Abstract: A two-stroke internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder with a combustion chamber defined between the cylinder head and a reciprocating piston, and a carburetor which delivers a rich fuel and air mixture to a compressor with a reciprocating piston driven by the engine to compress the mixture until the mixture is under sufficient pressure to open a differential pressure injection valve and thereby inject the mixture directly into the engine combustion chamber. The mixture is ignited by a spark plug to drive the engine piston through its power stroke and rotate its associated crankshaft which is connected to a crankshaft of the compressor to reciprocate its piston and thereby compress the fuel and air mixture and inject it into the cylinder in timed relation with the engine piston.
May 29, 1997
Date of Patent:
February 22, 2000
Muniappan Anbarasu, William E. Galka, Martin L. Radue, Ronald H. Roche, Kevin L. Williams, Charles H. Tuckey, J. D. Tuckey, deceased
Abstract: An internal combustion engine has a fuel and air mixing device which utilizes an open bore venturi to draw fuel from the device and deliver a rich fuel and air mixture to a compressor driven by the engine for direct injection of the rich fuel and air mixture into the engine. An engine air throttle body uses an engine throttle linkage and valve to control air flow into the engine crankcase and provides a positive air pressure signal, especially at small throttle openings, to assist the metering of fuel within the fuel and air metering device. The positive air pressure signal is preferably provided by a small port in the engine air throttle body slightly downstream of the throttle valve when closed and is communicated with the fuel and air metering device to cause additional fuel to be delivered from the device.
Abstract: In a two-stroke internal combustion engine with a crank slide mechanism and a plurality of working cylinders which, have bases and are divided by a piston into a lower and an upper cylinder chamber, the lower cylinder chamber being used substantially for compression and the upper cylinder chamber being used substantially for combustion, storage cylinders are provided which can be connected to cavities such as working cylinders of the engine and processing chambers such that each adjoining cavity has at least one closable inlet opening through which an air-fuel mixture, e.g. can flow from the storage cylinder into the cavity and at least one closable outlet opening through which the mixture can flow out of the cavity into the storage chamber.
Abstract: An internal combustion engine includes a compression cylinder having an air inlet and outlet, a conduit extending from the compression cylinder air outlet, an expansion cylinder of larger diameter than the diameter of said compression cylinder and having an inlet and outlet, and a heat exchanger disposed in the conduit and having a first passageway for flowing compressed air from the compression cylinder outlet to the expansion cylinder inlet, the expansion cylinder outlet being in communication with a second passageway in the heat exchanger for flowing combustion exhaust gases from the expansion cylinder through the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger operates to heat the compressed air before entry into the expansion cylinder and to cool the exhaust gases before entry into an exhaust conduit in communication with the heat exchanger second passageway.
Abstract: The disclosed internal combustion engine comprises a single piston compressor (13) associated to each of the combustion chambers (1), said compressor sucking an air/fuel mixture and, due to the action of its discharge strokes, injects said mixture directly inside the combustion chamber (1) at an instant which is appropriately determinated by the synchronization of said compressor (13), the discharge valve (23) of the compressor being arranged inside the combustion chamber (1).
Abstract: The invention concerns a two-stroke internal-combustion engine with a charging pump, an outlet channel controlled by the main piston being subjected to additional control by the charging-pump plunger. Circulation losses are minimized and a higher means working pressure is obtained by early mechanical closure of the outlet channel by means of the charging-pump plunger or by injecting a pulse of exhaust gases into the outlet channel in the direction opposite to the direction of flow or by injecting part of the intake charge through the outlet channel into the main cylinder. In addition, the formation of oxides of nitrogen is reduced by controlled exhaust gas retention at the combustion stage. The invention also allows a catalytic converter to be used if required, since an increase in the oxygen concentration owing to circulation losses in the outlet channel is avoided.
Abstract: An engine including an assembly of at least two cylinders with different displacements and two crankshafts coupled at the same rotational speed via a gear train and a variably timed transmission having three concentric shafts separable from the drive assembly and designed to reduce the compression ratio as the intake pressure increases. The maximum and minimum compression ratios are set within the angular displacement limits between the two cylinders, and between said two cylinders and the clearance space, so that (a) the start of the variably time transmission stroke increases the translation of the piston by units of angular displacement between the two crankshafts at the end of compression phase, and (b) the end of the variably time transmission stroke combines combustion gas expansion on the piston at least from the maximum torque on the crank of the short-stroke crankshaft.
Abstract: A multi-cylinder reciprocating piston internal combustion engine is divided into a working section and a compressor section, with the working section supporting the combustion function and the compressor dedicated solely to infusion of intake charge into the working section. In a preferred embodiment, the compressor employs a conjugate drive motion translator with cycle dynamics matched to optimize compressor function. This is characterized by a displacement of crankshaft orientation from 0 degrees at top piston position. The working portion employs a conjugate drive motion converter exhibiting cycle dynamics matched to either a two, four, or diesel engine power cycle.
Abstract: An internal combustion engine having one or more modules each employing fluidly-communicating, oscillating, power cylinder and air cylinder. The power and air cylinders oscillate about separate, individually supporting sets of trunnions positioned non-linearly with respect to each other and permitting the passage of air therethrough. The air cylinder includes a pre-combustion chamber for the purpose of withholding the delivery of a portion of compressed air to the power cylinder until all spent gases have been evacuated from the power cylinder. The air in the pre-combustion chamber enhances the delivery of fuel from a fuel delivery system into the power cylinder. The power cylinder includes multiple barrels which share a common combustion chamber. Each barrel houses a reciprocating piston linked to discrete piston rods mechanically joined about a single crank throw. A separate air crank throw is linked to an air piston in the air cylinder.
Abstract: A regenerative internal combustion engine (10) is provided that includes a regenerator (65) that is capable of preheating a charge of compressed air, while not causing premature combustion of fuel. The regenerator (65), in combination with a catalyst (75), also ignites residual amounts of combustible material in exhaust gases. The catalyst (75) itself is capable of oxidizing fuel in a combustion cylinder (50) once stable combustion is achieved.
Abstract: A multi-cylinder reciprocating piston internal combustion engine is divided into a working section and a compressor section, with the working section supporting the combustion function and the compressor dedicated solely to infusion of intake charge into the working section. In a preferred embodiment, the compressor employs a scotch yoke motion translator with cycle dynamics matched to optimize compressor function. This is characterized by a displacement of crankshaft orientation from 0 degrees at top piston position. The working portion employs a scotch yoke motion converter exhibiting cycle dynamics matched to either a two, four, or diesel engine power cycle.
Abstract: A passive compressor is disclosed which includes a free piston or a flexible membrane whose movement is controlled by pressure variations in a main chamber. The pressure in the main chamber changes according to the pressure in the motor crankcase, as the main chamber is coupled to the crankcase by a crankcase transfer passage duct.As the free piston or flexible membrane moves towards the main chamber, it causes a pressure decrease in the air chamber which subsequently admits external air through an inlet valve. When the free piston or the flexible membrane moves in the direction of the air chamber, the increased pressure on the piston or membrane forces the external air into the motor cylinder, through an air transfer passage duct, and towards a port on the cylinder that is opened due to the position of the motor piston. The inlet valve prevents the loss of pressure in the air chamber. Alternatively, the main chamber may be directly attached to the motor crankcase.
Abstract: A two stroke internal combustion engine having an intake piston which feeds air to an adjacent power piston. Both the intake piston and the power piston are held in oscillating cylinder assemblies and the piston rods are integral with the pistons so that the piston rod is always in line with the piston. The cylinder assemblies are both supported by trunnions and the air from the intake cylinder assembly is fed through an opening in the center of the two trunnions between the intake cylinder assembly and the power cylinder assembly. Preferably the rod portion of the intake piston and rod assembly is shorter than the rod portion of the power piston and rod assembly.
Abstract: An internal combustion engine power unit comprises two power cylinders (3, 4) spaced equidistant about a pumping cylinder (5). All cylinders operate on two-stroke cycles, the power cylinders (3, 4) having a phase difference of 180.degree.. Power piston assemblies (13, 14) in the power cylinders (3, 4) drive crankshaft (1). Pumping piston (16) and separate crankshaft (2) are driven at twice the cyclic speed of the power pistons (13, 14) and crankshaft (1) through gear train (6, 7) between the respective crankshafts (1, 2). Air inducted into pumping cylinder (5) via intake ports (20) is compressed and passed alternately to power cylinders (3, 4) via valve controlled transfer passages (21, 24). All valves, ports and gas passages are found in a cylinder head (19). Timed fuel injection and ignition are provided. An engine may comprise one or more power units. There is also disclosed a turbo-charged diesel engine comprising two power units in "V" configuration.
Abstract: Novel reciprocating engines which feature conversion units each formed of an expansion cylinder, a compression cylinder and a passageway connecting the two. Pistons in the cylinders are preferably connected via a four-bar or other linkage to the crank so that the compression piston remains at substantially top dead center for a substantial portion of the stroke of the expansion piston, and vice versa. Communication between the cylinders via the passageway may thus be continuously open with no substantial pressure drop between cylinders. Fuel may be injected into the air or other gas moving between cylinders giving an internal combustion engine, or the gas may be heated by external means. Devices according to this concept limit peak pressure and temperatures, resulting in the formation of fewer nitrous oxides.
Abstract: A two-stroke engine with controlled pneumatic injection is disclosed, wherein at least one connecting duct joins the combustion chamber of a first cylinder to the crankcase-pump of a second cylinder. The means for controlling the injection of carburetted air into the chamber of the first cylinder comprise at least one flange fixed rigidly to the shaft of the crankcase of the engine inside the crankcase-pump of the second cylinder. The flange comprises a recess on its peripheral portion so as to be able to isolate the crankcase-pump from or place it in communication with the inner volume of the combustion chamber at given times of the engine cycle.
Abstract: A double poppet valve apparatus is mounted in a combustion chamber wall. A port is formed in the wall. A first valve member is mounted in the port. A second valve member is concentrically mounted within the first valve member. One or more resilient members are provided for urging each of the valve members into respective seated positions. The first valve member is moved in a first direction and the second valve member is moved in a second direction opposite the first direction. The valve movement is effected by a cam operably engaged with a pair of rocker arms each of which is associated with one of the valve members.
Abstract: A staged two-stroke internal combustion engine with reciprocating pistons wherein the cycle comprises a first compression of fresh air possibly followed by a cooling, a second compression of air or of mixture or the injection of fuel (Diesel version), a first expansion producing a useful work, a second expansion also producing a useful work and the exhaust of the combustible gases followed by the scavenging of the remaining gases by fresh air, the engine preferably including an odd number greater than or equal to three cylinders and allowing to increase the power output efficiency and the power-to-swept volume ratio with respect to the four-stroke internal combustion engine.
Abstract: An L-head two stroke engine comprises two pistons mounted for reciprocable movement in first and second cylinders respectively. The cranks of the two pistons are drivably connected such that the pistons are in phase. A fuel/air supply is provided for one cylinder where it is compressed and ignited causing both pistons to return to their respective bottom dead center position. The compression ratio in the one cylinder is less than in the other cylinder so as to aid retention of the air fuel mixture in the one cylinder prior to ignition.
Abstract: An air compressor, which is embodied as a single or multi-cylinder/piston compressor, and which is driven by gear wheels. The drive gear or pinion of the air compressor is disposed on the air compressor crankshaft and meshes with a gear wheel on the camshaft of an internal combustion engine. Provided on the periphery of the air compressor pinion is, for a single cylinder/piston compressor, one interval having an enlarged tooth gauge, and for a multi-cylinder/piston compressor, several such intervals, the number of which corresponds to the number of times the tangential force passes through zero during one air compressor crankshaft revolution, with the centers of the intervals being coordinated with the respective top dead center position of the air compressor piston.
Abstract: A compression ignition, internal combustion engine has at least one pair of pistons operating in separate cylinders interconnected through a transfer port. Said at least one pair of pistons includes a leading piston linked to a leading crankshaft and operating in a leading cylinder, and a trailing piston linked to a trailing crankshaft and operating in a trailing cylinder. For the purpose of varying the compression ratio, the phase relation between said leading and trailing pistons is varied by means of a phase adjustment mechanism which operatively couples the leading and trailing crankshafts of the engine. The fuel is injected into the leading cylinder by means of a centrally situated multi-hole fuel injector. The clearance volume of the trailing cylinder is at a practical minimum in order to maximize the amount of air available for combustion in the leading cylinder.
Abstract: The invention relates to an internal-combustion engine having opposed integral annular pistons and a central shaft. The piston block (1), formed by the two pistons (2, 3) exhibits, at each axial end, an axial double skirt fitted with an outer crown (9) forming the piston head proper, and an inner crown (10) forming an admission pump with an antechamber (30) radially within the corresponding annular cylinder (5), wherein the piston head (9) delimits a combustion chamber (12). Radial pawls (22), penetrating axial ports (21) of the housing (4) and radial holes (18) of the piston block (1), have their inner radial ends engaged in sinusoidal circumferential undulated grooves (20) made in an enlarged central part (19) of the central driving shaft (8) driven in rotation by the reciprocating axial movements of the piston block (1).
February 23, 1988
Date of Patent:
December 19, 1989
Aerospatiale Societe Nationale Industrielle, Societe Anonyme
Abstract: The invention is concerned with a method of deriving mechanical work from a combustion gas in an internal combustion engine and reciprocating internal combustion engines for carrying out the method. The method includes the steps of compressing an air charge in a compressor of the engine, transferring the compressed charge to a power chamber of the engine such that no appreciable drop in charge pressure occurs during transfer and admission to the power chamber, causing a predetermined quantity to produce a combustible mixture, causing the mixture to be ignited at substantially maximum pressure within the power chamber and allowing the combustion gas to expand against a piston operable in the power chamber substantially beyond its initial volume.
Abstract: An internal combustion engine adapted to be mounted on a vertical axis. The engine is preferably a two-cycle engine having a positive displacement supercharger operating on the same crankshaft as the engine and includes a flywheel mounted on double-throw arm between the bank of engine cylinders on one side and the supercharger cylinders on the other side. Provision is also made for the use of an auxiliary turbine device to use exhaust gases to augment the power developed by the engine.
Abstract: A gear drive for driving accessories such as an oil pump for a two-cycle engine (10) includes a worm member (25) mounted on the crankshaft (14) of the engine. The worm member (25), formed of a low friction plastic material such as nylon impregnated with molybdenum disulfide, engages a worm gear (24) mounted on the engine (10) to drive the oil pump (21).
Abstract: A two-stroke cycle gasoline or diesel engine having: at least two two-stroke cycle power cylinder - piston assemblies each having two horizontally opposed pistons, incorporating uniflow scavenging, and operating with a phase difference of 180.degree. relative to each other; at least one double acting scavenging pump cylinder - piston assembly which has two horizontally opposed pistons and is driven by the power cylinder - piston assemblies by way of a pair of mutually synchronized common crankshafts and crank mechanisms which connect the pistons of the power cylinder - piston assemblies and the pump cylinder - piston assembly with the common crankshafts, wherein the crank radius of the common crankshafts with respect to the pump cylinder - piston assembly is substantially smaller than that with respect to the power cylinder - piston assemblies.
Abstract: A two-stroke cycle gasoline engine, comprising a power cylinder-piston assembly having a scavenging port configuration including a first scavenging port configuration first uncovered by the power piston as it moves along the power cylinder from its top dead center to its bottom dead center and a second scavenging port configuration uncovered by the power piston as it moves from its top dead center to its bottom dead center immediately after said power piston has completed uncovering the first scavenging port configuration, wherein the general rate relative to piston position in the power cylinder of uncovering of the area of the first scavenging port configuration is substantially lower than that of the second scavenging port configuration, so that the idling and low-load performance of the engine is substantially improved by improving scavenging.
Abstract: Disclosed is an internal combustion engine including a flywheel pulley connected to a crankshaft, a governor drive pulley, and a cooling liquid pump drive pulley with belt means driveably connecting the flywheel pulley, the governor drive pulley and the pump drive pulley.In one embodiment of this invention, the belt means is a belt and the flywheel pulley, the governor drive pulley, the pump drive pulley, an idler pulley and the flywheel pulley are driveably connected in series. The engine includes a cooling liquid system, a fan connected to the cooling liquid pump and a radiator adjacent the fan. The engine is a two-stroke engine and the engine crankshaft is in a vertical position. The flywheel is rotatable about a first axis and the governor drive pulley and the idler pulley are coaxial about a second axis at a right angle to the first axis, and the cooling liquid pump is rotatable abut an axis extending perpendicular to the first and second axes.
Abstract: An internal combustion engine having at least one working cylinder which has a combustion chamber, a working piston which is connected to a crankshaft, and an inlet nozzle for the supply of fuel. Associated with the working cylinder is an auxiliary cylinder having an auxiliary chamber and an auxiliary piston which moves back and forth and is forcibly controlled in the working cycle of the working piston. The auxiliary piston compresses preferably precompressed combustion air to the compression pressure necessary for spontaneous ignition. The auxiliary chamber is constantly in open communication with the combustion chamber by means of an intermediate space during the entire working cycle of the engine. The inlet nozzle for the supply of fuel opens into the intermediate space, and the inlet nozzle is controlled in the working cycle of the auxiliary piston.
Abstract: A two-stroke cycle gasoline engine including at least one two-stroke cycle power cylinder-piston assembly incorporating uniflow scavenging and two horizontally opposed pistons and two crankcases to perform crankcase compression, and at least one scavenging pump cylinder-piston assembly of the reciprocating type, wherein the power assembly has main and additional scavenging ports; the pump assembly has a first delivery port which supplies scavenging mixture to one of the crankcases of the power assembly and a second delivery port which supplies scavenging mixture directly to the additional scavenging port, the main scavenging port being supplied with scavenging mixture from the crankcases, wherein the top dead center of the pump assembly is, as viewed in the crank angle diagram, between the bottom dead center and the main scavenging port closing phase point of the power assembly, and wherein a means is provided so as to interrupt the supply of scavenging mixture from the first delivery port of the pump assembl
Abstract: A two-stroke cycle gasoline engine including at least one two-stroke cycle uniflow scavenging power cylinder-piston assembly which has a scavenging port configuration which consists of first, second, and third scavenging port configurations which are successively uncovered by the power piston as it moves from its top dead center to its bottom dead center, wherein the first scavenging port configuration has a substantially smaller opening area than the second or the third scavenging port configuration, and the first and the second scavenging port configurations give substantially stronger swirl to fuel-air mixture discharged therefrom than the third scavenging port configuration, which gives substantially no swirl to fuel-air mixture discharged therefrom, and the first and second port configurations are closed when the engine is operating at relatively low load above idling and below a predetermined delivery ratio, such as 0.4.
Abstract: A two-stroke cycle gasoline engine including at least one two-stroke cycle power cylinder-piston assembly adopting uniflow scavenging and incorporating two horizontally opposed pistons, and at least one scavenging pump cylinder-piston assembly of the reciprocating type with or without having crankcase compression, wherein the total stroke volume of the scavenging pump means is 1.35 to 1.85 times as large as that of the power cylinder-piston assembly, and the operational phase of the pump cylinder-piston assembly is shifted from that of the power cylinder-piston assembly by an angle of 180.degree. or a little more.
Abstract: A two-stroke cycle gasoline engine including at least one two-stroke cycle power cylinder - piston assembly incorporating uniflow scavenging and two horizontally opposed pistons, and a scavenging structure which gives zero or a relatively weak swirl to the scavenging mixture ejected into the power cylinder so as to effect stratified scavenging of exhaust gases when the engine is operating at relatively low load and which gives a relatively strong swirl to the scavenging mixture ejected into the power cylinder so as to cause high turbulence in the mixture when the engine is operating at relatively high load.
Abstract: A two-stroke cycle diesel engine having at least one two-stroke cycle power cylinder-piston assembly incorporating uniflow scavenging and having two horizontally opposed pistons, at least first and second scavenging ports and two crankcases which may perform crankcase compression; a pump assembly including at least one scavenging pump cylinder-piston assembly of the reciprocating type which is separate from and is driven by the power cylinder-piston assembly; a scavenging air introducing device which introduces scavenging air compressed by the pump assembly to the first and the second scavenging ports through first and second passage systems, respectively; and a fume generating device incorporated in the second passage system and supplying fuel mist in an initial part of the air supplied through the second passage system; wherein the fume is supplied as stratified with exhaust gases so as to be heated by the exhaust gases toward decomposition and then the first passage system is interrupted before the pump as
Abstract: A two-stroke cycle diesel engine having: at least one two-stroke cycle power cylinder - piston assembly incorporating uniflow scavenging and having two horizontally opposed pistons, at least first and second scavenging ports and two crankcases which may perform crankcase compression; a pump assembly including at least one scavenging pump cylinder - piston assembly of the reciprocating type which is separate from and is driven by the power cylinder - piston assembly; and a scavenging air introducing device which introduces scavenging air compressed by the pump assembly to the first and the second scavenging ports through first and second passage systems, respectively; wherein the first passage system is interrupted before the pump assembly reaches its top dead center so that thereafter the scavenging air compressed by the pump assembly is all supplied to the second scavenging port which is adapted to generate strong swirl flows in the power cylinder when scavenging air at high pressure is supplied in a large a
Abstract: An internal combustion engine is disclosed. The engine includes a power cylinder, a power piston reciprocating therein and being connected to a rotating output crank. A free floating double acting auxiliary piston reciprocates within an auxiliary cylinder. Passages connect the upper end of the auxiliary cylinder to a combustion chamber and a source of air. The exhaust from the combustion chamber is connected to the underside of the auxiliary piston through a valved passage. A return cylinder and a cushioning cylinder are coaxially aligned with the auxiliary cylinder at opposite ends thereof and open therein. Elongated pistons extend from the auxiliary piston and into the return cylinder and cushioning cylinder during reciprocation of the auxiliary piston. A gas transfer passage connects the return cylinder with the exhaust from the combustion chamber.
Abstract: A double acting Diesel cycle hot gas engine comprising a plurality of engine cylinders, each having a free piston unit adapted to perform work, providing a continuous flow of compressed air to an energy consumption source and to a storage tank connected therewith. The free piston unit includes an air compression piston and a power piston, spaced apart from each other and adapted to move together within each respective engine cylinder through a connecting rod extended therebetween in response to the movement of a working medium under a substantially constant pressure acting against one side of the power piston and to the pressure and expansive power generated by the burning gases of an air fuel mixture acting on the opposite side of said power piston. Cycle control means are provided to release the potential energy accumulated within the working medium which is initially used to drive the power piston to compress the air fuel mixture and thus, initiating the operative cycle of the engine.
Abstract: A two-stroke cycle gasoline engine including at least one two-stroke power cylinder-piston assembly incorporating uniflow scavenging and two horizontally opposed pistons, and at least one scavenging pump cylinder-piston assembly of the reciprocating type, wherein the total stroke volume of the scavenging pump assembly is 1.15-1.65 times as large as that of the power cylinder-piston assembly, and the operational phase relation between the power and pump cylinder-piston assemblies is so determined that the top dead center of a pump cylinder-piston assembly is, as viewed in the crank angle diagram, in a range between 15.degree. in advance of and 15.degree. behind the midpoint between the bottom dead center and the scavenging port closing phase point of the power cylinder-piston assembly to which the pump cylinder-piston assembly supplies scavenging mixture.
Abstract: A split four-cycle engine in which the cylinders are arranged in pairs. The intake and compression strokes take place in one cylinder. The power and exhaust strokes take place in the other cylinder. The cylinders are connected by a passageway which is controlled by valves. The valves permit gases which are compressed in one cylinder to be transferred to the second cylinder where they can be burned to produce power. The pistons in the two cylinders are connected to separate cranks. These cranks are connected by a set of differential gears in a manner which will cause any change in the angular position of the rotor of the gears to change the phase relation between the cranks. This will be converted into a change in the compression ratio of the engine in a manner which will be described in detail later.
Abstract: A two-stroke combustion engine with intake and exhaust ports which are indirectly or directly controllable in accordance with the reciprocating motion of a working piston in a cylinder space, wherein at one side of the piston there is a working chamber accessible to an ignition device and connectible to an outlet, and at the other side of the piston there is a compression chamber, and wherein there is associated with the working piston at least a second auxiliary piston functioning as a compression piston, which operates in a compression chamber at least in a single acting mode.