein are formulated in xeno-free media. Use of xeno-free media avoids the use of immunodominant xenogeneic antigens and potential zoonotic organisms, such as the BSE prion. By way of example, following gene modification, the cell lines are transitioned to xeno-free media and are expanded to generate seed banks. The seed banks are cryopreserved and stored in vapor-phase in a liquid nitrogen cryogenic freezer.

Exemplary xeno-free conversions are provided herein for a NSCLC and GBM vaccine preparations.

In Vitro Assays

The ability of allogeneic whole cell cancer vaccines such as those described herein, to elicit anti-tumor immune responses, and to demonstrate that modifications to the vaccine cell lines enhance vaccine-associated immune responses, can be modelled with in vitro assays. Without being bound by any theory, the genetic modifications made to the vaccine cell line components augment adaptive immune responses through enhancing dendritic cell (DC) function in the vaccine microenvironment. The potential effects of expression of TAAs, immunosuppressive factors, and/or immunostimulatory factors can be modelled in vitro, for example, using flow cytometry-based assays and the IFNγ ELISpot assay.

In some embodiments, to model the effects of modifications to the vaccine cell line components in vitro, DCs are derived from monocytes isolated from healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and used in downstream assays to characterize immune responses in the presence or absence of one or more immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive factors. The vaccine cell line components are phagocytized by donor-derived immature DCs during co-culture with the unmodified parental vaccine cell line (control) or the modified vaccine cell line components. The effect of modified vaccine cell line components on DC maturation, and thereby subsequent T cell priming, can be evaluated using flow cytometry to detect changes in markers of DC maturation such as CD40, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR. Alternatively, the immature DCs are matured after co-culture with the vaccine cell line components, the mature DCs are magnetically separated from the vaccine cell line components, and then co-cultured with autologous CD14-PBMCs for 6 days to mimic in vivo presentation and stimulation of T cells. IFNγ production, a measurement of T cell stimulatory activity, is measured in the IFNγ ELISpot assay or the proliferation and characterization of immune cell subsets is evaluated by flow cytometry. In the IFNγ ELISpot assay, PBMCs are stimulated with autologous DCs loaded with the unmodified parental vaccine cell line components to assess potential responses against unmodified tumor cells in vivo.

The IFNγ ELISpot assay can be used to evaluate the potential of the allogenic vaccine to drive immune responses to clinically relevant TAAs expressed by the vaccine cell lines. To assess TAA-specific responses in the IFNγ ELISpot assay, following co-culture with DCs, the PBMCs are stimulated with peptide pools comprising known diverse MHC-I epitopes for TAAs of interest. In various embodiments, the vaccine composition may comprise 3 cell lines that induce IFNγ responses to at least 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11 non-viral antigens, or at least 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or 100% of the antigens evaluated for an IFNγ response. In some embodiments, the vaccine composition may be a unit dose of 6 cell lines that induce IFNγ responses to at least 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11 non-viral antigens, or at least 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or 100% of the antigens evaluated for an IFNγ response.

In Vivo Mouse Models

Induction of antigen specific T cells by the allogenic whole cell vaccine can be modeled in vivo using mouse tumor challenge models. The vaccines provided in embodiments herein may not be administered directly to mouse tumor model due to the diverse xenogeneic homology of TAAs between mouse and human. However, a murine homolog of the vaccines can be generated using mouse tumor cell lines. Some examples of additional immune readouts in a mouse model are: characterization of humoral immune responses specific to the vaccine or TAAs, boosting of cellular immune responses with subsequent immunizations, characterization of DC trafficking and DC subsets at draining lymph nodes, evaluation of cellular and humoral memory responses, reduction of tumor burden, and determining vaccine-associated immunological changes in the TME, such as the ratio of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) to Tregs. Standard immunological methods such as ELISA, IFNγ ELISpot, and flow cytometry will be used.

Kits

The vaccine compositions described herein may be used in the manufacture of a medicament, for example, a medicament for treating or prolonging the survival of a subject with cancer, e.g., lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), small cell lung cancer (SCLC), prostate cancer, glioblastoma, colorectal cancer, breast cancer including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), bladder or urinary tract cancer, squamous cell head and neck cancer (SCCHN), liver hepatocellular (HCC) cancer, kidney or renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cancer, gastric or stomach cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, testicular cancer, pancreatic cancer, central nervous system cancers, endometrial cancer, melanoma, and mesothelium cancer.

Also provided are kits for treating or prolonging the survival of a subject with cancer containing any of the vaccine compositions described herein, optionally along with a syringe, needle, and/or instructions for use. Articles of manufacture are also provided, which include at least one vessel or vial containing any of the vaccine compositions described herein and instructions for use to treat or prolong the survival of a subject with cancer. Any of the vaccine compositions described herein can be included in a kit comprising a container, pack, or dispenser together with instructions for administration.

In some embodiments, provided herein is a kit comprising at least two vials, each vial comprising a vaccine composition (e.g., cocktail A and cocktail B), wherein each vial comprises at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 or more cell lines, wherein the cell lines are modified to inhibit or reduce production of one or more immunosuppressive factors, and/or express or increase expression of one or more immunostimulatory factors, and/or express a heterogeneity of tumor associated antigens, or neoantigens.

By way of example, a kit comprising 6 separate vials is provided, wherein each vial comprises one of the following cell lines: NCI-H460, NCI-H520, DMS 53, LK-2, NCI-H23, and A549. As another example, a kit comprising 6 separate vials is provided, wherein each vial comprises one of the following cell lines: DMS 53, DBTRG-05MG, LN-229, SF-126, GB-1, and KNS-60. As another example, a kit comprising 6 separate vials is provided, wherein each vial comprises one of the following cell lines: DMS53, PC3, NEC8, NTERA-2c1-D1, DU-145, and LNCAP. As another example, a kit comprising 6 separate vials is provided, wherein each vial comprises one of the following cell lines: DMS 53, HCT-15, HuTu80, LS411N, HCT-116 and RKO. As another example, a kit comprising 6 separate vials is provided, wherein each vial comprises one of the following cell lines: DMS 53, OVTOKO, MCAS, TOV-112D, TOV-21G, and ES-2. As another example, a kit comprising 6 separate vials is provided, wherein each vial comprises one of the following cell lines: DMS 53, HSC-4, HO-1-N-1, DETROIT 562, KON, and OSC-20. As another example, a kit comprising 6 separate vials is provided, wherein each vial comprises one of the following cell lines: DMS 53, J82, HT-1376, TCCSUP, SCaBER, and UM-UC-3. As another example, a kit comprising 6 separate vials is provided, wherein each vial comprises one of the following cell lines: DMS 53, MKN-1, MKN-45, MKN-74, OCUM-1, and Fu97. As another example, a kit comprising 6 separate vials is provided, wherein each vial comprises one of the following cell lines: DMS 53, AU565, CAMA-1, HS-578T, MCF-7, and T-47D. As another example, a kit comprising 6 separate vials is provided, wherein each vial comprises one of the following cell lines: DMS 53, PANC-1, KP-3, KP-4, SUIT-2, and PSN1.

In some embodiments, provided herein is a kit comprising at least two vials, each vial comprising a vaccine composition (e.g., cocktail A and cocktail B), wherein each vial comprises at least three cell lines, wherein the cell lines are modified to reduce production or expression of one or more immunosuppressive factors, and/or modified to increase expression of one or more immunostimulatory factors, and/or express a heterogeneity of tumor associated antigens, or neoantigens. The two vials in these embodiments together are a unit dose. Each unit dose can have from about 5×106 to about 5×107 cells per vial, e.g., from about 5×106 to about 3×107 cells per vial.

In some embodiments, provided herein is a kit comprising at least six vials, each vial comprising a vaccine composition, wherein each vaccine composition comprises one cell line, wherein the cell line is modified to inhibit or reduce production of one or more immunosuppressive factors, and/or modified to express or increase expression of one or more immunostimulatory factors, and/or expresses a heterogeneity of tumor associated antigens, or neoantigens. Each of the at least six vials in the embodiments provided herein can be a unit dose of the vaccine composition. Each unit dose can have from about 2×106 to about 50×106 cells per vial, e.g., from about 2×106 to about 10×106 cells per vial.

In some embodiments, provided herein is a kit comprising separate vials, each vial comprising a vaccine composition, wherein each vaccine composition comprises one cell line, wherein the cell line is modified to inhibit or reduce production of one or more immunosuppressive factors, and/or modified to express or increase expression of one or more immunostimulatory factors, and/or expresses, a heterogeneity of tumor associated antigens, or neoantigens. Each of the vials in the embodiments provided herein can be a unit dose of the vaccine composition. Each unit dose can have from about 2×106 to about 50×106 cells per vial, e.g., from about 2×106 to about 10×106 cells per vial.

In one exemplary embodiment, a kit is provide comprising two cocktails of 3 cell lines each (i.e., total of 6 cell lines in 2 different vaccine compositions) as follows: 8×106 cells per cell line; 2.4×107 cells per injection; and 4.8×107 cells total dose. In another exemplary embodiment, 1×107 cells per cell line; 3.0×107 cells per injection; and 6.0×107 cells total dose is provided. In some embodiments, a vial of any of the kits disclosed herein contains about 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, or 1.0 mL of a vaccine composition of the disclosure. In some embodiments, the concentration of cells in a vial is about 5×107 cells/mL to about 5×108/cells mL.

The kits as described herein can further comprise needles, syringes, and other accessories for administration.

EXAMPLES Example 1: Reduction of HLA-G Expression in a Human Adenocarcinoma Cell Line of the Lung Increases IFNγ Secretion in a Co-Culture with Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC)

Aberrant expression of HLA-G by tumor cell is associated with tumor immune escape, metastasis and poor prognosis. Ligation of HLA-G with its receptors ILT2 and ILT4 on DCs can promote immune tolerance and priming of T cells with an immunosuppressed phenotype. Reduction of HLA-G expression on cell line component of a whole cell vaccine could improve immunogenicity in the VME.

Reduction of HLA-G Expression in Human Adenocarcinoma Cell Line

Human adenocarcinoma cell line RERF-LC-Ad1 was transduced with lentiviral particles expressing a short-hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) specific for the knockdown of HLA-G (mature antisense sequence: TACAGCTGCAAGGACAACCAG) (SEQ ID NO: 23). Parental cells or cells transduced with control (non-silencing) shRNA served as controls. HLA-G expression levels following shRNA mediated HLA-G knockdown was determined by cytometry by staining with an APC-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody human HLA-G (clone 87G) and then FACs sorted to enrich for the HLA-G low population. Modified and unmodified cells were detached and stained with an APC-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody human HLA-G (clone 87G). After selection with puromycin to enrich for cells stable expressing the shRNA, cells were analyzed for expression of HLA-G at mRNA level by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and at protein level by flow cytometry. For qPCR cells were lysed in Trizol, total RNA isolated and then transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA). Relative HLA-G mRNA expression was quantified with specific-probes for HLA-G and PSMB4 (for normalization) using the MCt method. HLA-G mRNA expression was reduced in cells stable transduced with shRNA for HLA-G in comparison to parental (non-transduced) cells and cells transduced with control (non-silencing) shRNA by at least 75% (FIG. 1A). HLA-G expression levels were following shRNA mediated HLA-G knockdown was determined by flow cytometry. Modified and unmodified cells were detached and stained with an APC-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody human HLA-G (clone 87G). Fluorescence (expression) intensity was calculated as delta mean fluorescence intensity (ΔMFI=MFIanti-HLA-G−MFIunstained). HLA-G cell surface expression was reduced in in cells stable transduced with shRNA for HLA-G in comparison to parental (non-transduced) cells by 70% (FIG. 1B).

Increase of IFNγ Secretion in Mixed Lymphocyte Tumor Reaction (MLR)

PBMCs were isolated from blood of healthy donors and co-incubated with adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell lines, that were pre-treated with mitomycin C (0.4 μg/ml for 16 hours) to prevent tumor cell growth and proliferation, at a PBMC to tumor cell ratio of 10 to 1. Interleukin-2 (IL2) was added on day 3 (and 7) of co-culture at different concentrations. On day 7 and/or 10 cell culture supernatant was harvested and IFNγ secretion was measured by ELISA. The increase of IFNγ in the co-culture of PBMCs with tumor cells with reduced HLA-G expression was significant (p<0.01) compared to parental and non-silencing tumor cells on day 10 (2way ANOVA with Sidak's multiple comparisons test) (FIG. 2A). In addition, the significant increase of IFNγ secretion was independent of the IL-2 concentration during co-culture (p<0.0001, 2way ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparisons test) (FIG. 2B).

Example 2: Reduction of CD47 Expression Increases Phagocytosis of Tumor Cell Lines by Antigen Presenting Cells and Enhances Immunogenicity

CD47 is a cell surface marker for “self” and thereby prevents immunological responses against healthy cells. Primary tumor cells as well as tumor cell lines can express high levels of CD47.

Reduction of CD47 Expression in Human Adenocarcinoma Cell Line

The human NSCLC cell lines A549, NCI-H460, and NCI-H520 were electroporated with a zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) pair specific for CD47 targeting the following genomic DNA sequence: CACACAGGAAACTACacttgtGAAGTAACAGAATTA (SEQ ID NO: 27). Full-allelic knockout cells were identified by flow cytometry after staining with PE-conjugated anti-human CD47 monoclonal antibody (clone CC2C6) and then FACS sorted to enrich for the CD47 negative population. Gene editing of CD47 by ZFN resulted in greater than 99% reduction in CD47 expression by the A549 (FIG. 3A), NCI-H460 (FIG. 3B), and NCI-H520 (FIG. 3C) cell lines.

Reduction of CD47 Increases Phagocytosis of Tumor Cell Lines by Antigen Presenting Cells and Enhances Immunogenicity

The effect of reducing CD47 expression (CD47 KO) on phagocytosis and immunogenicity was determined using the NCI-H520 cell line. Specifically, the effect of CD47 KO on phagocytosis by human monocyte-derived professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), both DCs and macrophages, was determined using a phagocytosis assay. Immune responses induced by NCI-H520 unmodified parental and CD47 KO evaluated in the IFNγ ELISpot assay.

Generation of Human Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

Human immature dendritic cells (iDCs) and M1 macrophages (MDM) were derived from CD14+ cells isolated from healthy donor leukopaks (StemCell Technologies, #70500) by magnetic separation according to the manufacturer's instructions. iDCs were generated by culturing CD14+ cells in ImmunoCult™-ACF Dendritic Cell Medium (StemCell Technologies, #10986) in the presence of ImmunoCult™-ACF Dendritic Cell Differentiation Supplement (StemCell Technologies, #10988) according to the manufacturers instructions. iDCs were harvested for use in the phagocytosis assay on Day 3 and on Day 6 for use in the IFNγ ELISpot assay. MDM were generated by culturing CD14+ cells in RPMI supplemented with 10% FBS in the presence of 100 ng/mL GM-CSF (PeproTech, #300-03-100UG) for 7 days. To skew macrophages towards a M1 phenotype, on Day 7 the RPMI+10% FBS media was replaced with Macrophage-SFM (Gibco, #12065074) containing 20 ng/mL LPS (InvivoGen, #tlrl-3pelps) and 20 ng/mL IFNγ (PeproTech, 300-02-100UG). MDM were harvested on Day 9 for the phagocytosis assay.

Phagocytosis Assay

Unmodified parental and CD47 KO NCI-H520 cells were treated with 10 μg/mL mitomycin C (MMC) for 2 hours and rested overnight prior to labelling with 1 μM of CSFE (Invitrogen, #C34554) for 30 minutes at 37 L. iDC and MDM were co-cultured with the CSFE-labeled unmodified parental and CD47 KO NCI-H520 cells for 4 hours at 37 L. iDC and cell lines were co-cultured at a 1:1 effector to target ratio in 96-well low-adherence U bottom plates. MDM were co-cultured at a 1:4 effector to target ratio in 96-well plates. Following the 4 hour incubation, the co-cultures were surface stained with LIVE/DEAD Aqua (Molecular Probes, #L23105), aCD45-PE-Cy7 (BD Biosciences, clone H130), and aCD11c-BV605 (BD Biosciences, clone B-ly6) for iDCs or aCD11b-BV421 (BD Biosciences, clone ICRF44) for MDM. Flow cytometry data was analyzed using FlowJo (FlowJo LLC). MDM phagocytosis was defined as the percentage of live, CD45+, CD11b+ cells that were also CFSE (FITC) positive by flow cytometry. iDC phagocytosis was defined as the percent of live, CD45+, CD11c+ cells that were also CFSE (FITC+) positive by flow cytometry. MDM and iDC that were not co-cultured with the unmodified parental or CD47 KO NCI-H520 cells served as controls.

IFNγ ELISpot Assay

Unmodified parental and CD47 KO NCI-H520 cells were x-ray irradiated at 100 Gy (Rad Source 1800 Q) 24 hours prior to loading of iDCs. To load iDCs, irradiated unmodified parental and CD47 KO NCI-H520 (ATCC HTB-182) were co-cultured with iDCs at a 1:1 ratio for 24 hours in the presence of 25 μg/mL of Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) (Calbiochem #374807) and 1 μg/mL soluble CD40L (sCD40L) (PeproTech, #AF31002100UG). Tumor cell loaded iDCs were than matured overnight by the addition of 100 IU/mL IFNγ (PeproTech, 300-02-100UG), 10 ng/mL LPS (InvivoGen, #tlrl-3pelps) and 2.5 μg/mL Resiquimod (R848) (InvivoGen, #tlrl-3r848). Mature DCs (mDCs) were labelled with aCD45-PE (BD Biosciences, clone H130) and magnetically separated from the co-culture using the EasySep™ Release Human PE Positive Selection Kit (StemCell Technologies, #17654) according to manufacturers instructions. Isolated mDCs were then co-cultured with autologous CD14 PBMCs for 6 days at a 1:10 DC to PBMC ratio. For the IFNγ ELISpot assay (MabTech, 3420-4APT-10), CD14 PBMCs were isolated from co-culture with mDCs and stimulated with unmodified parental NCI-H520 loaded mDCs for 24 hours. IFNγ spot forming units (SFU) were detected following the manufacturers instructions, counted (S6 Core Analyzer, ImmunoSpot), and expressed as the number of SFU/106 PBMCs above that of the controls.

Increased phagocytosis of the NCI-H520 CD47KO cell line by monocyte derived dendritic cells and macrophages

Reduction of CD47 increased phagocytosis by MDM derived from 2 healthy donors by an average of 1.6-fold (11.1±1.9% live/CD45/CD11b+/CFSE+) relative to phagocytosis of the unmodified parental cell line (7.0±1.2% live/CD45/CD11b+/CFSE+). Reduction of CD47 also increased phagocytosis by iDC derived from 2 healthy donors by an average of 2.2-fold (11.9±2.3% live/CD45 ′/CD11c+/CFSE+) relative to phagocytosis of the unmodified parental cell line (5.5±3.4% live/CD45 ′/CD11c+/CFSE+) (FIG. 4A).

Reduction of CD47 Improves Immunogenicity of a Human Squamous Tumor Cell Line

IFNγ responses by ELISpot were 1.9-fold higher when autologous PBMCs were co-cultured with DCs loaded with CD47 KO cells (9,980±903 SFU) relative to DCs loaded with the unmodified parental, CD47 positive cells (5,253±109 SFU) (p=0.007, Student's T-test) (n=3) (FIG. 4B).

Example 3: Reduction of Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 Expression

Binding of PD1 on DCs to PDL1 (CD274) on tumor cells can suppress DC function and potentially reduce priming of inflammatory (Th1) T cells and promote the priming of immunosuppressive (Thz) T cells.

PDL1 expression by the NSCLC cell line NCI-H460 was reduced using zinc-finger mediated gene editing. The cell line was electroporated with DNA plasmids coding for a zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) pair specific for PD-L1 targeting the following genomic DNA sequence: CCAGTCACCTCTGAACATGaactgaCATGTCAGGCTGAGGGCT (SEQ ID NO: 28). Full-allelic knockout cells were identified by flow cytometry after staining with PE-conjugated anti-human CD274 monoclonal antibody (clone MIH1) and then FACS sorted. Gene editing of PD-L1 by ZFNs resulted in greater than 99% PD-L1 negative NCI-H460 cells after sorting (FIG. 5).

Example 4: Reduction of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 2 (Bst2) Expression

BST2 is a cell surface marker on primary tumor cells and tumor cell lines that inhibits cytokine production (type I interferons) through interaction with ILT7 (CD85g) on plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

The reduction of BST2 expression by the NCI-H2009 cell line was completed using ZFN mediated gene editing. The cell line was electroporated with DNA plasmids coding for a ZFN pair specific for BST2 targeting the following genomic DNA sequence: CCTAATGGCTTCCCTGGATgcagagAAGGCCCAAGGACAAAAG (SEQ ID NO: 34). Full-allelic knockout cells were identified by flow cytometry after staining with BV421-conjugated anti-human BST2 monoclonal antibody (clone HM1.24). Gene editing of BST2 by ZFNs resulted in 98.5% reduction in BST2 expression by NCI-H2009 cells (FIG. 6). The BST2 positive fraction of BST2-ZFN treated NCI-H2009 cells can subsequently be FACS sorted to purity.

Example 5: Reduction of TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 Secretion in Lung Cancer Cell Lines

TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 are highly immunosuppressive molecules secreted by tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. This example describes the procedure to generate lung cancer cell lines with reduced or without secretion of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 and how the changes in secretion were verified.

Cell Lines, Culture and Selection

The lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460 (ATCC HTB-177), DMS 53 (ATCC CRL-2062), NCI-H520 (ATCC HTB-182), A549 (ATCC CCL-185), NCI-H2023 (ATCC CRL-5912), NCI-H23 (ATCC CRL-5800), and NCI-H1703 (ATCC CRL-5889) were obtained from ATCC and cultured according to ATCC recommendations. LK-2 (JCRB0829) was obtained from the Japanese Collection of Research Biosources Cell Bank (JCRB) and cultured according to JCRB recommendations. For mammalian cell line selection after lentiviral transduction puromycin and blasticidin in concentrations ranging from 2 to 8 μg/mL were used for selection and maintenance.

shRNA Mediated Knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2

The cell lines NCI-H460, DMS 53, and NCI-H520, A549, NCI-H2023, NCI-H23, LK-2, and NCI-H1703 were transduced with lentiviral particles expressing short-hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) specific for the knockdown of TGFβ1 (shTGFβ1, mature antisense sequence: TTTCCACCATTAGCACGCGGG (SEQ ID NO: 25)) and TGFβ2 (shTGFβ2, mature antisense sequence: AATCTGATATAGCTCAATCCG (SEQ ID NO: 24)). Cells transduced with control shRNA (NS) or parental unmodified cell lines served as controls. After antibiotic selection to enrich for cells stabling expressing shRNA(s), cells were analyzed for TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion.

Knockout of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2

Knockout of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 was completed using CRISPR-Cas9 and ZFN approaches. For CRISPR-Cas9 knockouts, the NCI-H460 and NCI-H520 cell lines were electroporated with plasmid DNA coding for Cas9 and guide RNA specific for TGFβ2 targeting the following gDNA sequence: GCTTGCTCAGGATCTGCCCG (SEQ ID NO: 29) or control guide RNA targeting the sequence: GCACTACCAGAGCTAACTCA (SEQ ID NO: 30). Full-allelic knockout clones were screened for secretion of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 by ELISA. For ZFN-mediated knockout, the NCI-H460 cell line was electroporated with RNA coding for zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) pairs specific for TGFβ1 targeting the following genomic DNA (gDNA) sequence: CTCGCCAGCCCCCCGagccaGGGGGAGGTGCCGCCCGG (SEQ ID NO: 31) and for TGFβ2 targeting the following gDNA sequence: AGCTCACCAGTCCCCCAGAagactaTCCTGAGCCCGAGGAAGTC (SEQ ID NO: 32). Full-allelic knockout clones were screened by genomic DNA sequencing of expanded single cells and then analyzed for TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion.

TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 Secretion Assay

TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 knockdown or knockout cells and unmodified or control modified parental cells were plated at 8.33×104 cells/well in a 24-well plated in regular growth medium (RPMI containing 10% FBS). Twenty-four hours after plating, adherent cells were thoroughly washed to remove FBS and culture was continued in RPMI+5% CTS. Forty-eight hours after media replacement, the cell culture supernatant was harvested, and stored at −70° C. until TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion assays were initiated according to the manufacturer's instructions (DB100B and DB250, R&D Systems). TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion levels are expressed as pg/106 cells/24 hours. The lower limit of quantification of human TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 are 15.4 μg/mL (92.4 pg/106 cells/24 hours) and 7.0 μg/mL (42.0 pg/106 cells/24 hours), respectively. The lower limit of quantification of the ELISA assay was used to approximate the percent reduction of TGFβ1 or TGFβ2 relative to the unmodified parental cell line shRNA when the modified cell lines secreted levels of TGFβ1 or TGFβ2 below the lower limit of quantification of the assay. In cases where TGFβ1 or TGFβ2 secretion were below the lower limit of quantification, the lower limit of quantification was used to determine statistical significance at the n for which the assay was completed.

Reduction of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 Secretion in NCI-H460 Cells

Knockdown of TGFβ1 in NCI-H460 reduced TGFβ1 secretion by 62%. Similarly, knockdown of TGFβ2 in NCI-H460 reduced TGFβ2 secretion by 84%. The combined knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in NCI-H460 reduced TGFβ1 secretion by 57% and TGFβ2 secretion by >98% (Table 26) (FIG. 7A). Clones derived from Cas9 mediated knockout using TGFβ2 specific guide RNA in NCI-H460 cells demonstrated clones did not secrete TGFβ2 (>99% reduction) above the lower limit of detect compared clones from NCI-H460 treated with control guide RNA (3686±1478 pg/106 cells/24 hours) (FIG. 7B). Clones derived from NCI-H460 treated with TGFβ1 specific ZFN pair did not secrete TGFβ1 above the lower limit of detection of the assay compared to clones from NCI-H460 treated with TGFβ2 specific ZFN pair. Clones derived from NCI-H460 treated with TGFβ2 specific ZFN pair did not secrete TGFβ2 above the lower limit of detection in contrast to clones from NCI-H460 treated with TGFβ1 specific ZFN pair. Clones derived from NCI-H460 treated with TGFβ1 specific ZFN pair and with TGFβ2 specific ZFN pair did not secrete TGFβ1 or TGFβ2 above the lower limit of detection (FIG. 7C).

Knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in DMS 53 Cells

shRNA mediated knockdown of TGFβ1 in DMS 53 reduced TGFβ1 secretion by 66%. Similarly, shRNA-mediated knockdown of TGFβ2 in DMS 53 reduced TGFβ2 secretion by 53%. The combined knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in DMS 53 reduced TGFβ1 secretion by 74% and TGFβ2 secretion by 32% (Table 26) (FIG. 8A).

Knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in NCI-H520 Cells

Knockdown of TGFβ1 in NCI-H520 could not be evaluated because of the lack of detectable TGFβ1 secretion by the parental cell line. Knockdown of TGFβ2 in NCI-H520 reduced TGFβ2 secretion by >99%. The combined knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in NCI-H520 (ATCC HTB-182) reduced TGFβ2 secretion by >99% (Table 26) (FIG. 8B).

Knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in NCI-H2023 Cells

The combined knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in NCI-H2023 reduced TGFβ1 secretion below the lower limit of quantification (n=8) resulting in an estimated >90% decrease in TGFβ1 secretion compared to the unmodified parental cell line (933±125 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=8). TGFβ1 secretion was significantly reduced compared to the unmodified parental cell line (p<0.0002). The combined knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in NCI-H2023 reduced TGFβ2 secretion by 65% (118±42 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=8) compared to the unmodified parental cell line (341±32 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=8). TGFβ2 (p=0.0010) secretion was significantly decreased compared to the unmodified parental cell line (Mann-Whitney U Test) (Table 25) (FIG. 9A).

TABLE 25 shRNA mediate reduction of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in lung cancer cell lines TGFβ1 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) TGFβ2 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) Cell line Parental TGFβ1 KD % Reduction Parental TGFβ2 KD % Reduction NCI-H460 2263 ± 2080 973 ± 551 57 2096 ± 1023 <42 98 NCI-H520 <92 <92 NA 3657 ± 3394 <42 >99* DMS 53 504 ± 407 170 ± 128 53 4869 ± 5024  3293 ± 4161 32 NCI-H2023 933 ± 125 <92 >90* 341 ± 32  118 ± 42 65 NCI-H23 1575 ± 125  644 ± 102 59 506 ± 42  48 ± 9 90 A549 5796 ± 339  914 ± 54  84 772 + 49 42 ± 7 95 NCI-H1703 1736 ± 177  429 ± 133 75 <42 <42 NA LK-2 <92 <92 NA 197 ± 34   77 ± 12 61 Parental indicates the unmodified cell line. *Secretion levels are below the lower limit of quantification for TGFβ1 (92 pg/106 cells/24 hours) or TGFβ2 (42 pg/106 cells/24 hours). Lower limit of quantification used to approximate % reduction relative to parental. NA: secretion levels are below the lower limit of quantification for both the parental and shRNA modified cell line.

Knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in NCI-H23 Cells

The combined knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in NCI-H23 (ATCC CRL-5800) reduced TGFβ1 secretion by 59% (644±102 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=8) compared to the unmodified parental cell line (1,575±125 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=8). The combined knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in NCI-H23 (ATCC CRL-5800) reduced TGFβ2 secretion 90% (48±9 pg/106 cells/24h (n=9) compared to the unmodified parental cell line (506±42 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=9). TGFβ1 (p=0.0011) and TGFβ2 (p<0.0001) secretion were significantly decreased compared to the unmodified parental cell line (Mann-Whitney U Test) (Table 25) (FIG. 9B).

Knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in A549 Cells

The combined knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in A549 reduced TGFβ1 secretion by 84% (914±54 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=11) compared to the unmodified parental cell line (5,796±339 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=11). The combined knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in A549 reduced TGFβ2 secretion by 95% (42±7 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=11) compared to the unmodified parental cell line (772±49 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=11). Both TGFβ1 (p=0.0128) and TGFβ2 (p=0.0042) secretion were significantly decreased compared to the unmodified parental cell line (Mann-Whitney U Test) (Table 25) (FIG. 9C).

Knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in LK-2 Cells

Neither the unmodified parental (n=9) nor the shRNA modified cell lines (n=9) secreted TGFβ1 above the lower limit of quantification of the ELISA assay. The combined knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in LK-2 reduced TGFβ2 secretion by 61% (77±12 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=10) compared to the unmodified parental cell line (197±34 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=10). TGFβ2 (p=0.0042) secretion were significantly decreased compared to the unmodified parental cell line (Mann-Whitney U Test) (Table 25) (FIG. 9D).

Knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in NCI-H1703 Cells

The combined knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in NCI-H1703 reduced TGFβ1 secretion by 75% (429±133 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=3) compared to the unmodified parental cell line (1,736±177 pg/106 cells/24h) (n=3). Both the unmodified parental (n=5) and shRNA modified cell lines (n=5) did not secret TGFβ2 above the lower limit of quantification of the ELISA assay (Table 25) (FIG. 9E).

Example 6: Downregulation of TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 Enhances Cellular Immune Responses

Unmodified parental, TGFβ1 KD, TGFβ2 KD, or TGFβ1±β2 KD NCI-H460 cells were treated with 10 μg/mL MMC for 2 hours and then seeded in 6-well plate 24 hours prior to the addition of healthy donor PBMCs. PBMCs were co-cultured with the MMC treated NCI-H460 for 5-6 days in the presence of IL-2. On day 5 or 6, PBMCs were carefully isolated from the co-culture, counted, and loaded on pre-coated IFNγ ELISpot plates (MabTech). PBMCs were then stimulated with either MMC treated unmodified parental NCI-H460 cells or a mixture of 11 peptides comprising known MHC class I-restricted Survivin epitopes for 36-48 hours. IFNγ SFU were detected following the manufacturer's instructions, counted (CTL CRO Scanning Services), and expressed as the number of SFU/106 PBMCs.

Healthy donor (HLA-A*01, HLA-A*02) derived PBMCs sensitized with TGFβ1 KD NCI-H460 significantly increases cellular immune responses (1613±187 SFU), compared to sensitization with the unmodified parental NCI-H460 (507±152 SFU) (p<0.001) (FIG. 10A). Knockdown of both TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 also significantly increased IFNγ responses (1823±93 SFU) (p<0.001) compared to unmodified parental NCI-H460. Knockdown of TGFβ2 did not increase IFNγ production relative to the unmodified parental cell line (390±170 SFU) (p=0.692). The increase in immune responses with knockdown of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 is likely attributed to the effects of TGFβ1 knockdown because TGFβ2 knockdown alone did not enhance immunogenicity. In PBMCs derived from a different donor (HLA-A*01, HLA-A*11) knockdown of TGFβ1 in NCI-H460 significantly increased cellular immune responses (1883±144 SFU), compared to sensitization with the unmodified parental NCI-H460 (773±236 SFU) (p=0.013) (FIG. 10B). Knockdown of TGFβ2 alone (1317±85 SFU (p>0.999) and of both TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 (1630±62) (p=0.249) also increased IFNγ responses relative to sensitization with unmodified parental NCI-H460 cells but did not reach statistical significance.

Survivin (BIRC5) is a well characterized TAA that is overexpressed in multiple cancer immunotherapy indications. FIG. 10C demonstrates significantly more robust MHC class I-restricted responses to Survivin in the IFNγ ELISpot assay when donor PBMCs are sensitized with NCI-H460 TGFβ2 KD cells (192±120 SFU) compared to unmodified parental NCI-H460 cells (28±44) (p=0.005). PBMC sensitization with NCI-H460 TGFβ1 KD (30±64) (p=0.999) or TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD (30±38) (p=0.999) did not demonstrate a significant increase in Survivin specific IFNγ production in two independent experiments.

The effect of TGFβ1 KD on immunogenicity of this vaccine approach was further characterized in PBMCs isolated from the two healthy donors (HLA-A*24, HLA-A*30) (HLA-A*02, HLA-A*68) in the mixed lymphocyte co-culture reaction (n=3/donor). PBMCs cultured alone, or co-cultured with NCI-H520 TGFβ1 nonsense control or TGFβ1 KD cells in the presence of IL-2 for 10 days. PBMCs cultured without tumor cells served as an additional control. IFNγ secretion was measured in the co-culture supernatant by ELISA on day 10 (FIG. 11A). IFNγ secretion was significantly increased, compared to PBMCs alone (83±86 μg/mL), in the supernatant of PBMCs co-cultured with NCI-H520 TGFβ1 KD cells (272±259 μg/mL) (p=0.046). There was not a significant increase in IFNγ secretion in the supernatant of the NCI-H520 TGFβ1 nonsense KD (86±32 μg/mL) (p=0.512) compared to PBMCs alone.

The impact of TGFβ1 knockdown on the immunogenicity of NCI-H520 was further evaluated in an autologous PBMC DC co-culture assay. DCs, differentiated from monocytes isolated from a healthy donor (HLA-A*24, HLA-A*30), were loaded with cell lysate from NCI-H520 unmodified parental cells, TGFβ1 KD, TGFβ2 KD, or TGFβ1±β2 KD cells. Autologous PBMCs were co-cultured with lysate loaded DCs for 5-6 days in the presence of 20 U/mL of IL-2. On day 5 or 6, PBMCs were carefully isolated from the co-culture, counted, and 1×105 plated per well on pre-coated IFNγ ELISpot plates (MabTech). PBMCs were then stimulated with MMC treated unmodified parental NCI-H520 cells for 36-48 hours. The results indicated that there was a trend towards TGFβ1 KD increasing cellular immune responses to NCI-H520 unmodified parental cells (357±181 SFU), assayed by IFNγ ELISpot, compared to unmodified parental NCI-H520 cells (93±162 SFU) (p=0.181) (FIG. 11B). IFNγ responses to unmodified parental NCI-H520 cells induced in autologous PBMCs co-cultured with lysate from NCI-H520 TGFβ2 KD (13±23 SFU) (p=0.897) and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD (240±142 SFU) (p=0.603) did not significantly increase IFNγ responses compared to autologous PBMCs co-cultured with NCI-H520 (ATCC HTB-182) unmodified parental lysate loaded DCs. Despite not reaching statistical significance, cellular immune responses induced by co-culture of autologous PBMCs with DCs loaded with NCI-H520 TGFβ1 KD and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD were more robust than those with NCI-H520 TGFβ2 KD and unmodified parental lysate.

Example 7: shRNA Downregulation of TGFβ Induces Stronger Immune Responses than TGFβ Knockout in Cell Lines

In vitro data suggest that a complete knockout of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 was less effective at inducing responses against tumor cells than shRNA knockdown of the two molecules. A representative assay is shown in FIG. 12. Normal donor PBMC were cocultured with either TGFβ1/TGFβ2 shRNA modified or NCI-H460 or TGFβ1/TGFβ2 ZFN knockout NCI-H460 prior to analysis in an IFNγ ELISpot assay. The data show that the shRNA modified cells induced significantly better IFNγ secretion than ZFN-knockout cells (p=0.0143, unpaired t-test). For this experiment, 5 individual donors were tested for a total of 24 replicates for the shRNA modified cells and 31 replicates for the knockout cells.

Because TGFβ1 is a key player in regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, complete lack of TGFβ1 induces a less immunogenic phenotype in tumor cells (Miyazono, K et al., Frontiers of Medicine. 2018). This was discernable when compared the ratio of the expression of important immune response-related proteins in TGFβ1 TGFβ2 shRNA knockdown in NCI-H460 compared to knockout (FIG. 13). The knockdown cells expressed high levels of immunogenic proteins and TAAs compared to the knockout cells.

Collectively, the data presented in Examples 6 and 7 demonstrate that reduction of TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 can increase cellular immune responses to unmodified parental tumor cells and antigens in the context of an allogenic whole cell vaccine. Further, these data demonstrate that shRNA mediated knockdown induces more robust immune responses compared to knockout of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2.

Example 8. Immunogenicity of Combinations of Cell Lines with shRNA Mediated Downregulated TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 Secretion

Immunogenicity of example combinations of cell lines with reduced TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 secretion were determined by IFNγ ELISpot as described in Example 2 with modifications. Two different responses were evaluated, first for the combinations of cell lines and second for known tumor associated, tumor-specific, and cancer-testis antigens (collectively referred to as antigens). To assess immune responses generated by the combinations of cell lines, DCs were loaded at a 1.0:0.33 DC to cell line ratio such that the ratio of DCs to total cell line was 1:1. Specifically, 1.5×106 DCs were cocultured with 5.0×106 cell line 1, 5.0e5 cell line 2, and 5.0e5 cell line 3.

To assess responses to antigens, CD14 PBMCs isolated from co-culture with mDCs on day 6 were stimulated with antigen specific peptide pools in the IFNγ ELISpot assay for 24 hours prior to detection of IFNγ SFU. Antigen specific responses are expressed as the number of SFU/106 PBMCs above that of the controls. Antigen peptide pools were acquired from the commercial sources as follows: Mage A1 (JPT, PM-MAGEA1), Mage A3 (JPT, PM-MAGEA3), Mage A4 (JPT, PM-MAGEA4), CEACAM (CEA) (JPT, PM-CEA), MUC1 (JPT, PM-MUC1), Survivin (thinkpeptides, 7769_001-011), PRAME (Miltenyi Biotec, 130-097-286), WT1 (JPT, PM-WT1), TERT (JPT, PM-TERT), STEAP (PM-STEAP1), and HER2 (JPT, PM-ERB_ECD). Immune responses were determined in using cells derived from HLA-A02 (Donors 1-3) and HLA-A11 (Donor 4) healthy donors (n=2-3/cell line/donor).

Immunogenicity of the six example combinations of three TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 modified cell lines were determined by IFNγ ELISpot (FIG. 14).

Example vaccine cell line Combination 1 was composed of NCI-2023, NCI-H23, and LK-2 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 modified cell lines. The cell line combination elicited a total IFNγ response of 5,499±1,016 SFU (n=9/3 donors) consisting of 1,800±553 SFU to NCI-2023, 2,069±393 SFU to NCI-H23, and 1,630±102 SFU to LK-2 (FIG. 14A) (Table 26). Example vaccine cell line Combination 2 was composed of the NCI-H23, DMS 53, and NCI-H1703 TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 modified cell lines. This example vaccine combination elicited a total IFNγ response of 3,604±1,491 SFU (n=9/3 donors) consisting of 1,738±529 SFU to NCI-H23, 826±457 SFU to DMS 53, and 1,041±555 SFU to NCI-H1703 (FIG. 14B) (Table 26). Example vaccine cell line Combination 3 was composed of NCI-H2023, DMS 53, and NCI-H1703 TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 modified cell lines. This example cell line combination induced a total IFNγ response of 6,065±941 SFU (n=9/3 donors) consisting of 2,847±484 SFU to NCI-H2023, 1,820±260 SFU to DMS 53, and 1,398±309 SFU to NCI-H1703 (FIG. 14C) (Table 26). Example vaccine cell line Combination 4 consisted of NCI-H23, DMS 53, and LK-2 TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 modified cell lines. This example cell line combination induced a total IFNγ response of 9,612±5,293 SFU (n=12/4 donors) consisting of 2,654±1,091 SFU to NCI-H23, 3,017±1,914 SFU to DMS 53, and 3,942±2,474 SFU to LK-2. (FIG. 14D) (Table 26). Example vaccine cell line Combination 5 consisted of NCI-H2023, DMS 53, and LK-2 TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 modified cell lines. This example cell line combination induced a total IFNγ response of 6,358±2,278 SFU (n=9/3 donors) consisting of 2,869±1,150 SFU to NCI-H2023, 1,698±568 SFU to DMS 53, and 1,791±637 SFU to LK-2 (FIG. 14E) (Table 26). Example vaccine cell line Combination 6 consisted of NCI-H460, NCI-H520, and A549 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 modified cell lines. This example cell line combination induced a total IFNγ of 8,407±1,535 SFU (n=12/4 donors) comprising of 2,320±666 SFU to NCI-H460, 2,723±644 SFU to NCI-H520, and 3,005±487 SFU to A549 (FIG. 14F) (Table 26).

For some exemplary cell line combinations, IFNγ responses against the individual unmodified parental cell lines were enhanced when PBMCs were co-cultured with DCs presenting antigens from three vaccine cell line combinations relative to PBMCs co-cultured with DCs presenting antigens from a single vaccine cell line component (Table 26). The immune responses induced by three cell line combinations were more robust than the responsed induced by each individual cell line.

TABLE 26 IFNγ responses against cell lines in example combinations or against single individual vaccine component cell lines Three Vaccine Single Vaccine Cell Line Combination Cell Line Component (SFU) (SFU) Cell Line Combination 1 NCI-2023 1,800 ± 553 903 ± 136 NCI-H23 2,069 ± 393 1,014 ± 773 LK-2 1,630 ± 102 1,573 ± 935 Cell Line Combination 2 NCI-H23 1,738 ± 529 1,014 ± 773 DMS 53 826 ± 457 227 ± 227 NCI-H1703 1,041 ± 555 724 ± 724 Cell Line Combination 3 NCI-H2023 2,847 ± 484 903 ± 136 DMS 53 1,820 ± 260 227 ± 227 NCI-H1703 1,398 ± 309 724 ± 724 Cell Line Combination 4 NCI-H23 2,654 ± 1,091 1,567 ± 788 DMS 53 3,017 ± 1,914 138 ± 85  LK-2 3,942 ± 2,474 1,592 ± 965 Cell Line Combination 5 NCI-H2023 2,869 ± 1,150 903 ± 136 DMS 53 1,698 ± 568 227 ± 227 LK-2 1,791 ± 637 1,573 ± 935 Cell Line Combination 6 NCI-H460 2,320 ± 666 970 ± 281 NCI-H520 2,723 ± 644 596 ± 336 A549 3,005 ± 487 2,677 ± 632

IFNγ responses to 11 antigens were determined for the example vaccine Combination 4 (NCI-H23, DMS 53, and LK-2 TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 modified cell lines). Responses against the antigens Mage A1, Mage A3, Mage A4, CEACAM (CEA), MUC1, Survivin, PRAME, WT1, TERT, STEAP, and HER2 were assessed in 3 HLA-A02 health donors (n=3/donor). Example vaccine Combination 4 induced antigen specific IFNγ responses greater in magnitude 5,423±427 SFU (FIG. 15A) and breadth (FIG. 15B) compared to the single vaccine component TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 modified cell lines; NCI-H23 (4,1115±2,118 SFU), DMS 53 (3,661±1,982 SFU), and LK-2 (2,772±2,936 SFU). Responses to specific antigens are in the order indicated in the figure legends. The average IFNγ response to each antigen induced by the single component and combination cell line vaccines are detailed in FIG. 15B.

Example 9: Reduction of HLA-E Expression Improves Cellular Immune Responses

HLA-E belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. Human tumor cell surface expression of HLA-E can inhibit the anti-tumor functions of NK, DC, and CD8 T cells through binding to the NKG2A receptor on these immune cell subsets.

Reduction of HLA-E Expression in the RERF-LC-Ad1 Cell Line (JCRB1020)

The human adenocarcinoma cell line RERF-LC-Ad1 was electroporated with a zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) pair specific for HLA-E targeting the following genomic DNA sequence: TACTCCTCTCGGAGGCCCTGgcccttACCCAGACCTGGGCGGGT (SEQ ID NO: 33). Full-allelic knockout cells were identified by flow cytometry after staining with PE-conjugated anti-human HLA-E (BioLegend, clone 3D12) then FACS sorted. Cells were expanded after sorting and percent knockout determined. The MFI of the unstained control of the HLA-E KO or unmodified parental cell was subtracted from the MFI of the HLA-E KO or unmodified parental cells stained with PE-conjugated anti-human HLA-E (BioLegend, clone 3D12). Gene editing of HLA-E by ZFN resulted in greater than 99% HLA-E negative cells after FACS sorting (FIG. 16A). Knockout percentage is expressed as: (RERF-LC-Ad1 HLA-E KO MFI/Parental MFI)×100.

Reduction of HLA-E Expression Improves Immune Responses

IFNγ ELISpot was completed as described in Example 8 with one modification. In this experiment iDC were loaded with only one cell line, RERF-LC-Ad1 parental or HLA-E KO cell lines. Here, 1.5×106 DCs were loaded with 1.5×106 RERF-LC-Ad1 parental or HLA-E KO cells. IFNγ responses were 1.8-fold higher when autologous PBMCs were co-cultured with DCs loaded with HLA-E negative cells (5085±1157 SFU) relative to DCs loaded with the unmodified parental HLA-E positive cells (2810±491 SFU). Student's test, p=0.012. n=12, 3 HLA-A diverse donors (FIG. 16B).

Example 10: Reduction of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4) Expression Increases Cellular Immune Responses

CTLA-4 (CD152) functions as an immune checkpoint and is constitutively expressed on some tumor cells. CTLA-4 binding to CD80 or CD86 on the surface of DCs can negatively regulate DC maturation and inhibit proliferation and effector function of T cells.

Reduction of CTLA-4 Expression in Human Squamous Cell Line

The NCI-H520 cell line was transfected with siRNA targeting CTLA-4 (Dharmacon, L-016267-00-0050). Cells were seeded at 6×105 in each well of a six well plate in antibiotic-free media and incubated at 37° C. in 5% CO2. Following DharmaFect siRNA transfection protocol, each well was transfected with a 25 nM final concentration of CTLA-4 siRNA using 4 uL of DharmaFECT 1 Transfection Reagent (Dharmacon, T-20001-01) per well. Reduction of CTLA-4 expression on live cells was determined by flow cytometry 72 hours after siRNA transfection prior to use in the IFNγ ELISpot assay. Specifically, NCI-H520 cells were stained with LIVE/DEAD™ Aqua (Invitrogen, L34965) and human α-CTLA4-APC (BioLegend, clone L3D10). siRNA reduced NCI-H520 cell surface expression of CTLA-4 (3.59%) 2.1-fold compared to unmodified parental NCI-H520 (7.59%) (FIG. 17A).

Reduction of CTLA-4 Expression in the NCI-H520 (ATCC HTB-182) Cell Line Increases Cellular Immune Responses

The impact of reducing cell surface expression of CTLA-4 on cellular immune responses was evaluated in the IFNγ ELISpot assay using cells derived from an HLA-A 02:01 donor. The ELISpot was initiated 72 hours after siRNA transfection and carried out as described in Example 9. Reduction of CTLA-4 expression in NCI-H520 was associated with a 1.6-fold increase in IFNγ responses (2,770±180 SFU) (n=2) compared to the unmodified parental cell line (1,730±210 SFU) (n=2) (FIG. 17B).

Example 11. Reduction of CD276 Expression in the A549 Cell Line Enhances Cellular Immune Responses

CD276 (B7-H3) is an immune checkpoint member of the B7 and CD28 families. Over expression of CD276 in human solid cancers can induce an immunosuppressive phenotype and preferentially down-regulates Th1-mediated immune responses.

Reduction of CD276 expression in A549 was completed using the CRISPR-Cas9 system with guide RNA specific for TGCCCACCAGTGCCACCACT (SEQ ID NO: 117)(Synthego). The initial heterogenous population contained 71% A549 cells where CD276 expression was reduced. The heterogenous population was surface stained with BB700-conjugated α-human CD276 (BD Biosciences, clone 7-517) and full allelic knockout cells enriched by cell sorting (BioRad S3e Cell Sorter). The reduction of CD276 was confirmed by extracellular staining of the sort enriched A540 CD276 KO cells and parental A549 cells with PE α-human CD276 (BioLegend, clone DCN.70). Unstained and isotype control PE α-mouse IgG1 (BioLegend, clone MOPC-21) stained A549 CD276 KO cells served as controls. Cas9-mediated gene editing of CD276 resulted in >99% reduction of CD276 compared to controls (FIG. 18A).

In a representative experiment, iDCs were loaded A549 parental cells or A549 CD276 KO cells and co-cultured with autologous CD14-PBMCs for 6 days prior to stimulation with autologous DCs loaded with cell lysate from wild type A549. Cells were then assayed for IFNγ secretion against wild type A549 cells in an ELISpot assay. These data show that CD276 KO cells are better stimulators than the wild type cells (p=0.017; unpaired t test) (FIG. 18B).

Example 12: Reduction of CD47 Expression and TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 Secretion

Methods for shRNA downregulation of TGFβ1 and TGFβ1 and determine levels of secreted TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 are described in Example 5.

Reduction of CD47 Expression in Human Lung Cancer Lines with shRNA Downregulated TGFβ1 and or TGFβ2

The A549, NCI-H460, NCI-H2023, NCI-H23, NCI-H520, LK-2, and NCI-H1703 that were modified to decrease secretion of TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 were further modified to reduce expression of CD47 as described in Example 2 and additional methods described here. Following ZFN-mediated knockout of CD47, the cell lines were surface stained with FITC-conjugated α-CD47 (BD Biosciences, clone B6H12) and full allelic knockout cells enriched by cell sorting (BioRad S3e Cell Sorter). The cells were collected using a purity sorting strategy to ensure the collection of only CD47 negative cells. The sorted cells were plated in an appropriately sized vessel based on cell number, grown and expanded. After cell enrichment for full allelic knockouts, the TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO cells were passaged 2-5 times and CD47 knockout percentage determined by flow cytometry (BV421-conjugated human aCD47, BD Biosciences, clone B6H12). The MFI of the unstained controls for the modified or unmodified parental cells were subtracted from the MFI of the modified or unmodified parental cells stained with BV421-conjugated human α-CD47. CD47 knockout percentage is expressed as: (1-(TGFβ1/TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO MFI/Parental MFI))×100).

Gene editing of CD47 by ZFN resulted in greater than 99% CD47 negative cells after FACS sorting in the cell lines (Table 27) while maintaining reduced secretion of TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 (Table 28). The downregulation of TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 with reduction of CD47 expression is shown as follows: NCI-H2023 in FIG. 19, NCI-H23 in FIG. 20, A549 in FIG. 21, NCI-H460 in FIG. 22, NCI-H1703 in FIG. 23, LK-2 in FIG. 24, DMS 53 in FIG. 25, and NCI-H520 in FIG. 26.

TABLE 27 CD47 KO in TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 KD cell lines Parental Modified % Reduction Cell line CD47 MFI CD47 MFI CD47 NCI-H2023 244,674 0 100.0 NCI-H23 252,210 1745 99.3 A549 96,845 29 99.9 NCI-H460 134,473 343 99.7 NCI-H1703 202,482 1069 99.5 LK-2 92,360 0 100.0 DMS 53 46,399 389 99.2 NCI-H520 158,037 145 99.9 MFI reported with unstained controls subtracted. Parental indicates the unmodified cell line.

TABLE 28 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 KD cell lines CD47 KO cell lines TGFβ1 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) TGFβ2 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) Cell line Parental TGFβ1 KD % Reduction Parental TGFβ2 KD % Reduction NCI-H2023 1262 ± 163 <92 >93*  393 ± 168 168 ± 57 57 NCI-H23 1993 ± 540  590 ± 136 70  679 ± 211 <42 >94* A549 5962 ± 636 952 ± 77 84 718 ± 82  45 ± 12 94 NCI-H460 1758 ± 75  227 ± 45 87 2564 ± 200  559 ± 147 57 NCI-H1703 1700 ± 300 565 ± 91 67 <42 <42 NA LK-2 <92 <92 NA 111 ± 41  58 ± 13 48 DMS 53 Not completed 2458 ± 675 1409 ± 313 43 NCI-H520 <92 <92 NA 3278 ± 837 151 ± 13 95 Parental indicates the unmodified cell line. *Secretion levels are below the lower limit of quantification for TGFβ1 (92 pg/106 cells/24 hours) or TGFβ2 (42 pg/106 cells/24 hours). Lower limit of quantification used to approximate % reduction relative to parental. NA: secretion levels are below the lower limit of quantification for both the parental and shRNA modified cell line.

Example 13: Reduction of CD276 Expression and TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 Secretion Increases Cellular Immune Responses

The human tumor cell lines NCI-H460, NCI-H520, DMS 53, A549, NCI-H2023, NCI-H23, LK-2 and NCI-H1703, in which TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 secretion was reduced by shRNA in Example 5 were electroporated with a zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) pair specific for CD276 targeting the genomic DNA sequence: GGCAGCCCTGGCATGggtgtgCATGTGGGTGCAGCC. (SEQ ID NO: 26). Following ZFN-mediated knockout of CD276 in the TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 KD lines, the cell lines were surface stained with BB700-conjugated α-human CD276 (BD Biosciences, clone 7-517) and full allelic knockout cells enriched by cell sorting (BioRad S3e Cell Sorter). The cells were collected using a purity sorting strategy to ensure the collection of only CD276 negative cells. The sorted cells were plated in an appropriately sized vessel based on cell number, grown and expanded. After cell enrichment for full allelic knockouts, the TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO cells were passaged 2-5 times and CD276 knockout percentage by flow cytometry (BV421-conjugated human α-CD276, BD Biosciences, clone 7-517). The MFI of the unstained controls for modified cells or unmodified parental cells were subtracted from the MFI of the modified cells or unmodified parental cells stained with BV421-conjugated human α-CD276. Percent reduction is expressed as: (1-(TGFβ1/β2 KD CD276 KO MFI/Parental MFI))×100).

Gene editing of CD276 by ZFN resulted in greater than 99% CD276 negative cells (Table 29) in the cell lines with reduced secretion of TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 (Table 31). The downregulation of TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 with reduction of CD276 expression is shown as follows: NCI-H2023 in FIG. 27, NCI-H23 in FIG. 28, A549 in FIG. 29, NCI-H460 in FIG. 30, NCI-H1703 in FIG. 31, LK-2 in FIG. 32, DMS 53 in FIG. 33, and NCI-H520 in FIG. 34.

TABLE 29 CD276 knockout in cell lines with reduced TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 secretion. Parental Modified % Reduction Cell line CD276 MFI CD276 MFI CD276 NCI-H2023 262,460 680 99.7 NCI-H23 74,176 648 99.1 A549 141,009 688 99.5 NCI-H460 366,565 838 99.8 NCI-H1703 262,386 417 99.9 LK-2 385,535 867 99.8 DMS 53 304,637 972 99.7 NCI-H520 341,202 212 99.9 MFI reported with unstained controls subtracted. Parental indicates the unmodified cell line.

TABLE 30 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO cell lines. TGFβ1 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) TGFβ2 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) Cell line Parental TGFβ1 KD % Reduction Parental TGFβ2 KD % Reduction NCI-H2023 1090 ± 279  97 ± 23 91 347 ± 57 153 ± 93  56 NCI-H23 1683 ± 111  706 ± 180 58 523 ± 37 55 ± 18 89 A549 6443 ± 406 770 ± 29 88  757 ± 125 61 ± 8  92 NCI-H460 1415 ± 282 390 ± 14 72 2100 ± 542 680 ± 166 68 NCI-H1703 1682 ± 155 434 ± 53 74 <42 <42 NA LK-2 <92 <92 NA 140 ± 64 76 ± 16 46 DMS 53 Not completed  4053 ± 2548 2329 ± 1175 52 NCI-H520 <92 <92 NA 4045 ± 525 59 ± 34 99 Parental indicates the unmodified cell line NA: secretion levels are below the lower limit of quantification for both the parental and shRNA modified cell line.

TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD and CD276 KO Increases Cellular Immune Responses

IFNγ ELISpot was carried out as described in Example 9. Cells derived from HLA-A02 and HLA-A03 healthy donors were used to evaluate if reduction of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion and CD276 expression could improve immune responses compared to the unmodified parental cell lines. In the NCI-H460 cell line, modification of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276 increased IFNγ responses 2.3-fold (569±87 SFU) (n=11) relative to the unmodified parental cell line (250±63 SFU) (n=11) (p=0.0078, Mann-Whitney U Test) (FIG. 35A). In the A549 cell line, modification of TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and CD276 increased IFNγ responses 22.2-fold (83±29 SFU) (n=11) relative to the unmodified parental cell line (1,848±569 SFU) (n=11) (p=0.0091, Mann-Whitney U Test) (FIG. 35B).

Example 14: Reduction of CD276 and CD47 Expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 Secretion Increases Cellular Immune Responses

The A549 cell line was modified to reduce TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion using shRNA and reduce expression of CD47 and CD276. Methods used to secretion and determine levels of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 are described in Example 5. Methods employed to reduce expression of CD47 and CD276 and determine expression levels are described in Example 12 and Example 13, respectively. IFNγ ELISpot was completed as described in Example 9.

Characterization of A549 Cells with Reduced Expression of CD276 and CD47 and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 Secretion

CD47 expression was reduced 99.9% on the modified cell line (136 MFI) relative to the unmodified parental cell line (104,442 MFI) (FIG. 36A) (Table 31). CD276 expression was reduced 100% on the modified cell line (0 MFI) relative to the unmodified parental cell line (53,196 MFI) (FIG. 36B) (Table 31). TGFβ1 secretion was by the modified cell line (2027±31 pg/106 cells/24 hours) (n=2) was reduced 78% compared to the unmodified parental cell line (9093±175 pg/106 cells/24 hours) (n=2) (FIG. 36C). TGFβ2 secretion by the modified cell line was below the lower limit of quantification of the ELISA assay (n=2), resulting in a 100% reduction in secretion levels relative to the unmodified parental cell line (607±76 pg/106 cells/24 hours) (n=2) (FIG. 36D).

Reduction of CD276 and CD47 Expression and TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 Secretion Increases Cellular Immune Responses

Cells derived from HLA-A02 (FIG. 37A), HLA-A03 (FIG. 37A), and HLA-A24 (FIG. 37B) healthy donors were utilized in the IFNγ ELISpot assay to determine if modification of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2, CD276, and CD47 in the A549 cell line enhanced immune responses relative to the unmodified parental cell line. IFNγ ELISpot was completed as described in Examples 9. The modified cell line increased IFNγ responses 26.8-fold (83±29 SFU) (n=11) relative to the unmodified parental cell line (2,233±493 SFU) (n=11) (p=0.0091, Mann-Whitney U test) (FIG. 37A). Responses against 10 antigens were assessed for the unmodified parental, TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47KO, TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO, and TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 CD47KO A549 modified cell lines. Relative to the total TAA response induced by the unmodified parental cell line (15,140 SFU) (n=3), reduction of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD47 increased the total antigen specific response 1.7-fold (25,813 SFU) (n=3), reduction of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276 increased the total antigen specific response 2.0-fold (30,640 SFU) (n=3), and reduction of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, CD47 and CD276 increased the total TAA response 2.0-fold (29,993 SFU) (n=3) (FIG. 37B). Responses to specific antigens are in the order indicated in the figure legends. The data suggests that both reduction of CD47 and/or CD276 concurrently with reduction in TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion can promote increased TAA-specific IFNγ production.

TABLE 31 Knockout of CD47 or CD276 in TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD cell lines modified to secrete GM-CSF, express membrane bound CD40L, and secrete IL-12. Cell line Parental MFI CD47 MFI % Reduction A549 100,228 33 99.9 NCI-H460 140,990 6 >99.9  Cell line Parental MFI CD276 MFI % Reduction A549 30,636 326 98.9 NCI-H460 82,858 1,467 98.2 MFI reported with unstained controls subtracted. Parental indicates the unmodified cell line.

Example 15: Expression of Membrane Bound CD154 (Membrane Bound CD40 Ligand) Enhances Cellular Immune Responses

CD40 Ligand (CD40L) is transiently expressed on T cells and other non-immune cells under inflammatory condition and binds to the costimulatory molecule CD40 on B cells and professional antigen-presenting cells. The binding of CD40L to CD40 upregulates multiple facets of adaptive cellular and humoral immunity.

Expression of Membrane Bound CD40L in the A549 Cell Line

The cell line A549 cell line was transduced with lentiviral particles expressing a CD40L sequence modified to reduce cleavage by ADAM17 and, thereby, promote membrane bound CD40L expression. Parental, unmodified cell lines served as controls. After antibiotic selection in 200 μg/mL to enrich for cells stable expressing CD40L, cells were analyzed for CD40L expression on the cell surface using flow cytometry and solubilized CD40L detected by ELISA. The sequence of membrane bound CD40L used in this example is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1.

To determine the level of membrane bound CD40L expression, unmodified parental and modified cells were stained with PE-conjugated human α-CD40L (BD Biosciences, clone TRAP1). There was a 25.5-fold increase in the expression of CD40L on the cell surface (43,466 MFI) compared to the unmodified parental A549 cell line (1702 MFI) (FIG. 38A).

Solubilized CD40L was quantified by ELISA. CD40L-transduced and unmodified parental cells were plated at 8.33×101 cells/well in a 24-well plated in regular growth medium (RPMI containing 10% FBS). Twenty-four hours after plating, adherent cells were thoroughly washed to remove FBS and culture was continued in RPMI+5% CTS. Forty-eight hours after media replacement, the cell culture supernatant was harvested, and stored at −70° C. until the assays were completed according to the manufacturers instructions (BioLegend, DCDL40). The lower limit of quantification of human CD40L is 62.5 μg/mL, or 0.375 ng/106 cells/24 hours. Overexpression of CD40L resulted in 2.93 ng/106 cells/24 hours of sCD40L (FIG. 38B).

The effect of A549 CD40L expression on DC maturation was characterized by flow cytometry. iDCs and A549 unmodified parental cells, unmodified parental cells with exogenous sCD40L (1 μg/mL) (PeproTech, #AF31002100UG), or A549 cells overexpressing membrane-bound CD40L were co-cultured at a 1:1 ratio in 96-well low-adherence U bottom plates. Following the 24 hours incubation, the co-cultures were surface stained with LIVE/DEAD Aqua (Molecular Probes, #L23105), aCD45-PE-Cy7 (BD Biosciences, clone H130), and aCD11c-BV605 (BD Biosciences, clone B-ly6), and aCD83-APC (BD Biosciences, clone HB15e). Flow cytometry data was analyzed using FlowJo (FlowJo LLC). Increased DC maturation was defined as an increase in the % live, CD45+CD11c+CD83+ DCs. DC maturation was evaluated for 7 HLA diverse healthy donors.

A549 expression of CD40L significantly increased the % of live, CD45+CD11c+CD83+ DCs 3.9-fold (40±5) relative to the unmodified parental cell line (10±3) (p<0.001, Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test) (n=7). Exogenous sCD40L did not significantly increase the % of live, CD45+CD11c+CD83+ DCs (16±3) (p=0.4402, Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test) (n=7) (FIG. 38C).

Expression of Membrane Bound CD40L Enhances Cellular Immune Responses

The effect of overexpression of CD40L on induction of cellular immune responses was evaluated by IFNγ ELISpot assay as described in Example 9. iDCs loaded were loaded with A549 cells, A549 cells with 1 μg/mL exogenous sCD40L, or A549 cells overexpressing CD40L. Expression of CD40L by A549 cells increased IFNγ responses 87-fold (1,305±438 SFU) compared to the unmodified parental cell line (15±15 SFU) (p=0.0198, Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test) (n=4). Inclusion of exogenous sCD40L in the co-culture did not significantly increase IFNγ responses (255±103 SFU) relative to the unmodified parental cell line (p=0.5303, Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test) (n=4). IFNγ responses elicited by overexpression of CD40L on A549 cells were significantly greater than the responses detected with the addition of exogenous sCD40L (p=0.0375, Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test) (n=4) (FIG. 38D).

Example 16: Expression of GM-CSF Enhances Cellular Immune Responses

Unmodified parental NCI-H460 cells were transfected with either empty lentiviral vector (control) or a lentiviral vector designed to overexpress GM-CSF (SEQ ID NO: 6). The control and GM-CSF over expressing cell line were grown in the presence of Puromycin (2 μg/mL) prior to use in the IFNγ ELISpot assay. IFNγ ELISpot was performed as described in Example 6.FIG. 39 demonstrates that sensitization of healthy donor (HLA-A*01, HLA-A*02) derived PBMCs with GM-CSF overexpressing NCI-H460 cells significantly increases cellular immune responses to unmodified parental NCI-H460 cells (2600±207 SFU) when compared to sensitization with the Control NCI-H460 cells (1163±183 SFU) (p=0.002).

Example 17: Expression of Interleukin-12 (IL-12) Enhances Cellular Immune Responses

IL-12 is a proinflammatory cytokine that promotes DCs and LCs to prime T cells towards an effector phenotype. IL-12 can also act directly on DCs to reverse or prevent the induction of immune tolerance.

The A549 cells were transduced with lentiviral particles expressing both the p40 and p35 chains of IL-12 to form the functional IL-12 p70 cytokine protein. The p40 and p35 sequences are separated by a P2A cleavage sequence. The sequence of IL-12 used in this example is shown in SEQ ID NO: 9. Unmodified parental, unmodified cell lines served as controls. After antibiotic selection in 600 μg/mL zeocin to enrich for cells stably expressing IL-12 immune responses generated by the parental and IL-12 modified cell lines were determined as described in Example 9. There was a 16-fold increase in IFNγ SFU with the expression of IL-12 (873±199 SFU) (n=3) compared to IFNγ responses induced by the unmodified parental cells (53±53 SFU) (p=0.0163, Mann-Whitney U test) (n=3) (FIG. 40).

Example 18: Expression of Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR Family Related Gene (GITR) Enhances Cellular Immune Responses

GITR is surface receptor molecule involved in inhibiting the suppressive activity of T-regulatory cells (Tregs) and extending the survival of T-effector cells. Binding of GITR to its ligand, GITR, on APCs triggers signaling which co-stimulates both CD8+ and CD4+ effector T cells, leading to enhanced T cell expansion and effector function, while suppressing the activity of Tregs.

Expression of GITR

A codon optimized sequence was generated based on the native, membrane bound variant of GITR (NP_004186) as and cloned in to the BamHl and Xhol restriction endonuclease site of pVAX1 (Invitrogen, #V26020) (GenScript). The sequence of GITR used in this example is shown in SEQ ID NO: 4. For transfections of cells using pVAX1 encoding GITR, A549 (5.38×106 cells), NCI-H460 (1.79×107 cells), LK-2 (2.39×107 cells) or NCI-H520 (1.02×107 cells) were plated into T175 flasks using 45 mL of complete culture media 18-24 hours prior to transfection and maintained at 37° C./5% CO2. Plasmid DNA transfections were performed using the Lipofectamine transfection reagent (Invitrogen, #2075084) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cells were incubated at 37° C. and 5% CO2 for 72 hours prior to assessment of GITR expression by flow cytometry.

To determine cell surface expression of GITR, transfected cells and unmodified parental controls were surfaced stained with BV421-conjugated mouse anti-human GITR antibody (BD Biosciences, clone V27-580). Flow cytometry data was acquired on a BD LSRFortessa and analyzed using FlowJo software. Minimal expression of GITR was detected on untransfected unmodified parental cell lines (n=3 for each cell line) (FIG. 41). GITR was expressed on 17.7±0.1% of transfected NCI-H520 cells (n=3) (FIG. 41A), 29.3±3.3% of transfected LK-2 cells (n=3) (FIG. 41B), 7.7±0.2% of transfected A549 cells (n=3) (FIG. 41C), and 14.1±0.9% of transfected NCI-H460 cells (n=3) (FIG. 41D).

Expression of GITR Enhances Cellular Immune Responses

The effect of expression of GITR on cellular immunogenicity was evaluated by IFNγ ELISpot as described in Example 9 using cells derived from two HLA-A02 donors and one HLA-A24 healthy donor (n=3/donor). Expression of GITR by the A549 cell line significantly increased IFNγ production 7.4-fold (947±217 SFU) (n=9) compared to the unmodified parental A549 cell line (128±38 SFU) (n=9) (p=0.0003, Mann-Whitney U test) (FIG. 42A). There was a trend towards increased IFNγ production with expression of GITR in the LK-2 cell line (1,053±449 SFU) (n=9) compared the unmodified parental cell line (773±255 SFU) (n=9) (FIG. 42B). There was a trend towards increased immunogenicity with GITR expression in the NCI-H520 cell line (2,953±504 SFU) (n=3) compared to the unmodified parental, unmodified cells (1,953±385 SFU) (n=3) (FIG. 42C). There was also a trend towards increased immunogenicity with GITR expression in the NCI-H460 (4,940±557 SFU) cell line compared to the unmodified parental cells (3,400±181 SFU) (n=3) (FIG. 42D).

Example 19: Expression of Interleukin-15 (IL-15) Enhances Cellular Immune Responses

IL-15 is a member of the four α-helix bundle family of cytokines and is produced by a wide range of cells including DCs and is essential for the differentiation of CD8+ memory TUcells. Two isoforms of IL-15 are natively expressed that encode two different N-terminal signal peptides. These signal peptides function to decrease or inhibit secretion of the IL-15 protein from tumor cells. A codon optimized sequence of IL-15 was generated where the native IL-15 long signal peptide region was replaced with IL-2 signal peptide to promote secretion of the IL-15 protein (GenScript). The codon optimized sequence was cloned into the BamHl and Xhol restriction sites of pVAX1. The sequence of IL-15 used in this example is shown in SEQ ID NO: 11.

Quantification of IL-15 Secretion

Transfections of the IL-15 encoding plasmid were completed as described in Example 18. Supernatants were assayed for the presence of secreted IL-15 by ELISA using the Human IL-15 Quantikine ELISA Kit (R&D Systems, D1500) and following the manufacturers instructions. The lower limit of quantification of the IL-15 ELISA is 3.98 μg/mL, or 0.0239 ng/106 cells/24 hours. The NCI-H520, LK-2, NCI-H460, and A549 cell lines expressed 9.04, 5.99, 59.43, and 34.74 ng/106 cells/24 hours of IL-15, respectively (FIG. 43A).

IL-15 Enhances Cellular Immune Responses

IFNγ ELISpot to evaluate the effect of IL-15 on cellular immune responses was completed as described in Example 9. The effect of IL-15 secretion by the NCI-H460 cell line on cellular immune responses was evaluated using immune cells derived from an HLA-A02 healthy donor (n=3). There was a trend towards increased IFNγ production with IL-15 overexpression (5,593±474 SFU) relative to the unmodified parental NCI-H460 cell line (4,360±806 SFU) (FIG. 43B).

Example 20: Expression of Interleukin-23 (IL-23) Enhances Cellular Immune Responses

IL-23 is a binary complex of a four-helix bundle cytokine (p19) and a soluble class I cytokine receptor p40. IL-23 acts as a proinflammatory cytokine that enhances DC maturation and suppresses DC activation of naive T cell-derived Tregs.

Expression of IL-23

Human codon optimized IL-23 p19 and p40 sequences were generated and cloned into the BamHl and Xhol restriction sites of pVAX1 (GenScript). The p19 and p40 sequences were separated by a flexible linker GS3 linker. The sequence of IL-23 used in this example is shown in SEQ ID NO: 13. Transfections were completed as described in Example 18.

Supernatants were assayed for the presence of functional (p19 and p40 dimers) secreted IL-23using the Human IL-23 Quantikine ELISA Kit (R&D Systems, D2300B) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The lower limit of quantification of the IL-23 ELISA is 39.1 μg/mL, or 0.235 ng/106 cells/24 hours. The LK-2 and A549 cell lines expressed 1,559 and 1,929 ng/106 cells/24 hours of IL-23, respectively (FIG. 44A).

Secretion of IL-23 Increases Cellular Immune Responses

IFNγELISpot to evaluate the effect of IL-23 on cellular immune responses was completed as described in Example 9. The effect of IL-15 secretion by the A549 (ATCC CCL-185) cell line on cellular immune responses was evaluated using immune cells derived from an HLA-A02 healthy donor. There was a significant 3.9-fold increase in IFNγ production with IL-23 overexpression (2,247±580 SFU) relative to the unmodified parental A549 (ATCC CCL-185) cell line (573±401 SFU) (FIG. 44B) (p=0.0284, Student's T-test) (n=3).

Example 21: Expression of X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1 (XCL1)

The cytokine XCL1, also known as Lymphotactin, binds to the chemokine receptor XCR1, which is selectively expressed on antigen cross-presenting DCs. Expression of XCL1 has the potential to function as an adjuvant for intradermal vaccine administration.

Expression of XCL1

A human codon optimized sequence was generated encoding human XCL1 (GenScript) and cloned into the BamHl and Xhol restriction sites of the pVAX1 plasmid. Transient expression and secretion of XCL1 was characterized by ELISA. The sequence of XCL1 used in this example is shown in SEQ ID NO: 15.

Quantification of XCL1 Secretion

NCI-H460 and A549 cells were transfected with pVAX1 encoding codon optimized XCL1 as described in Example 18. Twenty-four hours after transfection, supernatants were removed from the cells and assayed for the presence of secreted XCL1 by ELISA. Supernatants were assayed for XCL1 secretion according to the manufacturer's instructions (R&D Systems, #DXCL10). The NCI-H460 and A549 cell lines transiently expressed 418 and 144 and ng/106 cells/24 hours of XCL1, respectively (FIG. 45).

Example 22: Expression of Mesothelin (MSLN)

MSLN is expressed on the surface of many lung adenocarcinomas and expression is correlated with poor prognosis. MSLN is an attractive TAA targeted because antigen specific immune responses to MSLN can predict the survival of patients with brain metastasis resulting from several different primary tumors including ovarian, lung and melanoma. A small subset of lung cancer cell lines express MSLN despite expression of MSLN in many patient tumors. In Example 22, the expression of MSLN was genetically introduced in exemplary vaccine cell lines that do not natively express MSLN to broaden the coverage TAAs potentially important to patients with NSCLC.

Expression of MSLN

A codon optimized human MSLN sequence was generated in which the ADAM17 cleavage site replaced with a flexible linker to promote retention of MSLN in the cell membrane (GenScript). The codon optimized sequence was cloned into the BamHl and Xhol restriction sites of pVAX1. The sequence of MSLN used in this example is SEQ ID NO: 17.

Quantification of MSLN Expression

Transfections of the MSLN encoding plasmid were completed as described in Example 18. To determine cell surface expression of MSLN, transfected cells and unmodified parental controls were surfaced stained with PE-conjugated rat anti-human MSLN antibody (R&D Systems, FAB32652P). Flow cytometry data was acquired on a BD LSRFortessa and analyzed using FlowJo software. Minimal expression of MSLN was detected on untransfected, unmodified parental cell lines (n=3/cell line) (FIG. 46). MSLN was expressed on 34.7±2.2% of transfected NCI-H520 cells (n=3) (FIG. 46A), 41.4±0.7% of transfected LK-2 cells (n=3) (FIG. 46B), 34.6±0.7% of transfected A549 cells (n=3) (FIG. 46C), and 48.5±1.3% of transfected NCI-H460 cells (n=3) (FIG. 46D).

MSLN-Specific IFNγ Responses

Immune responses to the overexpressed MSLN antigen were characterized by IFNγ ELISpot. To detect MSLN-specific responses in this assay, peptides 15 amino acids in length, overlapping by 11 amino acids, were generated to cover the native protein MSLN protein and used to stimulate PBMCs as described in Example 8. IFNγ responses to the overexpressed MSLN protein (240 SFU) in LK-2 (FIG. 46E).

Example 23: Expression of Kita-Kyushu Lung Cancer Antigen 1 (CT83)

CT83 is expressed by 40% non-small-cell lung cancer tissues and by 31% Stage 1 NSCLC. CT83 is highly expressed in lung tumors compared to normal tissue. Expression of CT83 is also typically associated with poor prognosis. In Example 23, the expression of CT83 was genetically introduced in exemplary vaccine cell lines that do not natively express CT83 to broaden the coverage TAAs potentially relevant to some NSCLC patients.

Expression of CT83

A codon optimized sequence of human CT83 was generated and cloned in frame with codon optimized MSLN (Example 17). SEQ ID NO: 21 was used. The MSLN and CT83 coding sequences were separated by a P2A cleavage site and cloned into the BamHl and Xhol restriction sites of pVAX1.

Characterization of CT83 Expression

Expression of CT83 by pVAX1-MSLN-CT83 was determined by western blot. Transfections were completed as described in described in Example 18. Transfected cells were lysed by the addition of 100 μL 1× NuPAGE® LDS Sample Buffer (Invitrogen, #NP0007) and incubated for 5 minutes at room temperature. The cell lysate was transferred to Eppendorf tubes and sonicated for 5 minutes to reduce viscosity. Samples were heated for 10 minutes at 70° C. and then loaded onto 4-12% NuPAGE® Bis-Tris gels. BLUelf Pre-stained Protein Ladder (FroggaBio, PM008-0500) was included as a protein sizing standard. Gels were electrophoresed at 200 Volts for ˜1 hour under reducing conditions using 1×MES SDS Running Buffer (Invitrogen, NP0002). Proteins were then transferred to nitrocellulose using NuFAGE® Transfer Buffer (Invitrogen, NP0006) plus 20% methanol under reducing conditions. Blotting was performed for 1 hour at 30 Volts. After blotting, membranes were blocked with 5% Blotto (ChemCruz, DC2324) in Tris-Buffered Saline plus Tween (TBST: 10 mM Tris pH 8.0, 150 mM NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20) for 1 hour at room temperature with shaking (100 rpm). Blots were then probed with primary antibody anti-CT83 rabbit polyclonal (Sigma, HPA004773) in TBST-5% Blotto at 4 μg/mL overnight at 4° C. The next day, blots were washed 5× with TBST and then probed with a 1:5,000 dilution of anti-rabbit IgG HRP conjugated antibody (Southern Biotech, 4030-05) in TBST-5% Blotto for 1 hour at room temperature with shaking. Blots were washed 5× with TBST and developed by the addition of 1-Step Ultra TMB Blotting Solution (Pierce, #37574) (FIG. 47).

Example 24: Expression of Immunostimulatory Factors in A549 and NCI-H460 with Reduced Expression of Immunosuppressive Factors

The reduction of immunosuppressive suppressive factors in the VME can enhance cellular immune responses. Expression of immunostimulatory factors in the VME, in the context of reduced production of immunosuppressive factors, should further enhance the ability of the vaccine to elicit robust immune responses.

In this Example, the A549 and NCI-H460 component vaccine cell lines with reduced expression of three immunosuppressive factors were modified to secrete GM-CSF, express membrane bound CD40L, and/or secrete the functional heterodimeric IL-12 p70 cytokine. The ability for GM-CSF to increase IFNγ responses in vitro is described in Example 16. In vivo expression of GM-CSF in the skin enhances DC activation, maturation, and the ability for DCs to promote a more functional, Th1-biased immune response. The immunostimulatory functions of membrane bound CD40L and IL-12 p70 when expressed alone are described in Example 15 and Example 17, respectively. The methods used for shRNA mediated knockdown TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion, and to determine resulting secretion levels, are described in Example 5. The methods used for ZFN-mediated knockout of CD47 and CD276, and to determine resulting cell surface expression levels, are described in Example 12 and Example 13, respectively.

In some examples, the component vaccine cell lines with three reduced immunosuppressive factors were modified to secrete GM-CSF and to express membrane bound CD40L. In some examples, the component vaccine cell lines with three reduced immunosuppressive factors were modified to secrete GM-CSF, express membrane bound CD40L, and to secrete the functional IL-12 p70 cytokine. Methods used to quantify the expression of membrane bound CD40L are described herein.

Secretion of GM-CSF by A549 and NCI-H460

The vaccine component cell lines A549 and NCI-H460 were transduced with lentiviral particles expressing native human GM-CSF. Unmodified parental, unmodified cell lines served as controls. After antibiotic selection in 100 μg/mL to enrich for cells stable expressing GM-CSF, cells were analyzed for GM-CSF secretion by ELISA. The sequence of GM-CSF used in this example is shown in SEQ ID NO: 6.

Quantification of Secreted GM-CSF

GM-CSF-transduced and unmodified parental cells were plated at 8.33×101 cells/well in a 24-well plated in regular growth medium (RPMI containing 10% FBS). Twenty-four hours after plating, adherent cells were thoroughly washed to remove FBS and culture was continued in RPMI+5% CTS. Forty-eight hours after media replacement, the cell culture supernatant was harvested, and stored at −70° C. until the GM-CSF secretion assay was completed according to the manufacturers specifications (human GM-CSF Quantikine ELISA kit #DGM00, R&D Systems). The lower limit of quantitation of human GM-CSF in the ELISA assay is less than 3.0 μg/mL, or 0.018 ng/106 cells/24 hours. GM-CSF secretion by the unmodified parental cell lines was below the lower limit of quantitation of the ELISA assay.

Quantification of Secreted IL-12 p70

IL-12-transduced and unmodified parental cells were plated at 8.33×101 cells/well in a 24-well plated in regular growth medium (RPMI containing 10% FBS). Twenty-four hours after plating, adherent cells were thoroughly washed to remove FBS and culture was continued in RPMI+5% CTS. Forty-eight hours after media replacement, the cell culture supernatant was harvested, and stored at −70° C. until the IL-12 secretion assays for p40 and p70 were completed according to the manufacturers specifications (BioLegend, human IL-12 p40 LEGEND MAX ELISA kit #430707 and human IL-12 p70 LEGEND MAX ELISA kit #431707). The lower limit of quantification of human IL-12 p40 is 9.5 μg/mL, or 0.057 ng/106 cells/24 hours. The lower limit of quantification of human IL-12 p70 is 1.2 μg/mL, or 0.007 ng/106 cells/24 hours. IL-12 secretion by the unmodified parental cell lines was below the lower limit of quantitation of the ELISA assay.

GM-CSF Secretion and Membrane Bound CD40L Expression by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO A549 and NCI-H460 Cell Lines

The A549 cell line was modified to reduce secretion of TGFβ1 86% (n=2) (FIG. 48A) (Table 32), and TGFβ2 >89% (n=2) (FIG. 48B) (Table 32), reduce the expression of CD47 99.9% (FIG. 48C) (Table 33), secrete 2,656±69 ng/106 cells/24 hours of GM-CSF (FIG. 48D) (Table 34), and express a 38-fold increase in membrane bound CD40L (FIG. 48E) (Table 34). The NCI-H460 cell line was modified to reduce secretion of TGFβ1 >95% (n=2) (FIG. 49A) (Table 32), and TGFβ2 93% (n=2) (FIG. 49B) (Table 32), reduce the expression of CD47 99.9% (FIG. 49C) (Table 33), secrete 940±19 ng/106 cells/24 hours of GM-CSF (FIG. 49D) (Table 35), and express a 5-fold increase in membrane bound CD40L (FIG. 49E) (Table 34).

TABLE 32 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in CD47 KO cell lines that secrete GM-CSF and express membrane bound CD40L TGFβ1 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) TGFβ2 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) Cell line Parental TGFβ1 KD % Reduction Parental TGFβ2 KD % Reduction A549 4,767 ± 300 679 + 51 86  732 ± 14 <42 >89* NCI-H460 1,850 ± 1  <92 >95* 3,433 ± 271 239 ± 13 93 Parental indicates the unmodified cell line. *Secretion levels are below the lower limit of quantification for TGFβ1 (92 pg/106 cells/24 hours) or TGFβ2 (42 pg/106 cells/24 hours). Lower limit of quantification used to approximate % reduction relative to parental. NA: secretion levels are below the lower limit of quantification for both the parental and shRNA modified cell line.

TABLE 33 CD47 KO or CD276 KO in TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD cell lines that secrete GM-CSF and express membrane bound CD40L Cell line Parental CD47 MFI Modified CD47 MFI % Reduction A549 100,228 74 99.9 NCI-H460 140,990 30 99.9 Cell line Parental MFI Modified CD276 MFI % Reduction A549 30,636 1,983 93.5 NCI-H460 82,858 712 99.1 MFI reported with unstained controls subtracted. Parental indicates the unmodified cell line.

TABLE 34 GM-CSF secretion and membrane bound CD40L expression by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO and TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO cell lines GMCSF (ng/106 Parental Modified CD40L Fold Cell line cells/24 hours) CD40L MFI CD40L MFI Increase A549 2,656 ± 69 9,537 360,236 38 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD, CD47 KO NCI-H460 940 ± 19 16,992 84,924 5 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD, CD47 KO A549 1,704 ± 60 41,076 1,660,242 40 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD, CD276 KO NCI-H460 943 ± 13 16,992 121,555 7 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD, CD276 KO GM-CSF secretion and membrane bound CD40L expression by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO A549 and NCI-H460 cell lines

GM-CSF Secretion and Membrane Bound CD40L Expression by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO A549 and NCI-H460 Cell Lines

The A549 cell line was modified to reduce secretion of TGFβ1 >98% (n=2) (FIG. 50A) (Table 35), and TGFβ2 >89% (n=2) (FIG. 50B) (Table 35), reduce the expression of CD276 93.5% (FIG. 50C) (Table 33), secrete 1,704±60 ng/106 cells/24 hours of GM-CSF (FIG. 50D) (Table 34), and express a 40-fold increase in membrane bound CD40L (FIG. 50E) (Table 34). The NCI-H460 cell line was modified to reduce secretion of TGFβ1 93% (n=2) (FIG. 51A) (Table 32), and TGFβ2 89% (n=2) (FIG. 51B) (Table 32), reduce the expression of CD276 99.1% (FIG. 51C) (Table 33), secrete 943±13 ng/106 cells/24 hours of GM-CSF (FIG. 51D) (Table 34), and express a 7-fold increase in membrane bound CD40L (FIG. 51D) (Table 34).

TABLE 35 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in CD276 KO cell lines that secrete GM-CSF and express membrane bound CD40L TGFβ1 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) TGFβ2 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) Cell line Parental TGFβ1 KD % Reduction Parental TGFβ2 KD % Reduction A549 4,967 ± 399 <92 >98* 807 ± 8  <42 >89* NCI-H460 1,850 ± 1  126 ± 5 93 3,433 ± 271 366 ± 5 89 Parental indicates the unmodified cell line. *Secretion levels are below the lower limit of quantification for TGFβ1 (92 pg/106 cells/24 hours) or TGFβ2 (42 pg/106 cells/24 hours). Lower limit of quantification used to approximate % reduction relative to parental.

GM-CSF Secretion and Membrane Bound CD40L Expression by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO and TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO A549 Cell Line Increases Cellular Immune Responses

IFNγ ELISpot was used to evaluate the effect GM-CSF secretion and membrane bound CD40L expression by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO and GM-CSF secretion and membrane bound CD40L expression by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO on cellular immune responses in the A549 cell line. IFNγ ELISpot was completed as described in Example 9 using cells derived from two HLA-A02 healthy donors (n=3/donor). GM-CSF secretion and membrane bound CD40L expression by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO (3,213±287) (n=6) (p=0.0357) and TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO (3,207±663) (n=6) (p=0.0143) significantly increase IFNγ responses compared to the unmodified parental A549 cell line (1,793±215 SFU) (n=6) (FIG. 52A). Statistical significance was determined using One-Way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test.

GM-CSF Secretion and Membrane Bound CD40L Expression by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO A549 and NCI-H460 Cell Lines Increase DC Maturation

The maturation of iDCs was determined by flow cytometry as described in Example 15. In this Example, iDCs derived from three HLA-A02 donors were co-cultured with the unmodified parental A549 or unmodified parental NCI-H460 cell lines, or the modified A549 or NCI-H460 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO, that secrete GM-CSF and express membrane bound CD40L. Expression of the DC maturation marker CD83 was significantly increased on DCs co-cultured with the modified A549 (71±2%) compared to DCs co-cultured with the unmodified parental A549 cell line (53±3%) (p=0.0015) (FIG. 52B). Similarly, CD83 was significantly increased on DCs co-cultured with the modified NCI-H460 (71±5%) compared to DCs co-cultured with the unmodified parental H460 (ATCC HTB-177) cell line (52±3%) (p=0.0126) (FIG. 52C). Statistical significance was determined using One-Way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test.

GM-CSF Secretion, Membrane Bound CD40L Expression, and IL-12 Secretion by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO A549 and NCI-H460 Vaccine Component Cell Lines

The A549 cell line was modified to reduce secretion of TGFβ1 84% (n=2) (FIG. 53A) (Table 36), and TGFβ2 >89% (n=2) (FIG. 53B) (Table 36), reduce the expression of CD47 99.9% (FIG. 53C) (Table 33), secrete 2,295±60 ng/106 cells/24 hours of GM-CSF (FIG. 53D) (Table 37), express a 56-fold increase in membrane bound CD40L (FIG. 53E) (Table 37), and secrete 300±24 ng/106 cells/24 hours of IL-12 p70 (FIG. 53F) (Table 37).

TABLE 36 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in TGFβ1 and TGFβ KD, CD47 KO cell lines that secrete GM-CSF, express membrane bound CD40L, and secrete IL-12 TGFβ1 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) TGFβ2 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) Cell line Parental TGFβ1 KD % Reduction Parental TGFβ2 KD % Reduction A549 4,767 ± 300 760 ± 55 84  732 ± 14 <42 >89* NCI-H460 1,850 ± 1  <92 >95* 3,433 ± 271 492 ± 10 86 Parental refers to the unmodified cell line. *Secretion levels are below the lower limit of quantification for TGFβ1 (92 pg/106 cells/24 hours) or TGFβ2 (42 pg/106 cells/24 hours). Lower limit of quantification used to approximate % reduction relative to parental.

TABLE 37 GM-CSF secretion, membrane bound CD40L expression, and IL-12 secretion by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO and TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO cell lines GMCSF CD40L IL-12 p70 (ng/106 cells/ Parental Modified Fold (ng/106 cells/ Cell line 24 hours) CD40L MFI CD40L MFI Increase 24 hours) A549 2,295 ± 60 9,537 536,953 56 300 ± 24 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD, CD47 KO NCI-H460 1,586 ± 24 16,992 154,964 9 434 ± 15 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD, CD47 KO A549 1,113 ± 51 41,076 1,476,699 36 263 ± 24 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD, CD276 KO NCI-H460 1,234 ± 24 16,992 267,023 16 312 ± 50 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD, CD276 KO

The NCI-H460 cell line was modified to reduce secretion of TGFβ1 >95% (n=2) (FIG. 54A) (Table 36), and TGFβ2 86% (n=2) (FIG. 54B) (Table 36), reduce the expression of CD47 >99.9% (FIG. 54C) (Table 33), secrete 1,586±24 ng/106 cells/24 hours of GM-CSF (FIG. 54C) (Table 37), express a 9-fold increase in membrane bound CD40L (FIG. 54E) (Table 36), add secrete 434±15 ng/106 cells/24 hours of IL-12 p70 (FIG. 54F) (Table 36).

GM-CSF Secretion, Membrane Bound CD40L Expression, and IL-12 Secretion by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO A549 (ATCC CCL-185) and NCI-H460 (ATCC HTB-177) Cell Lines Increases TAA-Specific IFNγ Responses

IFNγ ELISpot was used to evaluate the effect GM-CSF secretion, expression of membrane bound CD40L, and secretion of IL-12 by the TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO A549 and by the TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO NCI-H460 cell lines on IFNγ responses to antigens. IFNγ ELISpot was completed as described in Example 9 using cells derived from two HLA-A02 healthy donors (n=3/donor). The total IFNγ response to the TAAs MAGE A3, Survivin, PRAME, Muc1, STEAP1, Her2, and TERT was increased by the A549 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO cells (1,586±887 SFU) (n=6) compared to the unmodified parental cell line (382±96 SFU) (n=6) (p=0.5887) (FIG. 55A). Similarly, the total antigen specific IFNγ response elicited by the NCI-H460 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO cell line (1702±682 SFU) (n=6) was increased relative to the unmodified parental cell line (262±105 SFU) (n=6) (p=0.1385) (FIG. 55B). Responses to specific antigens are in the order indicated in the figure legends.

GM-CSF Secretion, Membrane Bound CD40L Expression, and IL-12 Secretion by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO A549 and NCI-H460 Vaccine Component Cell Lines

The A549 cell line was modified to reduce the secretion of TGFβ1 96% (n=2) (FIG. 56A) (Table 38), and TGFβ2 >89% (n=2) (FIG. 56B) (Table 38), reduce the expression of CD276 98.9% (FIG. 56C) (Table 33), secrete 1,113±51 ng/106 cells/24 hours of GM-CSF (FIG. 56D) (Table 37), express a 36-fold increase in membrane bound CD40L (FIG. 56E) (Table 37), add secrete 263±24 ng/106 cells/24 hours of IL-12 p70 (FIG. 56F) (Table 37).

NCI-H460 cell line was modified to reduce secretion of TGFβ1 >95% (n=2) (FIG. 57A) (Table 38), and TGFβ2 78% (n=2) (FIG. 57B) (Table 38), reduce the expression of CD276 98.2% (FIG. 57C) (Table 33), secrete 1,234±24 ng/106 cells/24 hours of GM-CSF (FIG. 57D) (Table 37), express a 16-fold increase in membrane bound CD40L (FIG. 57E) (Table 37), add secrete 312±50 ng/106 cells/24 hours of IL-12 p70 (FIG. 57F) (Table 37).

TABLE 38 TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion in cell lines with reduced CD276 expression modified to express CD40L, GM-CSF, and IL-12 p70 TGFβ1 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) TGFβ2 (pg/106 cells/24 hours) Cell line Parental TGFβ1 % Reduction Parental TGFβ2 % Reduction A549 4,967 ± 399 179 ± 6 96 807 ± 8  <42 >89* NCI-H460 1,850 ± 1  <92 >95* 3,433 ± 271 738 ± 34 78 Parental indicates the unmodified cell line. *Secretion levels are below the lower limit of quantification for TGFβ1 (92 pg/106 cells/24 hours) or TGFβ2 (42 pg/106 cells/24 hours). Lower limit of quantification used to approximate % reduction relative to parental. NA: secretion levels are below the lower limit of quantification for both the parental and shRNA modified cell line.

GM-CSF Secretion, Membrane Bound CD40L Expression, and IL-12 Secretion by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO A549 and NCI-H460 Cell Lines Increases DC Maturation

The effect of GM-CSF secretion, expression of membrane bound CD40L, and secretion of IL-12 by the component vaccine cell lines on the maturation of DCs was determined by flow cytometry as described in Example 15. Specifically, iDCs derived from three HLA-A02 donors were co-cultured with the unmodified parental A549 (ATCC CCL-185) or NCI-H460 (ATCC HTB-177) cell lines, or the modified TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO A549 (ATCC CCL-185) or NCI-H460 (ATCC HTB-177) that secrete GM-CSF, express membrane bound CD40L, and secrete IL-12. Expression of the DC maturation marker CD83 was significantly increased on DCs co-cultured with the modified A549 (ATCC CCL-185) (71±3%) cell line compared to DCs co-cultured with the unmodified parental A549 (ATCC CCL-185) cell line (53±3%) (p=0.0014) (FIG. 58A). Similarly, CD83 was significantly increased on DCs co-cultured with the modified NCI-H460 (69±4%) cell line compared to DCs co-cultured with the unmodified parental H460 (ATCC HTB-177) cell line (52±3%) (p=0.0077) (FIG. 58B). Statistical significance was determined using One-Way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test.

GM-CSF Secretion, Membrane Bound CD40L Expression, and IL-12 Secretion by TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO A549 (ATCC CCL-185) and NCI-H460 (ATCC HTB-177) Cell Lines Increases TAA-Specific IFNγ Responses

IFNγ ELISpot was used to evaluate the effect GM-CSF secretion, expression of membrane bound CD40L, and secretion of IL-12 by the TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO A549 and by the TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO NCI-H460 cell lines on IFNγ responses to antigens. IFNγ ELISpot was completed as described in Example 9 using cells derived from two HLA-A02 healthy donors (n=3/donor). The total IFNγ response to the antigens MAGE A3, Survivin, PRAME, Muc1, STEAP1, Her2, and TERT was markedly increased by the A549 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD47 KO cells (1,408±738 SFU) (n=6) compared to the unmodified parental cell line (421±149 SFU) (n=6) (p=0.1385) (FIG. 58C). Similarly, the total antigen specific IFNγ response elicited by the NCI-H460 TGFβ1 TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO cell line (1725±735 SFU) (n=6) was increased relative to the unmodified parental cell line (262±105 SFU) (n=6) (p=0.1385) (FIG. 58D). Responses to specific antigen are in the order indicated in the figure legends.

Example 25: HLA Mismatch Results in Increased Immunogenicity

Immune cells respond to “non-self”-proteins by generating an immune response. In the case of HLA mismatch, the immune response is against HLA proteins that are not expressed on the individual's cells and this response can be measured by the production of interferon gamma. Interferon gamma is a key cytokine involved in the generation of a Th1 T cell response and Th1 T cells are the essential mediators of an anti-cancer response. Unlike in stem cell or organ transplants, the HLA mismatch immune response plays a highly beneficial role in increasing the immunogenicity of a whole cell tumor vaccine by acting as an adjuvant that boosts the priming of T cells to TAAs expressed within the tumor vaccine.

According to various embodiments of the present disclosure, the design of a cocktail of cell lines comprising the final vaccine product to include HLA mismatches at the two most immunogenic HLA loci—HLA-A and HLA-B, between the vaccine and the patient results in beneficial inflammatory responses at the vaccine site that results in increased vaccine uptake and presentation by DCs and the activation of a larger number of T cells, thus ultimately increasing the breadth, magnitude and immunogenicity of tumor reactive T cells primed by the cancer vaccine cocktail. By including multiple cell lines chosen to have mismatches in HLA types, and chosen for expression of key TAAs, the vaccine enables effective priming of a broad and effective anti-cancer response with the additional adjuvant effect generated by the HLA mismatch.

In one example, a vaccine composition according to the present disclosure includes multiple cell lines chosen to ensure a breadth of TAAs as well as a diversity in the most immunogenic HLA proteins (HLA-A and HLA-B) in order to stimulate a maximal, effective immune response against the tumor. Inclusion of HLA mismatch augments the immune response, acting as an adjuvant to result in increased total anti-TAA interferon gamma production measurable by ELISpot and flow cytometry. The following features and selection criteria can be followed according to various embodiments:

Since HLA genes are inherited, the degree of HLA mismatch increases amongst individuals from different ethnicities. The cell line selection process may thus include, in some embodiments, obtaining cells from banks around the world in order to design a cocktail to include diversity in HLA alleles.

Disparities in HLA-C, -DRB1 and -DPB1 have been identified to be potentially less immunogenic, therefore in some embodiments the cell lines of a vaccine composition may be selected to ensure a mismatch of at least 2 of the highly immunogenic HLA-A and HLA-B alleles.

Increasing the number of mismatched HLA-A and HLA B loci between the cell lines selected may result, according to some embodiments, in a greater degree of mismatch across all patients receiving the vaccine to ensure the adjuvant effect measurable by interferon gamma ELISpot.

Dendritic cells were incubated with cancer cell line to allow for antigen uptake and DC maturation. The DCs were then co-cultured with PBMCs from donors, re-stimulated with the same cell line or a cocktail of cell lines chosen to have heterogeneity in their HLA subtypes and in order to create a mismatch with the donor PBMC HLA type. The cells were plated on an ELISpot plate and activated. Tumor specific T cells were measured by counting interferon γ spots/well as described in Example 6.

As shown in FIG. 59, inclusion of a combination of lung cancer cell lines with a greater degree of HLA mismatch to the donor across multiple HLA molecules results in increased anti-tumor T cell responses. The immune response due to HLA mismatch acts as an adjuvant to boost overall responses. These data indicated that inclusion of multiple cell lines to ensure a broad degree of HLA mismatch on multiple class I and class II HLA molecules between whole tumor cancer vaccine cocktail and recipient can generate an increased allogeneic response.

Example 26: Preparation of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Vaccines

Tumors and tumor cell lines are highly heterogeneous. The subpopulations within the tumor express different phenotypes with different biological potential and different antigenic profiles. One of the driving purposes behind a whole tumor cell vaccine is to present a wide array of tumor cells to the immune system. By doing this, the immune response is generated against multiple TAAs, bypassing issues related to antigen loss, which can lead to antigen escape (or immune relapse) and patient relapse (Keenan B P, et al., Semin Oncol. 2012; 39: 276-86). Antigen escape was first observed in the treatment of B-cell lymphoma with anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies (Meeker T, et al., N Engl J Med. 1985; 312: 1658-65) and has since been observed in other immunotherapy treatments such as CAR-T therapy (Majzner R G, et al., Cancer Discov. 2018; 8: 1219-26).

Expression of NSCLC TAAs

Expression of twenty-four TAAs by candidate component cell lines was determined by RNA expression data sourced from Broad Institute Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). The HGNC gene symbol was included in the CCLE search and mRNA expression was downloaded for each TAA. Expression of a TAA by a cell line was considered positive if the RNA-seq value (FPKM) was greater than 0.5. Collectively, the six component cell lines expressed twenty-three of the twenty-four identified TAAs at a mRNA level >0.5 FPKM (FIG. 60). Specifically, five TAAs were expressed by one cell line, four TAAs were expressed by two cell lines, four TAAs were expressed by three cell lines, five TAAs were expressed by three cell lines, and six TAAs were expressed by eight cell lines. The minimum number of TAAs expressed by a single cell line was twelve (NCI-H520) and the maximum number of TAAs expressed by a single cell was eighteen (DMS 53). The number of antigens that can be targeted by the exemplary 6-cell line unit dose comprised of A549, NCI-H520, NCI-H460, DMS 53, LK-2, NCI-H23 is higher than the individual cell lines.

The cells in the vaccine described herein were selected to express a wide array of TAAs, including those known to be important to antitumor immunity. To further enhance the array of TAAs, one cell line (LK-2) was also transduced with the genes for CT83 and mesothelin, as described herein (FIG. 65). CT83 mRNA was endogenously expressed at a low level in two of the six cell lines and mesothelin was endogenously expressed by one of the six component cell lines.

Because of the need to maintain maximal heterogeneity of TAAs, the gene modified cell lines utilized in the present vaccine have been established using antibiotic selection and flow cytometry and not through limiting dilution subcloning.

Cumulatively, the cells in the present vaccine express more of the TAAs that have been demonstrated to be important in antitumor immunity. The cell lines in Table 39 are used in the present NSCLC vaccine.

TABLE 39 NSCLC vaccine cell lines and histology Cell Line Cocktail Name Histology A NCI-H520 Squamous A A549 Adenocarcinoma A NCI-H460 Large cell B LK-2 Squamous B NCI-H23 Adenocarcinoma B DMS 53 SCLC

shRNA Downregulates TGF-β Secretion

TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 was knocked down and resulting secretion levels determined as described in Example 5. Of the parental cell lines in Cocktail A, NCI-H460 and A549 secrete measurable levels of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 while LK-2 secretes TGFβ2 but not TGFβ1. Of the parental cell lines in Cocktail B, NCI-H23 secretes measurable levels of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 and LK-2 secretes TGFβ2 but not TGFβ1. DMS 53 secretes measurable levels of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2, but TGFβ1 secretion is low.

With the exception of DMS 53, the component cell lines were all transduced with TGFβ1 shRNA and TGFβ2 shRNA to knockdown secretion of the two molecules. DMS 53 was gene modified with TGFβ2 shRNA only because multiple attempts to modify with both TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 shRNA were not successful. TGFβ1 knockdown was chosen to move forward because the secretion levels of TGFβ2 were already low in this cell line. These cells are described by the clonal designation DK4. The remaining cell lines were double modified with TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 shRNA. These cells are described by the clonal designation DK6.

Table 40 shows the TGF-β secretion in gene modified component cell lines compared to wild type cell lines. Reduction of TGFβ1 ranged from 59% to 90%. Reduction of TGFβ2 ranged from 42% to 97%.

TABLE 40 TGF-β Secretion (pg/106 cells/24 hr) in Component Cell Lines Cell Line Cocktail Clone TGFβ1 TGFβ2 NCI-H520 A Wild type ND 3872 NCI-H520 A DK6 ND  124 NCI-H520 A Percent reduction NA 97% A549 A Wild type 5727   775 A549 A DK6 577  42 A549 A Percent reduction 90% 95% NCI-H460 A Wild type 1573  2307 NCI-H460 A DK6 287  533 NCI-H460 A Percent reduction 82% 77% LK-2 B Wild type ND  161 LK-2 B DK6 ND  69 LK-2 B Percent reduction NA 88% NCI-H23 B Wild type 1761   588 NCI-H23 B DK6 719  61 NCI-H23 B Percent reduction 59% 90% DMS 53 B Wild type 261 2833 DMS 53 B DK4 286 1640 DMS 53 B Percent reduction  0% 42% DK6: TGFβ1/TGFβ2 double knockdown; DK4: TGFβ2 single knockdown; ND = not detectable; NA = not applicable

Based on an injected dose of 8×106 of each component cell line, the total TGF-β secretion in Cocktails A and B is shown in Table 41. Secretion in the wild type cells in the cocktail is also shown. Cocktail A shows a total secretion of 9679 pg per injected dose per 24 hours for TGFβ1 and 5600 pg per injected dose per 24 hours for TGFβ2. Cocktail B shows a total secretion of 8220 pg per injected dose per 24 hours for TGFβ1 and 14163 pg per injected dose per 24 hours for TGFβ2.

Belagenpumatucel-L had a total TGFβ2 secretion of 18,813 pg per injected dose per 24 hours (Nemunaitis, J. et al. JCO. (2006) 24:29, 4721-4730) (Fakhrai, H 2010). The total TGFβ2 secretion in the NSCLC vaccine (19,763 pg per injected dose per 24 hours) is roughly equivalent to the TGFβ2 secretion in belagenpumatucel-L despite the higher injected cell number of 4.8×107 cells in the NSCLC vaccine compared to 2.5×107 cells in belagenpumatucel-L.

TABLE 41 Total TGF-β Secretion (pg/dose/24 hr) in NSCLC vaccine Cocktails Cocktail Clones TGFβ1 TGFβ2 A Wild type 58592 55638 DK6  9679  5600 Percent reduction 83% 90% B Wild type 16735 28654 DK6/4  8220 14163 Percent reduction 51% 51%

The total TGFβ1 secretion in the NSCLC vaccine (17,899 pg per injected dose per 24 hours) is 31% of the estimated TGFβ1 secretion in belagenpumatucel-L.

CD276 Expression

All component cell lines expressed CD276 and CD276 expression was knocked out by electroporation with ZFN as described in Example 13 and herein. The component cell lines had previously been gene modified with shRNA to knockdown expression of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 (termed DK6), apart from DMS 53, where only TGFβ2 was knocked down (termed DK4). Because it was desirable to maintain as much tumor heterogeneity as possible, the electroporated cells were not cloned by limiting dilution. Instead, the cells were subjected to multiple rounds of cell sorting by FACS. Reduction of CD276 expression is described in Table 42. The absence of protein expression in the knockout cells was also confirmed by western blot analysis using (data not shown). These data show that gene editing of CD276 resulted in greater than 99% CD276-negative cells in all six component cell lines.

TABLE 42 Reduction of CD276 expression Parental Cell TGFβ1/B2 KD % Reduction Cell line Line MFI CD276 KO MFI CD276 NCI-H460 366,565 838 99.8 NCI-H520 341,202 212 99.9 A549 141,009 688 99.5 DMS 53 304,637 972 99.7 LK-2 385,535 867 99.8 NCI-H23 74,176 648 99.1 MFI reported with unstained controls subtracted

GM-CSF Secretion

Component cell lines were transduced with the GM-CSF as described herein and Example 24. The results are shown in Table 43.

TABLE 43 GM-CSF Secretion in Component Cell Lines GM-CSF GM-CSF Cell Line (ng/106 cells/24 hr) (ng/dose/24 hr) NCI-H520 10 80 A549 2880 23,040 NCI-H460 1330 10,640 Cocktail A Total 4220 33,760 LK-2 2 16 NCI-H23 2310 18,480 DMS 53 170 1,360 Cocktail B Total 2482 19,856

Based on an injected dose of 8×106 of each component cell line, the total GM-CSF secretion for Cocktail A is 33,760 ng per injected dose per 24 hours. The total GM-CSF secretion for Cocktail B is 19,856 ng per injected dose per 24 hours. The total secretion per injection is therefore 43,616 ng per 24 hours.

CD40L Expression

The component cell lines were transduced with a CD40L vector as described herein and by the methods described in Example 15. CD40L expression was evaluated by flow cytometry with an anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody as described in Example 15. The results, shown in FIG. 74, demonstrated significant CD40L membrane expression in all six cell lines.

IL-12 Expression

The component cell lines were transduced with the IL-12 vector and resulting IL-12 p70 expression determined as described in Example 24 and herein the results are shown in Table 44.

TABLE 44 IL-12 secretion in component cell lines IL-12 IL-12 Cell Line (ng/106 cells/24 hr) (ng/dose/24 hr) NCI-H520 NA NA A549 440 3520 NCI-H460 420 3360 Cocktail A Total 860 6880 LK-2 NA NA NCI-H23 580 4640 DMS 53 140 1120 Cocktail B Total 720 5760

Based on an injected dose of 8×106 of each component cell line, the total IL-12 secretion for Cocktail A is 6880 ng per injected dose per 24 hours. The total IL-12 secretion for Cocktail B is 5760 ng per injected dose per 24 hours. The total IL-12 secretion per injection is therefore 12,640 ng per 24 hours.

Stable Expression of Mesothelin and CT83 by the LK-2 Cell Line

As described above, the cells in the vaccine described herein were selected to express a wide array of TAAs, including those known to be important to antitumor immunity. To further enhance the array of antigens, the LK-2 cell line that was modified to reduce the secretion of TGFβ2, reduced the expression of CD276, and to express GM-CSF and membrane bound CD40L was also transduced with lentiviral particles expressing the CT83 and Mesothelin antigens. The CT83 and mesothelin antigens are linked by a P2A cleavage site (SEQ ID NO: 21).

The expression of membrane bound Mesothelin and CT83 was characterized by flow cytometry. Unmodified parental and modified cells were stained extracellular with anti-mesothelin-PE (R&D Systems FAB32652P) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Unmodified parental and modified cells were stained intracellular with anti-CT83 (Abcam, ab121219) followed by goat anti-rabbit Alex488 (Invitrogen, A-11034). The MFI of the unstained unmodified parental cells was subtracted from the MFI of the stained unmodified cells for both CT83 and mesothelin. The MFI of the modified parental cells was subtracted from the MFI of the modified cells for both CT83 and mesothelin. Percent increase in expression is calculated as: (1-(background subtracted modified MFI/background subtracted unmodified MFI))×100). Expression of CT83 increased in the modified cell line (934,985 MFI) 3-fold over that of the parental cell line (323,878 MFI). Expression of mesothelin by the modified cell line (123,128 MFI) increased 85-fold over the that of the parental cell line (1443 MFI) (FIG. 65A).

IFNγ responses to the CT83 and mesothelin antigens were determined by autologous DC and CD14-PBMC co-culture followed by ELISpot as described in Example 8. IFNγ responses to the CT83 and mesothelin antigens expressed by the modified LK-2 cell line were evaluated in the context of the NSCLC-vaccine B. Specifically, 5×105 of the modified DMS 53, NCI-H23, and LK-2 cells, 1.5×106 total modified cells, were co-cultured with 1.5×106 iDCs from 3 HLA diverse donors (n=3/donor). CD14-PBMCs isolated from co-culture with mDCs on day 6 were stimulated with the CT83 and mesothelin peptide pools, 15-mers overlapping by 11 amino acids spanning the native protein sequences, in the IFNγ ELISpot assay for 24 hours prior to detection of IFNγ SFU. IFNγ production was detected to both CT83 (205±158 SFU) (n=9) and mesothelin (3449±889 SFU) (n=9) (FIG. 65B).

Vaccine Cocktails Elicited Stronger and Broader Cellular Immune Responses Compared to Individual Component Cell Lines

The ability of the individual NSCLC vaccine component cell lines to induce IFNγ responses against themselves compared to the ability of the NSCLC vaccine cocktails to induce IFNγ responses against the individual cell lines was measured by IFNγ ELISpot as described in Examples 8 and 9. The data in FIG. 62 demonstrate that the cocktails (NSCLC-A and NSCLC-B) elicited stronger immune responses than the individual component cell lines for 4 of the 6 cell lines.

The immune response induced by the vaccine cocktails against relevant TAAs was then measured. Normal donor PBMCs were co-cultured with individual component cell lines or with the NSCLC-A or NSCLC-B cocktails for 6 days prior to stimulation with autologous DCs loaded with TAA-specific specific peptide pools containing known MHC-I restricted epitopes. Cells were then assayed for IFNγ secretion in the IFNγ ELISpot assay. The data shown in FIG. 63 demonstrate that each of the NSCLC vaccine component cell lines is capable of inducing TAA-specific IFNγ responses. More importantly, the two NSCLC vaccine cocktails induced stronger IFNγ responses against more TAAs compared to the individual component cell lines, indicating that the vaccine cocktails were capable of inducing broader immune responses.

Example 27: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSLC) Vaccines

Based on the disclosure and data provided herein, the following Example provides a whole cell vaccine for NSCLC comprised of the six lung cancer cell lines shown below in Table 45. The cell lines represent two adenocarcinomas (A549 and NCI-H23), two squamous cell carcinomas (NCI-H520 and LK-2), one large cell carcinoma (NCI-H460), and one small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (DMS 53). The cell lines have been divided into two groupings: vaccine cocktail A and vaccine cocktail B (i.e., NSCLC-A and NSCLC-B). Cocktail A is designed to be administered intradermally in the upper arm and Cocktail B is designed to be administered intradermally in the thigh. Cocktail A and B together comprise a unit dose of cancer vaccine.

TABLE 45 Cell line nomenclature and modifications Cocktail Cell Line TGFβ1 KD TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO GM-CSF CD40L IL-12 MSLN CT83 A NCI-H520 X X X X X ND ND ND A A549 X X X X X X ND ND A NCI-H460 X X X X X X ND ND B LK-2 X X X X X ND X X B NCI-H23 X X X X X X ND ND B DMS 53 ND X X X X X ND ND ND = Not done

Where indicated in the above table, the genes for the immunosuppressive factors transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGFβ2) have been knocked down using shRNA transduction with a lentiviral vector. The gene for CD276 has been knocked out by electroporation using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN). The genes for granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-12, CD40L, mesothelin, and CT83 have been added by lentiviral vector transduction.

Five of the six established lung cancer cell lines were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, Va.) and one was obtained from the Japanese Collection of Research Bioresources cell bank (JCRB, Kansas City, Mo.).

Example 28: Comparison of Belagenpumatucel-L and NSCLC Vaccine

The results of the clinical studies of belagenpumatucel-L were published in peer-reviewed journals and included two Phase II trials (Nemunaitis J, et al., J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 4721-30; Nemunaitis J, et al., Cancer Gene Ther. 2009; 16: 620-4) and a Phase III trial (Giaccone G, et al., Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51: 2321-9) in NSCLC.

Belagenpumatucel-L was a vaccine in which TGFβ2 secretion in four allogeneic NSCLC tumor cell lines was downregulated using a TGFβ2 antisense plasmid. However, Belagenpumatucel-L did not address the issue of TGFβ1 secretion. Recent studies have shown that TGFβ1 is the predominant isoform expressed in the immune system. TGFβ1 binds to the TGFβRII receptor at high affinity, whereas TGFβ2 only binds with high affinity in the presence of the TGFβRIII co-receptor (also called betaglycan). Betaglycan is downregulated in NSCLC, which makes TGFβ1 the predominant TGFβ isoform.

The NSCLC vaccine described in Example 27 introduces great improvement over belagenpumatucel-L relative to secretion of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2, among other modifications and improvements. The lower level of TGFβ2 secretion in the NSCLC vaccine is important, but even more significant is the decreased level of TGFβ1. The present NSCLC vaccine also introduces the following improvements: use of lentiviral transduction of shRNA is being used to knockdown the expression of TGFβ2 and TGFβ1 providing a major improvement over antisense for both expression and stability; use of zinc-finger nuclease electroporation to knockout the expression of CD276; use of lentiviral transduction to induce expression of the immunostimulatory molecules GM-CSF, IL-12, and CD40L; use of a SCLC cell line noting recent observations that NSCLC tumors contain a significant SCLC component and that component is responsible for drug resistance, metastasis, and relapse; and use of a serum-free media formulation.

As described above, twenty-four TAAs that could potentially generate a relevant antitumor immune response in NSCLC patients were identified. mRNA expression of these twenty-four antigens in the NSCLC vaccine and belagenpumatucel-L is shown in FIG. 61A. The data in FIG. 61 is illustrated as the sum of Log10 FPKM+14 mRNA expression of each antigen in the respective belagenpumatucel-L and NSCLC vaccine cell line components. The FPKM mRNA value was adjusted by 14.0 to account for the negative base value (−13.00 FPKM) to allow for addition of mRNA levels with positive values. Expression of the twenty-three prioritized NSCLC TAAs expressed by the NSCLC vaccine cell components was determined in 573 NSCLC patient samples. The NSCLC patient data was downloaded from the publicly available database, cBioPortal (cbioportal.org) (Cerami, E. et al. Cancer Discovery. 2012.; Gao, J. et al. Sci Signal. 2013.) between Feb. 23, 2020 through Jul. 2, 2020 (FIG. 78C). The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) gene symbol was included in the search and mRNA expression was downloaded for each TAA.

The NSCLC vaccine potentially targets a median of 21 TAAs (FIG. 61B) and belagenpumatucel-L targets a median of 17 TAAs (FIG. 61C) expressed by the 573 patient tumor samples. The NSCLC vaccine and belagenpumatucel-L both have the potential to induce an antitumor response to at least five antigens in all 573 patients. The NSCLC vaccine has the potential to induce an antitumor response to at least 17 antigens in 572 patients (99.8%), at least 18 antigens in 565 patients (98.6%), at least 19 antigens in 538 patients (93.9%), at least 20 antigens in 438 patients (76.4%), at least 21 antigens in 290 patients (50.6%), at least 22 antigens in 183 patients (31.9%) and at least 23 antigens in 73 patients (12.7%). In comparison, belagenpumatucel-L could only induce an antitumor response to at least 14 antigens in 572 patients (99.8%), at least 15 antigens in 558 patients (97.4%), at least 16 antigens in 525 patients (91.6%), at least 17 antigens in 351 patients (61.3%), at least 18 antigens in 233 patients (40.7%) and at least 19 antigens in 126 patients (22.0%). The above analysis includes antigens prioritized to induce and antitumor response in NSCLC patients and does not account for the additional, and potentially clinically relevant, antigens expressed by the component cell lines.

The six cell lines included in the NSCLC vaccine described herein were selected to express a wide array of TAAs, including those known to be important to antitumor immunity. As a result, the number of TAAs that can be targeted using the exemplary six-cell line composition, and the expression levels of the antigens, is higher than belagenpumatucel-L. As described earlier, to further enhance antigenic breadth, one cell line (LK-2) was also transduced with the genes for CT83 (SEQ ID NO: 19, SEQ ID NO: 20) and mesothelin (SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 18), two TAAs for which mRNA was endogenously expressed at low levels in any of the six component cell lines.

This Example demonstrates that the reduction of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276 expression with concurrent overexpression of GM-CSF, CD40L, and IL-12 in of the NSCLC vaccine comprising two cocktails, each cocktail composed of three cell line components, a total of 6 component cell lines, significantly increases the antigenic breadth and magnitude of cellular immune responses compared to belagenpumatucel-L.

Reduction of TGFβ2 Secretion in the Belagenpumatucel-L Cell Lines

The cell line components of the belagenpumatucel-L cocktail, NCI-H460, NCI-H520, SK-LU-1, and Rh2 were transduced with lentiviral particles expressing shRNA specifically targeting TGFβ2 (SEQ ID NO: 24) and resulting TGFβ2 levels in the modified cell lines was determined as described in Example 5. TGFβ2 secretion levels in the modified cells were below the lower limit of quantification of the ELISA assay for NCI-H520 and SK-LU-1 and the MDD (42.0 pg/106 cells/24 hours was used to estimate the percent reduction relative to the parental cell line. Compared to the parental, unmodified cell lines, TGFβ2 secretion was reduced 84% in NCI-H460, 99% in NCI-H520, ≥84% in SK-LU-1, and 74% in Rh2. Reduction of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 for NSCLC cocktail A and cocktail B levels are described in Table 41. The NSCLC vaccine was prepared as described in Example 27.

Antigen Specific and Tumor Cell Specific IFNγ Production to NSCLC Vaccine-A, NSCLC Vaccine-B, and Belagenpumatucel-L

Cellular immune responses to antigens and parental, unmodified cells were determined by IFNγ ELISpot following autologous DC and PBMC co-culture as described in Example 8 with modifications as described below.

The autologous DC and PBMC co-cultures were adjusted to model the in vivo administration of the belagenpumatucel-L and the NSCLC vaccine. Belagenpumatucel-L was administered in a single site and NSCLC vaccine-A and NSCLC vaccine-B are administered in two separate injection sites. In the autologous DC and PBMC co-culture representing Belagenpumatucel-L, 3.75×105 of NCI-H460, NCI-H520, SK-LU-1, Rh2 modified cells, 1.5×106 total modified cells, were co-cultured with 1.5×106 iDCs. NSCLC vaccine-A, 5.00×105 of the modified NCI-H460, NCI-H520, A549 cells, 1.5×106 total modified cells, were co-cultured with 1.5×106 iDCs. For NSCLC vaccine-B, 5.0×105 of the modified DMS 53, NCI-H23, and LK-2 cells, 1.5×106 total modified cells, were co-cultured with 1.5×106 iDCs. Following co-culture, cellular immune responses directed against parental tumor cell lines and antigens were determined by IFNγ ELISpot. CD14-PBMCs from the Belagenpumatucel-L co-culture were stimulated in separate wells with unmodified NCI-H460, NCI-H520, SK-LU-1, or Rh2 (n=4/cell line/donor). CD14 PBMCs from NSCLC vaccine-A cocktail were stimulated in separate wells with either NCI-H460, NCI-H520, or A549 (n=4/cell line/donor). CD14 PBMCs from NSCLC vaccine-B cocktail were stimulated in separate wells with either DMS 53, LK-2, or NCI-H23 (n=4/cell line/donor). Antigen specific responses were determined using CD14 PBMCs isolated from the same belagenpumatucel-L, NSCLC vaccine-A, and NSCLC vaccine-B co-cultures (n=4/donor/antigen). IFNγ production responses were determined against the parental, unmodified cell lines comprising the belagenpumatucel-L vaccine, NSCLC vaccine-A and NSCLC vaccine-B and to exemplary tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), tumor-specific antigens (TSA), and cancer/testis antigens (CTA).

Reduction of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276 Expression with Concurrent Overexpression of GM-CSF, CD40L, and IL-12 in 6 Component Cell Line, 2 Cocktail Approach, Significantly Increases Cellular Immune Responses Compared to Reduction of TGFβ2 in a 4-Component Cell Line, Single Cocktail Immunotherapy Approach

IFNγ responses induced by the belagenpumatucel-L, Cocktail A and Cocktail B, against parental tumor cells and antigens were determined with following co-culture of CD14-PBMCs and DCs derived from 8 healthy, HLA diverse donors. PBMCs co-cultured with DCs loaded with the modified belagenpumatucel-L NCI-H460, NCI-H520, SK-LU-1, Rh2 component cell lines were stimulated with parental, unmodified, NCI-H460, NCI-H520, SK-LU-1, Rh2 cells (n=4/donor/cell line). PBMCs co-cultured with DCs loaded with Cocktail A were stimulated with parental, unmodified, NCI-H460, NCI-H520, A549 cells (n=4/donor/cell line). PBMCs co-cultured with DCs loaded with Cocktail B were stimulated with parental, unmodified, DMS 53, NCI-H23, and LK-2 cells (n=4/donor/cell line). The average SFU of the replicates (n=4) for each donor variable is reported ±SEM. The NSCLC vaccine unit dose elicited significantly more robust tumor cell specific IFNγ responses (7,613±1,763 SFU) (n=8) compared to belagenpumatucel-L (1,850±764 SFU) (n=8) (p=0.0148, Mann-Whitney U test) (FIG. 66A). Donor-specific IFNγ responses to belagenpumatucel-L, NSCLC vaccine Cocktail A, NSCLC vaccine Cocktail B, and NSCLC vaccine unit dose are shown in FIG. 67A.

Table 46 shows that the distribution of IFNγ responses to Cocktail A and Cocktail B varied on a per donor basis emphasizing that that increasing the number of cell lines of cell line components and delivery sites has the potential to reach a boarder population than a single composition of 4 cell lines.

TABLE 46 IFNγ responses NSCLC Cocktail Cocktail Vaccine Fold belagenpumatucel-L A B Unit Dose Increase* Donor 1 473 943 75 1,018 2.2 Donor 2 6,180 6,180 4,983 11,163 3.4 Donor 3 339 926 1,303 2,229 6.6 Donor 4 4,163 4,413 829 5,242 1.3 Donor 5 1,476 3,039 8,780 11,819 8.0 Donor 6 1,200 11,240 2,330 13,570 11.3 Donor 7 225 2,107 1,956 4,063 18.1 Donor 8 740 7,848 3,950 11,798 15.9 Mean 1,850 4,587 3,026 7,613 SEM 764 1,287 999 1,763 *Fold Increase of IFNγ SFU induced by IA Unit Dose relative to belagenpumatucel-L. (n = 4/Donor)

NSCLC vaccine Cocktail A and Cocktail B also induced more robust antigen specific IFNγ responses to an exemplary panel of antigens associated with NSCLC and other solid tumor indications. PBMCs co-cultured with DCs loaded with the belagenpumatucel-L, NSCLC vaccine Cocktail A, or NSCLC vaccine Cocktail B were stimulated with peptides pools containing known antigen specific T cell epitopes for a broad range of HLA haplotypes (n=4/donor/antigen). The average SFU of the replicates for each antigen and donor (n=4) is reported ±SEM in Table 47 and in FIG. 67B. The NSCLC vaccine unit dose significantly increased the mean magnitude and breadth of antigen specific IFNγ production (6,576±2,147 SFU) (n=8) relative to the belagenpumatucel-L (392±157 SFU) in 8 Donors (p=0.0002, Mann-Whitney U test) (FIG. 66B).

TABLE 47 Mean magnitude of antigen specific IFNγ production NSCLC Vaccine Fold belagenpumatucel-L Unit Dose Increase* Donor 1 172 3,847 22.4 Donor 2 125 7,493 59.9 Donor 3 23 1,248 55.4 Donor 4 35 2,500 71.4 Donor 5 275 3,723 13.5 Donor 6 977 20,603 21.1 Donor 7 340 6,748 19.8 Donor 8 1,191 6,447 5.4 Mean 392 6,576 SEM 157 2,147 *Fold Increase of IFNγ SFU induced by NSCLC vaccine Unit Dose relative to belagenpumatucel-L. (n = 4/Donor)

Example 29: Preparation of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) Cancer Vaccine

This Example demonstrates that reduction of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276 expression with concurrent overexpression of GM-CSF, CD40L, and IL-12 in a vaccine composition of two cocktails, each cocktail composed of three cell lines for a total of 6 cell lines, significantly increased the magnitude of cellular immune responses to at least 10 GBM-associated antigens in an HLA-diverse population. As described herein, the first cocktail, GBM vaccine-A, is composed of cell line LN-229 that was also modified to express modPSMA, cell line GB-1, and cell line SF-126 that was also modified to express modTERT. The second cocktail, GBM vaccine-B, is composed of cell line DBTRG-05MG, cell line KNS 60 that was also modified to express modMAGEA1, hCMV pp65, and EGFRvIII, and cell line DMS 53. The 6 component cell lines collectively express at least twenty-two antigens that can provide an anti-GBM tumor response.

Identification of Glioblastoma Multiforme Vaccine Components

Initial cell line selection criteria identified seventeen vaccine component cell lines for potential inclusion in the GBM vaccine. Additional selection criteria were applied to narrow the seventeen candidate cell lines to eight cell lines for further evaluation in immunogenicity assays. These criteria included: endogenous GBM associated antigen expression, lack of expression of additional immunosuppressive factors, such as IL-10 or IDO1, expression of GBM specific CSC markers, ethnicity and age of the patient from which the cell line was derived, GBM histological and molecular subtype (when available), and the methylation status of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter (when available).

GBM tumors are enriched with a heterogenous population of CSCs that express a diverse array of CSC markers (Table 2). Expression of thirteen GBM associated CSC markers, ABCG2, ALDH1A1, BMI-1, FUT4, CD44, CD49f, CD90, PROM1, CXCR4, Musashi-1, Nestin, MYC, and SOX2 by GBM tumors was confirmed in patient tumor sample data downloaded from the publicly available database, cBioPortal (cbioportal.org) (Cerami, E. et al. Cancer Discovery. 2012.; Gao, J. et al. Sci Signal. 2013.) between Feb. 23, 2020 through Jul. 2, 2020 (FIG. 68C). The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) gene symbol was included in the search and mRNA expression was downloaded for each CSC marker.

Expression of TAAs and CSC markers by candidate component cell lines was determined by RNA expression data sourced from Broad Institute Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). The HGNC gene symbol was included in the CCLE search and mRNA expression was downloaded for each TAA or CSC marker. Expression of a TAA or CSC marker by a cell line was considered positive if the RNA-seq value (FPKM) was greater than one. Eight of the seventeen GBM vaccine candidate components were identified for further evaluation: DBTRG-05MG, LN-229, A-172, YKG-1, U-251 MG, GB-1, KNS 60, and SF-126 based on the selection criteria described above. The eight candidate component cell lines expressed seven to ten CSC markers (FIG. 68B) and eleven to fourteen TAAs (FIG. 68A). As described herein, the CSC-like cell line DMS 53 is included as one of the 6 cell lines.

Immunogenicity of the unmodified GBM component cell line candidates was evaluated by IFNγ ELISpot as described in Example 9 for three HLA diverse healthy donors (n=4 per donor). Donor HLA-A and HLA-B alleles were as follows: Donor 1, A*02:01 B*35:01 and A*31:01 B*35:03; Donor 2, A*01:01 B*30:01 and A*02:01 B*12:02, Donor 3, A*02:01 B*15:07 and A24:02 B*18:01. LN-229 (5,039±637 SFU) and DBTRG-05MG (6,094±734 SFU) were more immunogenic than A-172 (808±152 SFU), YKG-1 (576±154), U-251 MG (2,314±434), GB-1 (908±284 SFU), KNS-60 (2,177±415 SFU) and SF-126 (1,716±332 SFU). (FIG. 69A) LN-229 was selected to be included in vaccine cocktail A and DBTRG-05MG was selected to be included in vaccine cocktail B as described further herein.

Immunogenicity of DBTRG-05MG and LN-229 was evaluated in eight different combinations of three component cell lines, four combinations contained DBTRG-05MG and four combinations contained LN-229 (FIG. 69C). IFNγ responses were determined against the three component cell lines within in the eight potential vaccine cocktails by IFNγ ELISpot as described in Example 8 using the same three healthy donors described above (n=4/donor). IFNγ responses were detected for all eight cocktails and to each cell line component in each cocktail. Responses to the individual cocktail component cell lines were notably decreased compared to IFNγ responses detected for single cell line components. In all eight combinations evaluated, DBTRG-05MG and LN-229 remained the most immunogenic (FIG. 69B).

The cells in the vaccine described herein were selected to express a wide array of TAAs, including those known to be important specifically for GBM antitumor responses, such as IL13Ra2, and also TAAs known to be important for targets for GBM and other solid tumors, such TERT. As shown herein, to further enhance the array of TAAs, LN-229 was transduced with a gene encoding modPSMA, SF-126 was transduced with a gene encoding modTERT and KNS-60 was transduced with genes encoding modMAGEA1, hCMV pp65, and the 14 amino sequence spanning the in-frame deletion of 267 amino acids of EGFR that results in an activating mutated form of EGFR, EGFRvIII, as described herein.

TERT, PSMA and MAGEA1 were endogenously expressed in one of the six component cell lines, and the activating mutation EGFRvIII and GBM associated viral antigen hCMV pp65 were not endogenously expressed in one or more cell lines at >1.0 FPKM as described below (FIG. 70). Expression of the transduced antigens modTERT (SEQ ID NO: 35; SEQ ID NO: 36) by SF-126 (FIG. 71A), modPSMA (SEQ ID NO: 37; SEQ ID NO: 38) by LN-229 (FIG. 71B), modMAGEA1 (SEQ ID NO: 39; SEQ ID NO: 40) by KNS 60 (FIG. 71C), EGFRvIII (SEQ ID NO: 39; SEQ ID NO: 40) by KNS 60 (FIG. 71D), and hCMV pp65 (SEQ ID NO: 39; SEQ ID NO: 40) by KNS 60 (FIG. 71E), were detected by flow cytometry as described herein. Expression of EGFRvIII and hCMV pp65 by KNS 60 were also detected by RT-PCR as described herein (FIG. 71F). The genes for MAGEA1, EGFRvIII, and hCMV pp65 are encoded in the same lentiviral transfer vector separated by furin cleavage sites. IFNγ production to the transduced antigens is described herein.

Because of the need to maintain maximal heterogeneity of antigens and clonal subpopulations the comprise each cell line, the gene modified cell lines utilized in the present vaccine have been established using antibiotic selection and flow cytometry and not through limiting dilution subcloning.

The mRNA expression of representative TAAs in the present vaccine are shown in FIG. 70A. The present vaccine has high expression of all identified twenty-two commonly targeted and potentially clinically relevant TAAs for inducing a GBM antitumor response. Some of these TAAs are known to be primarily enriched in GBM tumors and some can also induce an immune response to GBM and other solid tumors. Expression of the twenty-two prioritized GBM TAAs was determined in 170 GBM patient samples using the same methods and 170 patient samples used to confirm the expression of GBM CSC markers described above. Eighteen of the prioritized GBM TAAs were expressed by 100% of samples, 19 TAAs were expressed by 97.2% of samples, 20 TAAs were expressed by 79.4% of samples, 21 TAAs were expressed by 32.9% of samples, and 22 TAAs were expressed by 1.8% samples (FIG. 70B). Based on the expression and immunogenicity data presented herein, the cell lines identified in Table 48 were selected to comprise the present GBM vaccine.

TABLE 48 Glioblastoma vaccine cell lines and histology Cocktail Cell Line Name Histology A LN-229 Glioblastoma Multiforme A GB-1 Glioblastoma Multiforme A SF-126 Glioblastoma Multiforme B DBTRG-05MG Glioblastoma Multiforme B KNS-60 Glioblastoma Multiforme B DMS 53 Lung Small Cell Carcinoma

CD276 Expression

The LN-229, GB-1, SF-126, KNS-60, and DMS 53 component cell lines expressed CD276 and expression was knocked out by electroporation with ZFN as described in Example 13 and elsewhere herein. DBTRG-05MG was transduced with lentiviral particles expressing shRNA specific for knockdown of CD276 (shCD276, ccggtgctggagaaagatcaaacagctcgagctgtttgatctttctccagcatttttt (SEQ ID NO: 71). Because it was desirable to maintain as much tumor heterogeneity as possible, the electroporated and shRNA modified cells were not cloned by limiting dilution. Instead, the cells were subjected to multiple rounds of cell sorting by FACS as described in Example 13.

Expression of CD276 was determined by extracellular staining of modified and parental cell lines with PE α-human CD276 (BioLegend, clone DCN.70) on Day 1 (before irradiation) and Day 3 (48 hours post-irradiation). Irradiation did not impact CD276 expression levels and Day 1 MFI values are reported. Unstained cells and isotype control PE α-mouse IgG1 (BioLegend, clone MOPC-21) stained parental and CD276 KO cells served as controls. The MFI of the isotype control was subtracted from reported values for both the parental and modified cell lines. Percent reduction of CD276 expression is expressed as: (1-(MFI of the CD276KO cell line/MFI of the parental))×100). MFI is normalized to 100,000 cells. Reduction of CD276 expression is described in Table 49. These data show that gene editing of CD276 with shRNA or ZFN resulted in greater than 58.5% CD276-negative cells in all six vaccine component cell lines.

TABLE 49 Reduction of CD276 expression Parental Cell Modified Cell % Reduction Cell line Line MFI Line MFI CD276 LN-229 17,549 176 99.0 GB-1 31,439 137 99.6 SF-126 25,608 18 99.9 DBTRG-05MG 67,196 27,879 58.5 KNS-60 12,218 122 99.0 DMS 53 11,928 24 99.8 MFI reported with isotype controls subtracted

Cytokine Secretion Assays for TGFβ1, TGFβ2, GM-CSF, and IL-12

Cell lines were X-ray irradiated at 100 Gy prior to plating in 6-well plates at 2 cell densities (5.0e5 and 7.5e5) in duplicate. The following day, cells were washed with PBS and the media was changed to Secretion Assay Media (Base Media+5% CTS). After 48 hours, media was collected for ELISAs. The number of cells per well was counted using the Luna cell counter (Logos Biosystems). Total cell count and viable cell count were recorded. The secretion of cytokines in the media, as determined by ELISA, was normalized to the total cell count recorded.

TGFβ1 secretion was determined by ELISA according to manufacturers instructions (Human TGFβ1 Quantikine ELISA, R&D Systems #SB100B). Four dilutions were plated in duplicate for each supernatant sample. If the results of the ELISA assay were below the LLD, the percentage decrease relative to parental cell lines was estimated by the number of cells recovered from the assay and the lower limit of detection, 15.4 μg/mL. If TGFβ1 was detected in >2 samples or dilutions the average of the positive values was reported with the n of samples run.

TGFβ2 secretion was determined by ELISA according to manufacturers instructions (Human TGFβ2 Quantikine ELISA, R&D Systems #SB250). Four dilutions were plated in duplicate for each supernatant sample. If the results of the ELISA assay were below the LLD, the percentage decrease relative to parental cell lines was estimated by the number of cells recovered from the assay and the lower limit of detection, 7.0 μg/mL. If TGFβ2 was detected in >2 samples or dilutions the average of the positive values was reported with the n of samples run.

GM-CSF secretion was determined by ELISA according to manufacturer's instructions (GM-CSF Quantikine ELISA, R&D Systems #SGM00). Four dilutions were plated in duplicate for each supernatant sample. If the results of the ELISA assay were below the LLD, the percentage increase relative to parental cell lines was estimated by the number of cells recovered from the assay and the lower limit of detection, 3.0 μg/mL. If GM-CSF was detected in >2 samples or dilutions the average of the positive values was reported with the n of samples run.

IL-12 secretion was determined by ELISA according to manufacturer's instructions (LEGEND MAX Human IL-12 (p70) ELISA, Biolegend #431707). Four dilutions were plated in duplicate for each supernatant sample. If the results of the ELISA assay were below the LLD, the percentage increase was estimated by the number of cells recovered from the assay and the lower limit of detection, 1.2 μg/mL. If IL-12 was detected in >2 samples or dilutions the average of the positive values was reported with the n of samples run.

shRNA Downregulates TGF-β Secretion

Following CD276 knockout, TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion levels were reduced using shRNA and resulting levels determined as described above. Of the parental cell lines in GBM vaccine-A, LN-229, GB-1 and SF-126 secreted measurable levels of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2. Of the parental cell lines in GBM vaccine-B, DBTRG-05MG, KNS 60, and DMS 53 secreted measurable levels of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2. Reduction of TGFβ2 secretion by the DMS 53 cell line is described in Example 5 and resulting levels determined as described above.

The five component cell lines of GBM origin were transduced with TGFβ1 shRNA to decrease secretion of TGFβ1. The lentiviral particles encoding TGFβ1 shRNA also encoded the gene for expression of membrane bound CD40L under the control of a different promoter. This allowed for simultaneous reduction of TGFβ1 and expression of membrane bound CD40L. SF-126 and KNS 60 were subsequently transduced with lentiviral particles encoding TGFβ2 shRNA and GM-CSF (SEQ ID NO: 6). This allowed for simultaneous reduction of TGFβ2 and expression of GM-CSF in both cell lines.

DBTRG-05MG and GB-1 were gene modified with only TGFβ1 shRNA. TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 promote cell proliferation and survival. In some cell lines, as in some tumors, reduction of TGFβ signaling can induce growth arrest and lead to cell death. In neuronal cells, such as GBM, loss of TGFβ signaling is also associated with cell death. TGFβ1 knockdown was selected for modification because it is considered a more potent immunosuppressive factor relative to TGFβ2 and retaining some TGFβ signaling is likely necessary for proliferation and survival of these cell lines. LN-229 secreted TGFβ2 at a detectable, but low, level and was not modified with TGFβ2 shRNA. These cells are described by the clonal designation DK2. As described in Example 26, DMS 53 was modified with shRNA to reduce secretion of TGFβ2 and not TGFβ1. These cells are described by the clonal designation DK4. The remaining cell lines were double modified with TGFβ1 shRNA and TGFβ2 shRNA. These cells are described by the clonal designation DK6.

Table 50 shows the percent reduction in TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 secretion in gene modified component cell lines compared to unmodified, parental, cell lines. Gene modification resulted in 49% to 80% reduction of TGFβ1 secretion. Gene modification of TGFβ2 resulted in 51% to 99% reduction in secretion of TGFβ2. TGFβ1 shRNA modified DBTRG-05MG secreted less TGFβ2 than the unmodified, parental cell line. Lower secretion of TGFβ2 by the modified cell line was confirmed in multiple independent experiments. Lower secretion of TGFβ2 following TGFβ1 knockdown was not observed in other component cell lines.

TABLE 50 TGF-β Secretion (pg/106 cells/24 hr) in Component Cell Lines Cell Line Cocktail Clone TGFβ1 TGFβ2 LN-229 A Wild type 1,874 ± 294 116 ± 19 LN-229 A DK2  384 ± 47  73 ± 41 LN-229 A Percent reduction 80% NA GB-1 A Wild type  204 ± 28 481 ± 51 GB-1 A DK2 66 ± 16 438 ± 59 GB-1 A Percent reduction 68% NA SF-126 A Wild type 2,818 ± 258 784 ± 98 SF-126 A DK6 792 ± 188 * ≤11 SF-126 A Percent reduction 72% 99% DBTRG-05MG B Wild type 6,626 ± 389 2,664 ± 461  DBTRG-05MG B DK2 3,365 ± 653  612 ± 190 DBTRG-05MG B Percent reduction 49% NA KNS 60 B Wild type 3,308 ± 615 1,451 ± 235  KNS 60 B DK6 1,296 ± 110  36 ± 11 KNS 60 B Percent reduction 61% 97% DMS 53 B Wild type  106 ± 10 486 ± 35 DMS 53 B DK4  219 ± 33 238 ± 40 DMS 53 B Percent reduction NA 51% DK6: TGFβ1/TGFβ2 double knockdown; DK4: TGFβ2 single knockdown; DK2: TGFβ1 single knockdown; * = estimated using LLD, not detected; NA = not applicable

Based on a dose of 5×105 of each component cell line, the total TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion by the modified GBM vaccine-A and GBM vaccine-B and respective unmodified parental cell lines are shown in Table 51. The secretion of TGFβ1 by GBM vaccine-A was reduced by 75% and TGFβ2 by 62% pg/dose/24 hr. The secretion of TGFβ1 by GBM vaccine-B was reduced by 51% and TGFβ2 by 74% pg/dose/24 hr.

TABLE 51 Total TGF-β Secretion (pg/dose/24 hr) in GBM vaccine-A and GBM vaccine-B Cocktail Clones TGFβ1 TGFβ2 A Wild type 2,448 691 DK2/6   621 261 Percent reduction 75% 62% B Wild type 5,020 2,301   DK2/4/6 2,440 600 Percent reduction 51% 74%

GM-CSF Secretion

Two GBM component cell lines, KNS 60 and SF-126, were transduced with lentiviral particles containing both TGFβ2 shRNA and the gene to express GM-CSF (SEQ ID NO: 6) under the control of a different promoter. This allowed for simultaneous reduction of TGFβ2 secretion and expression of GM-CSF. The DBTRG-05MG, LN-229 and GB-1 cell lines were transduced with lentiviral particles to only express GM-CSF (SEQ ID NO: 7). DMS 53 was modified to secrete GM-CSF as described in Example 24 and elsewhere herein. The results are shown in Table 52 and described below.

Secretion of GM-CSF increased at least 19,000-fold in all modified component cell lines compared to unmodified, parental cell lines. In GBM vaccine-A component cell lines, secretion of GM-CSF increased 303,000-fold by LN-229 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.002 ng/106 cells/24 hr), 409,000-fold by GB-1 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.001 ng/106 cells/24 hr), and 19,000-fold by SF-126 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.003 ng/106 cells/24 hr). In GBM vaccine-B component cell lines secretion of GM-CSF increased 1,209,500-fold by DBTRG-05MG compared to the parental cell line (≤0.002 ng/106 cells/24 hr), 109,667-fold by KNS 60 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.003 ng/106 cells/24 hr) and 39,450-fold by DMS 53 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.004 ng/106 cells/24 hr).

TABLE 52 GM-CSF Secretion in Component Cell Lines GM-CSF GM-CSF Cell Line (ng/106 cells/24 hr) (ng/dose/24 hr) LN-229 606 ± 228 303 GB-1 409 ± 161 205 SF-126 57 ± 13 29 Cocktail A Total 1,072 537 DBTRG-05MG 2,419 ± 721 1,210 KNS 60 329 ± 45  165 DMS 53 158 ± 15  79 Cocktail B Total 2,906 1,454

Based on a dose of 5×105 of each component cell line, the total GM-CSF secretion for GBM vaccine-A was 537 ng per dose per 24 hours. The total GM-CSF secretion for GBM vaccine-B was 1,454 ng per dose per 24 hours. The total GM-CSF secretion per dose was therefore 1,991 ng per 24 hours.

Membrane Bound CD40L (CD154) Expression

The component cell lines were transduced with lentiviral particles to express membrane bound CD40L vector as described above. The methods to detect expression of CD40L by the five GBM cell line components are described herein. The methods used to modify DMS 53 to express CD40L are described in Example 15. Evaluation of membrane bound CD40L by all six vaccine component cell lines is described below.

CD40L expression was evaluated by flow cytometry with an anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody as described in Example 15. CD40L expression was determined on Day 1 (pre-irradiation) and Day 3 (post-irradiation). Irradiation did not impact expression levels and Day 1 CD40L expression is reported. If subtraction of the MFI of the isotype control resulted in a negative value, an MFI of 1.0 was used to calculate the fold increase in expression of CD40L by the modified component cell line relative to the unmodified cell line. The results shown in FIG. 72 and described below demonstrate CD40L membrane expression was substantially increased in all six cell GBM vaccine component cell lines.

FIG. 72 shows the expression of membrane bound CD40L by the GBM vaccine component cell lines. Expression of membrane bound CD40L increased at least 172-fold in all component cell lines compared to unmodified, parental cell lines. In GBM vaccine-A component cell lines, expression of CD40L increased 11,628-fold by LN-229 (11,628 MFI) compared to the parental cell line (0 MFI), 233-fold by GB-1 (4,464 MFI) compared to the parental cell line (19 MFI), and 172-fold by SF-126 (5,526) compared to the parental cell line (32 MFI). In GBM vaccine-B component cell lines expression of CD40L increased 20,510-fold by DBTRG-05MG compared to the parental cell line (0 MFI), 5,599-fold by KNS 60 compared to the parental cell line (0 MFI), and 88,261-fold by DMS 53 compared to the parental cell line (0 MFI).

IL-12 Expression

The component cell lines were transduced with the IL-12 vector as described in Example 17 and resulting IL-12 p70 expression determined as described above and herein. The results are shown in Table 53 and described below.

Secretion of IL-12 increased at least 45,000-fold in all component cell lines modified to secrete IL-12 p70 compared to unmodified, parental cell lines. In GBM vaccine-A component cell lines, secretion of IL-12 increased 81,000-fold by LN-229 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.001 ng/106 cells/24 hr), 50,000-fold by GB-1 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.0002 ng/106 cells/24 hr), and 45,000-fold by SF-126 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.001 ng/106 cells/24 hr). In GBM vaccine-B component cell lines expression of IL-12 increased 133,560-fold by DBTRG-05MG compared to the parental cell line (≤0.001 ng/106 cells/24 hr) and 116,000-fold by KNS 60 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.001 ng/106 cells/24 hr). DMS 53 was not modified to secrete IL-12.

TABLE 53 IL-12 secretion in component cell lines IL-12 IL-12 Cell Line (ng/106 cells/24 hr) (ng/dose/24 hr) LN-229 81 ± 4 41 GB-1 10 ± 1 5 SF-126 45 ± 7 23 Cocktail A Total 136 69 DBTRG-05MG 134 ± 24 67 KNS 60 116 ± 5  58 DMS 53 NA NA Cocktail B Total 250 125

Based on a dose of 5×105 of each component cell line, the total IL-12 secretion for GBM vaccine-A was 69 ng per dose per 24 hours. The total IL-12 secretion for GBM vaccine-B was 125 ng per dose per 24 hours. The total IL-12 secretion per dose was therefore 194 ng per 24 hours.

Stable Expression of modPSMA by the LN-229 Cell Line

As described above, the cells in the vaccine described herein were selected to express a wide array of TAAs, including those known to be important to GBM antitumor immunity. To further enhance the array of antigens, the LN-229 cell line that was modified to reduce the secretion of TGFβ1, reduce the expression of CD276, and to express GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L, and IL-12 was also transduced with lentiviral particles expressing the modPSMA antigen (SEQ ID NO: 37, SEQ ID NO: 38).

The expression of modPSMA was characterized by flow cytometry. Unmodified parental and modified cells were stained intracellular with 0.06 μg/test anti-mouse IgG1 anti-PSMA antibody (AbCam ab268061, Clone FOLH1/3734) followed by 0.125 ug/test AF647-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG1 antibody (Biolegend #405322). The MFI of the isotype control stained parental and modified cells was subtracted from the MFI of cells stained anti-PSMA. MFI was normalized to 100,000 events. Fold increase in antigen expression was calculated as: (background subtracted modified MFI/background subtracted parental MFI). Expression of PSMA increased in the modified cell line (533,577 MFI) 38-fold over that of the parental cell line (14,008 MFI) (FIG. 71B).

Stable Expression of modMAGEA1, EGFRvIII, hCMV-Pp65 by the KNS 60 Cell Line

As described above, the cells in the vaccine described herein were selected to express a wide array of TAAs, including those known to be important to antitumor immunity. To further enhance the array of antigens, the KNS 60 cell line that was modified to reduce the secretion of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2, reduce the expression of CD276, and to express GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L and IL-12 was also transduced with lentiviral particles expressing the modMAGEA1, hCMV pp65, and EGFRvIII antigens. The modMAGEA1, hCMV pp65, and EGFRvIII antigens are linked by a furin cleavage site (SEQ ID NO: 39, SEQ ID NO: 40).

The expression of modMAGEA1, hCMV pp65, and EGFRvIII was characterized by flow cytometry. Unmodified parental and modified cells were stained intracellular to detect the expression of each antigen as follows. For the detection of modMAGEA1, cells were first stained with mouse IgG1 anti-MAGEA1 antibody (SC-71539, Clone 3F256) (0.03 ug/test) followed by AF647-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG1 antibody (Biolegend #405322) (0.125 ug/test). For the detection of hCMVpp65, cells were first stained with mouse IgG1 anti-pp65 antibody (AbCam ab31624, Clone 1-L-11) (0.06 ug/test) followed by AF647-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG1 antibody (Biolegend #405322) (0.125 ug/test). For the detection of EGFRvIII, cells were first stained with mouse IgG1 anti-EGFRvIII antibody (Novus NBP2-50599, Clone DH8.3) (0.06 ug/test) followed by AF647-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG1 antibody (Biolegend #405322) (0.125 ug/test). The MFI of the isotype control stained cells was subtracted from the MFI of the cells stained for MAGEA1, hCMV pp65, or EGFRvIII. MFI was normalized to 100,000 events. Fold increase in antigen expression was calculated as: (background subtracted modified MFI/background subtracted parental MFI).

Expression of hCMV pp65 and EGFRvIII was also confirmed by RT-PCR (FIG. 81F). 1.0-3.0×106 cell were used for RNA isolation. RNA was isolated using Direct-zol™ RNA MiniPrep kit (ZYMO RESEARCH, catalog number: R2051) per the manufacturers instructions. RNA quantification was performed using NanoDrop™ OneC (Thermo Scientific™ catalogue number 13-400-519). For reverse transcription, 1 μg of RNA was reverse transcribed using qScript cDNA SuperMix (Quantabio, catalogue number: 95048-025) per the manufacturer's instructions to cDNA. After completion of cDNA synthesis, the reaction was diluted two times and 2 μL of cDNA were used for amplification. For hCMV pp65, the forward primer designed to anneal at the 1925-1945 base pair (bp) location in the transgene (CGGACTGCTGTGTCCTAAGAG (SEQ ID NO: 118)) and reverse primer designed to anneal at 2414-2435 bp location in the transgene (GCTGTCCTCGTCTGTATCTTCC (SEQ ID NO: 119)) and yield 511 bp product. For EGFRvIII, the forward primer was designed to anneal at the 839-858 bp location in the transgene (TGTGAAGGTGCTGGAATACG (SEQ ID NO: 120)) and reverse primer designed to anneal at the 1252-1271 bp location in the transgene (GCCGGTAAAGTAGGTGTGCT (SEQ ID NO: 121)) and yield 433 bp product. β-tubulin primers that anneal to variant 1, exon 1 (TGTCTAGGGGAAGGGTGTGG (SEQ ID NO: 122) and exon 4 (TGCCCCAGACTGACCAAATAC (SEQ ID NO: 123)) were used as a control. PCR to detect hCMV pp65, EGFRvIII and β-tubulin was completed as follows: initial denaturation, 98° C. for 30 seconds, followed by 25 cycles of denaturation at 98° C. for 5 to 10 seconds, annealing at 58° C. for 10 to 30 seconds, and extension at 72° C. for 30 seconds. After the 25 cycles final extension of 2 min at 72° C. was completed and the reaction held at 10° C. until detection of the PCR products by gel electrophoresis. After completion of PCR, Lel Loading Dye, Purple (6×) (New England BioLabs, #B70245) was added at a 1× concentration. The PCR product was then run a 2% agarose gel (Lonza SeaKem® LE Agarose, #50004) along with 8 μL of of exACT Gene 100 bp ladder (Fisher BioReagents, #BP2573100) for band size estimation. After the bands were appropriately separated, the gels were imaged using ChemiDoc Imaging System (BioRAD, #17001401). For relative quantification with β-tubulin gene, Image Lab Software v6.0 (BioRAD) was used.

Expression of modMAGEA1 increased in the modified cell line (140,342 MFI) 41-fold over that of the parental cell line (3,460 MFI) (FIG. 71C). Expression of hCMV pp65 by the modified cell line (9,545 MFI) increased 9,545-fold over the that of the parental cell line (0 MFI). Subtraction of the MFI of the isotype control from the MFI of the pp65 stained parental KNS 60 resulted in negative value. The fold increase of pp65 expression in the modified cell line was calculated using 1 MFI (FIG. 71E). Expression of EGFRvIII by the modified cell line (4,925 MFI) increased 5-fold over the that of the parental cell line (1,053 MFI) (FIG. 71D).

Stable Expression of modTERT by the SF-126 Cell Line

As described above, the cells in the vaccine described herein were selected to express a wide array of TAAs, including those known to be important to antitumor immunity. To further enhance the array of antigens, the SF-126 cell line that was modified to reduce the secretion of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2, reduce the expression of CD276, and to express GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L and IL-12 was also transduced with lentiviral particles expressing the modTERT antigen (SEQ ID NO: 35, SEQ ID NO: 36).

The expression of modTERT was characterized by flow cytometry. Unmodified parental and modified cells were stained intracellular with anti-rabbit IgG1 anti-TERT antibody (AbCam ab32020, Clone Y182) (0.03 μg/test) followed by AF647-conjugated donkey anti-rabbit IgG1 antibody (Biolegend #406414) (0.125 ug/test). MFI was normalized to 100,000 events. The MFI of the isotype control stained parental and modified cells was subtracted from the MFI of cells stained for parental and modified cells. Fold increase in antigen expression was calculated as: (background subtracted modified MFI/background subtracted parental MFI). Expression of modTERT increased in the modified cell line (281,904 MFI) 27-fold over that of the parental cell line (10,578 MFI) (FIG. 71A).

Immune Responses to MAGEA1, EGFRvIII, and hCMV Pp65 in GBM-Vaccine B

IFNγ responses to the MAGEA1, EGFRvIII, and hCMV pp65 antigens were evaluated in the context of the GBM-vaccine B. Specifically, 5×105 of the modified DMS 53, DBTRG-05MG and KNS 60 cell lines, a total of 1.5×106 total modified cells, were co-cultured with 1.5×106 iDCs from eight HLA diverse donors (n=4/donor). The HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C alleles for each of the eight donors are shown in Table 54. The ability to generate and immune responses in MHC Class I diverse donors demonstrates the GBM vaccine is has the potential to elicit CD8+ T cell responses in a diverse patient population and is not class restricted to a specific MHC allele. CD14-PBMCs were isolated from co-culture with DCs on day 6 and stimulated with peptide pools, 15-mers overlapping by 11 amino acids or 15-mers overlapping by 9 amino acids, spanning the native protein sequences, in the IFNγ ELISpot assay for 24 hours prior to detection of IFNγ producing cells. Peptides were sourced as follows: EGFRvIII, 15-mers overlapping by 9 amino acids, were purchased from Thermo Scientific Custom Peptide Service, MAGE A1 (JPT, PM-MAGEA1) and hCMV pp65 (JPT, PM-PP65-1). IFNγ responses to MAGEA1 significantly increased with the modified GBM vaccine-B (1,323±442 SFU) compared to the unmodified GBM vaccine-B (225±64 SFU) (p=0.005, Mann-Whitney U test) (n=8) (FIG. 71I). EGFRvIII specific IFNγ responses significantly increased with the modified GBM vaccine-B (855±231 SFU) compared unmodified GBM vaccine-B (165±93 SFU) (p=0.049, Mann-Whitney U test) (FIG. 71J). hCMV pp65 specific IFNγ responses significantly increased with modified GBM vaccine-B (5,283±1,434 SFU) compared to the unmodified GBM vaccine-B (814±229 SFU) (p=0.001, Mann-Whitney U test) (FIG. 71K).

Immune Responses to PSMA and TERT in GBM-Vaccine A

IFNγ responses to the PSMA and TERT were evaluated in the context of GBM-vaccine A. Specifically, 5×105 of the modified LN-229, GB-land SF-126 cell lines, a total of 1.5×106 modified cells, were co-cultured with 1.5×106 iDCs from 8 HLA diverse donors (n=4/donor) (Table 54) and IFNγ responses determined by ELISpot as described above. PSMA peptides, 15-mers overlapping by 9 amino acids spanning the length of the native antigen, were purchased from Thermo Scientific Custom Peptide Service. TERT peptides cover the full-length native antigen were purchased from JPT (PM-TERT). TERT specific IFNγ responses with were significantly increased with the modified GBM vaccine-A (1,284±258 SFU) compared to the parental, unmodified GBM vaccine-A (231±102 SFU) (p=0.011, Mann-Whitney U test) (n=8) (FIG. 71G). PSMA specific IFNγ responses with the were significantly increased with the modified GBM vaccine-A (1,210±348 SFU) compared to the parental, unmodified GBM vaccine-A (154±22 SFU) (p=0.028, Mann-Whitney U test) (n=8) (FIG. 71H).

TABLE 54 Healthy Donor MHC-I characteristics Donor # HLA-A HLA-B HLA-C 1 *02:01 *03:01 *18:01 *38:01 *07:01 *12:03 2 *03:01 *25:01 *07:02 *18:01 *07:02 *12:03 3 *02:01 *24:02 *08:01 *44:02 *05:01 *07:01 4 *02:01 *03:01 *08:01 *51:01 *07:01 *14:02 5 *02:05 *31:01 *27:25 *50:01 *07:01 *07:02 6 *23:01 *24:02 *35:03 *55:01 *27:25 *50:01 7 *30:02 *30:04 *15:10 *58:02 *03:04 *06:02 8 *03:01 *32:01 *07:02 *15:17 *07:01 *07:02

Cocktails Induce Immune Responses Against Relevant TAAs

The ability of the individual component cell lines and the two GBM vaccine cocktails to induce IFNγ production against relevant GBM antigens was measured by ELISpot. PBMCs from eight HLA-diverse healthy donors (Table 54) were co-cultured with the GBM-A or GBM-B cocktails for 6 days prior to stimulation with autologous DCs loaded with TAA-specific specific peptide pools containing known MHC-I restricted epitopes. Peptides for stimulation of CD14-PBMCs were sourced as follows. Custom peptide libraries of 15-mers overlapping by 9 amino acids were ordered from Pierce for PSMA, WT1 and EGFRvIII. Additional 15-mer overlapping by 11 amino acid peptide pools were sourced as follows: TERT (JPT, PM-TERT), MAGE A1 (JPT, PM-MAGEA1), Survivin (thinkpeptides, 7769_001-011), WT1 (HER2 (JPT, PM-ERB_ECD), STEAP (PM-STEAP1), MUC1 (JPT, PM-MUC1), and hCMV pp65 (JPT, PM-PP65-1). Cells were then assayed for IFNγ secretion in the IFNγ ELISpot assay.

Approximately 60-70% of developed nations populations are hCMV positive (Hyun et al. Front. Immunol. 2017) and the hCMV status of the healthy donors in unknown. It is possible that the hCMV pp65 antigen in the GBM vaccine boosted a preexisting memory response in healthy donor PBMCs and did not prime a de novo response. For this reason, responses to hCMV are shown separately from the other nine prioritized TAAs and are not included in the TAA responses illustrated in FIG. 73, FIG. 74 or Table 55. Responses to the hCMV pp65 antigen in donor PBMCs when stimulated with parental controls or the GBM vaccine are shown in FIG. 71J. IFNγ responses to pp65 significantly increased with the GBM vaccine in seven of eight donors compared to parental controls. Specifically, expression of hCMV pp65 by KNS 60 significantly increased pp65 specific IFNγ responses in the context of the modified GBM vaccine-A (5,283±1,434 SFU) compared to the parental, unmodified GBM vaccine-A (814±229 SFU) (p=0.001, Mann-Whitney U test).

FIG. 73 demonstrates the GBM vaccine is capable of inducing antigen specific IFNγ responses in eight HLA-diverse donors that are significantly more robust (17,316±4,171 SFU) compared to the unmodified parental controls (2,769±691 SFU) (p=0.004, Mann-Whitney U test) (n=8) (FIG. 73A). GBM vaccine-A and GBM vaccine-B independently demonstrated antigen specific responses significantly greater compared to parental controls. Specifically, GBM vaccine-A elicited 7,716±2,308 SFU compared to the unmodified controls (1,718±556 SFU) (p=0.038, Mann-Whitney U test) (FIG. 73B). For GBM vaccine-A, excluding hCMV (n=9 antigens), one donor responded to four, three donors responded to seven antigens, one donor responded to eight antigens, and three donors responded to nine antigens. GBM vaccine-B elicited 9,601±2,413 SFU compared to parental controls (1,051±365 SFU) (p<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test) (FIG. 73C). For GBM vaccine-B, excluding hCMV (n=9 antigens), two donors responded to seven antigens, three donors responded to eight antigens, and three donors responded to nine antigens. The GBM vaccine (vaccine-A and vaccine-B) induced IFNγ production to all nine non-viral antigens in seven of eight donors (FIG. 74) (Table 55).

TABLE 55 IFNγ Responses to unmodified and modified GBM vaccine components Donor Unmodified (SFU ± SEM) Modified (SFU ± SEM) (n = 4) GBM vaccine-A GBM vaccine-B GBM Vaccine GBM vaccine-A GBM vaccine-B GBM Vaccine 1 89 ± 73 738 ± 401    826 ± 469 8,653 ± 4,964 11,450 ± 6,712  20,103 ± 11,633 2  246 ± 75 594 ± 58     840 ± 112 888 ± 383 1,086 ± 642 1,974 ± 956 3 5,204 ± 1,111 433 ± 145 5,636 ± 669 ± 634 3,535 ± 2,146 4,234 ± 2,748 4 1,877 ± 1,002 450 ± 317 2,327 ± 5,314 ± 3,529 20,347 ± 9856 25,661 ± 13,310 5 1,295 ± 732 1,268 ± 433 2,563 6,005 ± 2,330 8,130 ± 2,423 14,135 ± 4,605  6 2,330 ± 677 3,525 ± 330 5,858 ± 15,253 ± 4,183  7,795 ± 2,324 23,048 ± 5,931  7 1,103 ± 503 751 ± 223 1,638 ± 5,710 ± 4,657 5,965 ± 4,267 11,675 ± 8,893  8 1,600 ± 863 751 ± 223 2,351 ± 19,204 ± 6,757  18,497 ± 5,934  37,701 ± 12,442 indicates data missing or illegible when filed

Based on the disclosure and data provided herein, a whole cell vaccine for Glioblastoma Multiforme comprising the six cancer cell lines, sourced from ATCC or JCRB, LN-229 (ATCC, CRL-2611), GB-1 (JCRB, IF050489), SF-126 (JCRB, IF050286), DBTRG-05MG (ATCC, CRL-2020), KNS 60 (JCRB, IF050357) and DMS 53 (ATCC, CRL-2062) is shown in Table 56. The cell lines represent five glioblastoma cell lines and one small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line (DMS 53, ATCC CRL-2062). The cell lines have been divided into two groupings: vaccine-A and vaccine-B. Vaccine-A is designed to be administered intradermally in the upper arm and vaccine-B is designed to be administered intradermally in the thigh. Vaccine A and B together comprise a unit dose of cancer vaccine.

TABLE 56 Cell line nomenclature and modifications Cocktail Cell Line TGFβ1 KD TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO/KD GM-CSF CD40L IL-12 TAA(s) A LN-229 X ND X X X X X A GB-1* X ND X X X X ND A SF-126 X X X X X X X B DBTRG-05MG* X ND  X{circumflex over ( )} X X X ND B KNS 60 X X X X X X X B DMS 53* ND X X X X X ND ND = Not done. {circumflex over ( )}CD276 KD. *Cell lines identified as CSC-like cells.

Where indicated in the above table, the genes for the immunosuppressive factors transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGFβ2) have been knocked down using shRNA transduction with a lentiviral vector. The gene for CD276 has been knocked out by electroporation using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) or knocked down using shRNA transduction with a lentiviral vector. The genes for granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-12, CD40L, modPSMA (LN-229), modTERT (SF-126), modMAGEA1 (KNS 60), EGFRvIII (KNS 60) and hCMV pp65 (KNS 60) have been added by lentiviral vector transduction.

Example 30: Preparation of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Vaccine

This Example demonstrates that reduction of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276 expression with concurrent overexpression of GM-CSF, CD40L, and IL-12 in a vaccine composition of two cocktails, each cocktail composed of three cell lines for a total of 6 cell lines, significantly increased the magnitude of cellular immune responses to at least 10 CRC-associated antigens in an HLA-diverse population. As described herein, the first cocktail, CRC vaccine-A, is composed of cell line HCT-15, cell line HuTu-80 that was also modified to express modPSMA, and cell line LS411N. The second cocktail, CRC vaccine-B, is composed of cell line HCT-116 that was also modified to express modTBXT, modWT1, and the KRAS mutations G12D and G12V, cell line RKO, and cell line DMS 53. The six component cell lines collectively express at least twenty antigens that can provide an anti-CRC tumor response.

Identification of Colorectal Vaccine Components

Sixteen vaccine component cell lines were identified using initial cell line selection criteria for potential inclusion in the CRC vaccine. Additional selection criteria were applied to narrow the sixteen candidate cell lines to eight cell lines for further evaluation in immunogenicity assays. These criteria included: endogenous CRC associated antigen expression, lack of expression of additional immunosuppressive factors, such as IL-10 or IDO1, expression of CRC-associated CSC markers ALDH1, c-myc, CD44, CD133, Nanog, Musashi-1, EpCAM, Lgr-5 and SALL4, ethnicity and age of the patient from which the cell line was derived, microsatellite instability and CRC histological subtype.

CSCs play a critical role in the metastasis and relapse of colorectal cancer (Table 2). Expression of nine CRC-associated CSC markers, by CRC tumors was confirmed in patient tumor sample data downloaded from the publicly available database, cBioPortal (cbioportal.org) (Cerami, E. et al. Cancer Discovery. 2012.; Gao, J. et al. Sci Signal. 2013.) between Oct. 1, 2019 through Oct. 20, 2020 (FIG. 75C). The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) gene symbol was included in the search and RSEM normalized mRNA abundance was downloaded for each CSC marker. Of 1,534 CRC patient samples 592 samples had mRNA expression data available for the ten CSC markers described above. A sample was considered positive for expression of a CRC CSC marker if Log10 (RSEM+1) >0. Within the 592 samples 0.8% expressed 8 CSC markers (n=5), 43.9% expressed 9 CSC markers (n=260) and 55.2% expressed 10 CSC markers.

Expression of TAAs and CSC markers by candidate component cell lines was determined by RNA expression data sourced from Broad Institute Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). The HGNC gene symbol was included in the CCLE search and mRNA expression was downloaded for each TAA or CSC marker. Expression of a TAA or CSC marker by a cell line was considered positive if the RNA-seq value (FPKM) was greater than one. Nine of the sixteen CRC vaccine candidate components were identified for further evaluation: HCT-15, SW1463, RKO, HuTu80, HCT-116, LoVo, T84, LS411N and SW48 based on the selection criteria described above. The nine candidate component cell lines expressed four to eight CSC markers (FIG. 75B) and seven to twelve TAAs (FIG. 75A). As described herein, the CSC-like cell line DMS 53 is included as one of the 6 cell lines and expressed fifteen CRC TAAs.

Immunogenicity of the unmodified CRC component cell line candidates was evaluated by IFNγ ELISpot as described in Example 9 for two HLA diverse healthy donors (n=4 per donor). HLA-A and HLA-B alleles for Donor 1 were A*02:01 B*40:01 and A*30:01 B*57:01. HLA-A and HLA-B alleles for Donor 2 were A*24:02 B*18:01 and A*02:01 B*15:07. HCT-15 (2,375±774 SFU) and LoVo (1,758±311 SFU) were more immunogenic than SW1463 (170±90 SFU), RKO (280±102), HuTu80 (80±47), HCT-116 (981±433 SFU), T84 (406±185 SFU), LS411N (496±213) and SW48 (636±289 SFU)(FIG. 76A). HCT-15 and LoVo were selected to be included in vaccine cocktail A or vaccine cocktail B as described further herein.

Immunogenicity of HCT-15 and LoVo was evaluated in eight different combinations of three component cell lines, four combinations contained HCT-15 and four combinations contained LoVo (FIG. 76C). IFNγ responses were determined against the three component cell lines within in the eight potential vaccine cocktails by IFNγ ELISpot as described in Example 8 using the same two donors described above (n=4/donor). IFNγ responses were detected for all eight cocktails and to each cell line component in each cocktail (FIG. 76B).

The ability of the individual CRC vaccine component cell lines to induce IFNγ responses against themselves compared to the ability of the potential CRC vaccine cocktails to induce IFNγ responses against the individual cell lines was measured by IFNγ ELISpot as described in Examples 8 and 9. The data in FIG. 77 demonstrate that the cocktails CRC-A, CRC—B, CRC-C, CRC-D, CRC-E, CRC—F, CRC-G and CRC-H (FIG. 76C) in some cases, trend toward or are significantly better stimulators of antitumor immunity than the individual component cell lines and suggests that the breadth of response is increased by administering more than one cell line at a time.

The cells in the vaccine described herein were selected to express a wide array of TAAs, including those known to be important specifically for CRC antitumor responses, such as CEA, and also TAAs known to be important for targets for CRC and other solid tumors, such as TERT. As shown herein, to further enhance the array of TAAs, HuTu80 was transduced with a gene encoding modPSMA and HCT-116 was also modified to express modTBXT, modWT1, and the 28 amino acids spanning the KRAS mutations G12D and G12V respectively that result in an activating mutated form of KRAS, as described herein. KRAS mutations occur in approximately 35% to 45% of CRC patients. KRAS G12V and G12D are the most frequently occurring of multiple KRAS mutations in CRC patients.

PSMA was endogenously expressed in one of the six component cell lines at >1.0 FPKM as described below. TBXT and WT1 were not expressed endogenously in any of the six component cell lines at >1.0 FPKM (FIG. 78A). The KRAS mutations G12D and G12V were not expressed endogenously by any of the six component cell lines. Endogenous expression of KRAS mutations was determined using cBioPortal. The cell line data sets were searched with the HGNC gene symbol (KRAS) and each cell line was searched within the “mutations” data set. The KRAS G13D mutation, also expressed frequently in CRC tumors, was endogenously expressed by HCT-15 and HCT-116.

The mRNA expression of representative TAAs in the present vaccine are shown in FIG. 78A. The present vaccine has high expression of all identified twenty commonly targeted and potentially clinically relevant TAAs for inducing a CRC antitumor response. Some of these TAAs are known to be primarily enriched in CRC tumors and some can also induce an immune response to CRC and other solid tumors. RNA abundance of the twenty prioritized CRC TAAs was determined in 365 CRC patient samples with expression data available for all TAAs as described above to determine CSC marker expression patient samples. Fourteen of the prioritized CRC TAAs were expressed by 100% of samples, 15 TAAs were expressed by 94.5% of samples, 16 TAAs were expressed by 65.8% of samples, 17 TAAs were expressed by 42.2% of samples, 18 TAAs were expressed by 25.8% of samples, 19 TAAs were expressed by 11.5% of samples and 20 TAAs were expressed by 1.4% samples (FIG. 78B). The KRAS G12D (n=40) or G12V (n=37) mutation were expressed by 21.1% (n=77) of the 365 CRC patient tumor samples. The KRAS G13D mutation, that is endogenously expressed by two component cell lines, was expressed by 7.7% (n=28) of the 365 CRC patient tumor samples. Thus, provided herein are two compositions comprising a therapeutically effective amount of three cancer cell lines, wherein the combination of the cell lines express at least 14 TAAs associated with a cancer of a subset of CRC cancer subjects intended to receive said composition.

Expression of the transduced antigens modPSMA (SEQ ID NO: 37; SEQ ID NO: 38) by HuTu80 (FIG. 79A), and modTBXT (SEQ ID NO: 49; SEQ ID NO: 50) (FIG. 79B) and modWT1 (SEQ ID NO: 49; SEQ ID NO: 50) (FIG. 79C) by HCT-116 were detected by flow cytometry as described herein. The genes encoding KRAS G12D (SEQ ID NO: 49; SEQ ID NO: 50) (FIG. 89D) and G12V (SEQ ID NO: 49; SEQ ID NO: 50) (FIG. 79D) were detected by RT-PCR as described in Example 29 herein. The genes encoding modTBXT, modWT1, KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V are subcloned into the same lentiviral transfer vector separated by furin cleavage sites SEQ ID: X). IFNγ production to the transduced antigens is described herein.

Because of the need to maintain maximal heterogeneity of antigens and clonal subpopulations the comprise each cell line, the gene modified cell lines utilized in the present vaccine have been established using antibiotic selection and flow cytometry and not through limiting dilution subcloning.

Based on the expression and immunogenicity data presented herein, the cell lines identified in Table 57 were selected to comprise the present CRC vaccine.

TABLE 57 CRC vaccine cell lines and histology Cell Line Cocktail Name Histology A HCT-15 Colorectal Adenocarcinoma A HuTu-80 Duodenum Adenocarcinoma A LS411N Colorectal Adenocarcinoma B HCT-116 Colorectal Carcinoma B RKO Colorectal Carcinoma B DMS 53 Lung Small Cell Carcinoma

Reduction of CD276 Expression

The HCT-15, HuTu-80, LS411N, HCT-116, RKO and DMS 53 component cell lines expressed CD276 and expression was knocked out by electroporation with ZFN as described in Example 13 and elsewhere herein. Because it was desirable to maintain as much tumor heterogeneity as possible, the electroporated and shRNA modified cells were not cloned by limiting dilution. Instead, the cells were subjected to multiple rounds of cell sorting by FACS as described in Example 13. Expression of CD276 was determined as described in Example 29. Reduction of CD276 expression is described in Table 58. These data show that gene editing of CD276 with ZFN resulted in greater than 99.6% CD276-negative cells in all six vaccine component cell lines.

TABLE 58 Reduction of CD276 expression Parental Cell Modified Cell % Reduction Cell line Line MFI Line MFI CD276 HCT-15 6,737 26 99.6 HuTu-80 10,389 0 100.0 LS411N 34,278 4 100.0 HCT-116 12,782 0 100.0 RKO 3,632 0 100.0 DMS 53 11,928 24 99.8 MFI reported with isotype controls subtracted

Cytokine Secretion Assays for TGFβ1, TGFβ2, GM-CSF, and IL-12

Cytokine Secretion Assays for TGFβ1, TGFβ2, GM-CSF, and IL-12 were completed as described in Example 29.

shRNA Downregulates TGF-6 Secretion

Following CD276 knockout, TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion levels were reduced using shRNA and resulting levels determined as described in Example 29. All parental cell lines in CRC vaccine-A secreted measurable levels of TGFβ1 and HuTu80 also secreted a measurable level of TGFβ2. Of the parental cell lines in CRC vaccine-B, HCT-116 and RKO secreted measurable levels of TGFβ1. Reduction of TGFβ2 secretion by the DMS 53 cell line is described in Example 5 and resulting levels determined as described above.

The five component cell lines of CRC origin were transduced with TGFβ1 shRNA to decrease secretion of TGFβ1 and increase expression of membrane bound CD40L as described in Example 29. These cells are described by the clonal designation DK2. HuTu80 was subsequently transduced with lentiviral particles encoding TGFβ2 shRNA and GM-CSF (SEQ ID NO: 6) Example 29. These cells are described by the clonal designation DK6. As described in Example 26, DMS 53 was modified with shRNA to reduce secretion of TGFβ2 and not TGFβ1. These cells are described by the clonal designation DK4. The remaining cell lines were double modified with TGFβ1 shRNA and TGFβ2 shRNA.

Table 59 shows the percent reduction in TGFβ1 and/or TGFβ2 secretion in gene modified component cell lines compared to unmodified, parental cell lines. If TGFβ1 or TGFβ2 secretion was only detected in 1 of 16 replicates run in the ELISA assay the value is reported without standard error of the mean. Gene modification resulted in at least 49% reduction of TGFβ1 secretion. Gene modification of TGFβ2 resulted in at least 51% reduction in secretion of TGFβ2.

TABLE 59 TGF-β Secretion (pg/106 cells/24 hr) in Component Cell Lines Cell Line Cocktail Clone TGFβ1 TGFβ2 HCT-15 A Wild type 369 ± 69 21 HCT-15 A DK2 189 ± 23 21 ± 5 HCT-15 A Percent reduction 49% NA HuTu-80 A Wild type 2,529 ± 549  4,299 ± 821  HuTu-80 A DK6 327 ± 76 115 ± 42 HuTu-80 A Percent reduction 87% 97% LS411N A Wild type  413 ± 125 * ≤9 LS411N A DK2 89 ± 5  78 ± 13 LS411N A Percent reduction 78% NA HCT-116 B Wild type 2,400 ± 250  * ≤8 HCT-116 B DK2 990 ± 72 * ≤8 HCT-116 B Percent reduction 59% NA RKO B Wild type  971 ± 120 * ≤6 RKO B DK2 206 ± 10 * ≤11  RKO B Percent reduction 79% NA DMS 53 B Wild type 106 ± 10 486 ± 35 DMS 53 B DK4 219 ± 33 238 ± 40 DMS 53 B Percent reduction NA 51% DK6: TGFβ1/TGFβ2 double knockdown; DK4: TGFβ2 single knockdown; DK2: TGFβ1 single knockdown; * = estimated using LLD, not detected; NA = not applicable

Based on a dose of 5×105 of each component cell line, the total TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 secretion by the modified CRC vaccine-A and CRC vaccine-B and respective unmodified parental cell lines are shown in Table 60. The secretion of TGFβ1 by CRC vaccine-A was reduced by 82% and TGFβ2 by 95% pg/dose/24 hr. The secretion of TGFβ1 by CRC vaccine-B was reduced by 59% and TGFβ2 by 49% pg/dose/24 hr.

TABLE 60 Total TGF-β Secretion (pg/dose/24 hr) in CRC vaccine-A and CRC vaccine-B Cocktail Clones TGFβ1 TGFβ2 A Wild type 1,656   2,165   DK2/DK6 303 107 Percent reduction 82% 95% B Wild type 1,739 250 DK2/DK4 708 129 Percent reduction 59% 49%

GM-CSF Secretion

The HuTu80 cell line was transduced with lentiviral particles containing both TGFβ2 shRNA and the gene to express GM-CSF (SEQ ID NO: 6) under the control of a different promoter. The HCT-15, LS411N, HCT-116 and RKO cell lines were transduced with lentiviral particles to only express GM-CSF (SEQ ID NO: 7). DMS 53 was modified to secrete GM-CSF as described in Example 24 and elsewhere herein. The results are shown in Table 61 and described below.

Secretion of GM-CSF increased at least 9,182-fold in all modified component cell lines compared to unmodified, parental cell lines. In CRC vaccine-A component cell lines, secretion of GM-CSF increased 29,500-fold by HCT-15 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.002 ng/106 cells/24 hr), 9,182-fold by HuTu80 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.011 ng/106 cells/24 hr), and 36,250-fold by LS411N compared to the parental cell line (≤0.004 ng/106 cells/24 hr). In CRC vaccine-B component cell lines secretion of GM-CSF increased 114,000-fold by HCT-116 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.003 ng/106 cells/24 hr), 43,667-fold by RKO compared to the parental cell line (≤0.003 ng/106 cells/24 hr) and 39,450-fold by DMS 53 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.004 ng/106 cells/24 hr).

TABLE 61 GM-CSF Secretion in Component Cell Lines GM-CSF GM-CSF Cell Line (ng/106 cells/24 hr) (ng/dose/24 hr) HCT-15 59 ± 9 30 HuTu80 101 ± 40 51 LS411N 145 ± 17 73 Cocktail A Total 305 154 HCT-116 342 ± 97 171 RKO 131 ± 13 66 DMS 53 158 ± 15 79 Cocktail B Total 631 316

Based on a dose of 5×105 of each component cell line, the total GM-CSF secretion for CRC vaccine-A was 154 ng per dose per 24 hours. The total GM-CSF secretion for CRC vaccine-B was 316 ng per dose per 24 hours. The total GM-CSF secretion per dose was therefore 470 ng per 24 hours.

Membrane Bound CD40L (CD154) Expression

The component cell lines were transduced with lentiviral particles to express membrane bound CD40L as described above. The methods to detect expression of CD40L by the five CRC cell line components are described in Example 29. The methods used to modify DMS 53 to express CD40L are described in Example 15. Evaluation of membrane bound CD40L by all six vaccine component cell lines is described below. The results shown in FIG. 80 and described below demonstrate CD40L membrane expression was substantially increased in all six cell CRC vaccine component cell lines.

FIG. 80 shows expression of membrane bound CD40L by the CRC vaccine component cell lines. Membrane bound CD40L increased at least 669-fold in all component cell lines compared to unmodified, parental cell lines. In CRC vaccine-A component cell lines, expression of CD40L increased 669-fold by HCT-15 (669 MFI) compared to the parental cell line (0 MFI), 1,178-fold by HuTu80 (5,890 MFI) compared to the parental cell line (5 MFI), and 4,703-fold by LS411N (4,703) compared to the parental cell line (0 MFI). In CRC vaccine-B component cell lines expression of CD40L increased 21,549-fold by HCT-116 compared to the parental cell line (0 MFI), 7,107-fold by RKO compared to the parental cell line (0 MFI), and 88,261-fold by DMS 53 compared to the parental cell line (0 MFI).

IL-12 Expression

The component cell lines were transduced with the IL-12 vector as described in Example 17 and resulting IL-12 p70 expression determined as described above and herein. The results are shown in Table 52 and described below.

Secretion of IL-12 increased at least 10,200-fold in all component cell lines modified to secrete IL-12 p70 compared to unmodified, parental cell lines. In CRC vaccine-A component cell lines, secretion of IL-12 increased 27,000-fold by HCT-15 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.001 ng/106 cells/24 hr), 10,200-fold by HuTu80 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.005 ng/106 cells/24 hr), and 13,000-fold by LS411N compared to the parental cell line (≤0.002 ng/106 cells/24 hr). In CRC vaccine-B component cell lines expression of IL-12 increased 186,000-fold by HCT-116 compared to the parental cell line (≤0.001 ng/106 cells/24 hr) and 43,000-fold by RKO compared to the parental cell line (≤0.001 ng/106 cells/24 hr). DMS 53 was not modified to secrete IL-12.

TABLE 52 IL-12 secretion in component cell lines IL-12 IL-12 Cell Line (ng/106 cells/24 hr) (ng/dose/24 hr) HCT-15 27 ± 3 14 HuTu80  51 ± 14 26 LS411N 26 ± 6 13 Cocktail A Total 104 52 HCT-116 186 ± 16 93 RKO 43 ± 8 22 DMS 53 NA NA Cocktail B Total 229 115

Based on a dose of 5×105 of each component cell line, the total IL-12 secretion for CRC vaccine-A was 52 ng per dose per 24 hours. The total IL-12 secretion for CRC vaccine-B was 115 ng per dose per 24 hours. The total IL-12 secretion per dose was therefore 167 ng per 24 hours.

Stable Expression of modPSMA by the HuTu80 Cell Line

As described above, the cells in the vaccine described herein were selected to express a wide array of TAAs, including those known to be important to CRC antitumor immunity. To further enhance the array of antigens, the HuTu80 cell line that was modified to reduce the secretion of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2, reduce the expression of CD276, and to express GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L, and IL-12 was also transduced with lentiviral particles expressing the modPSMA antigen. The expression of modPSMA was characterized by flow cytometry. The cell line that was modified to reduce the secretion of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2, reduce the expression of CD276, and to express GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L, and IL-12 (antigen unmodified) and the cell line that was modified to reduce the secretion of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2, reduce the expression of CD276, and to express GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L, IL-12 and modPSMA were stained intracellularly with 0.06 μg/test anti-mouse IgG1 anti-PSMA antibody (AbCam ab268061, Clone FOLH1/3734) followed by 0.125 ug/test AF647-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG1 antibody (Biolegend #405322). The MFI of the isotype control stained PSMA unmodified and PSMA modified cells was subtracted from the MFI of cells stained PSMA. MFI was normalized to 100,000 events. Fold increase in antigen expression was calculated as: (background subtracted modified MFI/background subtracted parental MFI). Expression of modPSMA increased in the modified cell line (756,908 MFI) 9.1-fold over that of the PSMA unmodified cell line (82,993 MFI) (FIG. 79A).

Stable Expression of modTBXT, modWT1, KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V by the HCT-116 Cell Line

As described above, the cells in the vaccine described herein were selected to express a wide array of TAAs, including those known to be important to antitumor immunity. To further enhance the array of antigens, the HCT-116 cell line that was modified to reduce the secretion of TGFβ1, reduce the expression of CD276, and to express GM-CSF, membrane bound CD40L and IL-12 was also transduced with lentiviral particles expressing the modTBXT, modWT1, KRAS G12V and KRAS G12D antigens. The antigen unmodified and antigen modified cells were stained intracellular to detect the expression of each antigen as follows. For the detection of modTBXT, cells were first stained with rabbit IgG1 anti-TBXT antibody (Abcam ab209665, Clone EPR18113) (0.06 μg/test) followed by AF647-conjugated donkey anti-rabbit IgG1 antibody (Biolegend #406414) (0.125 μg/test). For the detection of modWT1, cells were first stained with rabbit IgG1 anti-WT1 antibody (AbCam ab89901, Clone CAN-R9) (0.06 ug/test) followed by AF647-conjugated donkey anti-rabbit IgG1 antibody (Biolegend #406414) (0.125 μg/test). The MFI of the isotype control stained cells was subtracted from the MFI of the cells stained for TBXT or WT1. MFI was normalized to 100,000 events. Fold increase in antigen expression was calculated as: (background subtracted modified MFI/background subtracted parental MFI). Expression of modTBXT increased in the modified cell line (356,691 MFI) 356,691-fold over that of the unmodified cell line (0 MFI) (FIG. 79B). Subtraction of the MFI of the isotype control from the MFI of the TBXT stained unmodified HCT-116 cell line resulted in negative value. The fold increase of TBXT expression in the modified cell line was calculated using 1 MFI. Expression of modWT1 by the modified cell line (362,698 MFI) increased 69.3-fold over the that of the unmodified cell line (5,235 MFI) (FIG. 79C).

Expression of KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V by HCT-116 was determined using RT-PCR as described in Example 29 and herein. For KRAS G12D, the forward primer designed to anneal at the 2786-2807 base pair (bp) location in the transgene (GAAGCCCTTCAGCTGTAGATGG (SEQ ID NO: 124)) and reverse primer designed to anneal at 2966-2984 bp location in the transgene (CTGAATTGTCAGGGCGCTC (SEQ ID NO: 125)) and yield 199 bp product. For KRAS G12V, the forward primer was designed to anneal at the 2861-2882 bp location in the transgene (CATGCACCAGAGGAACATGACC (SEQ ID NO: 126)) and reverse primer designed to anneal at the 3071-3094 bp location in the transgene (GAGTTGGATGGTCAGGGCAGAT (SEQ ID NO: 127)) and yield 238 bp product. Control primers for β-tubulin are described in Example 29. Gene products for both KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V were detected at the expected size, 199 bp and 238 bp, respectively (FIG. 79D). KRAS G12D mRNA increased 3,127-fold and KRAS G12V mRNA increased 4,095-fold relative to parental controls (FIG. 79E).

Immune Responses to PSMA in CRC-Vaccine A

IFNγ responses to the PSMA were evaluated in the context of the CRC-vaccine A in four HLA diverse donors (n=4/donor) (Table 63 Donors 1, 3, 5 and 6) as described in Example 29 and IFNγ responses determined by ELISpot as described below. PSMA peptides, 15-mers overlapping by 9 amino acids spanning the native antigen sequence, were purchased from Thermo Scientific Custom Peptide Service. PSMA specific IFNγ responses were increased with the modified CRC vaccine-A (1,832±627 SFU) compared to the parental, unmodified CRC vaccine-A (350±260 SFU) (n=4) (FIG. 79F).

Immune Responses to TBXT, WT1, and KRAS Mutations in CRC-Vaccine B

IFNγ responses to TBXT, WT1, KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V antigens were evaluated in the context of the CRC-vaccine B in four HLA diverse donors (n=4/donor) (Table 63. Donors 1, 3, 5 and 6) as described in Example 29. Peptides for were sourced as follows: TBXT (JPT, PM-BRAC), WT1 (JPT, PM-WT1), KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V 15-mers overlapping by 9 amino acids, were purchased from Thermo Scientific Custom Peptide Service. IFNγ responses to TBXT increased with the modified CRC vaccine-B (511±203 SFU) compared to the unmodified CRC vaccine-B (154±111 SFU) (n=4) (FIG. 79G). WT1 specific IFNγ responses significantly increased with the modified CRC vaccine-B (1,278±303 SFU) compared unmodified CRC vaccine-B (208±208 SFU) (p=0.027, Student's T test) (FIG. 79H). KRAS G12D specific IFNγ responses significantly increased with the modified CRC vaccine-B (1,716±420 SFU) compared unmodified CRC vaccine-B (153±153 SFU) (p=0.013, Student's T test) (FIG. 79I). KRAS G12V specific IFNγ responses significantly increased with the modified CRC vaccine-B (2,047±420 SFU) compared unmodified CRC vaccine-B (254±525 SFU) (p=0.018, Student's T test) (FIG. 79J).

TABLE 63 Healthy Donor MHC-I characteristics Donor # HLA-A HLA-B HLA-C 1 *02:01*03:01 *08:01 *51:01 *07:01 *14:02 2 *30:02 *30:04 *15:10 *58:02 *03:04 *06:02 3 *01:01 *30:01 *08:01 *13:02 *06:02 *07:01 4 *03:01 *25:01 *17:02 *18:01 *07:02 *12:03 5 *02:05 *29:02 *15:01 *44:03 *03:04 *16:01 6 *02:01*03:01 *18:01 *31:08 *07:01 *12:03

Cocktails Induce Immune Responses Against Relevant TAAs

The ability of the individual component cell lines and the two CRC vaccine cocktails to induce IFNγ production against relevant CRC antigens was measured by ELISpot as described in Example 29 using PBMCs from six HLA-diverse healthy donors (Table 63). Peptides for PSMA, WT1, TBXT, KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V were sourced as described above. Peptides for the remaining antigens were sourced as follows: Survivin (thinkpeptides, 7769_001-011), PRAME (Miltenyi Biotech, 130-097-286), STEAP (PM-STEAP1), TERT (JPT, PM-TERT), MUC1 (JPT, PM-MUC1), and CEACAM (CEA) (JPT, PM-CEA). Cells were then assayed for IFNγ secretion in the IFNγ ELISpot assay.

FIG. 81 demonstrates the CRC vaccine is capable of inducing antigen specific IFNγ responses in six HLA-diverse donors that are significantly more robust (30,480±9,980 SFU) compared to the unmodified parental controls (6,470±3,361SFU) (p=0.009, Mann-Whitney U test) (n=8) (FIG. 81A). CRC vaccine-A and CRC vaccine-B independently demonstrated antigen specific responses significantly greater compared to parental controls. Specifically, CRC vaccine-A elicited 12,080±3,569 SFU compared to the unmodified controls (3,665±1,849 SFU) (p=0.041, Mann-Whitney U test) (FIG. 81B). For CRC vaccine-A, one donor responded to five antigens, one donor responded to nine antigens, two donors responded to ten antigens, and two donors responded to eleven antigens. CRC vaccine-B (n=11 antigens) elicited 15,417±4,127 SFU compared to parental controls (2,805±1,549 SFU) (p=0.004, Mann-Whitney U test) (FIG. 81C). For CRC vaccine-B (n=11 antigens), one donor responded to nine antigens, two donors responded to ten antigens, and three donors responded to eleven antigens. The CRC vaccine (vaccine-A and vaccine-B) induced IFNγ production to ten antigens in two of six donors and all eleven antigens in four of six donors (FIG. 82) (Table 64). Thus, provided herein are two compositions comprising a therapeutically effective amount of three cancer cell lines (e.g., a unit dose of six cell lines) wherein said unit dose is capable of eliciting an immune response 4.7-fold greater than the unmodified composition specific to at least ten TAAs expressed in CRC patient tumors. CRC vaccine A increased IFNγ responses to at least five TAAs 4.1-fold and CRC vaccine-B increased IFNγ responses to at least nine TAAs 5.5-fold.

IFNγ responses to TAAs induced by CRC vaccine-A and CRC vaccine-B were more robust than compared to responses induced by the individual modified CRC cell line components. Specifically, CRC vaccine-A associated responses against the eleven assayed antigens (18,910±8,852 SFU) were greater than responses induced by modified HCT-15 (11,255±6,354 SFU), HuTu80 (7,332±2,814 SFU) and LS411N (8,277±3,187 SFU). Similarly, CRC vaccine-B associated responses against the eleven assayed antigens (17,635±6,056 SFU) were greater than responses induced by modified HCT-116 (11,984±5,085 SFU) and RKO (10,740±5,216 SFU) (FIG. 83).

TABLE 64 IFNγ Responses to TAAs induced by the unmodified and modified CRC vaccine Donor Unmodified (SFU ± SEM) Modified (SFU ± SEM) (n = 4) CRC vaccine-A CRC vaccine-B CRC vaccine CRC vaccine-A CRC vaccine-B CRC vaccine 1 6,101 ± 2,763 2,659 ± 1,128 8,760 ± 3,640  3,969 ± 2,029 11,498 ± 3,813 15,466 ± 5,590 2 3,694 ± 1,363 3,699 ± 1,868 7,394 ± 3,217  5,465 ± 2,522  8,543 ± 4,763 14,008 ± 7,258 3 11,488 ± 1,912  9,910 ± 3,165 21,398 ± 4,907  43,448 ± 7,892 35,693 ± 4,638  79,140 ± 11,908 4 100 ± 50  388 ± 130 488 ± 84   9,276 ± 3,150 13,419 ± 5,196 22,694 ± 7,650 5 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 12,666 ± 5,766 10,052 ± 6,559  22,718 ± 11,181 6 608 ± 334 173 ± 103 781 ± 436 15,557 ± 3,291 13,296 ± 2,843 28,853 ± 5,346

Based on the disclosure and data provided herein, a whole cell vaccine for Colorectal Carcinoma comprising the six cancer cell lines, sourced from ATCC, HCT-15 (ATCC, CCL-225), HuTu80 (ATCC, HTB-40), LS411N (ATCC, CRL-2159), HCT-116 (ATCC, CCL-247), RKO (ATCC, CRL-2577) and DMS 53 (ATCC, CRL-2062) is shown in Table 65. The cell lines represent five colorectal cell lines and one small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line (DMS 53 ATCC CRL-2062). The cell lines have been divided into two groupings: vaccine-A and vaccine-B. Vaccine-A is designed to be administered intradermally in the upper arm and vaccine-B is designed to be administered intradermally in the thigh. Vaccine A and B together comprise a unit dose of cancer vaccine.

TABLE 65 Cell line nomenclature and modifications Cocktail Cell Line TGFβ1 KD TGFβ2 KD CD276 KO GM-CSF CD40L IL-12 TAA(s) A HCT-15 X ND X X X X ND A HuTu80 X X X X X X X A LS411N X ND X X X X ND B HCT-116 X ND X X X X X B RKO X ND X X X X ND B DMS 53* ND X X X X ND ND ND = Not done. *Cell lines identified as CSC-like cells.

Where indicated in the above table, the genes for the immunosuppressive factors transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGFβ2) have been knocked down using shRNA transduction with a lentiviral vector. The gene for CD276 has been knocked out by electroporation using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN). The genes for granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-12, CD40L, modPSMA (HuTu80), modTBXT (HCT-116), modWT1 (HCT-116), KRAS G12D (HCT-116) and KRAS G12V (HCT-116) have been added by lentiviral vector transduction.

Provided herein are two compositions comprising a therapeutically effective amount of three cancer cell lines, a unit dose of six cancer cell lines, modified to reduce the expression of at least two immunosuppressive factors and to express at least two immunostimulatory factors. One composition, CRC vaccine-A, was modified to increase the expression of one TAA, modPSMA, and the second composition, CRC vaccine-B, was modified to expresses four TAAs, modTBXT, modWT1, KRAS G12D and KRAS G12V. The unit dose of six cancer cell lines expresses at least fifteen TAAs in CRC patient tumors and induces IFNγ responses 4.7-fold greater than the unmodified composition components.

Example 31: Preparation of Prostate Cancer (PCa) Vaccine

This Example demonstrates that reduction of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and CD276 expression with concurrent overexpression of GM-CSF, CD40L, and IL-12 in a vaccine composition of two cocktails, each cocktail composed of three cell lines for a total of 6 cell lines, significantly increased the magnitude of cellular immune responses to at least 10 PCa-associated antigens in an HLA-diverse population. As described herein, the first cocktail, PCa vaccine-A, is composed of cell line PC3 that was also modified to express modTBXT and modMAGEC2, cell line NEC8, and cell line NTERA-2c1-D1. The second cocktail, PCa vaccine-B, is composed of cell line DU145 that was also modified to express modPSMA, cell line LNCaP, and cell line DMS 53. The six component cell lines collectively express at least twenty-two antigens that can provide an anti-PCa tumor response.

Identification of PCa Vaccine Components

Initial cell line selection criteria identified sixteen vaccine component cell lines for potential inclusion in the PCa vaccine. Additional selection criteria were applied to narrow the fourteen candidate cell lines to six cell lines for further evaluation in immunogenicity assays. These criteria included: endogenous PCa associated antigen expression, lack of expression of additional immunosuppressive factors, such as IL-10 or IDO1, ethnicity and age of the patient from which the cell line was derived, if the cell line was derived from a primary tumor or metastatic site, and histological subtype.

Expression of TAAs by candidate component cell lines was determined by RNA expression data sourced from the Broad Institute Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) for NCCIT, NEC8 and NTERA-2c1-D1. The HGNC gene symbol was included in the CCLE search and mRNA expression was downloaded for each TAA. Expression of a TAA by a cell line was considered positive if the RNA-seq value was greater than one (CCLE, FPKM) or zero (EMBL-EBI, TPM). Six of the fourteen PCa vaccine candidate components were identified for further evaluation: PC3, DU145, LNCaP, NCCIT, NEC8 and NTERA-2c1-D1 based on the selection criteria described above. The six candidate component cell lines expressed twelve to nineteen TAAs (FIG. 84). As described herein, the CSC-like cell line DMS 53 is included as one of the six cell lines and expressed sixteen PCa TAAs.

Immunogenicity of the unmodified PCa individual component cell line candidates was evaluated by IFNγ ELISpot as described in Example 9 for four HLA diverse healthy donors (n=4 per donor). HLA-A and HLA-B alleles for the donors were as follows: Donor 1, A*02:01 B*35:01 and A*31:01 B*35:03; Donor 2, A*02:02 B*15:03 and A*30:02 B*57:03; Donor 3, A*02:01 B*40:01 and A*30:01 B*57:01; Donor 4, A*24:02 B*18:01 and A*02:01 B*15:07. PC3 (3,409±672 SFU) and DU145 (1,497±231 SFU) were more immunogenic than LNCaP (428±204 SFU), NCCIT (25±11 SFU), NEC8 (80±47 SFU) and NTERA-2c1-D1 (188±93 SFU) (FIG. 86A). NCCIT was poorly immunogenic and excluded from further analysis. PC3 and DU145 were selected to be included in vaccine cocktail A and vaccine cocktail B, respectively, as described further herein.

Immunogenicity of five selected PCa cell lines and the CSC cell line DMS 53 was evaluated in two different combinations of three component cell lines (FIG. 86C). IFNγ responses were determined against the three component cell lines within the two potential vaccine cocktails by IFNγ ELISpot as described in Example 8 in five HLA diverse healthy donors (n=4 per donor). HLA-A and HLA-B alleles for the donors were as follows: Donor 1, A*02:01 B*08:01 and A*03:01 B*51:01; Donor 2, A*30:02 B*18:01 and A*30:04 B*58:02, Donor 3, A*02:01 B*18:01 and A*25:01 B*27:05; Donor 4, A*03:01 B*07:02 and A*25:01 B*18:01; Donor 5, A*02:01 B*07:02 and A*33:01 B*14:02. IFNγ responses were detected for both cocktails and to each cell line component in each cocktail. (FIG. 86B).

The ability of the individual PCa vaccine component cell lines to induce IFNγ responses against themselves compared to the ability of the potential PCa vaccine cocktails to induce IFNγ responses against the individual cell lines was also measured by IFNγ ELISpot as described in Examples 8 and 9. IFNγ responses to the NEC8 cell line in PCa-A (1,963±863 SFU) were significantly increased compared to responses the cell line alone (283±101 SFU) (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.032). Similarly, IFNγ responses to the NTERA-2c1-D1 cell line in PCa-A (630±280 SFU) were significantly increased compared to responses the cell line alone (283±101 SFU) (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.032). IFNγ responses to the LNCaP cell line in PCa-B (624±254 SFU) were significantly increased compared to responses the cell line alone (139±111 SFU) (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.032). The data in FIG. 86D demonstrate that the cocktails PCa-A and PCa-B, in some cases, trend toward or are significantly better stimulators of antitumor immunity than the individual component cell lines and suggest that the breadth and magnitude of response is increased by administering multiple cell lines with different HLA supertypes. Specifically, PCa-A cell lines are the following HLA supertypes: PC3, A01 A24 and B07; NTERA-2c1-D1, A01, B08, and B44. The HLA type of NEC8 is unavailable. PCa-B cell lines are the following HLA supertypes: DU145, A03, B44, and B58; LNCaP, A01, A02 B08, B44; DMS 53, A03, B08 and B07. The data above supports that HLA mismatch of cell lines comprising cocktails can improve immune responses to individual cell line components.

The cells in the vaccine described herein were selected to express a wide array of TAAs, including those known to be important specifically for PCa antitumor responses, such as PSA or PAP, and also TAAs known to be important for targets for PCa and other solid tumors, such TERT. As shown herein, to further enhance the array of TAAs, DU145 was transduced with a gene encoding modPSMA and PC3 was modified to express modTBXT and modMAGEC2. PSMA was endogenously expressed in three of the six component cell lines at >1.0 FPKM or >0 TPM. TBXT and MAGEC2 were endogenously in two of the six component cell lines at >1.0 FPKM or >0 TPM (FIG. 84).

Expression of the transduced antigens modTBXT (FIG. 87A) and modMAGEC2 (FIG. 87B) (SEQ ID NO: 45; SEQ ID NO: 46) by PC3, and modPSMA (SEQ ID NO: 37; SEQ ID NO: 38) by DU145 (FIG. 87C) were detected by flow cytometry or RT-PCR described in Example 29 and herein. The genes encoding modTBXT and modMAGEC2 are encoded in the same lentiviral transfer vector separated by a furin cleavage site.

Because of the need to maintain maximal heterogeneity of antigens and clonal subpopulations the comprise each cell line, the gene modified cell lines utilized in the present vaccine have been established using antibiotic selection and flow cytometry and not through limiting dilution subcloning.

The mRNA expression of twenty-two representative TAAs in the present vaccine are shown in FIG. 84. NCCIT is the only cell line in FIG. 84 that is not included in the present vaccine. The present vaccine has high expression of all identified twenty-two commonly targeted and potentially clinically relevant TAAs for inducing a PCa antitumor response. Some of these TAAs are known to be primarily enriched in PCa tumors and some can also induce an immune response to PCa and other solid tumors. RNA abundance of the twenty-two prioritized PCa TAAs was determined in 460 PCa patient samples (FIG. 85A) with expression data available for all TAAs as described in Example 29. Eighteen of the prioritized PCa TAAs were expressed by 100% of samples, 19 TAAs were expressed by 99.3% of samples, 20 TAAs were expressed by 75.4% of samples, 21 TAAs were expressed by 21.1% of samples, 22 TAAs were expressed by 1.5% of samples (FIG. 85B). Provided herein are two compositions comprising a therapeutically effective amount of three cancer cell lines, wherein the combination of the cell lines comprises cells express at least 18 TAAs associated with a cancer of a subset of PCa cancer subjects intended to receive said composition. Based on the expression and immunogenicity data presented herein, the cell lines identified in Table 66 were selected to comprise the present PCa vaccine.

TABLE 66 PCa vaccine cell lines and histology Cell Line Cocktail Name Histology A PC3 Prostate Carcinoma derived from metastatic site (bone) A NEC8 Testicular Germ Cell Tumor A NTERA-2cl-D1 Testis Embryonal Carcinoma derived from metastatic site (lung) B DU145 Prostate Carcinoma derived from metastatic site (bone) B LNCaP Prostate Carcinoma derived from metastatic site (lymph node) B DMS 53