Abstract: A combustion-and-steam engine system has a phase-change water injector (1) through which water is spray-injected into combustion gases in a combustion chamber (2) of a Nelson Engine (79) or any type of heat engine with either rotational or thrust power. A steam tube 45 in fluid communication between an injector orifice (25) and an internal periphery of the combustion chamber can be heated with resistance heat from an engine-electrical source (46) to provide phase-change of water en route to the combustion chamber in the steam tube. An injection-metering valve (22, 25, 26, 43) has a return spring (31) with pressure regulatable by an adjustment means (32, 33, 36, 37, 38, 40) to select flow rate past the injection-metering valve to a return tube (57, 74) without requiring lubricity of water or other fluid under high pressure.
Abstract: A combustion engine having a combustion chamber with a side port in a sidewall thereof interconnecting the combustion chamber with a side manifold. The side port is positioned between about 25% and about 75% of the stroke length from the bottom dead center position of the pistons. The engine includes a fluid injection system which provides an alcohol-water mixture to the side manifold to maintain the manifold at an elevated pressure. The pressure manifold is heated to provide for expansion of the fluids provided thereto and is readily removable to allow for normal functioning of the engine.
Abstract: In order to utilize recycling of exhaust gases at high engine loads in an internal-combustion engine with an exhaust gas turbocharger, optionally with a charge cooler, as well as an exhaust gas recycling valve which is arranged within a connecting pipe through which a partial exhaust gas stream flows, the connecting pipe, in the direction of the flow, branching from the exhaust pipe upstream of the exhaust gas turbine and connecting into the charge pipe downstream of the exhaust gas turbine, an apparatus is employed which injects water into the partial exhaust gas stream flowing the connecting pipe at operating temperature and at high load operation of the internal-combustion engine.
August 3, 1990
Date of Patent:
July 21, 1992
AVL Gesellschaft fur Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Messtechnik m.b.H. Prof.Dr.Dr.h.c. Hans List
Wolfgang Kriegler, Hans Aufinger, Franz Schweinzer
Abstract: An improved combustion igniter for internal combustion engines is disclosed, comprising a conventional spark plug improved through the addition of (a) an upwardly facing generally vertical wire element secured to the negative cathode of the spark plug and spaced apart from the positive electrode anode of the spark plug, (b) a catalyst material proximate the vertical wire element and either secured to the spark plug body or applied to the cylinder head; and (c) an injected steam source for facilitating catalytic breakdown of vapors in the combination chamber. Preferably the wire element comprises wire of pure platinum approximately 0.018" in diameter and 1/8" in length, and the catalyst is either (1) a nickel coating disposed on the cylinder head, (2) nickel wire with platinum segments disposed thereon secured to the park plug body, or (3) sheet nickel formed in a coil and disposed in the cylinder.
Abstract: A combustible fuel vapor/steam mixture is fed to a piston engine through an injection valve (12). The mixture is generated by feeding water through a water pump (5) and magnetic valve into a vaporizer (1) which makes superheated steam and feeding liquid fuel through a fuel pump (4) and magnetic valve for injection into the superheated steam. The resulting mixture can be finely adjusted by an electronic control (32) which regulates the pumps and valves. The injection valve (12) injects the mixture into pre-compressed combustion air in the cylinder, and the electronic control adjusts the injection period according to the desired engine power and speed. Preferably, the injection valve closes as soon as compression pressure equals vapor mixture pressure, but the injection period is varied by changing the opening instant of the valve. The valve opens at crank angle GAMMA.sub.a and closes at angle GAMMA.sub.z. As engine speed increases, injection time is held constant by setting opening angle GAMMA.sub.
Abstract: The fuel consumption of an internal combustion engine is decreased by the sue of steam, wherein the steam is produced by maintaining a constant flow of water past the internal combustion engine which acts as the boiler, without the need for any external source of heat. The steam that is produced is injected in a timed, pulsed manner into the engine at such a time as to allow the expansion of the steam in the chamber to supplement the expansion of the gases caused by the explosion of the fuel consumed.
Abstract: The combustion chamber of an internal-combustion engine is fed via a dispersion supply conduit with a dispersion of water and of fuel supplied via a fuel supply conduit and is fed via an air supply conduit with the air required for the combustion. The exhaust gases generated within the combustion chamber during the combustion are passed via an exhaust gas conduit into a heat exchanger being in connection with a condensate collecting chamber for receiving the condensate formed on cooling the hot exhaust gases and vapors. This condensate is utilized for the production of the fuel-water-dispersion. The heat of condensation being at disposal within the heat exchanger is utilized for heating the dispersion-air-mixture supplied into the combustion chamber of the internal-combustion engine or for heating the air required for the combustion.
Abstract: A fuel mixture injection apparatus associated with the carburetor of an internal combustion engine designed to improve engine efficiency by delivering a mixture of vaporized gasoline, steam and air directly to the carburetor. A portion of the fuel supplied by the fuel pump is diverted through a metering valve into a closed chamber where it is sprayed over a perforated vaporizer grid heated by a double loop of copper tubing through which hot engine coolant is ducted. The gasoline vapor is then ducted either into the carburetor or directly into the intake manifold. Simultaneously, water from a reservoir flows through a line in response to engine load and temperature conditions. The line passes through the closed chamber where the water is preheated. The line then leads to a heat exchanger connected to the engine's exhaust manifold where the water is converted to steam. From the heat exchanger, the steam is ducted either into the carburetor or directly into the intake manifold.
Abstract: A modified two-stroke or four-stroke internal combustion engine comprises means and a method for increasing the power output of an internal combustion engine by providing a non-combustible fluid to the engine. The engine transfers thermal energy of combustion to the non-combustible fluid, thereby causing expansion of the fluid, and includes means for converting expansion of the fluid to mechanical power.
Abstract: A low pressure/low temperature vapor generating system for use in internal combustion engines includes a supply of water or other liquid to be vaporized, heating apparatus which uses heat generated by the internal combustion engine to heat the water and convert it to steam, conduits for delivering the steam to the intake of the carburetor of the internal combustion engine, and a pressure/temperature control device disposed in the conduit for maintaining the pressure and temperature in the conduit at or below some predetermined levels. Also included is a water flow control tank located between the water supply and the heating apparatus for receiving water from the supply at a controlled rate and for delivering water to the heating apparatus. A condensate separator is located between the pressure/temperature control device and the carburetor for removing condensed water droplets from the conduit carrying the steam to the carburetor.
Abstract: A fuel supply system is disclosed in which oil and water are mixed and delivered under pressure to a nozzle or other atomizing means at which combustion is to occur. The mixture of oil and water is delivered to the atomizing means along conduit means and those conduit means include means to produce agitation of the oil and water so that an intimate mixture of oil and water is delivered to the atomizing means. Complete emulsification occurs at the atomizing means to promote combustion.
Abstract: An apparatus (10) for installation in an automobile (12) to generate steam with heat from the exhaust of an engine (14) is provided. The steam is generated at a sufficient pressure for entry into the combustion chambers of the engine to increase the power output of the engine. The apparatus includes a water storage unit (20) and a steam generator (26) for generating steam with the water from the unit through transfer of heat from combusted gases in the exhaust system (18). The steam travels through steam inlet manifolds (30, 32) for entry into the combustion chambers. The entry is controlled by a cylinder injection timing valve assembly (38) timed to the operation of the engine to enter the steam during the power stroke. A steam throttling control valve assembly (50) is provided to throttle the steam input to the cmbustion chambers.
Abstract: System and method for a superheated-water injection system (SWIS). The system is designed to superheat water to temperatures exceeding 212.degree. F. (100.degree. C.) under conditions of pressure to prevent it from boiling for the purpose of injecting a timed and metered volume of such superheated water directly into the firing chamber of an internal combustion engine (whether spark-ignited, diesel, turbine or jet) to produce usable steam incremental to the work-force developed by such engine through combustion.
October 9, 1981
Date of Patent:
October 11, 1983
William B. Schlueter, Ignacio D. Debuque, Jr.
Abstract: An internal combustion engine in which a compact ring type boiler pack is installed at the top of each cylinder recessed into the cylinder head. Water is pumped through each boiler at a rate proportional to the cylinder temperature, to maintain a proper cooling and steam injection balance, the generated steam being injected peripherally into the cylinder during the last part of the power stroke, timed by the temperature in the boiler pack and the pressure in the cylinder. Boiler feed water is controlled by movement of the inlet valve actuating mechanism of the particular cylinder. The boiler provides multiple stage conversion of the water to steam, the peripheral steam injection providing internal cooling of the cylinder walls without interfering with normal combustion. The steam system is adaptable to existing internal combustion engines and results in reduced fuel consumption, very low pollutant emissions in the exhaust and a very efficient thermal cycle.
Abstract: An apparatus for controlling the injection of steam into the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine having an exhaust attachable evaporation plate supplied with water by a reservoir across a float bowl. A restrictor is placed in the line connecting the float bowl and evaporator. The evaporator plate defines a bore and is insulated from the exhaust pipe by a heat resistant gasket having an aperture of predetermined area. Boiling and steam generation are restricted primarily in the region between the gasket and line restrictor.
Abstract: The formation of noxious exhaust gases is prevented in internal combustion engines by passing steam in contact with an element comprising cerium and germanium and then to a location at which the formation of the noxious gases would normally take place.
Abstract: A fuel and water homogenizing system (300) creates a homogenized fluid of liquid fuel and water within a vessel (310) when the fluid and water within such vessel is agitated by vibrations transduced from electrical energy provided by an AC energy source (400). A predetermined quantity of homogenized fluid is transferred via a conduit (200) to a compartment (24) within a vaporizer (10) to establish a predetermined level in the compartment of the homogenized fluid. To regulate the homogenized fluid level within the compartment (24), another conduit mechanism (305, 306, 307) connects the compartment with the homogenizing vessel pumping back homogenized fluid into the homogenizing vessel when a rise in fluid level within the compartment exceeds a predetermined level.
Abstract: My invention relates to internal combustion engines that are intermittently operated as steam engines with the changeover from one phase to the other controlled by the heat of the metal of the engine in the region of the combustion.
Abstract: In the art of motor fuel carburetion where conventional carburetors are employed to mix and prepare the fuel/air mixture for introduction into the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines, and particularly where gasoline is used as fuel, the liquid fuel is sucked, or aspirated out of the provided discharge opening by the current of intake air as it flows past this opening, thereby presumably mixing and preparing the fuel/air charge.In this invention the method of mixing liquid fuel with air employs a liquid fuel delivery spray valve which is so located as to spray liquid fuel upon an electrically heated metal plate which instantly converts the fuel from its liquid state into vapor form; a water delivery spray valve which is so located in similar fashion as the fuel delivery valve described above, to moderate the explosive violence of high octane fuel in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines; and an electrically heated porous screen to atomize the fuel/air/steam mixture charge.
Abstract: An improved means and process for providing for the removal of hydrogen from a catalytic cathode means whereby the hydrogen may be recombined with oxygen to provide explosive force to power an internal combustion engine.
Abstract: An internal combustion engine includes at least one combustion chamber and an inlet conduit whereby air for combustion of fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber. The inlet conduit has a main inlet and an auxiliary inlet for introducing main and auxiliary air flows respectively into the inlet conduit. Filtered and heated air is passed through a humidifier and a preheater to an air suction control valve connected between the preheater and the auxiliary inlet to provide the auxiliary air flow. The air suction control valve operates in response to increase in pressure in the combustion chamber to reduce the flow of air from the preheater to the auxiliary inlet.
Abstract: This invention relates to a vaporific carburetor for a gasoline engine, consisting of an evaporator tube assembly inclined to the horizon, an auxiliary fuel tank assembly at the upper end of the evaporator tube assembly, a mixer tube assembly at the lower portion of the evaporator tube assembly and an auxiliary water tank connected by a small water pipe to the upper portion of the evaporator tube assembly.The vaporific carburetor differs from the vaporizer carburetor in four different aspects. The first difference is in the cut at the outlet of the high speed tube, and the position of the cut with respect to the venturi. In the vaporizer carburetor the said cut is perpendicular to the wall of the venturi while in the vaporific carburetor the said cut is parallel with the wall of the venturi. The second difference is in the connection of the inlet of the idling speed tube.
Abstract: An internal combustion engine in which a compact ring type boiler pack is installed around each cylinder under the cylinder head. Water is pumped through each boiler at a rate proportional to the cylinder temperature, to maintain a proper cooling and steam injection balance, the generated steam being injected peripherally into the cylinder in pulses, timed by a valve which is controlled by movement of the inlet valve actuating mechanism of the particular cylinder. The boiler has multiple stages to ensure complete conversion of the water to steam, the peripheral steam injection providing internal cooling of the cylinder walls without interfering with normal combustion. The steam system is adaptable to existing internal combustion engines and results in reduced fuel consumption, very low pollutant emissions in the exhaust and a very efficient thermal cycle.
Abstract: A hot fuel gas generator for an internal combustion engine vaporizes gasoline and water in a heated pressure vessel and mixes the resulting superheated gaseous fuel with air in a metering valve which communicates with the internal combustion engine. A single device operating at a very high temperature, for example 1000.degree. F., is used for the simultaneous vaporization of the fuel and water to develop desirable working pressure and volume. The high temperature gaseous state of the fuel represents molecules at the greatest degree of separation from each other providing the greatest opportunity for contact of the reacting species in the gaseous condition as chemical reactions occur only between particles at the atomic or molecular level and it is necessary for the reacting species to be in actual contact at the time of reaction. The fuel gas produced therefore enables complete combustion and the elimination of the atmospheric pollutants common in the operation of internal combustion engines.
Abstract: Apparatus for injecting controlled amounts of water vapor into an internal combustion engine includes a water receptacle and conduit connecting the receptacle at a level above the water level therein to the intake manifold of the engine. An air inlet is also provided in the receptacle and a conduit extends from the air inlet into the receptacle below the water level. A third conduit bleeds exhaust gas from the exhaust system into the water receptacle to influence the rate at which water vapor is withdrawn from the water receptacle and conducted to the intake manifold such that at increased engine outputs the rate of water vapor injection is increased whereas at lower engine outputs the rate of water vapor injection is decreased.
Abstract: A hot fuel gas generator for an internal combustion engine simultaneously vaporizes gasoline and water in a multi-chambered heated pressure vessel having built in regulators for controlling pressure and volume and delivers the resulting superheated steam and gaseous fuel to the internal combustion engine downstream from the usual carburetor. A single device operating at a very high temperature, for example 1600.degree. F., is used for the simultaneous vaporization of the fuel and water to develop desirable working pressure and volume. The high temperature steam and gaseous fuel positions the fuel molecules at the greatest degree of separation from each other providing the greatest opportunity for contact of the oxygen, the reacting species in the gaseous condition as chemical reactions occur only between particles at the atomic or molecular level and it is necessary for the reacting species to be in actual contact at the time of reaction.