With Thermal Expansion Compensating Means Patents (Class 165/DIG17)
  • Patent number: 6091061
    Abstract: The invention relates to a system for reducing radial leaks in an air heater for thermal equipment, the heater being of the type including a rotor fitted with a plurality of heater elements supported by diaphragms, a stator constituted by a leakproof metal case, and radial sealing means including hinged sector plates positioned over the heater elements together with radial gaskets provided on the diaphragms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2000
    Assignee: Alstom Energy Systems SA
    Inventors: Philippe Dreisler, Paul Francin, Jean-Claude Semedard
  • Patent number: 5660226
    Abstract: A rotary regenerative air preheater having a rotor mounted to a central rotor post for rotation within a surrounding housing whereby heat absorbent material carried in the rotor is alternately exposed to a flow of heating gas and a gas to be heated. Upper and lower rotor post headers provide means for mounting diaphragms, which divide the rotor into compartments, to the rotor post. The upper rotor post header includes an interior opening for receiving the rotor and an outer peripheral portion having a plurality of circumferentially spaced T-shaped slots. The upper portion of the inboard end of each diaphragm defines a box-shaped lug which is received in one of the slots. Shoulders defined by the lug engage shoulders defined by the slots to prevent radial movement of the diaphragm. The lower rotor post header is mounted to the rotor and includes a radially extending lower portion that defines a shelf.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 26, 1997
    Assignee: ABB Air Preheater, Inc.
    Inventor: Harlan E. Finnemore
  • Patent number: 4476918
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided in a chemical heat pipe for shifting the reaction equilibrium in order to operate at a "shifted" temperature without also "shifting" the pressure. A diluent is added to the heat pipe in a constant-pressure manner near a reaction zone. The diluent exists in the gaseous phase at the reaction zone so as to shift the reaction equilibrium. This has the effect of "shifting" the temperature required for the reaction to proceed to a predetermined extent. The diluent is chemically inert in the particular reacting system and is removed from the system so as not to increase the pressure therein. In a preferred embodiment, methylcyclohexane is dissociated by endothermic reaction at a heat source position to form toluene and hydrogen and water is added to the heat pipe at or near the heat source position to form a diluent of water vapor at the reaction zone. The diluent is removed from the system downstream of the reaction zone, as by a desiccant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 16, 1984
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventor: Arthur S. Kesten
  • Patent number: 4455998
    Abstract: There is provided a solar collector comprising an evacuated transparent envelope having an absorber arranged therewithin. A duct containing a heat-transport medium is arranged at least partially within such envelope and is so associated with the absorber that heat derived from incident solar radiation is transferred to the heat-transport medium in the duct during operation. A reversible heatable hydrogen getter consisting of a partial metal hydride is positioned in the envelope, together with a fully hydrogenized metal hydride thermally more stable and having a higher affinity for oxygen than the partial hydride.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1981
    Date of Patent: June 26, 1984
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventors: Wiggert Kroontje, Gijsbert Kuus
  • Patent number: 4436539
    Abstract: Air-conditioning is carried out using a "hydrogen heat pump" driven by waste heat. The hydrogen heat pump includes at least two and preferably four units, wherein hydrogen passes between low-temperature and high-temperature porous metal hydride compacts, each unit having a pair of heat exchangers associated therewith.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1981
    Date of Patent: March 13, 1984
    Assignee: Technion Research and Development Foundation Ltd.
    Inventors: Moshe Ron, Matvei Kleiner, Uri Navon
  • Patent number: 4402915
    Abstract: A metal hydride reactor including at least one sealed chamber, the chamber being divided into two compartments by a partitioning wall made of a material permeable to hydrogen gas but impermeable to metal hydrides, the compartments containing different metal hydrides. In one embodiment, the metal hydride reactor including a sealed vessel rotatable about a central shaft, the vessel being divided into a plurality of sealed chambers by at least one sealing wall along a plane containing the central shaft and extending diametrically thereof, each of the sealed chambers being divided into two compartments by a partitioning wall made of a material permeable to hydrogen gas but impermeable to metal hydrides, the compartments containing different metal hydrides, and each of the compartments having a heat conducting surface facing exteriorly thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 1981
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1983
    Assignee: Sekisui Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Tomoyoshi Nishizaki, Kanzi Oguma, Katsuyoshi Sakagami, Ken Yoshida
  • Patent number: 4402187
    Abstract: Discloses a hydrogen compressor having two series of chambers or hydride containers specifically located in a pair of jackets adapted to contain flowing heat exchange liquid, e.g. water. The series of chambers are connected through a check valve arrangement and flow of hot and cold water through said jackets is controlled by a timing means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1983
    Assignee: MPD Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Peter M. Golben, Matthew J. Rosso, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4345915
    Abstract: In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 24, 1982
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Himanshu B. Vakil, Philip G. Kosky
  • Patent number: 4332139
    Abstract: The invention provides a novel method for the storage and recovery of thel energy by utilizing a medium substance for the storage of heat. The medium substance is a liquid complex of sodium iodide and ammonia, which absorbs heat as latent heat when brought under a reduced partial pressure of ammonia to effect liberation of ammonia and releases the thermal energy as sensible heat when brought under an increased partial pressure of ammonia to absorb ammonia. Different from conventional solid medium substances for storage of heat, the liquid medium proposed is very convenient in handling so that a chemical heat pump with simple structure can be contrived by use of the inventive method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 1979
    Date of Patent: June 1, 1982
    Assignee: The Director-General of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
    Inventors: Ichiro Fujiwara, Totaro Goto
  • Patent number: 4330084
    Abstract: A heating power plant and a process for operating the power plant with the power plant containing a thermal power installation for producing mechanical motive energy for driving an energy supply device as well as waste heat which may be utlized for heating purposes in the power plant. The thermal power installation may be shut down or operated at slight partial loads during periods of low energy needs with hydrogen being introduced into a metal hydride storage device which is capable of absorbing hydrogen. At times of higher energy need the thermal power installation is kept in operation under greater load conditions and hydrogen is removed from a metal hydride storage device which is capable of releasing such hydrogen. The release enthalpy required for releasing the hydrogen is provided by waste heat from the thermal power installation or by ambient air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1979
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1982
    Assignee: Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Helmut Buchner, Otto Bernauer
  • Patent number: 4309980
    Abstract: Closed heat transfer system including a body of water in a first container, a body of aluminum compound in a second container and a conduit connecting the containers, the system being operative in a first step to evaporate water from the first container to cool it by withdrawing heat of vaporization which is supplied to the water at relatively low temperature and to react the water vapor with the aluminum compound in the second container to generate heat at relatively high temperature and to combine with the water so that the water vapor pressure remains low and water continues to evaporate from the body of water for continued cooling, and the system operating in a second stage by supply of heat to the reaction products of the water and aluminum compound to restore the aluminum compound to its initial condition by driving off water which is condensed and returned to the body of water in the first container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1982
    Assignee: Thermal Energy Storage, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard A. McCormack, Eric A. Jensen
  • Patent number: 4270360
    Abstract: A device for the storage of hydrogen, comprising a container, two porous plates opposed parallelly to each other across a fixed distance and fastened to the inner wall of the container, heating/cooling members disposed one each outside the porous plates and separated by a fixed distance from the corresponding porous plates, and an alloy capable of storing hydrogen placed in the spaces formed between the porous plates and the heating/cooling members.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1980
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1981
    Assignees: Agency of Industrial Science & Technology, Ministry of International Trade & Industry
    Inventors: Masanori Nakane, Yasuaki Osumi, Hiroshi Suzuki, Aakihiko Kato
  • Patent number: 4262739
    Abstract: An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 1979
    Date of Patent: April 21, 1981
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Department of Energy
    Inventors: Dieter M. Gruen, Paul R. Fields
  • Patent number: 4244148
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for air-conditioning a greenhouse or the like for the cultivation of plants, due to the solar energy which is picked up during the day, wherein isothermic containers are disposed inside the greenhouse, which contain a body of which the melting temperature is between 10.degree. and 20.degree. C., so that, during the day, when the temperature inside the greenhouse exceeds said melting temperature, said body melts, absorbing calories and cooling the atmosphere of the greenhouse and, during the night, when the temperature becomes lower than said melting temperature, said body solidifies, releasing the latent heat of solidification.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1979
    Date of Patent: January 13, 1981
    Assignee: Association pour la Recherche et le Developpement des Methodes et Processus Industriels (A.R.M.I.N.E.S.)
    Inventors: Francoise M. Chabanon, Henri J. Royer
  • Patent number: 4206745
    Abstract: A solar operated chemical heat pump useful in both the heating and cooling modes. This system includes an insulated tank containing a fluid which is heated from the exterior. A heat sink in the form of a second tank is also employed. A water-ammonia solution is present in each tank, and conduit means are provided for respectively conducting the vapor of each tank into a bubble plate or similar structure of the remaining tank, this for effecting a thorough dispersion of incoming vapor into the liquid of the respective tanks. Heat from a solar heat source is used to heat the liquid of the first tank to drive off vapor under pressure so that the ammonia gas released can be bubbled through the water of the second tank. This process serves to gradually reduce the ammonium ions in the liquid of the first tank and enables the second tank to serve as a heat sink for the system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1978
    Date of Patent: June 10, 1980
    Inventor: James K. Gilgen
  • Patent number: 4201206
    Abstract: A heat receiver is provided comprising a housing through which the breathing mixture passes in one direction and through which the exhaled breath passes in the opposite direction. The housing contains heat conductive elements through which the breathing mixture and exhaled breath pass and spacers positioned one between each pair of adjacent heat conductive elements. The spacers are poor heat conductors and non-hygroscopic to minimize moisture retention. In use, exhaled breath warms the heat conductive elements sequentially so that each element will be slightly cooler than the last element exposed to the exhaled breath. There will be minimal heat stored in the spacers and the moisture content of the exhaled breath tends to be carried through the device so that upon drawing breathing mixture through the device a substantial part of the sensible heat originally in the exhaled breath will be reclaimed by the breathing mixture. The latent heat originally in the exhaled breath will be lost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1980
    Assignee: Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence
    Inventors: Lorne A. Kuehn, Louis A. Pogorski
  • Patent number: 4200144
    Abstract: Hydrides are used as a means to pump heat from a low grade thermal source, using hydrogen and materials which reversibly and exothermically form hydrides therewith at low temperatures and pressures, and which reversibly dehydride to release large quantities of hydrogen at relatively higher temperatures and pressures, which hydrogen then exothermically recombines with a second hydride species, thereby pumping heat from a given temperature to a higher temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1977
    Date of Patent: April 29, 1980
    Assignee: Standard Oil Company (Indiana)
    Inventor: Bruce E. Sirovich
  • Patent number: 4195488
    Abstract: A method of cooling a fluid medium in a heat exchanger by means of an endothermic heat of solution of crystals which are in contact with a heat exchanger in the base of a closed column where the solvent dissolves the crystals whereby to form a saturated solution which cools the heat exchanger, and applying heat to the saturated solution in an upper part of the column to vaporize the solvent and pass it to a condenser, the resulting super saturation causing recrystallization with the crystals sinking to the base of the column, the solvent condensate passing back to the base of the column to continue the endothermic solution of the crystals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1980
    Inventor: Peter J. Hastwell
  • Patent number: 4192371
    Abstract: Thermal energy, especially solar heat, is converted into chemical energy by being used for the endothermic dissociation of a compound which is exothermically recombinable to release at least a substantial part of that energy at a time and/or location at which the original heat source is not readily available. One or more of the dissociation products are transported to the point of utilization, preferably after interim storage, and are there recombined with one another and/or with locally available reactants to restore the original compound which is then returned, again preferably after interim storage, to the dissociation site for a repetition of the process. The exothermic reaction at the recombination site may be used to decompose a locally available compound, e.g. water, for the purpose of liberating one of its constituents, e.g. hydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 1977
    Date of Patent: March 11, 1980
    Assignees: Battelle Memorial Institute, Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche (ANVAR)
    Inventors: Jean-Jacques Derouette, Jacques Dartoy, Jacques Fournier, Bernard Vollerin
  • Patent number: 4178987
    Abstract: Moving bed hydride heat pumps and pressure pumps are described in which a hydride-forming material is transported between two or more reactor vessels. Each vessel can be maintained at a predetermined temperature, and thus, the hydride-forming material may be heated or cooled by moving it into an appropriately heated or cooled reactor vessel. In this way thermal cycling of reactor vessels is reduced or eliminated. Both continuously operating and moving batch hydride pumping systems are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1978
    Date of Patent: December 18, 1979
    Assignee: Standard Oil Company, a corporation of Indiana
    Inventors: Walker H. Bowman, Bruce E. Sirovich
  • Patent number: 4178727
    Abstract: A heat absorbing panel is provided having an outer casing of resinous material intermixed with aggregate material. A central core is provided within the casing. The core includes substantial amounts of a phase change material having a melting point in the range of normal room temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1978
    Date of Patent: December 18, 1979
    Assignee: Architectural Research Corporation
    Inventors: Richard C. Prusinski, Timothy E. Johnson
  • Patent number: 4169499
    Abstract: A method of low temperature energy storage and utilization is disclosed which can be used in conjunction with low temperature heat sources such as solar energy flat plate collectors. Input heat energy is utilized to sustain the endothermic dissociation of ammonium carbamate produced from a reaction between urea and water. The energy is retained in the form of the higher energy containing dissociation products ammonia and carbon dioxide. The dissociation products are separated by liquifying and draining off the ammonia and are held under pressure. The stored heat is extracted in the form of output heat energy for an end use by reversing the dissociation reaction and combining the ammonia and carbon dioxide to form ammonium carbamate which becomes urea and water and is recirculated as a slurry. Closed-loop, fluid-medium heat exchange systems can be used both in the input and output sides of the energy system. The entire system operates at temperatures of less than 250.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1978
    Date of Patent: October 2, 1979
    Assignee: Honeywell Inc.
    Inventor: Richard T. LeFrois
  • Patent number: 4167101
    Abstract: Heat available at a lower temperature level is converted to heat at a higher temperature level, by dissolving a gaseous fraction of a working fluid into a liquid phase, thereby producing heat at the higher temperature level, desorbing at least a portion of said gaseous fraction with a stripping gas, taking heat at said lower temperature level, fractionating the resulting gaseous mixture by partial liquefaction, separation and vaporization, into at least two gaseous fractions and recycling said fractions respectively as working fluid and as stripping gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1978
    Date of Patent: September 11, 1979
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventor: Alexandre Rojey
  • Patent number: 4161210
    Abstract: The process accumulates heat from a relatively low temperature source to support an endothermic chemical reaction, partially separates the products of the reaction from the reactants, and then releases the accumulated heat in the reverse exothermic chemical reaction at a higher temperature simultaneously restoring the original chemical composition. The forward and reverse chemical reactions are slow enough to prevent substantial reaction during the separation and transfer of the chemicals, but they may be speeded by catalysts within the reaction chambers. The chemicals are separated by standard procedures such as sorption-desorption, distillation, freezing and melting, precipitation, extraction, centrifugation, and reactions with other materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 17, 1979
    Inventors: Allen F. Reid, Albert H. Halff
  • Patent number: 4161211
    Abstract: Methods of and apparatus for providing refrigeration, heating and air conditioning which use metallic hydrides for thermal energy storage and upgrading.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1976
    Date of Patent: July 17, 1979
    Assignee: International Harvester Company
    Inventors: Thomas E. Duffy, David A. Rohy
  • Patent number: 4158354
    Abstract: A solar energy collection system utilizing a fluid which dissociates endothermically and recombines exothermically is described. The preferred fluid is ammonia. Solar radiation is focussed onto absorber-reaction vessels from many paraboloidal mirrors. Means for electronically controlling the orientation of the mirrors is described. The mirrors may close together to reduce the effects of adverse climatic conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 1977
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1979
    Assignee: The Energy Research Foundation
    Inventor: Peter O. Carden
  • Patent number: 4155981
    Abstract: A chemical converter-heat exchanger formed by a plurality of rows of paral, horizontal channels in a housing through which an inflowing fluid is heated. Vertical columns of horizontal channels connect alternately with an inlet and outlet manifold and carry the fluid back and forth horizontally in vertical columns of horizontal channels so that the inflowing fluid is partially heated by the outflowing fluid. Means are provided so that the bottom face of the housing is heated by the sun which in turn heats the fluid as the fluid passes through the bottom channels in the housing. A plurality of units may be mounted together to increase the output.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 22, 1979
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Talbot A. Chubb
  • Patent number: 4135371
    Abstract: This invention relates to a storage element for a sorption heat storage system comprising a hermetically sealed tubular vessel having a length which is a multiple of its cross section containing a sorbate. The vessel is divided into two regions by an interspace. A first region contains a solid sorption medium and a second region contains an accumulator to collect condense and hold back sorbate driven out of the sorption medium.The invention also relates to a heat storage system consisting of a tank, a plurality of heat storage elements arranged in a parallel array with their interspaces in a plane, a means to divide the tank into two regions outside the elements, lying in the plane of the interspaces and at least one heat transfer media contained in the tank outside the storage elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 1977
    Date of Patent: January 23, 1979
    Inventors: Fritz Kesselring, Siegfried Schilling
  • Patent number: 4091864
    Abstract: An energy conversion, conveyance and utilisation system, particularly for providing process heat in industrial plants, which makes use of a source of heat such as a nuclear reactor to dissociate sulfur trioxide according to the reaction:2SO.sub.3 .revreaction.2SO.sub.2 + O.sub.2,the dissociation products being conveyed through a pipeline to a remote utilization station where the heat of recombination is utilized, the resulting sulfur trioxide being returned through the pipeline to the reactor site. The pipeline incorporates separate pipes in which the sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide are conducted in liquefied form, surrounded by a duct in which the gaseous oxygen flows.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 1976
    Date of Patent: May 30, 1978
    Assignee: Societa' Italiana Resine S.I.R. S.p.A.
    Inventors: Gioacchino Cocuzza, Giorgio Beghi
  • Patent number: 4051888
    Abstract: A low temperature energy carrying apparatus and method adapted for central cooling which comprises a hydrate circulating system for a liquid hydrate agent and hydrate crystals incorporated with a conventionally designed water circulating system. In the hydrate circulating system, the hydrate crystals are feed to the users side together with cooled water and decomposed therein into hydrate agent and cooled water absorbing the latent heat of decomposition. Therefore, the temperature of the cooled water during transport thereof to the users side is stabilized and in addition to the sensible heat of the cooled water the latent heat of the hydrate crystals can be utilized in the users side, thereby improving cooling effect in the users side. Also, the hydrate circulating system is adapted to use a hydrate agent in the liquid phase area which allows the operation of the system to be stabilized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 5, 1976
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1977
    Assignee: Daikin Kogyo Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Tatsunori Yamada, Shigeru Mori, Kaoru Kato, Yasuyuki Arai, Katumi Sakitani
  • Patent number: 4044819
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 30, 1977
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration
    Inventor: James G. Cottingham
  • Patent number: 4039023
    Abstract: Heat transfer and thus temperature control of an environment is achieved by a method and apparatus which comprises withdrawing hydrogen from a first hydride reaction system in a two phase equilibrium at a certain temperature and pressure thereby causing a decomposition of a portion of the hydride, adding heat to the reaction system to compensate for the loss of heat caused by the endothermic hydride decomposition reaction, transferring the withdrawn hydrogen to a second hydride reaction system in a two phase equilibrium at a higher temperature and pressure thereby causing a formation of hydride and release of heat, and removing the heat created by the exothermic hydride formation reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 2, 1977
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Andrew W. McClaine
  • Patent number: 4037650
    Abstract: A thermal storage apparatus comprising two thermal storage vessels, each thermal storage vessel containing a thermal storage medium, one medium being capable of being maintained at a temperature in excess of a pre-selected temperature, and the other medium being capable of being maintained at a temperature below the pre-selected temperature, a refrigeration system being provided for transferring heat from the storage medium at the lower temperature to the storage medium at the higher temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 26, 1977
    Assignee: National Research Development Corporation
    Inventor: John Edward Randall
  • Patent number: 4004573
    Abstract: For collection, retrieval, and utilization of solar energy, there is taught a process and an apparatus wherein a photochemical fluid, containing an isomerizable compound, is passed through a collector for exposure to solar radiation to transform the isomerizable compound to a higher energy level isomer. The irradiated fluid leaving the collector passes in heat exchange relationship with photochemical fluid entering the collector and then proceeds into a trigger reactor means. In the trigger reactor means, higher energy level isomer in the irradiated fluid is triggered, such as by heat and/or catalyst contact, to revert to an isomerizable composition of a lower energy level isomer with exothermic release of heat in excess of that requisite for maintaining conversion of higher energy level isomer to lower energy level isomer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1975
    Date of Patent: January 25, 1977
    Assignee: Battelle Development Corporation
    Inventors: Donald H. Frieling, Sherwood G. Talbert, Richard A. Nathan
  • Patent number: 3967676
    Abstract: At a heat source, such as a nuclear reactor, phosgene is reacted to form a mixture of carbon monoxide and chlorine. This mixture of gases is cooled by heat exchange with incoming cold phosgene and is pumped through a first pipeline at ambient temperature to an energy use area. At the energy use end of the first pipeline the gas mixture is heated in the presence of a catalyst, such as activated charcoal. The CO and Cl.sub.2 react exothermically to form COCl.sub.2 (phosgene) with the liberation of 26 keal per mol of phosgene formed. The heat evolved from this reaction is released across a heat exchanger for the boiling of water and superheating of the resultant steam to a temperature in the 400.degree.-500.degree.C range for use as process heat or the generation of electricity. The phosgene produced is cooled and then returned to the heat source end via a second pipeline for repetition of the closed loop process described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1974
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1976
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Henry S. Spacil
  • Patent number: 3958625
    Abstract: At a heat source, such as a nuclear reactor, methane and carbon dioxide are reacted (at about 800.degree.-900.degree.C) to form a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This mixture of gases is cooled by heat exchange with incoming cold CH.sub.4 and CO.sub.2 and is then pumped through a first pipeline at ambient temperature to an energy use area. At the energy use end of the first pipeline the gas mixture is heated (to about 350.degree.-500.degree.C) in the presence of steam and a catalyst. The CO and H.sub.2 react exothermically to form CH.sub.4 and CO.sub.2. The heat evolved from this reaction is released across a heat exchanger for use as process heat or for conversion to electricity. Water is condensed and separated from the mixture of gaseous reactants and the dried, cooled CH.sub.4 /CO.sub.2 mixture is returned to the heat source end via a second pipeline for repetition of the closed loop process described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1974
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1976
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Robert H. Wentorf, Jr.