Abstract: A distillator has an outer casing, a boiling device disposed in the outer casing, a hot water box disposed in the outer casing, a cold water box disposed in the outer casing, a first faucet disposed on the hot water box, a second faucet disposed on the cold water box, a first vapor pipe connected to the boiling device and the hot water box, a second vapor pipe connected to the hot water box and the cold water box, a water pipe connected to the boiling device and the cold water box and passing through the hot water box, the water pipe inserted in the first vapor pipe and the second vapor pipe, a heating device disposed on the boiling device, and a heater disposed on the hot water box. A connection is disposed on an end of the water pipe and passes through the cold water box.
Abstract: Method and apparatus for reducing the viscosity of clogging hydrocarbons in an oil well. The apparatus is preferably trailer mounted for portability. It includes a tube type heat exchanger enabling heated gases to pass within feed water coils to heat the water to a predetermined temperature and at a pressure which prevents any flashing or phase change of the feed water within the heat exchanger. From the heat exchanger the heated feed water passes through a conduit which empties into the oil well. The well is open to atmosphere so that the feed water undergoes a phase change or flashing when it is introduced into the oil well. The resulting combined steam and hot water reduce the viscosity of the hydrocarbons sufficiently to facilitate their flow out of the oil well. One embodiment of the heat exchanger includes special coil arrangements to promote heating efficiency.
Abstract: The water flow circuit for a heat recovery steam generator includes both a low pressure circuit and a high pressure circuit. Both circuits are designed for once-through flow and both include evaporators with rifled tubing. A pressure equalizing header may be located between the evaporator and superheater and orifices may be located at the inlet to the evaporator for flow stability.
Abstract: A flue gas desulfurizer having an absorption tower for bringing untreated flue gas into gas-liquid contact with an absorbent slurry, wherein there is provided heat recovery means for recovering heat from the flue gas passing through the flue gas inlet section of the absorption tower prior to gas-liquid contact, and to boiler equipment including heat release means for releasing the recovered heat to heat utilization equipment. This invention also relates to thermal electric power generation equipment including extraction feedwater heaters for heating boiler feedwater with steam from steam turbines, a flue gas desulfurizer using an absorbent slurry, and means for recovering heat from the flue gas passing through the flue gas desulfurizer and/or the absorbent slurry within the flue gas desulfurizer, whereby boiler feedwater is preheated by the recovered heat and then introduced into the extraction feedwater heaters.
Abstract: In a steam generator (1) having, downstream of the fire-box (7), a radiant part and, subsequent thereto, a convective part, the latter essentially comprising, connected in series on the flue-gas side, contact heat exchanger (18), superheater (9) and economizer (2), the steam generator (1) being used in a circuit for the direct selective catalytic reduction (SCR process) of the nitrogen oxides in the flue gas (19), the economizer (2) consists of two parts.
Abstract: A mixed-pressure waste-heat boiler (7) has a forced-flow steam generator, essentially composed of a low-pressure economizer (15), of a low-pressure drum (17) and of a low-pressure evaporator (16), and a once-through forced-flow steam generator, essentially composed of a high-pressure economizer (21), of a high-pressure evaporator (22) and of a high-pressure superheater (23). The high-pressure economizer (21) is fed from the steam drum (17) of the forced-circulation steam generator via a high-pressure feed pump (20). Arranged between the high-pressure evaporator (22) and high-pressure superheater (23) is a separation bottle (25) which is connected to the steam drum (17) via a recirculation line (26). During startup, until superheated conditions are reached at the outlet of the high-pressure evaporator (22), high-pressure saturated water is recirculated into the drum (17) of the forced-circulation steam generator via the separation bottle (25).
Abstract: A vertical boiler with horizontal evaporator tubes is provided. The evaporator is divided into two sections, which are connected in parallel to the drum. The first evaporator section relies on the feedwater pump to provide forced circulation. The second evaporator section relies primarily on natural circulation but may also be assisted by the feedwater pump. This design provides a vertical boiler which is reliable under all operating conditions, including start-up, transient conditions, and steady state conditions, without requiring the use of circulating pumps or an auxiliary energy source (steam, water, gas, etc.).
Abstract: A method for controlling combustion air in a boiler plant, where combustion air is supplied into a boiler located in a boiler building, comprises the steps of determining a ratio of air flow inside the building to air flow outside the building on the basis of at least the temperature of the outside air and of a load of the boiler; taking a first air flow from inside of the building in accordance with the ratio; taking a second air flow from outside the building in accordance with the ratio; the second air flow being at a certain temperature; and supplying a combined combustion air flow including the first and second air flows, in accordance with the ratio, to the boiler. Also an apparatus is provided for controlling combustion in boiler building permitting it to achieve the above steps.
Abstract: A steam power plant for generating electric power has a fossil-fuelled boiler, a water-steam cycle for generating high-tension, superheated steam for a steam turbine, an economizer to transmit heat from flue gas to the feed-water, an air preheater to transmit flue gas heat to fresh air and devices for removing dust, sulphur and possibly nitrogen from the flue gases. In order to optimize heat exchange in the air preheater during operation and reduce the heat loses during start-up of the steam power plant, a heat exchanger system is provided with sections through which recirculated air and a heat vehicle medium flow, in which the section carrying the air is connected on the intake side to the fresh-air outlet of the air preheater and on the outlet side to the fresh-air intake of the air preheater.
Abstract: An incineration plant includes a heat exchanger arranged in a flue gas flow following a reduction stage for nitrogen oxides and in front of a flue gas dust collector, and a heat transfer medium circuit for absorbing heat from the heat exchanger in the flue gas flow. The heat exchanger is connected to the heat transfer medium circuit such that the heat transfer medium conducted in the circuit is admitted to the heat exchanger. The heat transfer medium circuit has at least one additional heat exchanger for absorbing heat from the heat transfer medium. A feed water preheater is arranged in the heat transfer medium circuit.
Abstract: A method for operating a system for steam generation includes generating steam from water by indirect heat exchange with hot flue gas, by first preheating condensed water and then evaporating the preheated water at high pressure. The method further includes cooling the preheated water which is already at high pressure, by heat exchange with at least one partial flow of the condensed water, at least in a partial-load range. A system for steam generation, such as in a gas and steam turbine plant, includes a steam generator through which hot flue gas flows. The steam generator has heating surfaces. One of the heating surfaces is a condensate preheater having primary and secondary sides. A heat exchanger is connected downstream of the condensate preheater on the primary side and is connected upstream of the condensate preheater on the secondary side.
Abstract: A waste heat recovery boiler comprising heat exchange rate switching means for controlling the rate of heat exchange between an exhaust gas and feedwater in a heat exchanger by changing the state of the feedwater in accordance with the concentration of sulfur oxides in the exhaust gas, thereby maintaining the temperature at which low temperature corrosion due to the exhaust gas is prevented in a downstream portion of the heat exchanger in the direction in which the exhaust gas flows. Accordingly, it is possible to achieve the maximum efficiency of heat recovery since the phenomenon of steaming in the heat exchanger is eliminated irrespective of whether the kind of exhaust gas is a dirty gas or a clean gas.
Abstract: A dual or multiple combustion chamber is described for use with cyclic velox boiler plants wherein one or more inner reactors are fastened inside one or more of the combustion containers of the cyclic velox boiler. These inner reactors are filled with and contain the char fuel but the inner reactor walls are porous and ported so that air can readily flow into the inner reactor during compression and reacted gases can readily flow out of the inner reactor during expansion. Refueling and ash removal occur into and out of these inner reactor chambers.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for recovery of heat from the flue gas of the combustion furnace of a steam boiler or power generation plant uses a heat pump heat extracted from a lower temperature point in the system to a higher temperature point in the system. The flue gas is passed through an economizer to preheat the boiler feed water. The flue gas then passes to a direct contact gas cooler where a second stream of cooling water extracts heat from the flue gas. The second stream of cooling water is passed through the evaporator of the heat pump to heat a refrigerant. The refrigerant is compressed and then condensed in thermal contact with the boiler feed water to heat it before it enters the economizer. In a second embodiment a power generation plant has a steam turbine and an auxiliary vapor turbine. The flue gas is passed through a gas cooler and gives up heat to a stream of cooling water.
Abstract: A furnace having a fire box at one end of a multi-unit cell boiler receives combustible refuse and delivers hot combustion gases through passages between water cells of the multi-unit cell boiler. The combustion gases enter an exhaust stack at the far end of the boiler after giving up most of their contained heat to the water circulating through the cells. Simultaneously, water flows through the base of the boiler on a circuitous path from its end adjacent to the exhaust stack toward the furnace and through cooling walls of the furnace and then through a holding tank to a pump which delivers the water to a header communicating with the cells of the boiler unit most distant from the furnace. The water being pumped into the cells is preheated to boost the thermal efficiency of the boiler. Steam generated in the boiler enters a steam header connected with the cell boiler unit nearest the furnace.
Abstract: An improved model steam generator for simulating the conditions within a nuclear steam generator in order to monitor the condition of the heat exchange tubes and tubesheet of the nuclear steam generator is disclosed herein. The improved model steam generator includes a highly effective separator assembly for separating water droplets entrained within the steam flowing out of the outlet of the secondary side of the generator formed from a plurality of separator grids, each of which includes an array of semi-cylindrical deflector members. The grids are vertically stacked with the deflector members transversely disposed to the flow of steam generated by the model steam generator. Each of the parallel arrays of deflector members in each grid is angularly disposed approximately 45.degree. to the deflector members in the grids above it and below in order to provide a tortuous path for the flow of steam ascending therethrough.
Abstract: A heater comprising two separate tube nests of which one (29) heats the circulating water by condensation and supercooling and the other (39) heats a partial flow of this water by the desuperheating of steam. Steam is admitted through pipe (16). The foregoing partial flow of water comes from the desuperheating zone of a heater located downstream and is admitted through a manifold (41). Pipes (39) are wound round a central drum (43).
Abstract: The invention relates to a process and to a heat exchanger (8) intended in particular for performing the process, for operating a high-pressure boiler (1), having consuming units (3', 3", 3'") connected to the high-pressure boiler (1), the condensate from which units is returned to a condensate tank (5). By means of a feed water pump (7), feed water is fed to the boiler (1) and the condensate and the feed water are then fed to a heat exchanger (8) upstream of the condensate tank (5). According to the invention, the hot condensate is fed to the free space of the heat exchanger (8), and the feed water which is to be heated is pumped to the heat exchanger (8), passed helically from the cold to the warm zone in the heat exchanger (8) and carried from the heat exchanger (8) into the boiler (1). As a result of this heating up of the feed water, the heat contained in the condensate becomes economically useable, resulting in substantial savings in heat medium for the boiler.
Abstract: Energy and water are recovered from flue gases by cooling them to a temperature sufficiently below the acid dew point temperature by contact with an aqueous stream so as to recover the sensible heat and to reduce the water content of the flue gases by about 50%. The water by which the aqueous stream is enriched is subsequently flashed off to cool the stream back to its original temperature and the water vapor is then compressed to generate a higher temperature vapor stream which is condensed to recover the water and extract heat. The aqueous stream is continuously enriched with material such as calcium carbonate to control the pH sufficiently as to avoid substantial corrosion due to acidic gases removed from the flue gases and the aqueous stream is purged continuously or periodically to remove compounds such as chlorides, calcium sulphates, and fly ash solids picked up from the flue gases.
Abstract: A cyclic velox boiler is described wherein solid carbonaceous fuels are burned in pressure vessel containers by cyclic compression and expansion with air or with air and steam as usual gas reactants. During compression air is forced deeply into the pores of the solid fuel and rapid primary burning to carbon monoxide results due to the large internal pore area available. During expansion the primary reacted gases emerge from the pores to mix and react fully with secondary air retained outside the pores in the container. Rapid and complete burning of the char fuel can be obtained in this two step, cyclic burning process and net useful mechanical work can be obtained from an expander engine. The containers and portions of the expander are cooled with water and the resulting steam can be used to generate additional work output via a steam power cycle.
Abstract: A thermodynamic method is described and claimed for improving the quality of wet steam produced by conventional and once through type boilers. Moisture entrained with such steam is first separated in a steam-water separation vessel. The separated moisture is thereafter vaporized by pressure reduction and flashed to form lower pressure steam and condensate containing dissolved solids. The condensate is utilized to preheat fresh boiler feedwater. The lower pressure steam is condensed and supplements the boiler feedwater to form a hotter combined net feedwater stream containing reduced quantities of dissolved solids. Practice of the method, in association with commercially available boilers producing saturated to moderately superheated steam at temperatures of up to about 970.degree. F. and steam pressures of up to about 2,900 psig, has resulted in increases in the quality of the steam produced from about 70% to about 99% (substantially dry steam).
Abstract: A method of pre-heating feed water for boilers is disclosed which utilizes the exchange of heat between the tube side of a heat-exchanger which contains de-salinated and de-ionized water and the shell side which contains hydrocarbon vapors boiling in the range of 90.degree. to 150.degree. C. The tubes are made of carbon steel with their outer surfaces aluminized.
Abstract: A condensate recovery system wherein a condensate receiver is provided between a boiler and a feed water tank with condensate being introduced into the condensate receiver during a period when water is not being fed to the boiler and with water being fed into the boiler during a subsequent feeding period by pumping make-up water into the condensate receiver. The system is arranged so that equalizing the pressure of the condensate inlet port of the condensate receiver with that at the low temperature water outlet port of the condensate receiver allows condensate to flow by gravity and replace low temperature water therein, leaving the condensate receiver filled with water.
Abstract: A closed pressurized feed water system supplying flash steam to a lower pressure process and with no steam loss in the closed system. The flash steam delivered to the lower pressure process is sufficient to reduce the pressure in the feed water system so that a steam trap in the closed system will operate and permit the hot condensate to be returned to the boiler. Also, new make up water may be added to the system to compensate for any steam loss. In the high pressure closed system about 96.68% of the condensate is returned to the boiler and only about 3.32% is needed for new make up water.
Abstract: An improved arrangement for preheating feedwater in a steam boiler system prior to the feedwater entering a fuel economizer in order to prevent corrosion due to condensation of flue gas in the fuel economizer and in the exhaust of the boiler system. The feedwater, prior to entering the fuel economizer, is heated in a preheater with a portion of steam from a boiler. The amount of steam entering the preheater is regulated by two temperature control valves. A first temperature control valve is regulated by the temperature of the feedwater prior to entering the fuel economizer. A second temperature control valve is regulated by the temperature of the flue gas in the boiler exhaust stack.