Abstract: There is disclosed an asphalt extracting apparatus of the Soxhlet type in which a solvent evaporated from a flask is condensed by a cooling device and then dropped into the inside of a filter device such that asphalt in an asphalt mixture inside the filter device is extracted through the filter device. With the flask and the filter device covered with a thermally insulating case, the flask and the filter device are heated and thermally insulated by the heat of a gas burner. To lower the boiling point of the solvent in the flask, each of the flask, the filter device and the cooling device is decompressed by a decompression device.
Abstract: A quantitative enrichment of volatile compounds from substances of the macro- to submicro field in a short time is realized by capillary distillation in a system which includes an evaporator vessel, on the bottom of which one or more filter plates are provided and which is connected to a condensing vessel by means of a capillary tube. The presence of filter plate(s) guarantees a uniform and constant boiling which facilitates the quantitative isolation of the volatile compounds.
Abstract: A splash shield for the boiler of a distillation type water purification apparatus includes at least two grades of porous media which cooperatively inhibit bubble formation and splashing, thereby preventing transfer of contaminants from the boiler water to the upper, interior surfaces of the boiler and into the distilled, contaminant free water. A first porous media is open cell reticulated foam having relatively large cells. Typically, at least a portion of the open cell foam is disposed above the operating liquid level of the boiler. The second porous media is fabric or screen having pores preferably smaller than about one thousand microns. The screen is disposed above the liquid level of the boiler. The open cell foam inhibits bubble production and breaks down bubbles and the screen intercepts drops and droplets that might otherwise travel to, contact and contaminate the upper boiler chamber surfaces and output to a condenser.
Abstract: Distilling tube apparatus for converting salt water such as sea water into fresh water is provided. The apparatus includes a first tube through which a feed stream of heated salt water is caused to flow, the first tube being constructed of a porous material which is both water-vapor permeable and liquid water impermeable, which tube allows water vapor to permeate through its walls thereof when heated salt water flows therethrough, the vapor then condensing outside of the first tube upon cooling of the vapor thereat. This first tube is preferably constructed of porous, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. A second tube oriented in generally parallel relationship and in close proximity to the first tube is provided through which cooling water is caused to flow. The cooling water is maintained at a temperature lower than that of the heated salt water, thereby resulting in a lowering of the temperature of the surroundings of the second tube and providing an enhanced driving force for distillation of the salt water.
Abstract: Apparatus for breaking or separating a liquid mixture or emulsion having two or more components. The apparatus includes a closed vessel having one or more sequentially connected filtering compartments holding a filtering element such as a membrane assembly capable of achieving a multi-stage pervaporation to separate out a vaporous component of the solution. The apparatus further includes a bypass facility which interconnects adjacent filtering compartments. To compensate for the loss of heat energy during the vaporization segments, the residual liquid solution is bypassed into a second vaporization phase, the bypass facility including heating means for maintaining the residual solution of a predetermined liquid temperature prior to its entering the second or subsequent filtering phase.
September 8, 1993
Date of Patent:
August 29, 1995
David Tuohey, Craig R. Bartels, Vatsal M. Shah
Abstract: In a method for producing fresh water using solar energy, the method involving the use of an installation comprising a structure oriented toward the sun and permeable to solar radiation, forming a greenhouse including a preheating and reheating chamber and an evaporation chamber into which water containing impurities is introduced to be evaporated by the indirect influence of the solar radiation in the air trapped under the structure, the air being conveyed to a temperature exchanger such that the vapors carried thereby will be condensed and collected, the improvement comprising evaporation of the water containing impurities on mounds of capillary material scattered and distributed over the entire span of the evaporation chamber.
Abstract: A microdistillation method for the quantitative steam distillation of cyanide, phenolic compounds, hydrogen fluoride, ammonia, sulfites and other volatile analyte compounds from samples of environmental waters and sludge for their subsequent analysis involves volatilizing the water in the sample tube of a microdistillation column. The pressure which develops due to the water vapor forces all volatile compounds from the water sample, including the water itself, through a hydrophobic membrane and into the collector tube of the microdistillation column. The volatile compounds and the water vapor condense in the cooler collector tube and are quantitatively trapped and retained over the membrane. Relatively small samples may be distilled.
Abstract: A distillation apparatus includes a distillation unit for distilling feed water. The distillation unit includes an evaporation part, a condensation part and a hydrophobic porous membrane interposed between the evaporation part and the condensation part, which are integrated with one another. A heating unit for heating the feed water and a cooling portion for cooling distillate produced by distillation of the feed water are provided apart from the distillation unit. One or both of the heating unit and the cooling unit are provided with a heat pump. With this construction, an additional heater does not need to be provided, and the distillation unit and both of the heating unit and the cooling unit can be changed in size and performance independently of each other, so that the overall size of the distillation apparatus can be reduced.
Abstract: A liquid evaporating apparatus includes a liquid inlet 1 to which an evaporator 2 is connected which incorporates a gas inlet 28 and gas flow channels defined by vapor-permeable hydrophobic walls 23, 24, 25, 26. The apparatus may be used to moisturize air in a room, in which case it is configured to circulate room air through the evaporator and to discharge vaporized liquid through the output side 22 of the evaporator and into the room. Alternatively, the apparatus may be used to cleanse liquid, in which case it includes a condensing chamber 3 connected to the output side of the evaporator. The apparatus will also include a closed gas loop 4 which is located between the output side and the input side 21 of the evaporator and which incorporates a fan 5 for transporting a vapor-gas mixture continuously to the condensing chamber.
Abstract: An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.
Abstract: An apparatus for distilling corrosive compounds under high temperatures, which would include primary vessel chamber, having a first interior annular wall lined with a loose polymer, such as PTFE (or TEFLON), a second annular wall exterior to the first annular wall, and defining an annular space between the interior and the exterior wall; a somewhat rigid porous material for supporting the interior PTFE liner positioned along the interior wall of the vessel; device for drawing air out of the annular space between interior and exterior walls, for creating a vacuum at the annular space, so that the PTFE liner is supported firmly against the somewhat rigid porous support member; next, a second means for drawing air out of the interior of the vessel for creating a vacuum therewithin so that a pressure equilibrium is established between the interior of the vessel and the annular space, and a corrosive material can be heated in the vessel chamber under the vacuum, and the liner be maintained flush against the wall o
Abstract: A distillation system has a degassing tank, a distiller for generating vapor of raw water taken from the degassing tank, a heater for heating the vapor from the distiller to convert the vapor into a high temperature and pressure vapor, a hydrophobic porous membrane through which the vapor from the heater flows, and a heat transfer unit provided in the distiller for effecting heat exchange between the vapor from the membrane member and the raw water from the degassing tank. The structural elements such as the heat exchange unit, piping, etc., with which the vapor from the membrane or the condensate thereof is brought into contact are made of titanium or titanium alloy.
Abstract: An improved process and apparatus for producing concentrated kaolin slurries and spray dried kaolin particulates through the use of an arrangement where a system for producing concentrated slurries is coupled with a spray dryer such that off gases from the spray dryer are used to supply heat energy to the spray dryer and to the slurry concentrating system.
Abstract: The invention relates to a device for the recovery of a processed liquid in the form of a condensate from a liquid to be processed by evaporation and condensation, having at least one first flow region which is provided in a working space for the development of a first sheetlike flow of the liquid to be processed and at least one condensing surface, adjacent to the first flow region and cooler in temperature than the first flow, for liquid evaporated at the first flow region.The invention is characterized in that a second flow region is adjacent to the at least one first flow region in the common working space for the development of a sheetlike second flow, and in that the condensing surface is formed of the surface of the liquid of the at least one second flow region.
February 4, 1991
Date of Patent:
May 18, 1993
Institut fur Entwicklung und Forschung Dr. Vielberth KG
Abstract: Apparatus are set forth for particularly dehydrating products such as corn syrups, fruit and vegetable extracts, dairy products, or other temperature-sensitive or hard-to-handle products. The apparatus include using a pulse combustor to generate a hot, turbulent, gaseous environment in a dehydration chamber and spraying the feedstock into the chamber. As the feedstock droplets travel through the chamber, they are dehydrated and thereafter collected by suitable devices. Temperature and feedstock residence time in the chamber are controlled to prevent product degradation. Where the dehydrated product is hygroscopic, processing aids may be added to control hygroscopicity.
January 23, 1989
Date of Patent:
May 11, 1993
Purdue Research Foundation, JSDC, Ltd.
Alexander J. Shaw, Jay S. Marks, Hayes E. Gahagan
Abstract: The method of preparing and operating a heat-exchanging membrane of plastic material as the evaporating and condensing surfaces in a still includes treating the evaporating surface to be wettable by the distilland, and includes selectively washing the condensing surface which is unwettable by the by the distilland in order to promote efficient accumulation of condensed droplets and efficient heat transfer through the membrane to the evaporation surface. Washing liquids of either similar or disimilar chemical composition relative to the condensed vapor are recycled to the upper region of the condensing surface to facilitate washing of the surface by the downward movement of accumulated droplets of condensed vapor.
Abstract: A preparation membrane for pervaporation which comprises a crosslinked reaction mixture of a polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl alcohol copolymer and a polystyrene sulfonic acid or polystyrene sulfonic acid copolymer. A method for separating a mixture of water and an organic compound by using the membrane is also disclosed.
August 25, 1987
Date of Patent:
October 22, 1991
Director-General, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
Abstract: Apparatus for treating living wastewater which purifies water to be treated such as living miscellaneous wastewater in general homes, human waste, urban drains and the like to evaporate and emanate the treated water into the atmosphere.The apparatus comprises a treating vessel for treating wastewater which is water to be treated, a sludge separating sediment layer filled into said treating vessel, a wastewater introducing pipe for introducing wastewater into said treating vessel, and a capillary suction type evaporation and emanation unit for evaporating and emanating the treated water into the atmosphere.
Abstract: The present invention relates to a technique of concentrating waste water whereby the water content of the waste water is removed with a high decontamination factor, employs a porous membrane having a property allowing gas such as steam to permeate but not allowing a liquid such as water to do, as a membrane for concentrating the waste water, and adopts a method wherein the waste water is turned into a vapor flow and this vapor flow is made to contact the porous membrane so as for the waste water to be concentrated on the occasion when the waste water is to be concentrated by means of this porous membrane. By turning the waste water into the vapor flow, most of various metal ions, a surfactant, etc. existing in the waste water are separated from the vapor flow. Mist, metal ions in the mist and others contained in the vapor flow are removed by the aforesaid porous membrane from the steam while permeating the same.
Abstract: A microdistillation column for the quantitative steam distillation of cyanide, phenolic compounds, hydrogen fluoride, ammonia, sulfites and other volatile analyte compounds from samples of environmental waters and sludge for their subsequent analysis involves volatilizing the water in the sample tube of the microdistillation column. The pressure which develops due to the water vapor forces all volatile compounds from the water sample, including the water itself, through a hydrophobic membrane and into the collector tube of the microdistillation column. The volatile compounds and the water vapor condense in the cooler collector tube and are quantitatively trapped and retained over the membrane. Relatively small samples may be distilled in the column.
Abstract: A spray drying chamber with a head section and a heat-resistant porous membrane, the porous membrane being detachable and the head section being displaceable vertically, whereby microdrops are sprayed into a spray drying chamber together with hot air, and whereby the microdrops are dried momentarily and a fine powder is produced.
Abstract: A distilling apparatus includes an evaporation section which heats raw water and causes the generation of vapor from said raw water, and a hydrophobic porous film through which the thus generated vapor is filtered. Because vapor separated from the raw water is supplied to one surface of the hydrophobic porous film, the proportion of the vapor relative to the fluid supplied to that surface of the film can be increased, thereby enabling the efficient filtering of a large amount of vapor through the film. In addition, because the temperature of condensed water obtained by cooling the vapor can be kept in the vicinity of the boiling point thereof, any gases and volatile substances contained in the raw water are prevented from dissolving in the distilled water, thereby enabling the production of extremely pure distilled water.
Abstract: The spray drying process and the apparatus therefor, of the present invention use a spray drying chamber formed by a heat-resistant porous membrane. Said porous membrane enables rapid separation of a discharge gas and a produced powder and accordingly total recovery of the produced powder from the spray drying chamber. Therefore, there occurs no nonuniformity in product composition; cleaning and blowing-off of adhered fine powder can be conducted rapidly and easily even in frequent product changes inevitable with a less grade larger quantity production system; as a result, a fine powder of higher quality and higher purity can be produced.
Abstract: A method for the in situ decontamination of underground water containing -volatile contaminants comprising continuously contacting in situ underground water containing non-volatile contaminants with a liquid-absorbent material possessing high capillary activity, allowing the non-volatile contaminants to deposit in the material while the water moves upwardly through the material by capillary action, allowing substantially decontaminated water to be volatilized by impinging solar radiation, and then allowing the volatilized water to escape from the material into the atmosphere.
January 21, 1988
Date of Patent:
November 21, 1989
The United States of America as represented by The Department of Energy
Abstract: In a method and arrangement for separating a liquid mixture or a solution by converting a portion of the liquid mixture or portion of a solvent of the solution into a vapor phase and subsequent condensation of the obtained vapor with a porous separating wall, the pores of the porous separating wall are acted upon by a gas or gas mixture supplied through the pores of the porous separating wall in a counterstream to the vapor.
Abstract: An apparatus for desalinating sea water, comprising a distillation unit which includes a porous hydrophobic membrane which is pervious to steam but impervious to water, and a condensation surface arranged at a distance from the membrane, the distillation arrangement also including a first unit for heating and conducting the water to be distilled on one side of the membrane, and a second unit arranged to conduct a liquid which is colder than the water, on the side of the condensation surface remote from the membrane, distilled water being collected and drawn-off between the membrane and the condensation surface.
Abstract: A system for diaphragm distillation of a liquid, for example for desalination of salt water, comprising a diaphragm, through which vapor, but not liquid can pass, and a condensation surface for condensing vapor having passed through the diaphragm, and necessary passageways. According to the invention, the system comprises one or several units, each of which comprises a plurality of pipes located one within the other, viz. a first (1) inner pipe, a second (2) pipe located outside thereof and consisting of a diaphragm of the aforesaid kind, and a third (3) pipe located outside the second (2) pipe, which first (1) and third (3) pipes are of a gas-tight material, that said unit is surrounded by a fourth (4) gas-tight pipe, where a first (5) passageway is formed by the first (1) pipe and a second (6), a third (7) and a fourth (8) passageway are formed between said pipes (1,2;2,3;3,4) in successive order in the direction from the inside outward.
Abstract: Apparatus for increasing the air/water interface of a body of liquid to increase vaporization that consists of a suction pick-up feeding liquid to a supply conduit which, in turn, is connected to a feeder pipe which distributes water down over an aeration assembly that is disposed proximate the body of liquid. The aeration assembly consists of a plurality of specialized cellular fiber panels arranged in any of a stationary linear array, rotatable radial array or horizontal spaced stack that are optimally wetted with the liquid to maximize contact with surrounding air.
Abstract: A starting solution is concentrated to a desired end solution by contacting the starting solution with a gaseous medium under the conditions that the heat content of the starting solution in contact with the gaseous medium is smaller than the heat content of the medium, and the duration of contacting is such that most of the solution that evaporates does so under conditions of constant enthalpy. When the starting solution is a brine, and the gaseous medium is air whose relative humidity is less than the relative humidity at the air/brine interface, the brine can be sprayed into the air to form a shower of droplets within which heat and vapor transfer take place during the transit time of the droplets in the air. When the ratio of droplets to air is sufficiently small, the heat content of the droplets is much smaller than the heat content of the air.
Abstract: A finely atomized liquid is projected in a stream and dried by contact with drying gas. The drying gas is projected in turbulent flow from opposite sides of the stream such flow being distributed along the length of the stream. The material may be atomized and projected by a jet of gas issuing from a nozzle, and the drying gas may be projected around the jet so that the drying gas meets the entrainment demand of the jet, thereby preventing recirculation of gases outside the jet.
Abstract: A system is provided for use adjacent a plant supporting material to be irrigated, for converting salt water into fresh water and dispensing the fresh water dripwise to the plant supporting material. The system comprises an evaporator member made of microporous hydrophobic material and having first and second surfaces, the microporous hydrophobic material permitting water vapor to diffuse through the member between the first and second surfaces thereof while preventing liquid water from passing therethrough, and a condenser including a condensing surface is spaced from the second surface of the evaporator member to define a gap therebetween. The condensing surface is in liquid flow communication with the plant supporting material to be irrigated. A conduit is provided for conducting a flow of salt water along the first surface of the evaporator members.
Abstract: Method and apparatus for distilling a liquid mixture to separate a volatile vapor fraction therefrom. The liquid is forced to flow along a meander-like path through a plurality of concentrically arranged chambers of a rotating drum. In the radially outermost chamber, a heating unit is provided which brings the liquid to a boiling temperature to allow formation of vapor. The liquid thus freed of volatile constituents is then discharged from the outermost chamber in which the liquid is subjected to a maximum centrifugal acceleration while the vapor moves radially inwardly under the action of the centripetal force to the innermost chamber from where the vapor containing volatile constituents is discharged.
April 5, 1985
Date of Patent:
May 19, 1987
Fried. Krupp Gesellschaft mit beschrankter Haftung
Abstract: A thermopervaporation apparatus comprising a microporous membrane which is impervious to liquids while readily allowing the vapor to pass therethrough, the passage of a hot feed solution situated on one side of said microporous membrane, a porous spacer disposed on at least part of the other side of said microporous membrane, and a heat-transmission wall disposed on said spacer, in such a manner that the vapor of the component to be separated from the feed solution permeates said membrane, diffuses to said heat-transmission wall through said spacer and is cooled on said heat-transmission wall to form a condensate which is withdrawn through said spacer, thereby improving a yield of the condensate.
Abstract: An apparatus for concentrating a dilute solution comprising a heat receiving thin plate which has a good thermal conductivity and is provided on its rear surface not facing a heat source with a liquid absorbing layer for absorbing a solution supplied thereto for concentration, and at least one condensation thin plate which has a good thermal conductivity and is provided with a liquid absorbing layer on at least one surface thereof, the heat receiving plate and the condensation plate or plates being arranged in parallel spaced relationship with each other and each of them being partly formed with at least one groove for supplying the solution to be concentrated to the liquid absorbing layers. A dilute solution supplied to and impregnated in the liquid absorbing layers through the grooves is concentrated by the heat supplied to the heat receiving plate or the latent heat of condensation released to the condensation plate.
Abstract: A wastewater purification and recycling apparatus is provided comprising means for introducing wastewater having a relatively high concentration of impurities from an industrial process into a boiler used to generate working steam for an industrial purpose, heating the wastewater in the boiler to produce a steam component and a precipitated impurity component, using the steam component for the industrial purpose, condensing the steam component as it is used for the industrial purpose to produce water and selectively recycling the water for use in the industrial process and/or boiler while periodically removing the accumulated impurity component from the boiler.
Abstract: A method of manufacturing table salt effectively containing an efficient amount of the minerals from the sea water by using not fuel or electric energy but natural energy only. The method comprising the steps of infiltrating and flowing down the sea water from a hollow tower made of liquid permeable materials and producing primary salt water adding raw salt thereto to cause low solubility components to be separated and precipitated leaving residual salt water, and evaporating the moisture from said residual salt water at ambient temperature and humidity to produce table salt.
Abstract: An apparatus for concentrating a liquid solution comprises a plurality of spaced-apart plates arranged for rotation about a substantially horizontal axis; means for supplying solution to the surfaces of said plates, said surfaces being arranged to be exposed to heat and/or flowing gas for vaporizing a readily vaporizable constituent from the solution passed to the surfaces of said plates; and means for collecting concentrated products. The plates are provided with an outer layer of open-pore porous material having the ability to absorb solution; and the radially inner regions of said outer layers extend into a storage space for solution to be concentrated, said storage space being shielded from the outer-layer parts exposed to said heat and/or said gas by means of shielding means.