Having Secondary Air Mixing Means Patents (Class 110/265)
  • Patent number: 5363782
    Abstract: Apparatus and process for improving atomization and combustion of fuel containing solid particles, wherein the fuel containing solid particles is ejected from an outlet port having a conical or trumpet end-like internal wall surface and a fuel atomizing fluid is ejected from a plurality of bores present in the conical or trumpet end-like internal wall surface of the outlet port.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1994
    Assignee: Praxair Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Ludo J. C. Couwels
  • Patent number: 5355814
    Abstract: The gasification burner of this invention capable of maintaining a high combustion rate for a long period of time comprises a combustion chamber having a ceiling with a small hole in its center, a pre-mixing pipe fitted into the small hole and having a nozzle at its top, wherein the pre-mixing pipe and the combustion chamber are concentric, and the spread angle of the gas flow sprayed from the end of the pre-mixing pipe is between 10 and 40 degrees, so that the relationship between the bottom of the combustion chamber and the conical gas flow is regulated by keeping a good balance between the gasification rate of the powdered coke and the life of the combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1994
    Assignee: Sumitomo Metal Mining Company Limited
    Inventors: Nobumasa Kemori, Kimiaki Utsunomiya, Hitoshi Takano, Keiji Fujita
  • Patent number: 5334012
    Abstract: A combustion chamber having improved heating efficiency and reduced NO.sub.x emissions includes a reduced diameter throat and a stepped configuration within the chamber. The chamber configuration encourages efficient combustion to reduce NO.sub.x production by promoting the formation of eddy currents within the chamber. A method for increasing heating efficiency and reducing NO.sub.x production is provided and involves passing combustion gases through such a combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 1991
    Date of Patent: August 2, 1994
    Assignee: Astec Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: J. Don Brock, Erbie G. Mize, Malcom L. Swanson
  • Patent number: 5329866
    Abstract: A burner and port combination for the combustion of a pulverized coal fuel plus air mixture comprises a throat and a burner nozzle positioned at a central area of the throat. The burner nozzle has an inlet for receiving the pulverized coal fuel plus air mixture and an outlet for discharging the pulverized coal fuel plus air mixture. A secondary air tube is positioned laterally adjacent the burner nozzle at each lateral side of the nozzle in the throat for providing a first portion of a secondary air to the throat. A plurality of vanes are positioned at an upper portion of the throat above the burner nozzle and the tubes and at a lower portion of the throat below the burner nozzle tubes for deflecting a second portion of the secondary air from the burner nozzle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1994
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventor: Albert D. LaRue
  • Patent number: 5315940
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process and an apparatus for the treatment of moist, explosive gas-dust mixtures, particularly coal dust mixtures in mill drying plants. To avoid a condensing out of residual moisture from intermediately stored dust, heated inert gas is supplied to the conveying system for the coal dust or the intermediate storage points.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 31, 1994
    Assignee: Loesche GmbH
    Inventor: Klaus Kasseck
  • Patent number: 5263426
    Abstract: A combustion apparatus including a mixture feeding pipe for injecting a mixture of pulverized coal and combustion air into a furnace, with the mixture then being ignited. A radially outwardly flared flame maintaining ring is provided at a tip end of the mixture feeding pipe, with the maintaining ring being exposed to a reduced atmosphere and to high temperatures due to radiant heat from the furnace. A projection extends into the furnace beyond the flame maintaining ring so as to protect the flame maintaining ring from radiation from inside the furnace thereby suppressing an excessive increase in temperature. Combustion air flows along a surface of the projection so as to provide at oxidized atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1993
    Assignee: Babcock-Hitachi Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Shigeki Morita, Kouji Kuramashi, Shigeto Nakashita, Keiji Ishii, Tadashi Jimbo, Kunio Hodozuka, Akira Baba, Hironobu Kobayashi
  • Patent number: 5246364
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are employed to reduce the sulfur dioxide produced by the combustion of a sulfur-containing fuel in a combustion chamber. Part of the combustion air is introduced into the combustion chamber with and closely adjacent the fuel. Another part of the combustion air is introduced into the combustion chamber above and downstream of the fuel and relatively remote therefrom under conditions which buffer the flame front and reduce peak flame temperatures therein. Finely divided limestone particles or the like are aspirated into the combustion chamber by the air introduced above the fuel and distributed thereby throughout the gases flowing downstream through the combustion chamber wherein the limestone particles are calcined to lime particles which react with the sulfur dioxide in the combustion reaction gases to produce calcium sulfate. There is no premixing of the particles and the aspirating air before they enter the combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1990
    Date of Patent: September 21, 1993
    Assignee: Inland Steel Company
    Inventors: Ronald R. Landreth, Lee R. Anderson
  • Patent number: 5231937
    Abstract: A burner for pulverized coal has a coal duct for pulverized coal and primary combustion air and a secondary combustion air duct such that the coal and primary air and secondary air mix outside the outlet nozzles of the duct in a mixing zone at which combustion occurs. Coal distribution means in the coal duct create, adjacent the outlet nozzle, at least one outer zone of flow spaced from the coal duct axis and at least one inner zone of flow nearer the coal duct axis. These are means for slowing flow in the outer zone relative to the flow in the inner zone, prior to the mixing zone. To achieve good mixing, and promote NO.sub.x reduction, the coal concentration in the outer zone is higher than in the inner zone. The slowing means may be radially inwardly projecting baffles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 1991
    Date of Patent: August 3, 1993
    Assignees: Hitachi, Ltd., Babcock-Hitachi Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hironobu Kobayashi, Kiyoshi Narato, Shigeru Azuhata, Hiroshi Miyadera, Shigeki Morita, Tadashi Jimbo, Kunio Hodozuka, Akira Baba
  • Patent number: 5205226
    Abstract: A low NO.sub.x burner system for a furnace having spaced apart front and rear walls, comprises a double row of cell burners on each of the front and rear walls. Each cell burner is either of the inverted type with a secondary air nozzle spaced vertically below a coal nozzle, or the non-inverted type where the coal nozzle is below the secondary air port. The inverted and non-inverted cells alternate or are provided in other specified patterns at least in the lower row of cells. A small percentage of the total air can be also provided through the hopper or hopper throat forming the bottom of the furnace, or through the boiler hopper side walls. A shallow angle impeller design also advances the purpose of the invention which is to reduce CO and H.sub.2 S admissions while maintaining low NO.sub.x generation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 27, 1993
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventors: John B. Kitto, Jr., Roger J. Kleisley, Albert D. LaRue, Chris E. Latham, Thomas A. Laursen
  • Patent number: 5199867
    Abstract: The present invention provides a burner for burning a fuel in an oxidant. In accordance with the apparatus, a fuel nozzle is provided for producing a fuel jet of the fuel adapted to burn within the oxidant with the flame extending outwardly from the fuel nozzle and such that the particles of fuel become increasingly more buoyant along the length of the flame. A lower oxidant nozzle is located below the fuel nozzle for creating a lower oxidant jet of the oxidant that produces a low-pressure field below the fuel jet for downwardly spreading the fuel into the oxidant. Additionally, an upper oxidant nozzle is located above the fuel and lower oxidant nozzles for creating an upper oxidant jet of the oxidant to burn the increasingly more buoyant particles of the fuel. The velocities of the upper and lower oxidant jets can be adjusted independently of their mass flow rates to adjust the flame shape from sharp (convection dominated) to lazy (radiation dominated) without changing the stoichiometry of the flame.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1993
    Assignee: The BOC Group, Inc.
    Inventor: Loo T. Yap
  • Patent number: 5199357
    Abstract: A furnace firing apparatus and method for burning low volatile fuel in which first and second burners are provided to introduce particulate, air-suspended fuel into primary and secondary combustion zones of a combustion chamber. The alignment of the second burner is adjustable and aligned so that the stream of fuel and air introduced by the second burner entrains combustion products produced by the burning of fuel in the primary combustion zone in order to ignite the fuel introduced by the second burner. Secondary air is provided by a pair of plenum chambers to support combustion of the fuel. In an alternate embodiment, an intermediate burner is provided to entrain combustion products from the combustion of fuel introduced by the first burner and whose combustion products are entrained into the fuel introduced by the second burner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1993
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation
    Inventor: Juan A. Garcia-Mallol
  • Patent number: 5193490
    Abstract: An apparatus for supplying fluidized bed material to a circulating fluidized bed boiler having a primary zone with a fuel feed point and a furnace zone above the primary zone, a mixing chamber for receiving solid fuel and a portion of the total combustion air needed in the boiler. The combustion air and circulating fluidized bed solids are supplied tangentially into the chamber which is advantageously in the form of a horizontally extending cylinder. The combustion air and solids are intimately mixed with each other before they are discharged into the primary zone of the boiler. The primary zone of the boiler is shaped with an upwardly increasing cross sectional area so that the already mixed combustion air and solids diffuse evenly through the fluidized bed boiler.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 16, 1993
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventor: Mark E. Peruski
  • Patent number: 5186111
    Abstract: Device making it possible to effect the injection of sludge originating, in particular, from sewage-purification stations, into the combustion chamber of an incinerator, in particular of a household-refuse incinerator, characterized in that it comprises at least one injector (10) of small diameter, traversing the thermal-projection means of the combustion chamber and fed, at a constant rate for all of the injectors, via a distribution chamber (12), each injector consisting of a tube (18) having a cylindrical shape and comprising a conical nozzle (20), on the combustion chamber side, with the large diameter situated on the side of the outlet of the sludge from the injector, and in that each injector is thermally regulated in order to obtain a linear temperature gradient along the whole length of the injector, causing the formation in the injector, as the injection progresses, of a cylindrical element of sludge having a predetermined diameter and a surface crust in the zone close to the combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 16, 1993
    Inventor: Guy Baria
  • Patent number: 5161967
    Abstract: A process and device for introducing additives, in particular energy carriers, into a cupola or shaft furnace. The additive is carried with combustion air stream and introduced therewith in the furnace shaft, a depression being created at the point where the additive is fed into the combustion air stream, so that the additive is fed into the combustion air stream, so that the additive is aspirated by the combustion air into the combustion area of the furnace shaft.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1991
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1992
    Assignee: Georg Fischer AG
    Inventors: Rolf Rietzscher, Axel Rudolph
  • Patent number: 5092761
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for reducing NO.sub.x emissions from premix burners by recirculating flue gas. Flue gas is drawn from the furnace through a pipe or pipes by the aspirating effect of fuel gas and combustion air passing through a venturi portion of a burner tube. The flue gas mixes with combustion air in a primary air chamber prior to combustion to dilute the concentration of O.sub.2 in the combustion air, which lowers flame temperature and thereby reduces NO.sub.x emissions. The flue gas recirculating system may be retrofitted into existing premix burners or may be incorporated in new low NO.sub.x burners.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1992
    Assignee: Exxon Chemical Patents Inc.
    Inventor: Arthur R. Dinicolantonio
  • Patent number: 5090339
    Abstract: A burner apparatus for pulverized coal comprises a pulverized coal supply pipe, a starter oil burner extending within the pulverized coal supply pipe to define therebetween a tubular passage through which a mixture of combustion air and pulverized coal passes into a furnace, a flame holder provided at an outer periphery of one end of the pulverizerd coal supply pipe facing to the furnace, a cylindrical member disposed in the tubular passage for dividing a part thereof into two coaxial passage parts, and a valve adapted to close an axial end opening of the cylindrical member for varying a concentration of pulverized coal in a radial outer passage part of the coaxial passage parts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 25, 1992
    Assignee: Babcock-Hitachi Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kunio Okiura, Akira Baba, Noriyuki Oyatsu, Hiroyuki Kaku, Shigeki Morita, Hironobu Kobayashi
  • Patent number: 5076179
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for injecting sludge into a kiln includes a pump for pumping sludge, an attrition segment for attriting the sludge into smaller particles, and a conduit enclosing the attrition segment for entraining the particles in a stream of compressed air to carry the particles into a kiln. In the preferred embodiment, the attrition segment includes a perforated member, preferably comprising a plurality of perforated tubes which project jets of compressed air radially inwardly to slice the sludge mass within the segment into smaller particles. As the particles exit the attrition segment, they become entrained in a stream of compressed air flowing through the air conduit enclosing the attrition segment and are carried into the kiln.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 31, 1991
    Assignee: Systech Environmental Corp.
    Inventor: Keith H. Carpenter
  • Patent number: 5070797
    Abstract: A process and device for introducing additives, in particular energy carriers, into a cupola or shaft furnace. The additive is carried with combustion air stream and introduced therewith in the furnace shaft, a depression being created at the point where the additive is fed into the combustion air stream, so that the additive is aspirated by the combustion air into the combustion area of the furnace shaft.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 10, 1991
    Assignee: Georg Fischer AG
    Inventors: Rolf Rietzscher, Axel Rudolph
  • Patent number: 5048761
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for monitoring and controlling the flow of fluid transported solid particles is described. Also an integrated system is disclosed for monitoring and controlling pulverized coal in a non-intrusive manner employing a fluid such as air. The coal flow in each feed pipe is regulated so as to achieve a desired flow balance among the burners in a boiler.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1990
    Date of Patent: September 17, 1991
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventor: Raymond K. Kim
  • Patent number: 4932594
    Abstract: An apparatus for supplying a controlled flow of pneumatically transported solid particles, in particular, pulverized coal, comprises a pulverizer or vessel for containing pneumatically suspended solid particles. A supply pipe is connected to the pulverizer or vessel for removing a mixture of pneumatic gas and solid particles from the vessel. A bend is provided in the supply pipe and an aspirator is connected to the supply pipe at a distance of from one to two pipe diameters from the bend. The aspirator is provided on the outer wall of the bend and is supplied with aspirating gas to draw off an amount of mixture from the supply pipe. This controls the amount of remaining flow of mixture through the pipe. The supply of the aspirator is connected to a bypass line which is connected to the mixture inlet of an injector which is supplied with injecting gas. The supply of the injector which carries the mixture is connected back into the vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 1988
    Date of Patent: June 12, 1990
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventor: Raymond K. Kim
  • Patent number: 4924784
    Abstract: A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 15, 1990
    Assignee: International Coal Refining Company
    Inventors: Dennis R. Lennon, Richard B. Snedden, Edward P. Foster, George T. Bellas
  • Patent number: 4920898
    Abstract: There is provided a slagging combustion system for generating high purity working fluid suitable for driving gas turbines. The system consists of a precombustor for preheating oxidant tangentially fed to a primary slagging combustor where a solid carbonaceous material is combusted under substoichiometric slagging conditions. Slag is collected in the primary slagging combustor and products of combustion passed to a transition section where tertiary oxidant and sulfur-gettering agents are added, and then to a cyclonic secondary combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 1, 1990
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventors: Albert Solbes, Hideo Iwata
  • Patent number: 4915619
    Abstract: An improved burner having a very particularly designed gas element for the combustion of coal, oil or gas places a plurality of retractable and rotatable gas elements in close proximity to the outlet end of a tubular burner nozzle of the burner which are shielded from combustion air provided around the tubular burner nozzle by a flame stabilizing ring having a plurality of openings adapted to closely receive each of the plurality of retractable and rotatable gas elements. Eddies produced by the flame stabilizing ring create a low oxygen/fuel rich flame resulting in reduced NO.sub.x formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 10, 1990
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventor: Albert D. LaRue
  • Patent number: 4881474
    Abstract: A pulverized coal combustion apparatus comprises a burner through which pulverized coal and carrier air are passed to be burnt in a combustion chamber, and a flame retainer disposed at an end of the burner. The flame retainer includes a flared tube and an annular plate, which plate has a plurality of radially inwardly projecting parts equiangularly spaced from each other. The annular plate comprises a plurality of ceramic pieces and a plurality of fastener elements, both of which are arranged and assembled alternately to form the annular plate. Each ceramic piece is so shaped that it projects radially inwardly to serve as the projecting part when assembled. The ceramic piece has at opposite sides thereof smoothly curved edge surfaces, and the fastener element has at opposite sides thereof smoothly curved edge surfaces which are engaged with the curved edge surfaces of neighboring two ceramic pieces.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 1988
    Date of Patent: November 21, 1989
    Assignee: Babcock-Hitachi Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Osamu Okada, Shigeki Morita, Shigeto Nakashita, Tadahisa Masai, Shigeru Tominaga, Hiroshi Inada
  • Patent number: 4865542
    Abstract: Disclosed is a burner for the partial combustion of a solid carbonaceous fuel wherein coal, e.g., finely divided coal, is supplied to a reactor space via a central channel disposed along the longitudinal axis of the burner, and oxygen-containing gas is supplied via two annular channels surrounding said central channel, and heat from the combustion is removed from the hollow front face of the burner by coolant flowed through said front face spirally about the longitudinal axis of the burner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1989
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Hendricus J. A. Hasenack, Ian Poll
  • Patent number: 4850288
    Abstract: A pressurized cyclonic combustion method and a cylindrical burner apparatus for pressurized combustion of particulate solid fuels to produce a pressurized clean effluent gas. In the burner, the particulate solids such as wood chips are fed tangentially into a primary combustion chamber at its inlet end and flow at high tangential velocity in a helical path through the burner. Oxygen-containing combustion gas such as air is supplied tangentially at high velocity through multiple ports spaced along the burner length to maintain and/or increase the high tangential velocity and produce high centrifugal forces on the particulate solids and provide for prolonged combustion and produce high burner volumetric heat release rates exceeding about 400,000 Btu/hr ft.sup.3. A choke opening is provided centrally located at the combustion chamber outlet end for promoting prolonged combustion of solid fuel paarticles upstream of a quench zone. A secondary combustion chamber is provided downstream of the choke opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1989
    Assignee: Power Generating, Inc.
    Inventors: Franklin D. Hoffert, J. David Milligan, James A. Morrison
  • Patent number: 4846679
    Abstract: A flueless, low nitrogen oxides emissions, low carbon monoxide emissions space heater having a fuel chamber with a fuel inlet and a fuel distributor. The fuel inlet generates a swirling fuel flow within the fuel chamber. A primary air inlet generates a counter-swirling primary airflow with respect to the swirling fuel flow in a primary air chamber. The fuel distributor discharges the swirling fuel flow into the counter-swirling primary airflow thus forming a fuel/air mixture. An ignitor ignites the fuel/air mixture. A combustion chamber is sealably secured to and in communication with the primary air chamber. The combustion chamber wall has a plurality of secondary air supply holes. An intermediate shell surrounds the combustion chamber wall and forms a space between the intermediate shell and the combustion chamber wall. A secondary air inlet is in communication with the space between the intermediate shell and the combustion chamber wall. An outer protective shell surrounds the intermediate shell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1985
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1989
    Assignee: Institute of Gas Technology
    Inventor: Alan Kardas
  • Patent number: 4838185
    Abstract: In this combustion process a fluid fuel such as pulverized coal mixed with primary air is injected along an axis and secondary air is injected along a helical path around the axis. Tertiary air is injected around the combustible fluid and the secondary air in substantially the same direction as the combustible fluid, in a substantial circumferentially continuous coaxial ring which is laterally confined downstream of the injection point.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1987
    Date of Patent: June 13, 1989
    Assignee: Charbonnages De France
    Inventor: Gerard Flament
  • Patent number: 4830287
    Abstract: An apparatus for supplying a controlled flow of pneumatically transported solid particles, in particular, pulverized coal, comprises a pulverizer or vessel for containing pneumatically suspended solid particles. A supply pipe is connected to the pulverizer or vessel for removing a mixture of pneumatic gas and solid particles from the vessel. A bend is provided in the supply pipe and an aspirator is connected to the supply pipe at a distance of from one to two pipe diameters from the bend. The aspirator is provided on the outer wall of the bend and is supplied with aspirating gas to draw off an amount of mixture from the supply pipe. This controls the amount of remaining flow of mixture through the pipe. The supply of the aspirator is connected to a bypass line which is connected to the mixture inlet of an injector which is supplied with injecting gas. The supply of the injector which carries the mixture is connected back into the vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1987
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1989
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventor: Raymond K. Kim
  • Patent number: 4800825
    Abstract: In the operation of a slagging combustor, including an apertured baffle defining part of a cylindrical combustion chamber having a head end which includes a nozzle for injection of sulfur-containing particulate carbonaceous material to be combusted in a whirling oxidant flow field, there is injected a particulate sulfur sorbent at the aperture of the baffle towards the nozzle to react with released sulfur. The sulfur sorbent is injected into the combustion zone from a location near the exit end thereof. Fuel is injected near the center of the head end. A relatively fuel-rich recirculation zone is established and maintained along the longitudinal axis of the combustion chamber surrounded by a relatively oxygen-rich annular region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1988
    Date of Patent: January 31, 1989
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventor: John D. Kuenzly
  • Patent number: 4790743
    Abstract: A method of reducing the NO.sub.x --emissions during combustion of nitrogen-containing fuels via burner units each including a primary burner and being arranged in a wall of a closed combustion chamber; fuel and air for combustion are supplied to the burner flame in stages as partial flows via delivery means which are separate from one another.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1986
    Date of Patent: December 13, 1988
    Assignee: L. & C. Steinmuller GmbH
    Inventors: Klaus Leikert, Klaus-Dieter Rennert, Gerhard Buttner
  • Patent number: 4785746
    Abstract: Disclosed is an apparatus for introducing slurry fuels into the combustion zone of high power density combustors, boilers, industrial furnaces or steam generators. Having the general form of an elongate cylinder, the apparatus comprises a central conduit for a flow of particulate carbonaceous fuel suspended in a carrier liquid, and separate annular passageways for an atomizing fluid and a coolant. The slurry flows longitudinally to about the position where it is to be dispersed into the combustion zone, is there divided into a plurality of streams that are deflected to flow individually through a corresponding plurality of radially extending passages and slurry portholes spaced apart around the periphery of the cylindrical structure. Just before these streams leave the injector they are each impinged by a higher-velocity longitudinal flow of atomizing fluid which breaks the filaments of viscous slurry into minute droplets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1988
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventors: Gabriel D. Roy, Douglas B. Sheppard
  • Patent number: 4779546
    Abstract: An orifice assembly (6) used in a pulverized coal supply line (4) is formed of a plurality of ceramic bull nose inserts (20). Each insert is of truncated pie shape and of sufficient number around the periphery to radially lock the inserts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 1987
    Date of Patent: October 25, 1988
    Assignee: Combustion Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: William F. Walsh, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4768948
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for burning fuel in an annular-nozzle burner wherein a compact flame is generated by inhibiting the dispersion of fuel particles and concentrating the fuel particles in a primary combustion area having a high rate of radiant heat transfer between the fuel particles by maintaining a sufficiently high velocity of the fuel particles and causing them to undergo essentially linear flow in a direction substantially parallel to the axis of the burner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1988
    Assignee: J. R. Tucker & Associates
    Inventors: Eric Hansen, James R. Tucker
  • Patent number: 4748918
    Abstract: The present invention provides an incinerator capable of completely burning pulverized coal or oil and waste products. The main feature of this invention resides in that a heavy oil or a pulverized coal can be mixed with a primary air flow and injected into the burning furnace so as to introduce a rapidly revolving secondary air flow from tangential air flow inlets on an inner pipe to help combustion and thus completely burn waste products which are sent into the incinerator through a preheating chamber. Tangential air inlets and a radiating whirling sheets are provided on the inner pipe of the incinerator so as to enable a primary air flow and a secondary air flow in the incinerator to continuously revolve the waste products and thus lengthen the time duration of combustion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 1986
    Date of Patent: June 7, 1988
    Inventor: Shien F. Chang
  • Patent number: 4732093
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for burning fuel in an annular-nozzle burner wherein a compact flame is generated by inhibiting the dispersion of fuel particles and concentrating the fuel particles in a primary combustion area having a high rate of radiant heat transfer between the fuel particles by maintaining a sufficiently high velocity of the fuel particles and causing them to undergo esentially linear flow in a direction substantially parallel to the axis of the burner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1988
    Assignee: J. R. Tucker and Associates
    Inventors: Eric Hansen, James R. Tucker
  • Patent number: 4726760
    Abstract: A method of and an apparatus for burning liquid and/or solid fuels, especially coal or the like, in pulverized form, the latter either in dry condition or mixed with a carrier liquid such as water and/or oil to form an emulsion being introduced together with the fuel into a combustion chamber to create a spray cone which opens approximately conically, said spray cone being bounded by an external, optionally rotating flow of air. In order to form minute fuel particles immediately downstream of the fuel inlet, the latter is constituted by a central port which is defined by a continuous knife edge. Furthermore, an approximately radially directed air inlet port is associated with said central port on the side remote from the combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1986
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1988
    Assignee: Stubinen Utveckling AB
    Inventor: Kurt Skoog
  • Patent number: 4724780
    Abstract: A pressurized cyclonic combustion method and a cylindrical burner apparatus for pressurized combustion of particulate solid fuels to produce a pressurized clean effluent gas. In the burner, the particulate solids such as wood chips are fed tangentially into a primary combustion chamber at its inlet end and flow at high tangential velocity in a helical path through the burner. Oxygen-containing combustion gas such as air is supplied tangentially at high velocity through multiple ports spaced along the burner length to maintain and/or increase the high tangential velocity and produce high centrifugal forces on the particulate solids and provide for prolonged combustion and produce high burner volumetric heat release rates exceeding about 400,000 Btu/hr ft.sup.3. A choke opening is provided centrally located at the combustion chamber outlet end for promoting prolonged combustion of solid fuel particles upstream of a quench zone. A secondary combustion chamber is provided downstream of the choke opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 16, 1988
    Assignee: Power Generating, Inc.
    Inventors: Franklin D. Hoffert, J. David Milligan, James A. Morrison
  • Patent number: 4722287
    Abstract: In a furnace (10) in which a sulfur-bearing fuel is burned, a sorbent material such as limestone is introduced into the upper portion of the furnace through a plurality of nozzle arrangements (40). Each nozzle arrangement comprises a pair of concentric pipes (42,44) with deflector means (46) located between the pipes and adjustable by means (54), so that the sorbent material introduced through the outer pipe is dispersed in an area near the furnace wall, while that introduced through the inner pipe is projected to the central portion of the furnace. There are sufficient nozzle arrangements, and they are so located, so as to cover substantially the entire cross-sectional area of the furnace with sorbent material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1988
    Assignee: Combustion Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: David K. Anderson, Robert W. Koucky
  • Patent number: 4718359
    Abstract: An apparatus is described for burning solid fuels, preferably coal in pulverized form, which are mixed with a carrier liquid, such as water and/or oil or the like, to thereby form an emulsion, and for this purpose the fuel emulsion is injected through a substantially annular entrance port into a combustion chamber so that an approximately hollow cone-shaped flow configuration is produced. Within this flow configuration, a low pressure is built up immediately behind the entrance port for the fuel emulsion opening into the combustion chamber so that a portion of hot combustion gases and a remainder of unburnt fuel particles are recirculated to the entrance port. Furthermore, gas entrance ports are provided in the end wall of the combustion chamber, through which the gas or air flows, the path of flow of which extends concentrically and spirally towards the axis of the entrance port for the fuel emulsion opening into the combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 1986
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1988
    Assignee: Stubinen Utveckling Ab
    Inventor: Kurt Skoog
  • Patent number: 4685404
    Abstract: There is provided a slagging coal combustion system suitable for retrofitting boilers, furnaces and industrial-process heat generators originally designed to burn oil or gas. It comprises a primary combustion chamber into which oxidizer and fuel are injected to provide high-velocity, rotational-flow combustion zones, such that the fuel is burned substoichiometrically, while in flight, with up to 90% of the resultant ash being removed as molten ash. The combustion products pass from the primary chamber to chamber where slag is removed and the gaseous products are passed to end-use equipment. A coal-fired precombustor subsystem feeds partially-heated air as the oxidizer to the primary combustion chamber supply of oxidizer, at any selected temperature within the range from about 1200.degree. F. to about 2000.degree. F. The stoichiometry of this precombustor and the velocity and mass-flow rates of its output stream are independently controllable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1985
    Date of Patent: August 11, 1987
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventors: Douglas B. Sheppard, Albert Solbes, John C. Stansel, Lance E. Hill
  • Patent number: 4672900
    Abstract: A tangentially-fired furnace is disclosed in enough detail to illustrate the location of injection ports for excess air above the fireball of the combustion chamber to eliminate the swirl of the flue gases as the flue gases flow into the convection section, in order to produce a uniform mass flow and temperature pattern of the flue gases over the cross section of the furnace exit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1983
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1987
    Assignee: Combustion Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard W. Santalla, Angelos Kokkinos, Robert J. Collette, Michael S. McCartney
  • Patent number: 4671192
    Abstract: A pressurized cyclonic combustion method and a cylindrical burner apparatus for pressurized combustion of particulate solid fuels to produce a pressurized clean effluent gas. In the burner, the particulate solids such as wood chips are fed tangentially into a primary combustion chamber at its inlet end and flow at high tangential velocity in a helical path through the burner. Oxygen-containing combustion gas such as air is supplied tangentially at high velocity through multiple ports spaced along the burner length to maintain and/or increase the high tangential velocity and produce high centrifugal forces on the particulate solids and provide for prolonged combustion and produce high burner volumetric heat release rates exceeding about 400,000 Btu/hr ft.sup.3. A choke opening is provided centrally located at the combustion chamber outlet end for promoting prolonged combustion of solid fuel particles upstream of a quench zone. A secondary combustion chamber is provided downstream of the choke opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 1985
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1987
    Assignee: Power Generating, Inc.
    Inventors: Franklin D. Hoffert, J. David Milligan, James A. Morrison
  • Patent number: 4669398
    Abstract: A pulverized fuel firing apparatus comprises a first pulverized fuel injection compartment so constructed that the combined amount of primary air and secondary air to be consumed is less than the theoretical amount of air required for the combustion of the pulverized fuel to be fed as mixed with the primary air to a furnace, a second pulverized fuel injection compartment so constructed that the combined primary and secondary air amount is substantially equal to the theoretical air for the pulverized fuel to be fed together with the primary air, and a supplementary air compartment for injecting supplementary air into the furnace. The three compartments are arranged close to one another and control the NOx production upon combustion of the pulverized fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1985
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1987
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yasuro Takahashi, Yukihisa Fujima, Kimishiro Tokuda
  • Patent number: 4669399
    Abstract: A method of reducing the NO.sub.x content in combustion gases by introducing secondary fuel, via a liquid carrier, into the combustion chamber at a location disposed between the supply of fuel and air for the primary combustion, and the supply of secondary air for the complete combustion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1985
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1987
    Assignee: L. & C. Steinmuller GmbH
    Inventors: Helmut Martin, Wolfgang Schreier
  • Patent number: 4665842
    Abstract: An apparatus for producing ignitable solids-gas suspensions has a feeder for vertically feeding the solids-primary gas suspension, a secondary gas passage concentrically surrounding said feeder, and a stage for mixing both streams.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 19, 1987
    Assignee: Norddeutsche Affinerie Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Adalbert Bartsch, Georg Gospos, Lars Kersten, Arno W. Bartsch
  • Patent number: 4664042
    Abstract: A furnace burns coal where the coal is decreased to a fine size to expand the surface of the carbon in the coal to a predetermined amount of free oxygen from air to militate against reduction of alkali compounds in the coal. Further, the temperature of the combustion is controlled to a predetermined maximum by recirculation of cooled flue gas to complete the control over the alkali compounds in the coal and prevent the formation of tube-fouling silicates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1983
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1987
    Assignee: Combustion Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: H. Wharton Nelson
  • Patent number: 4660768
    Abstract: A nozzle that consists of a pipe (4) with the end that extends into the treatment space surrounded by a hood (6) is employed to inject solids into a reaction space, a fluidized-bed combustion chamber for example, pneumatically. There are outlet bores (12) in the wall of the pipe (4) and below the lower edge of the hood (6). Inside the pipe (4) is an inner pipe (13) that is connected tight to pipe (14) above the outlet bores (12) and that creates in conjunction with the pipe (4) a space (14) for air to flow through. The air flowing through this intermediate space (14) and emerging from the outlet bores (12) ensures transverse intermixture of the solids inside the reaction space.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1986
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1987
    Assignee: Deutsche Babcock Werke Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Dirk Bunthoff, Rainer Hildebrandt
  • Patent number: 4655148
    Abstract: Emissions of sulfur oxides produced during combustion of a sulfur-bearing fossil fuel in a furnace chamber 10 are reduced by injecting a sulfur oxide absorbing particulate into the product gases in an upper region 60 of the furnace chamber. The sulfur oxide absorbing material is dispersed into a quantity of air which is introduced in the furnace chamber through a plurality of nozzles 80, 82 and 84 disposed at different elevations. The air streams with entrained absorbent are introduced at each elevation tangent to an imaginary circle, with the radii of the circles of the elevations being different, thereby distributing the sulfur oxide absorbent over a wide volume of the furnace chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1987
    Assignee: Combustion Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Ralph D. Winship
  • Patent number: 4638747
    Abstract: The invention comprises a coal-fired burner system for use in a drum mix asphalt plant or drum dryer used for producing asphalt paving composition. Coal to fire the burner is ground to a -200 mesh size by an air-swept rotary impact mill, and a classifier at the exit from the mill controls the size of the particles leaving the mill. The pulverized coal particles are recovered from the exhaust airflow exiting the mill by a fiber filter collector and temporarily stored in a small surge bin. Coal is metered from the surge bin into a primary air conduit leading to the burner. The availability of a small but ready supply of coal in the surge bin provides quick response to a need for increased coal while avoiding the dangerous storage of large quantities of pulverized coal dust. As the weight of coal dust in the surge bin decreases, control circuitry provides for the processing of additional coal to maintain a ready supply of processed coal in the surge bin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1987
    Assignee: Astec Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: J. Donald Brock, James G. May