Abstract: A gasket of non-conductive material formed of layers of a ceramic between which is embedded a wire circuit for connecting spark electrodes, high voltage connectors and ground connectors of a spark ignition system. The wire circuit includes small diameter wires surrounding gasket openings for bounding and sealing the edges of combustion chambers defined by cylinders in an internal combustion engine. The small diameter wires are insulated by the high dielectric layers of the gasket as well as by high dielectric wrappings and a sheath of high dielectric material bonded to and within the layers forming to gasket.
Abstract: A spark plug having a center electrode with a cylindrical body with a tip at one end and a terminal near the other end with an insulator radially surrounding the center electrode. A ground shield surrounds the insulator and includes a ground electrode near one end, having a portion thereof with an annular opening disposed above and radially separated from the center electrode tip to form a radial spark gap, with a sealing portion disposed between the ground electrode and the other end of the ground shield for sealing the engine combustion chamber from the outside environment when the spark plug is installed. The ground shield can be formed from two parts which are deformed during manufacturing to be in mechanical engagement and securely holding the insulator in place. The spark plug can also have also have an integral or separate retainer for securing the spark plug to the engine.
Abstract: A spark plug for forming a spark that jumps between two electrodes has an insulating body surrounded by a housing with a ground electrode. The insulating body has a center electrode therein, which projects beyond the ground electrode in the axial direction.
Abstract: A spark plug has a cylindrical metal shell, a ground electrode and an insulator fixedly supported within the metal shell with a front end of the insulator extended beyond a front end of the metal shell. The insulator has an axial bore in which a center electrode is placed to form a spark gap with the ground electrode. The front end of the metal shell is generally flush with or somewhat recessed into an inner wall of a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine when the spark plug is mounted on a cylinder head of the engine. The front end of the insulator extends at least 4.0 mm from the front end of the metal shell.
Abstract: In a dual polarity type ignition system for a spark plug group, a cylindrical metal shell is provided in which an insulator is provided. The insulator has an axial bore in which a center electrode is provided whose front end has a first noble metal tip. A ground electrode extends from a front end of the metal shell and having a second noble metal tip to form a spark discharge gap between the first noble metal tip and the second noble metal tip. The group of the spark plugs is divided into two groups, one is a positive polarity spark plug group in which a positive high voltage is applied to the center electrode, and the other group is a negative polarity spark plug group in which a negative high voltage is applied to the center electrode. The first noble metal tip of the center electrode of the positive polarity spark plug group is dimensionally smaller than the first noble metal tip of the center electrode of the negative polarity spark plug group.
Abstract: Two fundamental types of auxiliary devices for increasing the fuel efficiency of a conventional spark plug without reforming any part of the spark plug. Each type has a pair of opposing tongues having parallel grooves on their opposing inside faces and flat portions bridging the tongues with which the device is attached to either the top of metal housing and/or ground electrode or the top of center electrode by welding or caulking.
Abstract: The spark device of the present invention includes a line of spaced apart conductor segments which have small spark gaps therebetween. One end of the line of segments is connected to a source of electrical energy, and the other end is connected to ground. Upon applying electrical energy to the line of segments, a plurality of sparks are emitted simultaneously at each of the spark gaps. The device can be in the form of a conventional spark plug or can be embedded in a circular body mounted to the combustion engine as part of the gasket assembly.
Abstract: A spark-ignition engine is disclosed that incorporates a relatively unlimited number of spark sources within each combustion chamber, without conventional spark plugs being required. The engine includes a planar circuit module clampingly located between a cylinder assembly and a head assembly of the engine. The module includes an electrically insulative substrate; a pair of electrode members; a foil circuit on the substrate for connecting the electrode members to a pulser that generates a high voltage intermittent electric signal for producing spark ignition of the fuel within a combustion chamber of the engine; first and second seals for connecting the substrate to the cylinder assembly and the head assembly. Also disclosed is a kit for replacing spark plugs in an internal combustion engine, the kit including the circuit module and in one version, injector assemblies for use in place of the spark plugs.
Abstract: This invention concerns an ignition plug for internal combustion engines and a process for igniting gas mixture by the use thereof, which functionally speaking are characterized by utilizing the expansion of initial gas combustion following the formation of primary ignited gasses in a spark gap for the formation of secondary ignited gasses and the completion of combustion over the entire space of the ignition plug. For this, either the inside surface of a ground electrode opposed to a center electrode of the side surface of a center electrode opposed to a ground electrode is made flat in principle in order to drive primary ignited gasses from a spark gap to an ignition groove, which is to be provided to on the top of a center electrode or the other side of a ground electrode as to a center electrode, by the use of the initial combustion explosion in the spark gap so as to accelerate the growth and the multiplication of the ignited gasses there and lead them to complete instantaneous combustion.
Abstract: A multipoint spark ignition system for an internal combustion engine. The head of each cylinder of the engine is provided with at least three openings, the axes of which intersect within the cylinder. A spark plug is threaded within each opening, and each spark plug includes a single electrode. The inner end of each electrode carries a thin metallic, laterally extending disc, and the peripheral edges of the discs are spaced apart to provide spark gaps. A first spark plug of the series is connected to the ignition coil of the engine, while the electrode of the last spark plug in the series is connected to ground and the electrodes of the intermediate spark plugs are capacitively loaded.
Abstract: An Electromagnetic Ignition system suitable for adaptation to standard automobile engines including diesel engines, which has been improved by means of a high efficiency RF capacitive spark plug with a projecting antenna tip used for forming very large spark gaps to the plug shell and piston face as well as for coupling high electric fields to the local initial flame plasma, preferably used in combination with shielded high voltage cable including series inductive choke elements and a Capacitive Discharge ignition system incorporating an input capacitor, a SCR switch, an ignition coil with an optimized high current and high output voltage, and preferably a synchronous DC-DC power converter providing "boost power" during ignition so that substantial capacitive, inductive, and electromagnetic energy is supplied to the air-fuel mixture. Preferably the coil has a turns ratio of 50 with the input capacitor having a capacitance between 5 and 10 microfarads and a 400 volts rating.
Abstract: A spark plug for an internal combustion engine which utilizes an annular round ring surrounding the center electrode. Surrounding the center electrode is a fire hole which includes an enlarged annular space to achieve an increased volume of the fire hole to maximize the ignition of the fuel/air mixture within the fire hole. The ground ring may include a series of ports to facilitate dispersement from the spark plug of the ignited fuel/air mixture within the fire hole.
Abstract: To increase the spark energy being transferred from a spark plug to a fuel-air mixture, so that the maximum energy transfer occurs during the initial breakdown phase and electrode deterioration at the spark plug is prevented upon occurrence of subsequent arc conduction and glow phases, an inductive circuit is connected in parallel to the spark gap which is so dimensioned that the inductance has a time constant which inhibits substantial current flow through the shunt circuit upon breakdown of the spark gap, but permits flow of current during an arc and glow phase of the spark at the spark gap through the shunt circuit so that energy is drained from the spark gap during the plasma and glow phase.
Abstract: To increase the spark intensity delivered from a spark plug, an auxiliary spark gap (33) is serially connected with an auxiliary capacitor (37) and the main spark gap (42), the auxiliary capacitor being charged through a charging circuit including a resistor (45) connected in shunt to the auxiliary spark gap (33) and the auxiliary capacitor, and a further or second resistor (46) connected in shunt across the auxiliary capacitor and the ground or chassis electrode (15), and a shunt capacitor (51) is connected between the main spark plug terminal (27) and the ground or chassis or counter electrode (11, 15) so that, upon breakdown of the auxiliary spark gap, the main spark gap will have a voltage thereacross formed by the charge voltage of the main or shunt capacitor (51) and the additional voltage on the auxiliary capacitor (37) which had been charged through the resistors connected across the auxiliary capacitor and to the main spark plug terminal (27) and the ground terminal or electrode (15) respectively.
Abstract: A multi-gap spark ignition system is disclosed. The system comprises a plurality of spark gaps which are formed in series. The length of the spark gaps increases from the high voltage power source side towards the earth side. According to the present invention, necessary voltage to be applied to the spark ignition system can be decreased.
May 7, 1982
Date of Patent:
August 20, 1985
Nippon Soken, Inc., Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
Abstract: A diesel engine is started by plural ignition plugs, each installed in a swirl chamber of a corresponding cylinder. Each ignition plug includes (a) an elongated center electrode, (b) a fuel-absorbent electrical insulator that encapsulates the center electrode so as to allow only one end of the center electrode to protrude, and (c) a plurality of elongated grounding electrodes arranged symmetrically around said insulating member to define a discharge path in conjunction with the protruding end of the center electrode. The discharge path includes part of the surface of the insulating member and an air gap between free ends of the grounding electrodes and opposing surfaces of the insulating member.
Abstract: An ignition system of an internal combustion engine comprising a metallic plate inserted between the cylinder block and the cylinder head. The metallic plate has an opening, upon the inner peripheral wall of which is mounted a plurality of T-shaped electrodes. Each of the T-shaped electrodes comprises an electrode piece and a conductive bar member connected to the electrode piece. The conductive bar member is surrounded by a tubular insulating member. The tubular insulating member is inserted into bores formed in the metallic plate for forming a condensor between the conductive bar member and the metallic plate. The electrode pieces are arranged in series for forming spark gaps between adjacent electrode pieces, and a high voltage is applied across the electrode pieces.
Abstract: An ignition system (51-59, 60, Ql, Qn, 30) providing high modulation energy by means of modulator (30) is used to fire an igniter and effect total fuel burning without detonation. An extremely long ignition arc is initiated at an optimum timing angle (.theta..degree.) in advance of top dead center piston position. Such long arc with its high energy content makes possible an ignited fuel nodule of increased size within the combustion chamber of the engine. The increased fuel nodule size makes possible efficient engine operation at the variety of cylinder pressures and the variety of ignition voltages usable to ignite the fuel. These long arcs may be sustained over a large range of duty cycle periods of ignition electrical power by modulation of transient current feeding the igniter.
Abstract: An improvement on conventional internal combustion ignition systems, which improvement comprises a capacitor connected parallel to the secondary winding of the ignition transformer, and a bypass circuit through which energy stored in the primary circuit is conveyed around the high impedance secondary winding of the circuit transformer to the spark plug after the high voltage at the secondary winding has fired an auxiliary gap to complete the by-pass circuit. The energy originally stored in the primary circuit is discharged at the plug to produce a plasma jet ignition plume.
Abstract: An improved method and apparatus for effecting the ignition of a relatively lean air-fuel mixture includes a pair of electrode gaps at which strong electrostatic fields of relatively long duration are established to accumulate fuel particles in a portion of a combustion chamber adjacent to a spark gap. In one embodiment of the invention, one of the electrode gaps is enclosed so that the atmosphere in this gap is not affected by changes in the pressure and composition of the atmosphere in the combustion chamber. By maintaining the atmosphere in the electrode gap separate from the atmosphere in the combustion chamber, an electrostatic field of substantially constant strength can be maintained at the enclosed electrode gap after the establishment of a corona discharge at an electrode gap exposed to the atmosphere in the combustion chamber. In another embodiment of the invention, both of the electrode gaps are exposed to the atmosphere in the combustion chamber.
Abstract: A dual spark plug ignition system for an internal combustion engine to decrease the production of air pollutants in the exhaust gases thereof, in which the spark plugs are set at an angle with respect to each other, and one is insulated, while the other one is grounded to the cylinder head. The electric spark is caused to jump the gap between the side electrode of the grounded spark plug and the central electrode of the insulated spark plug.
Abstract: The method comprises, after the end of the normal combustion of the mixture in the combustion chamber of the engine, establishing a post-combustion by maintaining a series of high-tension sparks during a long period and introducing turbulent additional air in the vicinity of said sparks so as to form a plasma which is propagated in said residual mixture. The plasma is propagated in the cylinder from a plurality of points, that is to say partly from a point near to the spark and partly from at least another point of the combustion chamber.
Abstract: An internal combustion engine ignition apparatus includes a secondary spark plug having a center electrode to which a high voltage is applied. A cylindrical peripheral electrode surrounds the center electrode and has peripheral openings. Upon the formation of a corona discharge due to the high voltage applied to the center electrode, a strong ionic wind and convection of an air-fuel mixture are produced. The ionic wind causes fuel constituents to be gathered in the vicinity of the peripheral electrode thus preventing production of hydrocarbons due to cooling or quenching of the fuel on the combustion chamber wall. Initial ignition of the air-fuel mixture is by means of a main spark plug. The resultant flames are propagated to the corona discharge portion of the secondary spark plug. The corona discharge is then changed to secondary continuous spark discharge, to thereby positively fire the stratified air-fuel mixture.
Abstract: Improved spark-plugs for automobile internal combustion engines are made in a manner that thermal conductance (G) from flame nucleus to the electrodes is made as small as possible through decreasing of fluid resistance with respect to minute flame nucleus gas flow in the discharge, the fluid resistance being made small by making the discharge electrodes thin or making at least one of its discharge electrodes streamlined. The spark-plugs are capable of igniting and burning such lean gas mixture of 1.25 or more in excess air ratio (F).
Abstract: A spark plug wherein corona discharge is employed to create a long arc and to determine, in part, the path of the arc, electrodes of the spark plug being shaped, oriented and positioned to create an arc of desired length, orientation and at a desired location as well as to effect electromagnetic interaction between electric current in the arc and the current in at least one of the electrodes to provide a force on the arc which acts in consort with the electrode shapes, positions and orientations to control its spatial behavior, the electrode configuration being further selected so that ionized species in the flame of ignited fuel are subjected to a high electric field over a substantial volume.
Abstract: The invention comprises a spark booster for use in the ignition system of an internal combustion engine. Two embodiments of the invention are disclosed. Each embodiment comprises two electrically conductive members which are spaced from each other to define a spark gap, a bi-metal disk for varying the size of the gap in response to variations in engine temperature, manual adjustment for adjusting the spark gap independently of temperature, and an inspection window for visually observing the spark gap. In addition to the foregoing features, one embodiment also includes apparatus for varying the size of the gap in response to the load on the engine and its speed.
Abstract: An improved engine for burning a lean air-fuel mixture includes a main combustion chamber into which the air-fuel mixture is introduced and an auxiliary combustion chamber wherein the air-fuel mixture is initially ignited. A spark plug in the auxiliary combustion chamber has central and side electrodes which define a spark gap. A corona discharge is established in an electrostatic field between the central electrode and a field electrode. The ions in the corona discharge collect on fuel particles in the air-fuel mixture so that these particles are electrically charged and deposited on the field electrode, the walls of the auxiliary combustion chamber, and the side electrode. The fuel particles which come toward the central electrode are electrostatically atomized by the corona discharge and accelerated away.
Abstract: A discharge device for igniting a fuel-air mixture whereby fuel droplets in the mixture are electrically charged and, under the influence of an electric field, caused to congregate at a region thereby concentrating the mixture at said region, means being provided to create an arc at said region. A device of more general use is also disclosed.
Abstract: A spark plug having multiple air gaps is described. The multiple gaps are defined by at least three electrode members defining at least two air gaps. A first electrode member is communicated to a ground potential while a second electrode member, the electrode member which is maximally spaced apart from the first electrode member, is communicated to a source of high voltage potential. The remaining electrode members are positioned intermediate the first and second electrode members and are arranged to be coupled by high resistance electrical means to either the ground or the high voltage potential. In a preferred embodiment, the high resistance means comprise a ladder type resistance network embedded within the ceramic body of the spark plug and electrically interconnecting the intermediate electrode members and the electrical connecting cap of the spark plug device. The air gaps so formed are broken down in sequence and share in the dissipation of the stored energy.
Abstract: A spark plug wherein corona discharge is employed to create a long arc and to determine, in part, the path of the arc, electrodes of the spark plug being shaped, oriented and positioned to create an arc of desired length and at a desired location as well as to effect electromagnetic interaction between electric current in the arc and the electrodes to provide a force on the arc which acts to control its spatial behavior. The spark plug includes means to enhance the electromagnetic interaction.