Abstract: A supporting apparatus such as a portable seat that can be opened and closed is disclosed having a plurality of poles hinged to junctions. A part of the poles form the legs and another portion form an anchorage on which a foldable surface is stretched when the apparatus is opened. The apparatus also includes traction elements cooperating with the folding surface and which join one another at the end of the poles that do not converge at the junctions. The configuration preset by the orientation of the poles, along with the structural configuration of anti-prism or other extremely stable and rigid configurations, are such that they spread most of the torsional and bending stresses.
Abstract: A case that is convertible into a stool and a working surface is provided. The case includes a worktable, a front panel removably secured to a front side of the worktable, and a rear panel removably secured to a rear side of the worktable. The front and rear panels each include a slot inwardly extending from a first edge thereof. The front and rear panels may be removed from the worktable and interconnected by sliding the slot of the front panel through the slot of the rear panel. The stool seat is removably attachable to the case and/or to the interconnected panels to form a stool.
Abstract: Novel sit-stand seating devices, more particularly, to sit-stand seats or stools that can tilt forward to provide balanced support for seated to near-standing postures and methods of their use are disclosed. The sit-stand devices are useful, inter alia, to provide stabilized worker positioning to carry out a task for a range of sitting through standing postures in an environment associated with a task for a worker in need thereof.
Abstract: A stabilizing arrangement (1) to support an object above four ground engaging means (2c,3c,4c,5c) has first 2, second 3, third 4 and fourth 5 levers each having a beam portion (2a,3a,4a,5a), an actuating portion (2b,3b,4b,5b) and a ground engaging means (2c,3c,4c,5c). Each lever is connected to a common interconnection means (6) by a respective pivot with a pivot axis. The levers engage consecutively first to second, second to third, third to fourth and fourth to first, via respective projections (2d,3d,4d,5d) permitting ground engaging means warp displacement and thereby the arrangement provides support of the object on uneven ground. For each lever part, the distance a between the respective ground engaging means and the respective pivot axis is a primary lever-rotating moment arm, and the distance b between the respective ground engaging means and the centre of the pivot is a friction loading distance. The friction loading distance b can be greater than or equal to the primary lever-rotating moment arm a.
October 18, 2013
Date of Patent:
December 5, 2017
No Rock Cafe Tables Pty Ltd.
Brian Christopher Heyring, Toby William Heyring, John Gerard Catoni, Richard Monk
Abstract: Disclosed is an integrated beach umbrella and table system that includes a support post, wherein an umbrella support frame couples to the support post and is expandable and collapsible about the support post, and an umbrella canopy couples to the umbrella support frame. The system further includes a table surface support frame assembled from a plurality of armature elements that couple to an anchor hub and a central hub, wherein at least one of the anchor hub and the central hub slidably engages to the support post. The anchor hub and the central hub slide to produce a first expanded position and a second collapsed position of a table surface coupled to the table surface support frame.
Abstract: The present invention is a collapsible stool with a plurality of legs that can be stored either freestanding or hung, and that has a single handle that is used to carry, initiate expansion or collapse of, or used to guide the stool when sitting. Further, the stool has a novel mechanism that allows a smooth transition from collapse to expansion and expansion to collapse using a single handle. This same mechanism allows the stool to stand upright in a stable position in both the expanded and collapsed configurations.
Abstract: A collapsible bondage rack with use and collapsed configurations. An upper retaining structure, potentially formed by upper legs disposed in a V-configuration, and a lower support structure, potentially formed by anterior and posterior lower legs, each disposed in a V-configuration, are retained relative to a main hinge assembly. The upper retaining structure and the lower support structure are relatively pivotable between use and collapsed configurations. The anterior and posterior lower legs are pivotable about a lateral pivot axis between use and storage configurations, and the anterior lower legs are pivotable about a longitudinal pivot axis. The legs are disposed in a stack when the bondage rack is collapsed. Foot mount assemblies are retained by the anterior lower legs, and attachment assemblies are retained by the upper legs and the anterior lower legs. Leveling mechanisms can stabilize the bondage rack.
Abstract: An adjustable chair includes an upper frame configured to carry a seat, and a lower frame pivotably coupled with the upper frame and configured to support the upper frame above a ground surface. The adjustable chair further includes an adjustment mechanism that is selectively movable between a plurality of positions for securing the upper frame relative to the lower frame in a corresponding plurality of orientations. A method of adjusting an adjustable chair including a first chair portion carrying a seat and a second chair portion includes providing the first chair portion and the seat in a first orientation relative to the second chair portion. The first chair portion is pivoted about a first pivot axis to provide the first chair portion and the seat in a second orientation relative to the second chair portion.
Abstract: A folding chair provides for leveling seating upon uneven ground. The chair includes folding chair frame with a pair of front leg assemblies and a pair of rear leg assemblies, each pivotally attached to a central hub. Each leg assembly has downwardly extending tubular portions and a means for securing the portions at a desired height. The adjustable legs provide a means for a level seating upon ground surfaces of varying elevations. The chair further utilizes inflatable arm rest, seat rest and back rest portions in one (1) embodiment.
Abstract: A system and method for enhanced viewing of an event that provides a level, stable resting surface for viewing an event by adjusting at least one support member until a desired level surface is achieved, securely engaging a weighted member to the ground surface, elevating the seat above an obstructive object, and providing facilitated portability. The system includes a portable seat with a strap for carrying the seat on the back. The system also provides adjustable telescoping support assemblies that individually extend and retract to create a level surface for viewing the event. A release assembly biases the support assemblies towards extension, and locks them into a desired height with a spring-biased lock pin. A weighted member attaches to a mounting end of the telescoping support assembly for helping extend the support assembly. The weighted member pivots and includes a sharp end for digging into the ground.
Abstract: A folding shelf holder is strong and folds easily. A wall side member has a pin as a rotational axis of a shelf side member relative to the wall side member and a rotation limiter limiting rotation of the shelf side member relative to the wall side member. The shelf side member has a long groove for inserting the pin of the wall side member. When the folded shelf side member is opened to be approximately orthogonal to the wall side member and the shelf side member is slid toward the wall side member and in a direction where the long groove extends, the shelf side member abuts, at a back side of the pin, to the rotation limiter of the wall side member, preventing rotation of the shelf side member relative to the wall side member. Then, the shelf side member cannot fold relative to the wall side member.
Abstract: This invention is related to the conservation of energy. The energy sources are limited and energy usage can cause environmental problems. This invention introduces a method of heating which is small and effective. In this method instead of heating the whole house which expensive and at times uncomfortable a limited heated space under a table means covered with a cover means is introduced that allows a person to warm up his/her body. Also, heating a smaller space can be done quickly and uses a limited energy, which is thus more cost-effective. This unit is designed to fold to a smaller unit for easy storage. In this method, an adjustable table means holds an electrical heating means under a cover and allows the person to use that limited space as heating source. The heating means has its control means and thermostat in order to keep the temp in a desired level. The table is very versatile and allows its dimensions to be changed easily so that the user has the option of choosing a size that fits its need.
Abstract: A vertically foldable frame is disclosed. The frame comprises: a base; a first fixing post; a second fixing post; a sliding frame; at least one table surface; wherein the first fixing post and the second fixing post are respectively fixed on both ends of the base; a first guide rail and a second guide rail are provided on the first fixing post and the second fixing post respectively and opposite to each other, the sliding frame is provided between the first guide rail and the second guide rail and adapted to slide up and down along the first guide rail and the second guide rail; the table surface is horizontally connected to a side of the sliding frame and adapted to be rotated in a vertical plane around a joint between the table surface and the sliding frame, the table surface is adapted to be horizontally positioned.
Abstract: A linked structure for foldable table comprises a main frame, legs, props, connecting plate 1 and connecting plate 2. The main frame includes a plate body which connects multiple table plates with flexible wire on each side of the plate body. Each concave body and supporting leg is set under each end of the plate body. A connecting unit with a receiving concave is set in the concave body. The legs are set in the receiving concave of the connecting unit. Connecting plate 1 is set on the props on the connecting unit. Connecting plate 2 which set on the legs connects with connecting plate 1. The table plates are connected on each side of the plate body on main frame with flexible wire. When folding the present invention, the legs, props, connecting plate 1 and 2 are folded under the plate body through rotating the connecting unit.
Abstract: A locking mechanism, in particular for locking a table top in the work position thereof and for releasing the table top in order to pivot it for example into an approximately vertically extending storage position, is distinguished in that the locking mechanism comprises between the fully locked position and the fully released position at least one intermediate position, in which the table top is pivotable only through a restricted angular range in a manner delimited by stops.
Abstract: A folding table includes a single tabletop extending over a framework and legs. The folding table includes a first framework with a first pair of legs and a second framework including a second pair of legs. Folding linkages fold the tabletop between a first use position wherein the tabletop is substantially horizontal and second storage position wherein the tabletop is substantially vertical. A damping assembly includes a damper mounted to the tabletop and the frameworks and includes a damping linkage to guide and provide controlled folding and unfolding of the table.
Abstract: A folding table assembly comprising a base including a wall surrounding a hollow interior for containing a folding table, the folding table moveable between a folded and an unfolded position and a jack moving the folding table between the folded position inside the hollow interior of said base and an unfolded preferably substantially horizontal position removed from the hollow interior, wherein operation of the jack permits the folding and unfolding of the table.
Abstract: A foldable frame includes two tubes, a rectangular tube and two base parts. The two tubes are pivotably or fixedly connected to the base parts. Two ends of the rectangular tube are connected to two respective extension portions of the two base parts by two pins so that the two tubes are pivotable about the two pins. The frame can also be structured as one tube directly connected to the rectangular tube and the other tube is pivotably connected to the base part. The extension of the base part is pivotably connected of the rectangular tube by a pin to form single-point folding feature. An outer tube is rotatably movable between one of the tubes and the rectangular tube, the outer tube hides the rectangular tube when the two tubes are arranged linearly.
Abstract: The present invention discloses a connecting structure for a bed foot. The bed foot is pivotally connected to a bottom of a bed board frame. An inner side of the bed foot is pivotally connected with at least one support rod. The support rod has a free end formed with a through hole. The bottom of the bed board frame is provided with a protruding post corresponding in position to the through hole. The through hole has an opening at one side thereof so that the through hole is able to engage with the protruding post through the opening, without aiming at the protruding post. Accordingly, the operation is very convenient and quick.
Abstract: The invention relates to a table (2) of a type which can be moved between storage and in use positions and which is free standing in both positions. The table typically includes at least two legs (12) connected to support arms (16) which are moveable between the two positions and which, when in the in use position engage with a frame member (34) on the underside of a table top via engagement means (26, 28) having teeth which interlock and thereby secure the leg support arms to the frame member and provide support for the table top (6).
Abstract: A table with folding legs is disclosed. The table is capable of being folded into a storage position. One embodiment of the table includes one or more seats attached to at least one of the folding legs. In one embodiment, the seats are adjustable horizontally and vertically. An embodiment of the table includes a table top provided with a cavity, the cavity capable of receiving a cooler therein.
July 7, 2004
Date of Patent:
March 14, 2006
J.F. Meskill Enterprises, L.L.C.
James F. Meskill, Jeffrey Kalman, Gary Robert Stephan, Craig Saunders, David Boll
Abstract: A folding work station includes a work surface and a frame supporting the work surface. The frame includes at least one rolling support and is selectively expandable to an open configuration, in which the frame supports the work surface in a working orientation, and foldable to a substantially flat closed configuration having a vertical orientation, in which the frame supports the work surface juxtaposed on the frame. In addition, the work station is movably supported on the rolling support(s).
August 3, 2001
Date of Patent:
March 2, 2004
Metro Industries, Inc.
Robert J. Welch, Joseph P. Jones, Douglas J. Kaminski, Robert R. Steele, Robert K. Swartz, Alan R. Grula
Abstract: A foldable frame for supporting a fabric thereon includes at least three pairs of frame legs each of which comprises a pair of first and second frame legs pivotally connected together where the first and second frame legs cross, an upper frame joint for pivotally connecting top ends of the first frame legs, a lower frame joint for pivotally connecting lower ends of the second frame legs wherein the lower frame joint is positioned below and aligning with the upper frame, and a coupling joint including a slider axle slidably connected between the upper and lower frame joints, a tubular holder affixed on the slider axle between the upper and lower frame joints, and a locker means affixed to the lower frame joint wherein the locker means is adapted for rotatably engaging with the tubular holder in order to lock up the lower frame joint on the slider axle and adjust a distance between the upper and lower frame joints, so as to regulate the tension of the fabric.
Abstract: A collapsible table includes mainly a feet unit consisting of two horizontal rods, a plurality of feet respectively having an upper end pivotally connected to one of two end of each horizontal rod Each foot has a position limit ring and a slidable sleeve fixed around each foot movably under the position limit ring. A guide rod is provided pivotally between the horizontal rod and each slidable sleeve. Each position limit ring has a projecting member, and each slidable sleeve has an engage member to engage the projecting member. The position limit rings stop the slidable sleeve in spreading the feet unit, and the slidable sleeve moves the guide rod to force the feet swing down or up in case of spreading or collapsing. Engagement of the projecting members and the engage members stabilizes the feet unit in the spread position.
Abstract: A folding table or desk includes a table top, a pair of spaced apart legs, and a wire management structure pivotably mounted to the table top and located between the legs. The wire management structure includes a front panel assembly having an opening, and an access member is pivotably mounted to the front panel assembly for movement between an open position, a closed position and a collapsed position. The front panel assembly can be folded against the underside of the table top and the access member can be pivoted to its collapsed position relative to the front panel assembly, and the legs are foldable over the wire management structure to provide a compact envelope for the folded components of the table assembly. The front panel assembly includes a cross brace member which is engageable with the legs when the wire management structure is in its operative extended position, to impart rigidity to the table assembly.
Abstract: A folding table structure is provided which, when unfolded, provides a horizontal or inclined table top surface. The foldable table consists of a table top assembly, a one or two-piece support structure incorporating two rear legs, and two front leg assemblies. The table top assembly and the front leg assemblies are hinged to the support structure. Preferably the front leg assemblies are arranged so as avoid contact with the ground when folded and are retained in the folded position by the weight of the table top assembly. The table parts are assembled in such a way that the table may be folded or unfolded in one relatively fast, relatively low effort motion.
Abstract: A table foldable between an open and a flat position is disclosed. The table includes a table top, a modesty panel, and legs. The legs are hinged to the modesty panel so as to fold flat relative thereto. The tabletop is connected to the modesty panel by a top hinge having a pivot point offset from the modesty panel so that the tabletop can fold into a flat position over the legs when the legs are in their flat position. A lock is provided to lock the tabletop in its flat position.
June 9, 1997
Date of Patent:
July 27, 1999
David L. Schwartz, Johnny D. Ray, Jeffrey L. Brannon
Abstract: A health care reclining chair is disclosed which includes a rigid chair frame assembly. An improved deep recline swing linkage assembly is disclosed which permits the seat back of the chair to be fully reclined into a substantially flat position relative to the seat and operably suspends the seat assembly for reclining motion within the chair frame assembly. A mobile base assembly is interdisposed between the chair frame assembly and the floor to permit the reclining chair to be used for transportation of a seated occupant. Furthermore, a tilting mechanism is operably coupled between the mobile base assembly and the chair frame assembly for permitting tilting movement of the chair frame relative to the base assembly. The health care reclining chair of the present invention may further be adapted to include a leg rest assembly positionable between a retracted position and an extended position for providing further comfort.
June 7, 1996
Date of Patent:
April 6, 1999
Larry P. LaPointe, Mark D. Miller, Jonathan R. Saul, Mark A. Brettschneider, Donald A. George
Abstract: A portable, collapsible recreation table for use on unleveled terrain or other area surface suitable for a table to be supported by an implanted stake. This table is comprised of a rimmed table top, three rounded legs which fold up under the table when disassembled, or mount into a connecting disc when assembled, a stake which is implanted into the ground after being threaded into the threaded stake holder in the connecting disc, and the legs are then placed in the leg connectors, also in the connecting disc. The table also has a flexible handle which can be tucked away under the table when the table is in the assembled position. Also included under the table top are a threaded disc holder and stake holders which hold the stake and connection disc when the table is in the disassembled position.
Abstract: A tripod is elevated off the ground and supported by a three legged unit so that when opened it cradles the legs and/or the spreader of a tripod. The unit has a base which restricts movement of each of the support legs and an accompanying platform leaf for the purpose of supporting a tripod operator. The unit's legs collapse together and are secured allowing the entire unit to be easily transported. A rotatable center support provides both support and ease-of-use functions.
Abstract: A tripod is elevated off the ground and supported by a three legged unit so that when opened it cradles the legs and/or the spreader of a tripod. The unit has a base which restricts movement of each of the support legs and an accompanying platform leaf for the purpose of supporting a tripod operator. The unit's legs collapse together and are secured allowing the entire unit to be easily transported.
Abstract: Folding table consisting of a tabletop and support, which tabletop is composed of two tabletop parts that are connected to one another in a manner that they can pivot between two extreme positions, the tabletop parts lying in one plane and constituting the tabletop in the first extreme position and the tabletop parts positioned parallel to one another, their bottom sides facing one another, in the second extreme position, the support consisting of two leg structures, each leg structure connected to a tabletop part in a manner that it can pivot around an axis parallel to the tabletop, and capable of assuming a normal position perpendicular to the plane of the tabletop in the first extreme position of the tabletop parts, and the leg structures positioned between the tabletop parts in the second extreme position of these parts, each leg structure comprising two leg parts which are connected to one another via a hinge whose axis of rotation in the normal position of the leg structure is perpendicular to the plane
Abstract: An improved foldable table that opens and closes in an umbrella like fashion comprising a column member, a leg assembly, and a plurality of leaf members pivotally attached to the center column so as to be movable between an open position, wherein the leaf members mate to form a horizontal planar surface, and a closed position, wherein the table is easily stored and transported. The column member is selectively extendable and retractable, and the leg assembly is adapted to be selectively retracted into the column member. The center column includes a plurality of radial slots configured to matingly receive the leaf members when same are in either the open or closed position so that the leaf members remain in a selected radial plane.
Abstract: A sliding cable massage for use in massage and other therapeutic applications comprising a table top composed of a pair of abutting top sections having a frame rail attached thereto and having a truss centrally positioned and hingedly connected to the table top sections. Four circular members are secured in the corners of the table top. A pair of legs sets, each leg set comprising a pair of legs, a cross tube, a brace tube, and a telescoping internal height adjustment tube operably secured within each leg. A first set of four cables are operably secured to the truss at one end and to the cross tube at another end and have a middle portion operably engaged to the circular member. A second set of four cables is provided where each cable is secured at one end to the frame rail at a first end and a second end of each cable secured to a leg set at the cross tube.
Abstract: A garden umbrella includes a pole which can be fixed in the ground or inserted into a stand. To provide a table for supporting articles, e.g., glasses or bottles, beneath the area taken up by the opening linkage assembly for the umbrella in the folded state, the pole includes a second opening linkage assembly comprising a plurality of pivotably mounted supporting members disposed in spaced relation around the pole. The supporting members are pivotable to an opened, erected position by stays which are pivotably connected to a thrust sleeve which is mounted on the pole. In the opened position, the supporting members comprise a supporting surface for plate elements which together form the table.
Abstract: A light weight and collapsible platform and platform support structure usable as the deck and central structure of a folding boat and of a levelable, raised platform tent camper. This collapsible platform support structure is a unique arrangmeent of compression carrying arms radiating out from a central hub and jacking device, with an arrangement of tension carrying cables linking and supporting the radial arms into a rigid geometry. By concept and design the structure maximizes horizontal platform area for a minimum of weight and structure. Light weight allows transportability and collaspsibility allows stowability. The structure is opened from a collapsed state to a rigid erected state by operation of the jack, which moves the cable hub away from the arm hub. This action rotates the arms downward, loading the arms in compression and the cables and platform in tension, eventually locking the the structure into it's rigid erected geometry.
Abstract: A portable adjustable table assembly is made of a lightweight tubular construction and provides an extremely wide range of adjustable positions to accommodate persons seated, confined to bed, or standing. The assembly includes a flat U-shaped base, a pair of extensible, telescoping legs extending vertically upward from one end of the base, and a dual axis table assembly including a pair of support arms pivotally attached to the upper ends of the legs and a pair of table arms pivotally attached to the support arms. The table arms may be pivoted between an extended position outwardly of the support arms and a retracted position within the support arms, both of which positions can be utilized to support a table top in a horizontal position. Either or both of the pivotal connections may be provided with bi-directional ratchet assemblies to provide a wide range of angular positions for the table top between the two primary horizontal positions.
Abstract: A foldable seat device having diagonal side legs for support of a flexible sheet seat along its rearward and forward portions; and although legs extending from the rearward portion of the seat are conventionally continuous to their feet, the legs extending from the forward portion of the seat are of two discrete and non-connected portions.Of those legs, the adjacent ends of the lower rearward leg portion, and of the upper forward leg portion, are pivotally connected to the other legs at spaced points therealong; and those unconnected leg portions are pivotally movable independently of one another, permitting a seat-open condition of the seat even though the rear seat-feet may be then retracted to permit a support of the seat in a partially folded condition which permits a use of the seat while the device is leaning against a tree for user comfort.
Abstract: A display case (100) for displaying fragrance bottles, jewelry, or the like, having an enclosure member (102) defining a cavity, with the enclosure member (102) comprising first and second sections (104, 106), a tray (126) having a shape and size enabling its disposition within the cavity in the enclosure member 102, and a hinge (300) for hingedly connecting the first and second sections (104, 106) of the enclosure member (102) and the tray (126) and for enabling the display case (100) to be opened and closed to display and conceal the tray (126) and the fragrance bottle, jewelry, or the like, carried by the tray (126).
Abstract: A collapsible table, particularly a book-simulating collapsible table, comprises a central support component having hinged to its opposite sides a pair of leaves which in their extended position form a table top and in their collapsed condition form a container, for example a container of small compass resembling a book in its external appearance. A plurality of legs is pivotally connected to the support member. In the collapsed condition of the leaves, the legs are contained in collapsed condition within the container. In the extended, or table top, condition of the leaves, the legs are extended to perform their usual support function.
Abstract: A folding table especially adapted for use with a central pole supporting it, as under a beach umbrella, has a central hub with provision for detachably mounting at any desired level on a pole and a radial array of spokes pivotally mounted on the hub and supporting as a table surface, a disk of flexible material. In use position the spokes are radially deployed and rest against an annular flange of the hub, where a nut on a threaded coaxial portion of the hub holds them. The hub can be mounted so that the spokes fold upward for storage, or the hub can be inverted so that the spokes fold downward for storage. In folded position the table can easily be carried separate from or with a pole. The table surface or disk of flexible material can be easily removed and replaced with the spokes in folded position.
Abstract: A collapsible footstool is disclosed and includes a platform and a pair of legs adapted to support the platform in an elevated position. The legs are hinged to the platform so that they can be folded inwardly below the platform and stop means are provided for preventing outward movement of the legs beyond positions in which they support the platform. Bracing means are also provided and include respective struts pivotally coupled to the underside of the platform and adapted to co-operate with the legs for bracing them in their operative positions.
Abstract: A folding table or like structure having a generally planar top supported on the floor by four or more legs, a support structure comprising: two points of articulation under the underside of the table top located at some distance inward from the edge of the table; two splayed legs in V-formation extending from each point of articulation to a point on the floor approximately vertically below the corner of the table top; a cable network interconnecting the lower ends of said legs; and a second series of cables extending from each corner of the table top to the lower end of the leg located below the respective corner, the arrangement being such that in the assembled state all cables are in tension and the legs are in compression.
Abstract: A folding umbrella table comprising a central column for supporting the table, the column comprising two nesting cylindrical portions, the bottom portion having means for applying supporting legs to hold the column upright. At the top of the column is a circular plate with a plurality of radial slots near the edges. Means are provided for inserting and locking into the slots, a plurality of radial arms each of which is formed of angular material, one web of the angle in the form of a triangle, and the other web of the angle a narrow web of uniform width. Of the entire plurality of segmental arms, there are a first plurality of special support arms, which have a wider vertical web than the others. These act as support for the other segmental arms. There are six of these supporting arms, each of which is adapted to hinge from a horizontal to a vertical position. Each is held in a horizontal position by a folding bracket which is attached by hinge means to the central column of the table.
Abstract: A collapsible stool comprising:A. a tube having a first end and a second end;B. a first cap detachably mounted to the first end of the tube;C. a second cap detachably mounted to the second end of the tube;D. a plurality of leg supports radially and detachably mounted to the second cap;E. a plurality of support struts having first ends and second ends, extending radially from the tube and extending above the first end of the tube, detachably mounted at the first ends to the tube between the first end of the tube and the second end of the tube;F. a plurality of mounting means attached to the tube between the first end of the tube and the second end of the tube for detachably mounting the first ends of the support struts to the tube;G. a plurality of connecting struts pivotally connected to the second ends of the support struts wherein a plane surface is formed; andH.